WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrying capacity

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  2. Carrying Capacity:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaofeng

    2004-01-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.

  3. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F.; Sindoni, L.; Caccioli, F.; Ududec, C.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  4. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  5. Global carrying capacity: how many people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    During 1980-85 energy consumption in developing countries increased by 22%, of which 50% was used to maintain current levels of use and 50% pertained to real economic growth. Commercial energy consumption during 1970-89 tripled in developing countries. Population growth alone is expected to increase world energy consumption from the current 13.5 terawatts (13.5 trillion watts) to 18 terawatts by 2025 at the same level of use. The increased level of consumption (4.5 terawatts) is the equivalent of total current commercial energy consumption. One terawatt is equal to energy use from 5 billion barrels of oil yearly, 1 billion tons of coal, or 1.6 billion tons of wood. Economic development will require even greater levels of energy use. Since the oil price increases of the 1970s, developed countries increased their energy consumption by about 33%, even while becoming more fuel efficient. During 1990-2025, if developing countries double their per capita energy use and developed countries reduce their use by 50%, world energy consumption will still be almost 21 terawatts. If consumption remains constant at current levels without any population increase, the oil supply will be exhausted in 40 years. Coal consumption will last hundreds of years but air pollution will worsen, and global warming will be accelerated. Developed countries, which are wealthier, are having difficulty switching to non-fossil fuels, and the prospects for developing countries pose even greater challenges. Slowing growth buys time for technological development. World population is expected to reach 8 billion by 2020. Stabilization of growth at 8 billion would occur only if world fertility averages 1.7 children per woman by 2025. One opinion is that the carrying capacity has been reached with the present population of 5.4 billion. Others say that with changes in consumption and technological developments the earth can sustain 8 billion people. The physical limits are 1) the finite capacity of natural

  6. Carrying Capacity of Marine Region in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carrying capacity is one of important studies on coordinating development of population, resources, and environment. At present, the researches on it mainly concentrate on the carrying capacity for population and economy,such as the water resources carrying capacity, the land resources carrying capacity, the environment carrying capacity,etc. Based on the related theories and methods, this paper creatively proposed the concept and meaning of carrying capacity of marine region, and formed the appraisal system. According to the developing situation of marine economy of Liaoning Province in recent years, and by employing the method of the state space, this paper also measured the cartying capacity and carrying state of marine region and discussed the sustainable problems of marine economy of Liaoning. The research results show that the carrying state of marine region of Liaoning is in the state of overloading at present, but taking a favorable turn.

  7. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  8. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  9. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  10. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2002-01-01

    A time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population $N(x,t)$ is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, $B$, and of death, $D$, determine the carrying capacity $K$. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position, $x$, and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, $\\Pi (K)$. This distribution has self-similar character owing to the imposed hierarchy. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of $B$ and $D$. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a "towering pillar" biofilm. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature change away from optimal growth co...

  11. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  12. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  13. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  14. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  15. Prediction of Load Carrying Capacity of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖芳; 周晶; 冯新

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for prediction of the load carrying capacity of a corroded reinforced concrete beam (CRCB) is presented in the paper. Nine reinforced concrete beams, which had been working in an aggressive environment for more than 10 years, were tested in the laboratory. Comprehensive tests, including flexural test, strength test for corroded concrete and rusty rebar, and pullout test for bond strength between concrete and rebar, were conducted. The flexural test results of CRCBs reveal that the distribution of surface cracks on the beams shows a fractal behavior. The relationship between the fractal dimensions and mechanical properties of CRCBs is then studied. A prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) is established by the use of the fractal dimension as the corrosion index, together with the basic information of the beam. The validity of the prediction model is demonstrated through the experimental data, and satisfactory results are achieved.

  16. The Population Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Yulin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan; DANG; Yong; XU; Zhiqiang; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the water resource carrying capacity is beneficial for measuring the scale of industry and population agglomeration,and also avoiding the contradiction between increasing people and decreasing available water resource,due to the expansion of industry and city size.Based on the prediction model of optimum population development size,by using hydrological data,also with the demographic data from 1956 to 2010,this article analyzes and predicts the urban moderate scale under the limit of the water resource in the future of Yulin City by GIS. The main conclusions are as follows. There is growing tendency of water resources overloading. According to the result of model simulation,by2015,the overload rate of population size will be 1. 04. By 2020,the overload rate of population size will grow up to 1. 08. The oversized population mainly comes from cities and towns. The overload rate for cities and towns in 2015 and 2020 is 1. 89 and 1. 73,respectively. With the expansion of cities and industries,suburban areas could have a great potential for carrying population,because lots of suburban people may move to cities and towns according to prediction. In view of the above-mentioned facts,the population size should be controlled in a reasonable range.

  17. Wildlife carrying capacities in relation to human settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Eltringham

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Human encroachment into wildlife areas, which has increased almost exponentially over the past few decades, has usually resulted in the elimination of the larger species, particularly the large mammals. This is not an inevitable consequence and this paper considers the extent to which man and wildlife can coexist. There is a linear inverse relationship between human and elephant densities and the reasons for this are discussed with particular reference to Uganda. Such a relationship does not necessarily hold for all species and the outcome of increasing human pressure on wildlife habitats varies with a variety of factors including the species concerned, the rainfall, vegetation, soil and, above all, the attitudes of the people towards wildlife. Wild animals are more likely to be tolerated if they do no harm to human activities or if the harm they do is outweighed by the benefits to be obtained from their exploitation. In many parts of Africa utilisation is likely to be the best hope for the conservation of wildlife. Some examples are given of situations in which worthwhile carrying capacities of wildlife can be maintained in the presence of human activities.

  18. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  19. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks. PMID:18163314

  20. The information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Simidzija, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light-signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light-signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter dominated cosmologies.

  1. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major

  2. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Wolf, Sonya J.; Samulski, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber’s congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV’s high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package “large” genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6–8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6–8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161–169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568–8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383–391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697–701, 2002). This method involves “splitting” the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383–391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697–701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124–130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15

  3. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province, I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity. By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008, the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed. It is unveiled that inharmonious population, natural resources and economic resources affects the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of H...

  4. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  5. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse;

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...... with global recessions....

  6. Risk Analysis on Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Blind Number Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji; YU Sujun

    2007-01-01

    Blind numbers of evaluation indices about groundwater resources carrying capacity are defined from the concomitancy of randomness, fuzziness, grey property and unascertainment of groundwater system.Based on fuzzy theory, a comprehensive evaluation model on groundwaterresources carrying capacity is constructed with blind information. Then arisk assessment model of surcharge about groundwater resources carryingcapacity is established on blind reliability theory. The probable value"*"'matrix of fuzzy membership degree about carrying capacity corresponding to each judgment level can be obtained with the aid of blind algorithm as well as the subjective reliability "×" matrix. And then a graph of"groundwater carrying capacity v.s. accumulative reliability" can be gained.Based on the graph, fuzzy membership degree of groundwater resourcescarrying capacity to each judgment level under different risk probabilitycan be got. Thus, a comparatively reasonable judgment to groundwaterresources carrying capacity might be obtained, with comprehensive analysis to the state of society, economy technology and ecology.

  7. A Novel Evaluation algorithm of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity Index System in Northwest China:Lanzhou city as a example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lei, Song; Ling, Ma

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid growth of the urban population and quick expansion of urban dimensions, the affecting urban development constraints of urban carrying capacity has increasingly been attracting people's attention. However, the effective synthesization of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity hardly acted as an urban comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system. In this paper, the novel comprehensive index system of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity was used for analyzing and evaluating urban comprehensive carrying capacity. Firstly, the standardization of evaluation index was constructed in the urban comprehensive carrying capacity index system. In addition, the past decade data from 2002 to 2011 was analyzed and evaluated in the weighted index system. Finally, the influence mechanism of various carrying capacity factors on urban comprehensive carrying capacity was investigated in Lanzhou. Experimental results can be summarized that the variation tendency of urban comprehensive carrying capacity was the annual increase of levels and the promotion countermeasure was put forward with congenital restricting factors and acquired restricting factors.

  8. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.;

    The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...... km*year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as...

  9. Influences of Taper Geometry Modified Oil-Grooves on Load Carrying Capacity of Crosshead Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Tatsumi; Otsubo, Masaru; Nakahara, Daisuke

    The crosshead bearing in large two-stroke diesel engines operates under severe lubrication conditions, because the bearing oscillates within a small angle at a low speed and is always subject to a high downward load. The recent trend towards more compact engines with increased output raises the bearing specific load, thereby causing the lubrication severity to increase significantly. Thus it is very important to improve the load carrying capacity of the crosshead bearing. In the present study, experiments using a dynamically loaded bearing seizure test apparatus were carried out to clarify the influences of the clearance ratio and the oil-groove geometry on the load carrying capacity. The electrical resistance of the oil film was also measured to evaluate the extent of the oil film formation. The major results are: (1) A decrease in the clearance ratio is effective in enhancing squeeze action on the entirety of the bearing pads, thereby improving the load carrying capacity. When the clearance ratio becomes too low, however, the ability to form an adequate wedge film is degraded, causing the load carrying capacity to decrease; (2) A significant improvement in the load carrying capacity can be expected, because incorporating the taper geometry on both sides of the oil-groove promotes a thicker oil film; and (3) A taper geometry with a subtended length of 5 degrees and a taper angle of 0.1 degree produces the maximum load carrying capacity.

  10. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether relations......Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...

  11. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A.; Leveau, Johan H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term ‘carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many ‘local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contrib...

  12. The Carrying Capacity of Public Wild Land Recreation Areas: Evaluation of Alternative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greist, David A.

    1976-01-01

    Carrying capacity (the use level at which total satisfactions or benefits are mazimized) is not equatable to highest-use levels, since some visitors to recreational areas desire solitude and undisturbed environment--for these, an alternative definition for "capacity" should take into consideration the use level demanded after considering costs.…

  13. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    capacity of a reference region divided by its population and thus describes the annual personal share of the carrying capacity.The developed references can be applied to indicator results obtained using commonly applied characterisation models in LCIA. The European NR are generally lower than the global NR...... ozone formation and soil quality were found to exceed carrying capacities several times.The developed carrying capacity-based normalisation references offer relevant supplementary reference information to the currently applied references based on society’s background interventions by supporting...... an evaluation of the environmental sustainability of product systems on an absolute scale.Challenges remain with respect to spatial variations to increase the relevance of the normalisation references for impact categories that function at the local or regional scale. The sensitivity of NR to different choices...

  14. Spatial patterns of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in China at county level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong; FENG Zhiming; YANG Yanzhao; YOU Zhen

    2011-01-01

    A balanced ecological carrying capacity and its understanding are important to achieve sustainable development for human kind.Here,the concept of ecological carrying capacity has been used for measuring the dependencies between human and nature.China's ecological balance between supply and demand has become a global concern and is widely debated.In this study the 'Ecological Footprint' method was used to analyze the supply-demand balance of China's ecological carrying capacity.Firstly,the ecological supply and demand balance was calculated and evaluated,and secondly,the ecological carrying capacity index (ECCI) was derived for each county of China in 2007,and finally this paper systematically evaluated the ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance of China.The results showed that ecological deficit appeared to be the main characteristic of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in 2007 of China at county scale.In general,more than four-fifths of the Chinese population was concentrated in less than one-third of the land area and more than two-thirds of the land.area was inhabited by less than one-fifth of the population.The spatial distribution of the ecological carrying capacity demand-supply was unbalanced ranging from significant overloading to affluence from southeastern to northwestern part of China.It appeared to be more dominant in regions located at coastal areas which are attracted by migrants and had a generally higher population density.Along with the rapid development and urbanization trends in China,ecological deficits in these regions will become more severe.

  15. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province,I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity.By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008,the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed.It is unveiled that inharmonious population,natural resources and economic resources affect the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province;the underdeveloped economy of Henan Province impacts the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province and the overburdened population lead to the insufficiency of ecological carrying capacity.Around protecting the threshold of ecological system,the countermeasures are put forward,which cover forming the idea of ecological economy and circular economy and promoting the transformation of economy growth mode;taking the development road of using resources intensively and performing the strategy of sustainable utilization of resources;strictly control population growth and strengthening people’s crisis awareness of resources and environment.

  16. The evolution of carrying capacity in constrained and expanding tumour cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Cancer cells are known to modify their micro-environment such that it can sustain a larger population, or, in ecological terms, they construct a niche which increases the carrying capacity of the population. It has however been argued that niche construction, which benefits all cells in the tumour, would be selected against since cheaters could reap the benefits without paying the cost. We have investigated the impact of niche specificity on tumour evolution using an individual based model of breast tumour growth, in which the carrying capacity of each cell consists of two components: an intrinsic, subclone-specific part and a contribution from all neighbouring cells. Analysis of the model shows that the ability of a mutant to invade a resident population depends strongly on the specificity. When specificity is low selection is mostly on growth rate, while high specificity shifts selection towards increased carrying capacity. Further, we show that the long-term evolution of the system can be predicted using adaptive dynamics. By comparing the results from a spatially structured versus well-mixed population we show that spatial structure restores selection for carrying capacity even at zero specificity, which poses a solution to the niche construction dilemma. Lastly, we show that an expanding population exhibits spatially variable selection pressure, where cells at the leading edge exhibit higher growth rate and lower carrying capacity than those at the centre of the tumour.

  17. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-04-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term 'carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many 'local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contribution of individual immigrants to bacterial population sizes on leaves. Our analysis revealed that plant foliage represents to bacteria an environment where individual fate is determined by the local carrying capacity of the site where an immigrant cell lands. With increasing inoculation densities, the RS of most immigrants declined, suggesting that local carrying capacity under the tested conditions was linked to local nutrient availability. Fitting the observed experimental data to an adapted model of phyllosphere colonization indicated that there might exist three types of sites on leaves, which differ in their frequency of occurrence and local carrying capacity. Specifically, our data were consistent with a leaf environment that is characterized by few sites where individual immigrants can produce high numbers of offspring, whereas the remainder of the leaf offered an equal number of sites with low and medium RS. Our findings contribute to a bottom-up understanding of bacterial colonization of leaf surfaces, which includes a quantifiable role of chance in the experience at the individual level and in the outcome at the population level. PMID:22258099

  18. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  19. Self-adjustment of Carrying Capacity of Concrete Embedded with CFRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu YAO

    2006-01-01

    By heating up the embedded carbon fiber reinforced cement based material (CFRC), the carrying capacity and deformation of concrete member could be adjusted. The relationship between temperature difference and expansion strain of CFRC was demonstrated, and the temperature-deformation-load effect of concrete embedded with CFRC was studied. Heating the CFRC up to different temperatures resulted in different degree of inner pre-stress in concrete. Thus, the load capacity of concrete could be regulated owing to counteracting the pre-stress.

  20. Carrying capacity for the electromagnetic suspension low-speed maglev train on the horizontal curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the lateral dislocation between the electromagnets and the rails on a horizontal curve,we investigated a single magnetic bogie of the maglev train in this paper.The magnetic levitation and guidance forces supplied by the suspension modules were deduced by the flux tube method.According to the dynamic equilibrium equations of the maglev train on the curved track with cant,several major factors that influence the carrying capacity were analyzed,and the formula of the carrying capacity was presented.The results provide a theoretical reference for the design of maglev train.

  1. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  2. Carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns under concentric vertical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, Kazem; Anaraki, A.R. Gowhari

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns with different boundary conditions and cross sections subjected to concentric vertical loads. The transfer matrix method, combined with fundamental solutions of the intact columns (e.g. columns with no cracks) is used to obtain the ca

  3. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Lihong; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; ZHAO Ruifeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively, where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity, 0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, where water resources carrying capacity is much higher, and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole, the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus, we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.

  4. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using

  5. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin. PMID:24808757

  6. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as Charter Parks within the European Charter for sustainable tourism in Protected Areas developed by the EUROPARC Federation. Due to the strong political commitments related to European nature protection goals attached to the Natura2000 program, Natura2000 sites overlapping the nature parks have been taken......Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor/nature carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out. All the parks are candidates for recognition...

  7. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  8. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  9. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; LIU; Wei; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Result shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north,while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation,moisture and landform,the attenuation amplitude of land potential productivity in northern counties ( districts) is greater than that in southern counties ( districts) . In the whole city,the population carrying capacity of 9 counties reaches well-off living level,and 1 district still does not reach the level of adequate food and clothing. These results can provide reference for land resource use,agricultural production distribution and population growth control.

  10. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  11. A Study on the Thermal Effect of the Current-Carrying Capacity of Embedded Underground Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Dewen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to study embedded underground cable and the effect of temperature that surrounds it. Determining the carrying capacity of the cable is important to predict the temperature changesin the embedded pipe. Simulating the temperature field and the laying environment according to the IEC standard enables the calculation of the carrying capacity of the buried region. According to the theoryof heat transfer, the embedded pipe tube model temperature field should be coupled with a numerical model. The domain and boundary conditions of the temperature field should also be determined using the 8.7/15kV YJV 400 cable. In conducting numerical calculation and analysis using the temperature field model, the two-dimensional temperature distribution of the emission control area should be determined. The experimental results show that the simulation isconsistent with the IEC standard. Furthermore, in identifying the cable ampacity, the different seasons and different cable rows should be taken into account using the finite element method. Finally, theappropriate choice of root and circuit numbers of the cable will improve the cable’s the carrying capacity.

  12. Response of carrying capacity of piles induced by adjacent Metro tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-jie; DENG Fei-huang; WU Jia-jia; LIU Jian; WANG Fu-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Construction of tunnels in urban areas requires assessment of the impact of tunneling on the stability and integrity of existing pile foundations. We have focused our attention to the analysis of the carrying capacity of pile foundations provided by the impact of construction of urban tunnels on adjacent pile foundations, under the engineering background of the construction of the # 2 Line of the Guangzhou subway. It is carried out using a fast Lagrangian analysis of a continuum in a 3D numerical code, which is an elastoplastic three-dimensional finite difference model, to simulate the response of piles under the entire process of metro tun-neling (deactivation of soil element and activation of the lining). The adjacent stratum around the tunnel is classified into three re-gions: Zone Ⅰ(upper adjacent stratum of tunnel), Zone Ⅱ (45°-upper-lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel) and Zone Ⅲ (lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel). In each region one typical pile is chosen to be calculated and analyzed in detail. Numerical simulations are mainly conducted at three points of each pile shaft: the side-friction force of the pile, the tip resistance of the pile and the axial loading of the pile. A contrasting analysis has been conducted both in the response of typical piles in different regions and from computer calculated values with site monitoring values. The results of numerical simulations show that the impact on carrying ca-pacity of the piles lies mainly in the impact of construction of urban tunnels on the side-friction forces and the tip resistance of piles. The impact differs considerably among the different strata zones where the pile tips are located. The complicated rules of side-friction force and tip resistance of piles has resulted in complicated rules of pile axial loading thus, in the end, it impacts the carrying capacity of pile-foundations. It is necessary to take positive measures, such as stratum grouting stabilization or foundation underpinning, ete

  13. Carrying capacity for shorebirds during migratory seasons at the Jiuduansha Wetland, Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenming GE; Xiao ZHOU; Wenyu SHI; Tianhou WANG

    2008-01-01

    The carrying capacity of food resources for migrating shorebirds was estimated at a stopover site in the Yangtze River Estuary during the two migratory sea-sons (spring and autumn). From March to May and September to November 2005, the macrobenthos resources of the Jiuduansha Wetland were investigated, and most of the macrobenthos species in the newly-formed shoal were found to be appropriate food for shorebirds. Biomass measurements showed that the total food resource was about 4541.20 kg AFDW (Ash-Free Dry Weight) in spring and about 2279.64 kg AFDW in autumn. Calculations were also done in the available habi-tats (intertidal bare mudflat and Scirpus x mariqueter/ Scirpus triqueter zones) for the shorebirds. The food resources in the available areas were about 3429.03 kg AFDW in spring and about 1700.92 kg AFDW in autumn. Based on the classification (by lean weight, basic metabolic rate and body length) of the shorebird community, and using the energy depletion model, it was theorized that all of the food resources in the Jiuduansha Wetland could support about 3.5 million shorebirds during spring season and 1.75 million shorebirds during autumn season. The shorebird carrying capacities in terms of the available food were about 2.6 million and 1.3 million birds during the two respective migration seasons. Considering the effect of intake rate, the potential carrying capacity was about 0.13-0.26 million shorebirds in the study area. The main factor restricting use of the area by shorebirds was the scarcity of available habitats for roosting at high tide rather than availability of food supply. We recommend restoring some wading pools in the dense Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora zones for shorebirds to roost in, to improve shorebirds' utilization efficiency of the resources in the Jiuduansha Wetland.

  14. Optimization of industrial structure based on water environmental carrying capacity in Tieling City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Hou, Limin; Wang, Tong; Wang, Liusuo; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Xiu; Cheng, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    A system dynamics optimization model of the industrial structure of Tieling City based on water environmental carrying capacity has been established. This system is divided into the following subsystems: water resources, economics, population, contaminants, and agriculture and husbandry. Three schemes were designed to simulate the model from 2011 to 2020, and these schemes were compared to obtain an optimal social and economic development model in Tieling City. Policy recommendations on industrial structure optimization based on the optimal solution provide scientific decision-making advice to develop a strong and sustainable economy in Tieling.

  15. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as Charter Parks within the European Charter for sustainable tourism in Protected Areas developed by the EUROPARC Federation. Due to the strong political commitments related to European nature protection goals attached to the Natura2000 program, Natura2000 sites overlapping the nature parks have been taken...... as a departure for the comparison of the protectional conditions for the parks. Many other aspects of the nature and social carrying capacities however also constitute important conditions for the park management. Increasing emphasis on visitor experience is not only a challenge for the nature protection...

  16. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept of...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated on the...

  17. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Starvin M S; Manisekar K

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with simplified 3D finite element (FE) analysis on the effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model the rolling elements. This model enables us to evaluate the contact load on the rolling elements with relatively reduced calculation time. FE study has been carried out by allocating tolerance on balls and raceways using Monte Carlo simulation technique. The variation in dimension on balls is taken as per IS 2898-1976. A coding has been developed and employed for Monte Carlo simulation. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulation, tolerance has been assigned to the elements of large diameter bearing. From the results of finite element analysis, it is identified that analysis of large diameter bearing with tolerance on ball and raceway will lead to safe design.

  18. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  19. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; Skiles, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  20. Soil water carrying capacity of vegetation in the northeast of Ulan Buh Desert, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youliang TIAN; Yanhong HE; Liansheng GUO

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic change of soil water as a function of leaf area index and the soil water deficit value, prerequisites for assuring the survival of plants, were simulated. We established a dynamic soil water model based on a theory of water balance, the characteristics of the environment, and the physiological ecology of the plants in the Ulan Buh Desert, northwestern China. We estimated the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation in our study area of the desert. The results showed that the proportion of soil evaporation in the total amount of precipitation was greater than 60% in the wandering and semifixed sands and 44.8% in the fixed sand. When the leaf area index was less than 1.7 m2/m2, the soil water deficit was maintained at a low level, but when the leaf area index continued to increase, the soil water deficit increased rapidly as well. In consequence, we come to the conclusion that the leaf area index of the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation is 1.7 m2/m2 in our study area.

  1. Extrinsic Influence of Environment-Induced Degradation on Load Carrying Capacity of Steel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sunil; Patnaik, A.; Payer, J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the results of a study aimed at evaluating the strength of wide-flanged beams subjected to corrosion-induced damage, modeled using a standard finite element program (ABAQUS) is presented and discussed. Typical beams in consideration were subjected to different cases of corrosion-induced damage, such as non-uniform and varying degree of material loss that simulates pitting corrosion. Many variables, such as (a) shape of pitting damage, (b) location of pits along the length of the beam, (c) number of pits, and (d) depth of pits, were considered to facilitate a better understanding of the load carrying capacity of steel I-beams having damage quite similar to pitting damage to the web. The results are compared with an "as-new" beam for purpose of evaluation of the reduction in strength due to environment-induced deterioration. A "corrosion strength reduction factor (CSRF)" is introduced to help identify the reduction in load carrying capacity as a consequence of both height and depth of the damage due to corrosion. The results are presented in charts for purpose of practical beam design.

  2. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  3. Beach Carrying Capacity Analysis for Sustainable Tourism Development in the South West Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Rajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of coastal tourism that has been seen in the last 10 years is frequently described as one of the major reasons for the development of these areas and also is responsible for many current coastal problems. The beaches perform, in this context, a fundamental role, where the issues related to planning and management are increasingly more important when it comes to an implementation of a sustainable development philosophy. In Kerala, where coastal tourism plays a major part of the state’s economy, the management of beaches is crucial for maintaining their quality and therefore continuing to attract tourists. Since the 1990s, with the application of Coastal Zone Management Plans to the whole Kerala coast, beach plans are now required. The concept of capacity has received considerable attention as a result of increasing anthropogenic pressure in certain natural environments. Much consideration has recently been given to an increase in coastal population, with the implication that the carrying capacity of the world’s coast is finite, and such consideration forms part of several coastal management initiatives. Tourism is the world’s largest industry, which accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020. The ecosystems, typically stressed by development activity along the Indian coastal areas, are particularly vulnerable to socio-economic driving forces. The planning and management of coastal tourism can be improved through more careful understanding of social and ecological systems and their linkages, with a view to ensure a development that lasts, not only for tourism but also for the host destination. The present study gives a comprehensive idea on both sustainability of coastal areas and a prerequisite for the carrying capacity based development in tourism destinations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2648

  4. Dynamic Response of RPC-Filled Steel Tubular Columns with High Load Carrying Capacity Under Axial Impact Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; WU Ping'an; JIA Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Experimental investigation into impact-resistant behavior of reactive powder concrete (RPC)-filled steel tubular columns was conducted, and dynamic response of the columns under axial impact loading was studied by means of numerical simulation method.Increase coefficient of load carrying capacity and ratio of load carrying capacity between steel tube and RPC core of columns were obtained.

  5. NEW APPROACHES FOR COMPUTING DYNAMIC LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF MULTIPLE COOPERATING ROBOTIC MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A novel unified method for computing the dynamic load-carrying capacity(DLCC) of multiple cooperating robotic manipulators is developed.In this method,the kinematic constraints and the governing dynamic equations of the multiple robot system are formulated in the joint space by using the method of transference of dependence from one set of generalized coordinates to another,and the virtual work principle,which includes the readily available dynamics and joint torques of individual manipulators,and the dynamic of payload.Based on this dynamic model,the upper limit of the DLCC at any points on a given trajectory is obtained by solving a small-size linear programming problem.This method is conceptually straightforward,and it is applicable also to the cases of multi-fingered robot hands and multi-legged walking machines.

  6. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  7. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    , to incorporate the influence of ecosystem factors, mainly temperature and habitat size, on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. The pattern of temperature effects on cod productivity at the species level were identified and SR model parameters were estimated...... morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in order to identify the effects of temperature, habitat size and life-history on their productivity patterns. The first objective was to investigate how production and survival indices of cod recruitment (i.e. the number of new...... temperature is not yet a limiting factor for haddock. Conversely, most of the sympatric cod stocks are negatively affected by extremely warm seasons. Having identified the dependence of cod recruitment productivity on temperature variability, the next step was to develop hierarchical, Bayesian stock...

  8. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Tibet China--Variety of Ecological Footprints from 1978 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bao; GAO Ji-xi; Lori Anna Conzo; GAO Ming-gang; HE Ping

    2005-01-01

    Ecological footprint's theory and method are used to calculate and analysis the ecological carrying capacity in Tibet. The results indicate: Tibet ecological footprint (2.1 hm2) keeps higher than countrywide average level (1.5 hm2), and lower than global average level (2.4 hm2); the result show that Tibet pasture ecological footprint is the most different with other area, and woodland is the second; Tibet ecological footprint grows from 1.25 hm2 in 1978 to 2.09 hm2 in 2002, which states that life level is improving continuously; GDP (per RMB 104 Yuan) ecological footprint reduces from 61.9 hm2 in 1978 to 4.54 hm2 in 2002, which states resources utilized ratio is increasing continuously.

  9. A study on marine region carrying capacity and eco-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Ma, Weiwei; Xie, Jun; Li, Fengqi

    2012-06-01

    With the using up of land resources, people are beginning to pay attention to the exploitation of the ocean and the use of marine resources is becoming more and more intense. Whether and how the ocean can be sustainably exploited as it is being exploited is an academic hot topic. This question is addressed in this paper based on the theories of carrying capacity of a marine region and marine eco-compensation, and the amount of the loss is calculated by the method of Time Value of Capital. This thesis covers the study of eco-compensation between two specific subjects with clear compensation objects, and as a defined approach and standard, the proposed method has good operability and positive practical significance in the good use of the ocean.

  10. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias;

    2015-01-01

    ) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...... on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage...... and cropping systems (mouldboard ploughing, direct drilling, permanent grassland), and the computed WLCC was compared with real wheel loads to obtain the number of trafficable days (NTD) for various agricultural machines. Wheel load-carrying capacity was higher for the top than the standard tyres...

  11. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Pnutritionally stressed condition, which may be limiting population performance. Using the logistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  12. STUDY OF CARRYING CAPACITY OF A CORRUGATED METAL CONSTRUCTION BY CRITERION OF YIELD HINGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research is aimed to: 1 calculation of equivalent forces caused by rolling stock in winter and summer seasons at different parameters of the irregularities of railway track; 2 research of bearing capacity of corrugated metal constructions (CMC in terms of development of plastic hinge in the top of the metal pipe due to irreversible residual deformation of the vertical and horizontal diameters of the pipe. Methodology. The calculation of equivalent forces is carried out according to the method of calculating the railway track on strength and stability. Further a mathematical algorithm was developed in the software environment of Mathcad 14, with which the calculations were made about the formation of a plastic hinge at the top of the pipe for different values of the irregularities of the railway track and the degree of compaction of soil backfill. In these studies, the calculations were carried out at the design value of the compaction degree of soil backfill and magnitude of dynamic loading on railway rolling stock. Findings. Analysis of multivariate calculations of testing the condition of occurrence of plastic hinge at the top of the pipe arch has revealed that the first plastic hinge, which occurs in the set of CMC is revealed only when there is a simultaneous unfavorable influence of two factors (causes. These are the factors: the assumption of the development of the track irregularities out of the allowable values without the implementation of measures to eliminate or limit the speed of trains (the first cause; reduction of compaction of soil backfill below the 90 % (the second cause. In case of absence of one of the causes the origin of the plastic hinge will not happen. Originality. It was the first time, when the bearing capacity of corrugated metal construction with large diameter (more than 6 m with account of factors complex: the degree of compaction of soil backfill, the magnitude of the dynamic loads from rolling stock

  13. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  14. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  15. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science.

  16. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. PMID:26879407

  17. Benchmarking the Enrolment Structure of an Educational System without Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtue Uwabomwen EKHOSUEHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an enrolment projection method based on the carrying capacity of the educational system. The method is a refinement of the recruitment control strategy proposed in the literature. We implement our proposed method using enrolment data from a university setting. The results obtained by extrapolating the short-term shifts in enrolment structure reflect the normal progression pattern in the system. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  18. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs.

  19. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  20. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. PMID:23728182

  1. (ANTI)PETER Principle - Discrete (INVERSE) Logistic Equation with Imprecisely Estimated and Stimulated Carrying Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, V; Glavatovic, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we consider the Peter principle and anti-Peter principle as the discrete logistic and discrete inverse logistic equation. Especially we discuss imprecisely estimated (by hierarchical control mechanism) carrying capacity, i.e. boundary (in)competence level of a hierarchy member. It implies that Peter principle holds two sub-principles. In the first one objective boundary competence level is increased for estimation error. In the second one objective boundary competence level is decreased for estimation error. Similarly, anti-Peter principle holds two sub-principles too. All this implies that paradoxical situations that follow from Peter and anti-Peter principle can be simply removed by decrease of the error of hierarchical (social) control. Also we discuss cases by Peter principle when error of the boundary competence level by estimation grows up. (Then, in fact, there is no estimation error but stimulation of the boundary level by control mechanism.) By first Peter sub-principle it implies anarch...

  2. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2015-10-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6ºC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μ at the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) and generally covaried with μ but, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μ and K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. PMID:26362925

  3. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan

    2015-09-11

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6oC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μat the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 106 cells mL-1 and generally covaried with μbut, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μand K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. © FEMS 2015.

  4. Prediction of Load-Carrying Capacity in Steel Shear Wall with Opening Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khalilzadeh Vahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different parameters on steel plate shear wall (SPSW are investigated. The studied parameters are thickness of plate, location of the opening, thickness of diagonal stiffeners, and thickness of circular stiffener. Load-carrying capacity of the SPSW is studied under static load using nonlinear geometrical and material analysis in ABAQUS and the obtained simulation results are verified. An artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to model the effects of these parameters. According to the results the circular stiffener has more effect compared with the diagonal stiffeners. However, the thickness of the plate has the most significant effect on the SPSW behavior. The results show that the best place for the opening location is the center of SPSW. Multilayer perceptron (MLP neural network was used to predict the maximum load in SPSW with opening. The predicted maximum load values using the proposed MLP model were compared with the simulated validated data. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN model has achieved good agreement with the validated simulated data, with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9975. Therefore, the proposed model is useful, reliable, fast, and cheap tools to predict the maximum load in SPSW.

  5. Screening for EIA in India: enhancing effectiveness through ecological carrying capacity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, T; Das, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries across the world have embraced the policy of high economic growth as a means to reduce poverty. This economic growth largely based on industrial output is fast degrading the ecosystems, jeopardizing their long term sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has long been recognized as a tool which can help in protecting the ecosystems and aid sustainable development. The Screening guidelines for EIA reflect the level of commitment the nation displays towards tightening its environmental protection system. The paper analyses the screening process for EIA in India and dissects the rationale behind the exclusions and thresholds set in the screening process. The screening process in India is compared with that of the European Union with the aim of understanding the extent of deviations from a screening approach in the context of better economic development. It is found that the Indian system excludes many activities from the purview of screening itself when compared to the EU. The constraints responsible for these exclusions are discussed and the shortcomings of the current command and control system of environmental management in India are also explained. It is suggested that an ecosystem carrying capacity based management system can provide significant inputs to enhance the effectiveness of EIA process from screening to monitoring.

  6. Population ecology and carrying capacity estimates for large ungulates at Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal for a two year project with the University of North Dakota. The end product of this research will be a detailed model of the carrying capacity...

  7. Carrying Capacity In East Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel integrated assessment and a sustainable development approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xercavins, Josep

    1999-01-01

    0.4.1. ORGANIZATIONIn the context of the global human/earth issues (population, poverty, imbalances, environment problematic, global warming, water scarcity, economical globalization, etc.) with the others the Carrying Capacity issue is emerging. It is a "driver" which is not always simply related with sustainable development concepts. It is therefore enormously important to give adequate answers to the majority of the global dilemmas. The definition of carrying capacity is not easy becaus...

  8. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  9. Proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity in Arches National Park: an application of computer simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Steven R; Manning, Robert E; Valliere, William A; Wang, Benjamin

    2003-07-01

    Public visits to parks and protected areas continue to increase and may threaten the integrity of natural and cultural resources and the quality of the visitor experience. Scientists and managers have adopted the concept of carrying capacity to address the impacts of visitor use. In the context of outdoor recreation, the social component of carrying capacity refers to the level of visitor use that can be accommodated in parks and protected areas without diminishing the quality of the visitor experience to an unacceptable degree. This study expands and illustrates the use of computer simulation modeling as a tool for proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity at Arches National Park. A travel simulation model of daily visitor use throughout the Park's road and trail network and at selected attraction sites was developed, and simulations were conducted to estimate a daily social carrying capacity for Delicate Arch, an attraction site in Arches National Park, and for the Park as a whole. Further, a series of simulations were conducted to estimate the effect of a mandatory shuttle bus system on daily social carrying capacity of Delicate Arch to illustrate how computer simulation modeling can be used as a tool to facilitate adaptive management of social carrying capacity.

  10. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  11. Biofilm growth mode promotes maximum carrying capacity and community stability during product inhibition syntrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Annis Brileya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB can interact syntrophically with other community members in the absence of sulfate, and interactions with hydrogen-consuming methanogens are beneficial when these archaea consume potentially inhibitory H2 produced by the SRB. A dual continuous culture approach was used to characterize population structure within a syntrophic biofilm formed by the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and the methanogenic archaeum Methanococcus maripaludis. Under the tested conditions, monocultures of D. vulgaris formed thin, stable biofilms, but monoculture M. maripaludis did not. Microscopy of intact syntrophic biofilm confirmed that D. vulgaris formed a scaffold for the biofilm, while intermediate and steady-state images revealed that M. maripaludis joined the biofilm later, likely in response to H2 produced by the SRB. Close interactions in structured biofilm allowed efficient transfer of H2 to M. maripaludis, and H2 was only detected in cocultures with a mutant SRB that was deficient in biofilm formation ( delta pilA. M. maripaludis produced more carbohydrate (uronic acid, hexose, and pentose as a monoculture compared to total coculture biofilm, and this suggested an altered carbon flux during syntrophy. The syntrophic biofilm was structured into ridges (~300 x 50 um and models predicted lactate limitation at approximately 50 um biofilm depth. The biofilm had structure that likely facilitated mass transfer of H2 and lactate, yet maximized biomass with a more even population composition (number of each organism when compared to the bulk-phase community. Total biomass protein was equivalent in lactate-limited and lactate-excess conditions when a biofilm was present, but in the absence of biofilm, total biomass protein was significantly reduced. The results suggest that multispecies biofilms create an environment conducive to resource sharing, resulting in increased biomass retention, or carrying capacity, for cooperative

  12. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  13. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  14. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  15. Conceptual Framework of Tourism Carrying Capacity for a Tourism City: Experiences from National Parks in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Nasha; Zheng Xilai

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally-accepted definition of tourism carrying capacity(TCC).Numerical TCC focuses on use level and is considered as"a magic number"of the saturation point for tourism.There are several reasons why numerical tourism capacity is inadequate.Alternatively,tourism capacity can be defined in terms of limits of acceptable change,which shifts the focus from"how much use is too much"to"how much change is acceptable".This article proposes an improved conceptual framework for evaluating carrying capacity for the tourism city based on approaches used in US national parks,which consider the impact of human use on a city's economic,environmental/resource,and socio-cultural conditions.Based on the basic data of indicator values and relevant standards,the framework monitors the current indicators and predicts future indicator values; it can also be used to assess and predict TCC.

  16. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors once made a preliminary research on population carrying capacity of the land in the Economic Area of Zhujiang Delta (EAZD for short) in 1995, and reckoned that the ultimate population in this region will be 23 550 thousand by year of 2000. While the population in being in EAZD was 22.62 million in 1999. This accords with the prefigured result in the rough from the point of view of development. According to the data of plow land resources from the 2000 Statistical Yearbook of EAZD and the study on the population-foodstuff-plow land relationship, this paper calculates the productive potential of plow land and the population carrying capacity of land by year of 2010, and puts forward the countermeasures for improving the population carrying capacity of land in this region.

  17. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological

  18. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  19. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  20. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  1. Numerical study of regional environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Peng; Yu Bai

    2013-01-01

    In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance,this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City,Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta,and computes the environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city,as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods.On the basis of the computations,this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing,and assess the environmental impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry.The results of our study indicate that,the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen,and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus.A comparison between our research findings and the existing fanning scale in Putian reveals that,in certain parts of the city,ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees.Specifically,Chengxiang District is severely overburdened,Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening,Licheng District is virtually overburdened,and Xiuyu,Xianyou,and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.

  2. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  3. 刘家峡库区生态承载力研究%Ecological carrying capacity of the Liujiaxia reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何有华; 景凌云; 张晓虹; 刘敏

    2011-01-01

    Due to harsh conditions,the ecological environment of Liujiaxia reservoir is frail and the soil erosion here is serious.It is urgent to improve the ecological environment.Ecological carrying capacity of the Liujiaxia reservoir,the Nianzigou small watershed of the north Liujiaxia reservoir and the Sanpinggou small watershed of south Liujiaxia were calculated in this study to provide theoretical support for improvement of ecological environment construction in the study area.Based on theory of ecological carrying capacity,this study established comprehensive index system,which included ecological resilience,resource carrying capacity and resource carrying-pressing index.The results of this study showed that ecological resilience was unstable,and carrying capacity index of water resource was low,and soil carrying saturation was severe overloading.This study suggested that the Liujiaxia reservoir was currently unsustainable development.It is effort to develop comprehensive management measures of soil erosion to improve ecological carrying capacity of Liujiaxia reservoir in the future.%刘家峡库区自然条件严酷,生态环境脆弱,水土流失严重,亟需加快治理步伐。本研究通过计算分析刘家峡库区、库区南部三坪沟流域、库区北部碾子沟流域的生态承载力状况,为库区水土保持生态环境建设提供理论支撑。研究以生态承载力理论与方法为指导,建立了生态弹性度、资源承载力、资源承压度3级层次的生态承载力综合评价指标体系。分析表明,刘家峡库区目前生态弹性度为不稳定状态,水资源承载指数为低承载,土地承载饱和度为严重超载,库区处于不可持续的发展状态。应以提高库区生态承载力为目标,开展库区水土流失综合治理。

  4. Simultaneous Optimization of Tooth Flank Form of Involute Helical Gears in Terms of Both Vibration and Load Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Masaharu; Kubo, Aizoh; Suzuki, Yoshitomo

    The alignment condition of automotive gears changes considerably during operation due to the deformation of shafts, bearings, and gear box by transmission of load. Under such conditions, the gears are required to satisfy not only reliability in strength and durability under maximum loading conditions, but also low vibrational characteristics under light loading conditions during the cruising of a car. In this report, the characteristics of the optimum tooth flank form of gears in terms of both vibration and load carrying capacity are clarified. The local optimum tooth flank form appears in each excitation valley, where the vibrational excitation is low and the actual contact ratio takes a specific value. The influence of the choice of different local optimum solutions on the vibrational performance of the optimized gears is investigated. The practical design algorithm for the optimum tooth flank form of a gear set in terms of both vibration and load carrying capacity is then proposed and its result is evaluated by field experience.

  5. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  6. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approac...

  7. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  8. Approximate Solution of Oil Film Load-carrying Capacity of Turbulent Journal Bearing with Couple Stress Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongfang; WU Peng; GUO Bo; L Yanjun; LIU Fuxi; YU Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  9. Optimizing the Regional Industrial Structure Based on the Environmental Carrying Capacity: An Inexact Fuzzy Multi-Objective Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An inexact fuzzy multi-objective programming model (IFMOP based on the environmental carrying capacity is provided for industrial structure optimization problems. In the IFMOP model, both fuzzy linear programming (FLP and inexact linear programming (ILP methods are introduced into a multi-objective programming framework. It allows uncertainties to be directly communicated into the problem solving processing, and it can effectively reflect the complexity and uncertainty of an industrial system without impractical simplification. The two objective functions utilized in the optimization study are the maximum total output value and population size, and the constraints include water environmental capacity, water resource supply, atmospheric environmental capacity and energy supply. The model is subsequently employed in a realistic case for industrial development in the Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. The results demonstrate that the model can help to analyze whether the environmental carrying capacity of Tongzhou can meet the needs of the social economic objectives in the new town plan in the two scenarios and can assist decision makers in generating stable and balanced industrial structure patterns with consideration of the resources, energy and environmental constraints to meet the maximum social economic efficiency.

  10. The uncertain role of diversity dependence in species diversification and the need to incorporate time-varying carrying capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles R; Quental, Tiago B

    2016-04-01

    There is no agreement among palaeobiologists or biologists as to whether, or to what extent, there are limits on diversification and species numbers. Here, we posit that part of the disagreement stems from: (i) the lack of explicit criteria for defining the relevant species pools, which may be defined phylogenetically, ecologically or geographically; (ii) assumptions that must be made when extrapolating from population-level logistic growth to macro-evolutionary diversification; and (iii) too much emphasis being placed on fixed carrying capacities, rather than taking into account the opportunities for increased species richness on evolutionary timescales, for example, owing to increased biologically available energy, increased habitat complexity and the ability of many clades to better extract resources from the environment, or to broaden their resource base. Thus, we argue that a more effective way of assessing the evidence for and against the ideas of bound versus unbound diversification is through appropriate definition of the relevant species pools, and through explicit modelling of diversity-dependent diversification with time-varying carrying capacities. Here, we show that time-varying carrying capacities, either increases or decreases, can be accommodated through changing intrinsic diversification rates (diversity-independent effects), or changing the effects of crowding (diversity-dependent effects).

  11. 深圳水环境容量及其承载力评价%Evaluation of Water Environment Capacity and Carrying Capacity in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬彬; 车秀珍; 陈晓丹; 谢林伸

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen indicators of water resources, water environment and socio-economic systems were selected to construct a carrying capacity evaluation index system of regional water environment, and to evaluate the water environment capacity and carrying capacity in Shenzhen using Channel One-dimensional Model, Multidimensional Model and Pattern Recognition Approach. The results showed that the water environment capacity in Shenzhen of CODCr was 195,405.3 tons per year, while that of NH3-N was 6,570.4 tons per year. Discharge of NH3-N was 57. 2% over the environment capacity in 2008. Although the discharge of CODCr was below the environmental capacity limit (due to the great environment capacity of the coastal waters) , the actual discharge of CODCr into rivers far outweighed the water environment capacity, which resulted in serious river pollution as well as acute water environment problems. The sustainable capacity degree of water environment in Shenzhen in 2008 was 0. 4, which indicated that water environment carrying capacity was in warning status, and close to critical. Therefore, it was on a trajectory of unsustainable development on the whole. Based on the actual situation in Shenzhen, three strategic suggestions for improving water environment carrying capacity were proposed, which are industrial structure adjustment, strengthening pollution control and importing water from the outside territory.%选取水资源、水环境和社会经济三大系统的19个指标,构建了区域水环境承载力评价指标体系,采用河道一维模型和多极关联评价模型分别对深圳水环境容量及其承载力进行评价.结果表明:深圳水环境容量CODcr,为195 405.3 t/a,NH3-N为6 570.4 t/a;2008年NH3-N排放量超过环境容量的57.2%.尽管CODcr排放量低于环境容量上限水平,但由于近岸海域水环境容量大,而实际入河排放量远超河流水环境容量,河流污染较为严重,水环境问题突出.2008年深圳水

  12. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    Full Text Available A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  13. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Hui-jun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Guangdong Province Statistics Bureau, 2000. The Statistic Annual of Agricultural Economy of Guangdong[Z] ) Beijing:Chinese Statistic Press, 39-40, 203-222. (in Chinese)[2]Guangdong Province Construction Committee, 1996. The Planning of Zhujiang Delta Cities[Z]. Beijing: Chinese Architecture Technology Press. (in Chinese)[3]WANG Ying-cai, ZHANG Miao-ling, 1994. Research on the Population Carrying Potentiality of the Land Resource in Jiangsu Province [M]. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Technology Press. 288-303. (in Chinese)[4]TANG Hui-jun, 1997. Research on the population carrying capacity of the land resources in the economic area of Zhujiang Delta[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Technology.14(3): 44. (in Chinese)

  14. Effect of Shear Resistance on Flexural Debonding Load-Carrying Capacity of RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Debonding failure is the main failure mode in flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams by externally bonded or near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composites. It is believed that FRP debonding will be initiated if the shear stress on the concrete-FRP interface reaches the tensile strength of concrete. However, it was found through experimental and analytical studies that the debonding mechanism of FRP composites has the potential of shear failure in combination with debonding failure. Moreover, the shear failure probably influences the debonding failure. Presently, there are very little experimental and analytical studies to investigate the influence of shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC beam on FRP debonding failure. The current study investigates and analyzes the effect of shear resistance on FRP debonding failure based on test results. The analytical results show that the shear resistance of RC beam has a great effect on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beam. The influence of shear resistance on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity must be fully considered in flexural strengthening design of RC beams.

  15. Competitive capacity of HIV-1 strains carrying M184I or Y181I drug-resistant mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jue; LI Lin; LI Han-ping; ZHUANG Dao-min; LIU Si-yang; LIU Yong-jian; BAO Zuo-yi; WANG Zheng; LI Jing-yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Virus with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcdptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) resistant mutations show different evolution tendencies when the anti-viral therapies are interrupted. Understanding the replication fitness of drug-resistant virus is important for the study of the prevalence of drug-resistance. For this purpose, we characterized the replication capacity of HIV-1 virus carrying lamivudine (3TC) or nevirapine (NVP) resistant mutations.Methods 3TC and NVP resistant variants were induced in vitro by selecting wild type virus in the presence of drugs. For the competitive replication assay, drug-resistant variants were cocultured with wild-type virus in the presence or absence of drugs. The ratios of the viral species were determined over time by using a real-time RT-PCR-based assay. Results 3TC-resistant (M184I mutation) and NVP-resistant (Y181I mutation) virus should be selected in vitro in two different ways. The competitive replication assay showed that the ratio of virus carrying a M184I mutation increased from 98.8%, while the wild type virus decreased to 1.2% after 4 passages in the presence of 3TC; the percentage of virus carrying the Y181I mutation increased to 90.5%, while wild type virus decreased to 9.5% in the presence of NVP. In the absence of drugs, the ratio of virus carrying the M184I mutation decreased to 5.3%, while wild type virus increased to 94.7%; the ratio of virus carrying Y181I increased to 75%, while wild type virus decreased to 25% after 4 passages.Conclusions The NVP-resistant virus is fitter than wild type virus even in the absence of NVP that may be the reason that NNRTIs-resistant virus is spreading quickly.

  16. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Fossil Energy Land%化石能源地生态承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方恺; 沈万斌; 郑沁敏; 高凯; 刘景帅

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the defect of current studies of ignoring ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land, a model was established by combining ecological footprint analysis and net primary productivity from standpoint of land function of carbon sequestration. Taking northeast China as an empirical study, results showed that during 2004 and 2008, ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land of Liaoning Province, Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province were low, medium and high respectively, showing significant regional difference, and the decreasing proportions of Province Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang were 3.52%, 1.75% and 0.10% respectively. In the composition of total ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land per capita, component percentages of arable land and built-up land increased, while those of forest, grazing land, water area, less productive land and open ocean decreased. Forest was main part of ecological carrying capacity of ' fossil energy land, accounting for 58.25%~58.40%. It was concluded that the new model able to accord with real situation of regional resource endowment with high precision can evaluate the sustainability of energy consumption more roundly and improve ecological footprint theory to a certain extent.%针对当前研究中忽略化石能源地生态承载力的不足,从土地碳吸收功能的角度将生态足迹法与净初级生产力相结合,根据构建的化石能源地生态承载力模型,对东北地区进行了实证研究.结果表明,2004-2008年,东北地区化石能源地生态承载力的区域性差异显著,辽宁最低、吉林居中、黑龙江最高;三省人均化石能源地生态承载力均呈缓慢下降趋势,降幅由大到小依次为吉林(3.52%)、辽宁(1.75%)、黑龙江(0.10%);三省人均化石能源地生态承载力的总构成中,耕地、建设用地比例有所上升,林地、草地、水域、低生产力地、远海比例有所下降,其中

  17. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  18. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range. PMID:26910226

  19. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  20. Meta-analysis of intrinsic rates of increase and carrying capacity of populations affected by toxic and other stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Maas-Diepeveen, Johanna L M; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Van Straalen, Nico M

    2005-09-01

    Most of the thousands of substances and species that are of concern for environmental management will not be investigated empirically at ecologically relevant levels because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To allow risk assessment for these less well-known categories, we have developed a mechanistic model with classical equations from toxicology and ecology. The parameters are linked to well-known properties, such as the octanol-water partition ratio K(ow), acute lethal (body) concentrations, and organism size. This allows estimation of intrinsic rates of increase r and carrying capacity K over a wide range of substances and species. The model was calibrated with parameter values (micro +/- 95% confidence interval) obtained in reviews and validated by a meta-analysis with largely independent data from 200 laboratory experiments. For single substances, the 5 to 95% interval of the observations on intrinsic rates of increase overlapped with the range predicted by the model. Model and experiments independently indicated that population growth ceased below 1% of the acute median lethal concentration in about 5% of the cases. Exceptional values and possible explanations were identified. The reduction of the carrying capacity K was nearly proportional to the inhibition of the population growth r. Population-level effects of mixtures as estimated by concentration addition were confirmed by observations in the experiments. The impact of a toxicant and another stressor could generally be described by response multiplication, with the exception of cases with extreme stress. Data sets on population laboratory experiments are biased to metals and crustaceans. This field will benefit from empirical studies on chemicals, conditions, and species, identified as risky by the model. Other implications of the model for environmental management and research are discussed.

  1. Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Incorporate Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    In the United States and elsewhere, renewable energy (RE) generation supplies an increasingly large percentage of annual demand, including nine U.S. states where wind comprised over 10% of in-state generation in 2013. This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating increasing amounts of variable RE, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration, and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—that can provide a framework for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of RE. There is growing recognition that while technical challenges to variable RE integration are real, they can generally be addressed via a variety of solutions that vary in implementation cost. As a result, limits to RE penetration are primarily economic, driven by factors that include transmission and the flexibility of the power grid to balance supply and demand. This limit can be expressed as economic carrying capacity, or the point at which variable RE is no longer economically competitive or desirable to the system or society.

  2. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of Tourist Resorts: An Application of Tourists' Spatial Behavior Simulator Based on GIS and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of visitors' individual spatial behaviors, a tourists' spatial behavior simulator (TSBS) to assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts was developed, TSBS employs GIS (Geographic Information System) to manage the spatial data, and Multi-Agent system to simulate the actions of individual visitors. By utilizing TSBS, visitors' travel patterns such as location, cost, and state can be analyzed and predicted. Based on this analysis and prediction, the model of assessing the carrying capacity of resorts is built. Our results show that TSBS will be an effective tool to accurately assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts.

  3. EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGES AND RANGE SYSTEMS ON VEGETATION ATTRIBUTES, CARRYING CAPACITY, STOCKING RATE AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY, NORTH KORDOFAN, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Moniem M.A. El hag

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation attributes, carrying capacity, stocking rates and forage productivity were studied in close and open range systems at the flowering and seed setting stages during the September and November 2010, respectively, in El Rosa (El-khuwei locality. Sampling was done by locating 2Km2 in close and open range systems in a radiating manner from the centre of each site. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was used to analyses treatments. Biomass production of plants and plant cover at the flowering stage in the close range system were significantly (P<0.0001 higher than that at the seed setting stage in the open range system. The plant density was significant (P<0.05 higher in the close rang system at the flowering stage and lower at the seed setting stage in the open range system. Bare soil and litter was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the open range system during the seed setting stage and lower in the close range system during the flowering stage. Forage productivity of plants and shrubs browse kg/ha on rangeland was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the close range system during the flowering stage and lower in open range system at the seed setting stage. Carrying capacity was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the close range system at the seed setting stage and lower in the open range at the flowering stage. Stoking rates in open range system during the seed setting stage was significantly higher (P<0.0001 and lower in the close range system during the seed setting stage. The frequencies of Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus, Bano, (Eragrostis tremula, Difra (Echinocloa colonum, leflef Luffa aegyptiaca, Gaw (Aristida sp, Shuleny Zornia glochidiata and Aborakhus Andropogon gayanus were higher in close system during the two stages of growth. Plants such as Abodaib Ceraotheca sesamoid, Bigual Blepharis linarifolia, Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis, Rabaa (Zalea sp, Himeira Hymerocardia, Diresa (Tribulus terrestris and Huntot Merremia pinnata

  4. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  5. Carbon carry capacity and carbon sequestration potential in China based on an integrated analysis of mature forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YingChun; Yu, GuiRui; Wang, QiuFeng; Zhang, YangJian; Xu, ZeHong

    2014-12-01

    Forests play an important role in acting as a carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Although global forests have huge carbon carrying capacity (CCC) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP), there were few quantification reports on Chinese forests. We collected and compiled a forest biomass dataset of China, a total of 5841 sites, based on forest inventory and literature search results. From the dataset we extracted 338 sites with forests aged over 80 years, a threshold for defining mature forest, to establish the mature forest biomass dataset. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the carbon density of Chinese mature forests and its controlling factors, we used carbon density of mature forests as the reference level, and conservatively estimated the CCC of the forests in China by interpolation methods of Regression Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted and Partial Thin Plate Smoothing Spline. Combining with the sixth National Forest Resources Inventory, we also estimated the forest CSP. The results revealed positive relationships between carbon density of mature forests and temperature, precipitation and stand age, and the horizontal and elevational patterns of carbon density of mature forests can be well predicted by temperature and precipitation. The total CCC and CSP of the existing forests are 19.87 and 13.86 Pg C, respectively. Subtropical forests would have more CCC and CSP than other biomes. Consequently, relying on forests to uptake carbon by decreasing disturbance on forests would be an alternative approach for mitigating greenhouse gas concentration effects besides afforestation and reforestation.

  6. 基于物元分析理论的旅游承载力研究%Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method cailed matter element analysis can solve the uncertain a,nd incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination s carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  7. 桑沟湾养殖容量与优化措施的研究%Carrying capacity and optimizing measures for mariculture in Sungo Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The carrying capacity of Sungo Bay for the culture of scallop Chlamys farreri was estimated by calculating the supply and demand of organic carbon produced by primary production.The carrying capacity for the large scallops (5~6 cm shell height) is about 35 ind./m2,which is 15 ind./m2 lower than the actual cultivating density.By calculating the total supply and demand of inorganic nutrient,the carrying capacity of the bay for kelp Laminaria japanica was estimated for the first time in the world.Based on the results from assessment of carrying capacity,some optimizing measures such as polyculture of bivalves and kelp,controlling fouling organisms,adjusting the size of longline block,enlarging the navigation channel and so on were proposed and practiced in the bay.

  8. Effective carrying capacity and analytical solution of a particular case of the Richards-like two-species population dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Ribeiro, Fabiano; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2011-01-01

    We consider a generalized two-species population dynamic model and analytically solve it for the amensalism and commensalism ecological interactions. These two-species models can be simplified to a one-species model with a time dependent extrinsic growth factor. With a one-species model with an effective carrying capacity one is able to retrieve the steady state solutions of the previous one-species model. The equivalence obtained between the effective carrying capacity and the extrinsic grow...

  9. Research on atmospheric environment carrying capacity of ports%港口大气环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长兵

    2012-01-01

    以秦皇岛煤炭港口为例,筛选煤粉尘(TSP)作为典型大宗散货港口大气环境优先污染物,通过对港口区域现有重点煤尘污染源、烟尘污染源和工业粉尘污染源排放和治理状况以及大气污染物迁移扩散规律的研究,结合社会、经济和环境因素,以满足秦皇岛煤炭作业环境和周边地区大气环境功能区环境质量标准为约束条件,探求了港口大气污染物排放总量及环境承载力控制目标.%In this paper,taking Qinhuangdao coal port for example,TSP was selected as the priority pollutants of atmospheric environment of the typical large-sized bulk cargo port.The emission and treatment of the existing key pollution sources for coal dust smoke and dust, industrial dust and the spreading law of air pollutants in port area were studied.Under the constraint conditions of coal working environment of Qinhuangdao and the atmospheric environment functional regionalization environmental quality standard of its surrounding areas,the control targets of the total air pollutants emission and the environment carrying capacity of port were explored with the combination of the social,economic and environmental factors.These results can provide effective technical support for the general development plan of port,dust pollution treatment and environmental feasibility study of a new port.

  10. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 1 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity.

  11. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  12. 成都市水资源及水环境承载能力分析%Study on water resources and water environmental carrying capacities of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小妮; 甘泓; 游进军; 牛存稳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analyses made on the definitions of the water resources carrying capacity and water environmental carrying capacity and the significances of studies on them, both the carrying capacities of various target years of Chengdu are calculated herein with a three-level methodology and the one-dimension water quality simulation based pollutant-holding capacity model respectively, and then a comparative analysis is made on the calculation results. The result shows that the limitation from water environmental capacity on the water consumption of Chengdu becomes more strict under the current condition, while the water resources carrying capacity is to restrict the socio-economic development gradually in the days to come. Therefore, the sustainable economic and social development can only be ensured therein by taking both the carrying capacities as the control points concerned.%本文在分析水资源和水环境承载能力定义及研究意义的基础上,分别利用三层次分析方法和基于一维水质模拟的纳污能力模型计算了成都市不同水平年的水资源与水环境承载能力,并对计算结果进行对比分析.结果显示现状条件下成都市的水环境承载能力对用水的限制更为严格,而未来水资源承载能力逐渐开始制约社会经济发展.为此,只有以水资源承载能力及水环境承载能力作为控制点,才能保障经济社会的可持续发展.

  13. A model to assess fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island ecosystem: A case study in the southern Miaodao Archipelago of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; LI Fen; WANG Xiaoli; CHI Yuan; GUO Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Research on carrying capacity, aiming at maintaining the limited ability of the Earth's life supporting system to sustain human development, requires a comprehensive and ecosystem-based approach to monitor and assess the localized sustainability of coupled social and ecological systems. A definition termed the ecosystem-based carrying capacity of island (EBCCI) was developed in this paper of which the indices of fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island (FCCI and RCCI) were highlighted to emphasize the inter-dependencies between social systems and ecological systems. In order to avoid the difficulties and uncertainties of direct assessment, the related assessment model was established on the basis of synthetic evaluation of inherent and external factors affecting the EBCCI. The southern Miaodao Archipelago (SMA) located in the intersection of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China, was taken as a typical example to acquire integrated recognition of the island ecosystem and its carrying capacity so as to discuss its sustainable development. The index scores of FCCI and RCCI in the SMA were 0.818 5 and 0.712 9 out of 1.0, respectively, with acceptable uncertainties. The results showed a relatively well capacity to sustain progress and relatively well realization of the carrying capacity of island ecosystem, owing to a well capacity of ecologically regulating, general performance of both ecologically supporting and resource provisioning, and a relatively high level of social supporting system. The study implied that it was critical to optimize the inter-dependencies and to sustain the relative balance between social systems and ecological systems so as to improve the RCCI and further facilitate the sustainability of SMA. The approach proposed in this paper provides a powerful tool which is well applicative to the regional level of an oceanic island or archipelago to study the sustainable development and can be further popularized to the coastal zone.

  14. Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) data and anthropology: Use of these data in carrying capacity estimates for sites in Upper Volta and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Repetitively derived multispectral band imagery from ERTS-1 is now available for many parts of the earth's land surface and represents major new data sources for anthropological work in habitat, land use, and settlement patterns. A completed first step test of ERTS-1 data is available in carrying capacity estimates for Mossi, Hausa, and Sonrai sites derived from: (1) field work; (2) aerial photography; and (3) ERTS-1. Data can test more than one carrying capacity formula.

  15. Effective carrying capacity and analytical solution of a particular case of the Richards-like two-species population dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Ribeiro, Fabiano; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2012-02-01

    We consider a generalized two-species population dynamic model and analytically solve it for the amensalism and commensalism ecological interactions. These two-species models can be simplified to a one-species model with a time dependent extrinsic growth factor. With a one-species model with an effective carrying capacity one is able to retrieve the steady state solutions of the previous one-species model. The equivalence obtained between the effective carrying capacity and the extrinsic growth factor is complete only for a particular case, the Gompertz model. Here we unveil important aspects of sigmoid growth curves, which are relevant to growth processes and population dynamics.

  16. Carry a big stick, or no stick at all An experimental analysis of trust and capacity of punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Calabuig; Enrique Fatas; Gonzalo Olcina; Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of punishment in a trust game with endowment heterogeneity in which the investor may punish the allocator at a cost. Our results indicate that the effect of the punishment crucially depends on the investor’s capacity of punishment, that is measured in our experiment by the proportion of the allocator’s payoffs that the investor can destroy. We find that punishment fosters trust when the capacity of punishment is high (i.e., when the cost of punishing is relatively lo...

  17. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    and minor ports, other industries such as SPMs, refineries and power plants are making use of GoK. For the computation of carrying capacity (CC) with respect to PHc, operational and accidental discharges at SPMs and pipeline leakages have been considered...

  18. Analysis of the University of Ibadan Carrying Capacities vis-à-vis Enrolment and Facilities' Maintenance: Implications on Administration and Curriculum Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Ademola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the University of Ibadan complies with carrying capacity standards as directed by the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the level of facility maintenance. A descriptive research design was adopted with three research questions. The population of study comprised undergraduate students and an…

  19. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dinter; L.I. Kooistra; M.K. Dütting; P. van Rijn; C. Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D. 40 - 140. The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m³ a

  20. Study on Early Warning of Traffic Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity%交通资源环境承载力预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋恵园; 黄永燊

    2015-01-01

    新常态下快速发展的综合交通运输对资源环境的胁迫作用日益明显,资源环境对交通运输的承载能力成为地区健康发展的重要衡量标准。在界定交通资源环境承载力概念的基础上,从资源承载力和生态环境承载力两个方面构建交通资源环境承载力指标体系。结合可拓学的模糊物元理论和信息论的熵理论,建立基于模糊物元的交通资源环境承载力的预警模型,并对长江经济带七省二市的交通资源环境承载力进行预警研究。实例结果表明,构建的交通资源环境承载力指标体系基本合理,模糊物元预警模型在资源环境承载力的预警研究中具有较强的适用性和可操作性。%The rapid development of integrated transportation in the new normal poses an increasing threat to environment and resources. The bearing capacity of environment and resources to transportation becomes a significant criterion to measure whether an area is developing healthily. Based on the definition of traffic resource environmental bearing capacity, a traffic resource and environmental bearing capacity index system is built from both resources carrying capacity and environmental carrying capacity aspects. Through combining fuzzy matter-element theory of extension theory with entropy theory, an early-warning model of traffic resource and environmental bearing capacity is established, this model is applied to study the traffic resources and environmental carrying capacity of Yangtze River economic belt (include seven provinces and two municipalities as well). The results demonstrate that:The traffic resources and environmental carrying capacity index system is reasonable and the fuzzy matter-element model used in studying the early-warning of resources environmental bearing capacity is of sound applicability and operability.

  1. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.(INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy)

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  2. Water ecological carrying capacity of urban lakes in the context of rapid urbanization: A case study of East Lake in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Kun-lun; Cheng, Sheng-gao; Wang, Xu

    With the excessive development of social economy, water scarcity and water environment deterioration become a common phenomenon in metropolis. As a crucial component of urban water environment system, urban lake is mainly influenced by social economic system and tourism system. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability of urban lake was established by a multi-objective model that represented water ecological carrying capacity (WECC). And nine key indicators including population, irrigation area, tourist quantity, the average number of hotel daily reception, TP, TN, CODMn, BOD5 were chosen from urban social-economy system and natural resilience aspects, with their index weight was determined by using the Structure Entropy Weight method. Then, we took Wuhan East Lake, the largest urban lake in China as a case study, and selected five time sections including 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 to synthetically evaluate and comparatively analyze the dynamic change of WECC. The results showed that: firstly, the water ecological carrying capacity values of the East Lake in five time sections were 1.17, 1.07, 1.64, 1.53 and 2.01 respectively, which all exceeded 1 and increased fluctuation. The rapid growth of population and GDP lead to sharply increasing demand for water quantity. However, a large amount of the domestic sewage and industrial waste led by economic development increases pressure on ecological environment of urban lakes. Secondly, the carrying capacity of the East Lake for tourist activities was still low. The value in 2012 was only 0.22, keeping at a slowly increasing phase, which indicates that the East Lake has large opportunity and space for developing the water resource carrying capacity and could make further efforts to attract tourists. Moreover, the WECC of the East Lake was mainly affected by rapid social and economic development and water environment damage caused by organic pollutants. From the view of urban

  3. 水环境承载能力及其测算研究%Study on Water Environment Carrying Capacity and Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秋玲

    2014-01-01

    From the water resources carrying capacity situation,concept and connotation,three calculation methods for water environment carrying capacity is introduced,namely mathematical model, comprehensive index system evaluation and analytical method of multi-objective model of water environment carrying capacity,etc.At the same time,a brief analysis of the principle of three kinds of calculation methods and the advantages and disadvantages is conducted in order to draw attention to the relevant departments for always maintaining good water ecological system as the goal,strengthening the study on ecological water requirement,establishing the common model of water environment carrying capacity based on existing calculation models.%文章从水资源承载能力的现状、概念和内涵出发,介绍了3种常用的水环境承载能力测算方法,即数学模型法、综合指标体系评价方法和水环境承载力多目标模型分析方法。同时简要分析了3种测算方法的原理和优缺点,以期引起相关部门重视以水体始终保持良好生态系统为目标,加强生态需水量研究,在对现有测算模型进行融合贯通的基础上,建立能够综合反映水环境承载能力的通用评价模型。

  4. Dynamic Changes of Land Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on the Ecological Footprint——By the Case Study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfu PENG; Xiaolan ZHONG; Qiuyang LI; Qin LI

    2012-01-01

    Chengdu City is in the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, and the disturbance derived from human activities on environment is increasing remarkablely in recent 20 years. The pressure on environment, economy and population is also increasing and land use in Chengdu has changed enormously. As struc- ture and function of land ecological system change obviously, sustainable development of land productivity has been an important goal and strategic task from now on, and it is necessary to systematically research land ecological carrying capacity based on ecological footprint. The ecological footprint of Chengdu City in the past ten years was calculated and analyzed from the spatial and temporal aspects according to statistical data from 1998 to 2008, as per ecological footprint method, ecological carrying capacity and the GIS spatial analysis method, and regression analysis method. The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity values from 2009 to 2019 in Chengdu City were predicted through calculation results in the past ten years. The results show that the ecological footprint and ecological deficit of land use from 1998 to 2008 increased in Chengdu City. The ecological deficit of land use within the city center was in high levels in the past ten years, and the ecological footprint kept raising, especially in areas, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Qingyang among 9 city areas, 4 counties and 6 districts in Chengdu City. There is fanlike distribution of ecological deficit of land use. Analysis shows that the social and natural ecological system is uneven distribution, which is not in sustainable de- velopment situation. The results of the study show that the economic, social and natural ecological system in Chengdu City is not sustainable, and the ecological foot- print is uneven distribution. The analysis of the dynamic change of land ecological carrying capacity in Chengdu City is very important for city government in the pro- cess of the

  5. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M.; Heitzer, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  6. Studies about the current carrying capacity of the devices of the electric power transmission depending on the ambient conditions; Untersuchungen zur Strombelastbarkeit der Geraete der Elektroenergieuebertragung unter Freiluftatmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Ina

    2011-07-01

    Due to the liberalization of the electricity market and the increasing expansion of the generation of wind power the transport of electric power in the power grid is increasing. Due to that the electrical equipment is loaded higher up to its thermal limits. However the electrical power supply should be anytime reliable. Because the new construction and upgrade of overhead lines and substations is expensive and approval procedures can take up to ten years, solutions have to be found, to ensue in short and medium term the transport of electrical power through the power grid. In this paper a possibility is introduced and analyzed to increase the current carrying capacity of the electrical equipment without carrying out extensive reconstructions or new buildings. For that the method of thermal networks is used. For the different devices of the electric power transmission (overhead lines, electrical fittings, circuit-breaker, disconnecting switch and current transformer) thermal networks are designed. The heating on examples of all devices was studied and tested under laboratory conditions and the thermal networks were verified. By expansion of the thermal networks with elements for forced convection (wind velocity) and additional heat sources (solar radiation) the ambient conditions were considered. With the help of the so expanded thermal networks parameter studies depending on the wind velocity, ambient temperature and solar radiation were carried out. The studies showed that depending on the ambient conditions the current carrying capacity of all devices can be increased without changing the devices. The rated currents of all devices are specified for a high ambient temperature (e.g. 35 C) and low wind speed (e.g. 1 m/s). Most of the time in a year the ambient temperature is lower and the wind speed is higher than the specified values. So the devices can carry a higher current than the rated current without exceeding its thermal limits. The calculations show the

  7. Carrying capacity of coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    ofextractive activities (fishing, mining, dredging), onshore developmental activities (that lead to industrial and sewage pollution), susceptibility to natural disasters, interactions with adjacent ecosystems (e.g. coral reefs and mangroves), current level...

  8. Dynamic Management of Carrying Capacity in Mountain Heritage%山岳型遗产地环境容量动态管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 赵建峰; 黄潇婷

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of heritage carrying capacity involve many disciplines. Traditional static measurements obtain the optimal value and saturation value for a certain space, which is the main technical method of traditional carrying capacity study. However, tourists, the subjects who affect carrying capacity of environment are dynamic. Especially, as to Mountain heritage sites, its environmental capacity are relatively limited for their topography characteristics. Massive and concentrated visits will not only increase the pressure of environmental protection, but also influence the quality of tourist experience, and even sometimes threaten tourist physical security. Traditional researches on tourism environmental capacity mainly depend on static measurement. By introducing time dimension and analyzing the rule of spatiotemporal distribution of tourist flow, this paper proposed a new method of dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage through putting forward the concept of “the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow”, and recognizes it with time geography method. The results of data analysis of Mountain Tai show that there are seven spatial bayonets, which are Red Gate, Stone Valley, Half Way Gate to Heaven, South Gate to Heaven, Tianjie, Jade Emperor Peak and Riguan peak, while the temporal bayonets are decentralization relatively. All those temporal-spatial bayonets of the middle route in Mountain Tai only account for 5. 52% of the whole area, which attract almost 50. 04% tourists. Hence one can see that, recognition and management of Space-Time Bayonet of tourists flow is quite important to dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage. Besides, this paper discussed the academic contribution of the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow and its potential application practically through regulating tourist ’s behavior, controlling tourism environmental capacity dynamically and building intelligent early-warning system

  9. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  10. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Sustainable Development and Eco-Environmental Carrying Capacity in Water-Deficient Regions:A Case Study in the Haihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-gen; LUO Yu-zhou; ZHANG Ming-hua; XIA Jun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of development sustainability could be a challenge to regional management and planning, especially for areas facing great risks of water shortage. Surface-water decline and groundwater over-pumping have caused serious environmental problems and limited economic development in many regions all around the world. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability was established with water-related eco-environmental carrying capacity (EECC) as the core measure. As a case study, the developed approach was applied to data of the Haihe River Basin, China, during 1998 through 2007. The overall sustainable development degree (SDD) is determined to be 0.39, suggesting that this rate of development is not sustainable. Results of scenario analysis revealed that overshoot, or resource over-exploitation, of the Basin’s EECC is about 20% for both population and economy. Based on conditions in the study area in 2007, in order to achieve sustainable development, i.e., SDD>0.70 in this study, the EECC could support a population of 108 million and gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.72 trillion CNY. The newly developed approach in quantifying eco-environmental carrying capacity is anticipated to facilitate sustainable development oriented resource management in water-deifcient areas.

  12. Research and application advances in ecological carrying capacity%生态承载力研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向芸芸; 蒙吉军

    2012-01-01

    The study of ecological carrying capacity is an important basis for the settlement of resource shortage and environment deterioration and the realization of regional sustainable development, and also, one of the hot spots in geography, ecology, and economics. After reviewing the related research achievements, this paper elucidated the connotation of ecological carrying capacity , i. e. , a representation of the supporting function and compressive stress of complex ecosystem , introduced the universal measuring methods of ecological carrying capacity, e. g. , net primary productivity (NPP) , ecological footprint (EF) , balance of supply and demand, evaluation with comprehensive indices, and systematic modeling, and presented the research progress in the ecological carrying capacity of the regions being more concerned, including watersheds, ecological fragile areas, cities, agricultural areas, and tourism areas. The deficiencies in current studies, such as the shortage of complete scientific research system, the ambiguity of threshold value's ecological meaning, the lack of time series study, and the absence of spatial pattern analysis, were summarized, and accordingly, the development trends in action mechanisms, model construction, and practical application were prospected.%生态承载力研究是解决资源-环境矛盾、实现区域可持续发展的重要基础,也是地理学、生态学和经济学关注的热点与前沿领域.本文在综述国内外相关研究成果的基础上,阐述了生态承载力的概念内涵,即对复合生态系统支持力和压力的表征;评述了常用的研究方法,即净初级生产力估测法、生态足迹法、供需平衡法、综合指标评价法和系统模型法;介绍了目前较为关注的流域、生态脆弱区、城市、农业区和旅游区生态承载力的研究进展;总结了目前生态承载力研究存在的缺乏科学完整的研究体系、阈值的生态学指示意义不明确、动

  13. The Bridge Carrying Capacity Assessment Under Overweight Loads%超重荷载作用下桥梁承载能力评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高继平; 冯志强; 王兆仑

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the modern construction,more and more transportation of over-size,over-weight industrial equipments are transported on highways. Large-scale transportation since the total material ,shaft material characteristics,transport along the bridge will inevitably cause great effect on safety. In this paper,with the heavy equipment transport vehicles speed through a typical structure of the bridge as an example ,we calculate of the carrying capacity,and propose a simple and practical method to assess the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper provides reference for the bridge structure establishment assessments of similar transportation cases.%随着我国现代化建设的发展,由公路运输特大、特重型工业设备日趋增多。大件运输由于总重大、轴重大等特点,势必会对运输沿线的桥梁安全造成极大的影响。本文以重型设备运输车辆通过高速典型结构的桥梁为例,进行了承载能力计算研究,提出简便实用的桥梁承载能力评估方法,为同类运输案例的桥梁结构承载成立评估提供借鉴经验。

  14. 农业生产与水资源承载力评价%Agricultural production and evaluation in terms of water resources carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞祎; 张晖; 胡浩

    2016-01-01

    AbstractBased on the evaluation of water resources carrying capacity, especially taking into account the impact of agricultural pollution on sustainable use of water resources, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on the strains of water resources due to farming and animal production in different regions of China to provide reference for rational estimation of potential agricultural growth and correct approaches for structural adjustments in agriculture. Excess nitrogen and grey water were calculated as indicators to quantify the impact of agricultural pollution on water resources. Following nutrient balance theory, excess nitrogen was the difference between the sum of nitrogen provided by chemical fertilizer, livestock manure and soil, and total nitrogen needed by farming. Grey water was the amount of water required for diluting excessively high concentration of nitrogen in water to a more environmental-friendly level. Agricultural water footprint was the sum of agricultural water and grey water used. The huge quantity of excess nitrogen produced by farming and livestock consequently led to excessive amount of grey water, which more than doubled the amount of water used in agriculture. There was therefore the need to reserve enough environmental space for diluting pollution when estimating water resources carrying capacity based on water sustainability and healthy development. Water surplus were constructed to reflect the potential of water resources to support agricultural production with detailed environmental consideration. Water surplus was the difference between water resources and agricultural water footprint. Using 2003-2012 nationwide samples, a panel data model was constructed to analyze the impact of change in sown area and livestock head on water surplus. The results suggested that the nationwide water in China could carry a maximum of 168.89 million hm2 or 3.57 billion pigs. The water resources carrying capacity model results also showed that the

  15. Study on Macao's Comprehensive Land Carrying Capacity%澳门土地综合承载状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相

    2012-01-01

    作为亚太有名的微型经济体,澳门有限的土地资源是备受关注以及重视的生产要素,它的规模以及承载上限直接制约着澳门经济与社会的可持续发展。通过对澳门土地综合承载状况进行实证研究发现,澳门目前显示处于超载的状态,经济与社会的发展给澳门土地所赋予的压力已超过澳门的承载上限。为了促进澳门的可持续发展,需要从完善规划和增加土地等多方面不断提高土地的承载上限。%As one of the micro economies in Asia-pacific, Macao has a limited land resource, which constitutes a major factor of production. The fact is its scale and maximum limit of carrying is impeding the development of its economy and society at large. The empirical analysis on Macao's comprehensive land carrying capacity finds Macao already surcharged. To seek for sustainable developments, Macao must raise the limit of land carrying by means of promoting city planning and adding land.

  16. The study of radiation-carrying capacity of coated stents%支架携带放射性核素能力的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 黄从新; 王洪如; 漆曙辉; 唐其柱; 李庚山

    2001-01-01

    Objective Recent study have shown that radioactive 32 P stenting is a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis, but the radiation-carrying capacity of stent is a difficult problem needing to study. Here it was reported that four coated stents were studied in order to investigate which one was the best to carry radioactive 32 P. Methods Four kinds of coated stents, plasma-coated stent, isinglass-coated stent, 32 P-coated stent, vein-coated stent were made, 6 for each kind, radioactive stents were washed in the slushing pipe with 90 mm?Hg pressure, the radioactivity was measured before washing and in 1, 4, 7, 14, 21 days after washing. In 4 canines two plasma-coated stents were implanted into the coronary artery respectively, the radioactivity of the stents was measured immediately and 1 day, 2 weeks, 7 weeks, 10 weeks after implantation. In 3 canines 1 vein-coated stent was implanted into the coronary artery respectively, and the radioactivity was measured in 1 month, 2 months, 3 months after implantation. Results In irrigation tests, the radioactivity of each kind of coated stents was 4.81, 4.32, 1.96, 4.82 μCi before washing, 0.33, 0.12, 0.01, 1.34 μCi in 21 days after washing respectively. In implantation tests, 8 plasma-coated stents were successfully implanted into 4 canines, its radioactivity during different times was 4.98, 1.71, 0.52, 0.09, 0.03 μCi respectively. Only one canine was successfully implanted one vein-coated stent. Conclusion The results suggest that radiation-carrying capacity is better in vein-coated stent and plasma proteins-coated stent, the plasma-coated stent could be made and implanted into coronary artery easily, its dosage is enough to inhibit restenosis of coronary artery angioplasty. Objective Recent study have shown that radioactive 32 P stenting is a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis, but the radiation-carrying capacity of stent is a difficult problem

  17. Analysis on the Environmental Capacity and Ecological Carrying Capacity of Genghis Khan Mausoleum Scenic Spot%成吉思汗陵景区环境容量与生态承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智颖飙; 红鸽; 张文杰; 张荷亮; 崔艳; 姚一萍; 王再岚; 旺扎拉; 李红丽; 郭海

    2014-01-01

    用30 m分辨率的 Landsat TM卫星影像数据,并进行几何纠正、融合和变化信息提取技术对研究区用地进行监测和实地勘查.应用生态足迹和生态承载力模型,对内蒙古鄂尔多斯市成吉思汗陵旅游景区进行了环境容量分析.结果表明,2012年成吉思汗陵景区人均生态承载力为0.064 hm2,其中旺季的人均生态承载力为0.0988 hm2,人均生态足迹为0.0676 hm2,目前的生态盈余为0.0311 hm2/人,生态压力指数为0.684 hm2,处于相对安全状态.但景区旅游生态扩充率显示出景区片面追求规模而忽视软实力的提升.可为我国西北地区干旱草原旅游景区规划、设计、建设和保护研究提供参考.%Based on the 30 m resolution Landsat TM satellite data and the geometrical rectification and fusion, change information extraction technology, the research area was monitored and practically surveyed.The Genghis Khan mausoleum tourist scenic spot of Ordos City in Inner Mongolia was analyzed on the level of the environmental capacity with the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity model.The result shows that the per capita ecological carrying capacity of Genghis Khan mausoleum scenic spot is 0.064 hm2 in 2012,and 0.098 8 hm2 in the peak period.The per capita ecological footprint is 0.067 6 hm2 .The current ecological surplus is 0.031 1 hm2/person. The ecological pressure is 0.684 hm2 ,which is in comparatively safe.But tourism ecological expansion rate shows that the scenic spot’s one-sided pursuit of scale of the scenic area while paying no attention to the promotion of soft strength.The article can provide the northwest region’s drought grassland tourism scenic spot with reference in programming,designing,constructing and protecting.

  18. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  19. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  20. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  1. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  2. Calculation and evaluation of the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an%西安市旅游环境承载力测算与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫博雅; 毕超

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate and evaluate the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an. Methods The Calculation model of the tourism environmental carrying capacity is used. Results The tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an is 282 600 passengers per day and the lower ecological carrying capacity is the primary factor that constrained tourism environmental carrying capacity in Xi'an. Conclusion Urban tourism environmental carrying capacity is about twice of the number of tourists in Xi'an in 2010, it can be improved by enhancing the city's capacity in terms of solid waste and wastewater treatment in the future.%目的 测算西安市旅游环境承栽力并对测算结果进行评价.方法 运用旅游管理学中的旅游环境承栽力测算模型进行测算.结果 计算出西安市旅游环境承载力为每日28.26万人次,并且发现生态承栽力较低是制约其旅游环境承载力的首要因素.结论 西安市旅游环境承载力约是2010年西安市日均游客接待数量的2倍,可通过改善影响旅游生态承载力的固体废弃物、废水处理能力,大幅提升西安市旅游环境承栽力.

  3. Study on the Method of Zoning by Urban Carrying Capacity%城市承载力分区方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 陈爽

    2011-01-01

    As the scientific groundwork for the urban general planning and sustainable development, urban carrying capacity (UCC) regionalization can provide spatial directions based on the regional disparities of the natural,social, economic and environmental characteristics. Because thetheoretical basis of regionalization comes from geographical features spatial difference, the definition of UCC cannot reflect the inner city spatial difference,and hence cannot accommodate the demand of UCC zoning scale. After looking back and comparing the related concepts of UCC, we defme UCC as the population and social economic activities that the natural resource, environment, urban infrastructure and commonality service can sustain within a fixed urban area, in a particular period and according to pertinent criteria of living quality.This paper aims at developing an integrated method of zoning by UCC which can guide planning of resource utility, environment protection and infrastructure construction in the city. Firstly we presented the structure of UCC. The UCC is inherently a kind of complex ability consisting of support, pressure and regulation which are respectively associated with resource and environment foundation, population growth and human self-regulation. Secondly we discussed the relationship between traditional geographical regionalization and zoning by UCC. Based on a review about the development of regionalization we further concluded the characteristics of zoning by UCC, which are comprehensiveness, relativity and improvement. Thirdly we divided the process of zoning by UCC into 5 steps: index system and spatial cell for UCC evaluation, spatial database, UCC evaluation, divisions of improvement zones and non-improvement zones and making suggestions. Based on the index system for UCC evaluation, it focuses the discussion on the "state-pressure-response" model of UCC evaluation to get UCC indicator. Furthermore, non-improvement zone and several kinds of improvement zones

  4. Environmental Carrying Capacity and Its Application in Environmental Impact Assessment of Industrial Park Planning%环境承载力及其在工业园区规划环境影响评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路忠贤; 唐永顺

    2011-01-01

    环境承载力是可持续发展的理论基础,将环境承栽力理论应用到工业园区规划环境影响评价中,对协调区域社会经济发展和资源环境开发利用具有重要的意义。本文基于环境承载力的概念及内涵,在对环境承载力量化分析的基础上,建立一个专门针对工业园区的指标体系,以某工业园区规划环境影响评价为例,分析工业园区各规划期阶段的环境承载力的利用强度,以期为园区的可持续发展提供科学依据。%Environmental carrying capacity is the theoretical tbundation of sustainable development, and applying the theory of environmental carrying capacity to environmental impact assessment of industrial park planning is of great significance in coordinating regional socio - economic development and exploitation and utilization of resources. Based on the concept and connotation of environmental carrying capacity, a specific index system for industrial park is established on the basis of quantitative analysis of environmental carrying capacity. Then, an exmnple for industrial park planning environmental impact assessment was made, and environmental carrying capacity utilizing intensity of industrial park in each planning' stage is analyzed so as to provide scientific basis for sustainable development of industrial parks.

  5. Study on carrying capacity in Liaoning Province marine region by Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation%基于模糊综合评判的辽宁省海域承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹可; 吴佳璐; 狄乾斌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research results of carrying capacity,the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province marine was assessed by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater is moderate between 1999 and 2009 except the year 2000. However, the figures always were between 0.34 and 0.40, which meant that the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater was moderate by weak. The factors such as overfishing, large quantities of pollutants into the sea, ecological improvement and marine science and technology all contribute to the state of Liaoning Province seawater. Based on the analysis, the suggestions of improving the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater were brought forward.%借鉴有关承载力的研究成果,利用模糊综合评判方法对辽宁省海域承载力进行了评价分析.结果表明:1999至2009年间,除2000年,辽宁省的海域承载力数值均处于适载范围,但是由于其数值绝大多数都在0.34 ~0.40之间浮动,因此辽宁省的海域承载能力为中等偏弱.过度捕捞、环境污染、环境治理能力和科技发展水平等因素的影响是辽宁省海域承载力中等偏弱的主要因素,基于此提出了改善辽宁省海域承载力的对策建议.

  6. Load carrying capacity of the reactor pressure vessel head in case of a molten fuel slug impact caused by a steam explosion. Discussion of different solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive research work is being carried out at KfK on slug impact on the reactor pressure vessel head. Important considerations on and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. In order to separate the work from the parallel investigations of steam explosions, the tasks were modified. The speeds of impinging slug are determined, which the reactor pressure vessel head can reliably withstand. (orig./HP)

  7. ORIGINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITY IN THE BASIN%流域水生态承载力研究的起源和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晨; 刘艳芳; 张万顺; 汤弟伟

    2011-01-01

    流域水生态承载力的研究是近几年来从水生态的角度解决流域可持续发展问题的有效手段.通过文献综述的方法,从流域水生态承载力的起源和发展入手,对流域水生态承载力的理论基础,与相关已有研究的区别和联系进行了探讨,并对流域水生态承载力的进一步研究进行了展望.从起源上看,承载力理论、可持续发展和生态足迹理论、流域生态学理论分别是流域水生态承载力研究的基础、落脚点和支撑.从发展上看,水生态承载力是水资源和水环境承载力的有机结合和深化.从测度和评价方法上看,第一生产者的净初级生产力方法,生态足迹法、可持续发展指标法和生态系统健康等生态承载力的测度方法为流域水生态承载力的评价奠定了基础.目前流域水生态承载力的研究尚处于初级阶段,今后不论是在理论探讨还是模型应用中均应进一步体现人类与自然和谐共存的根本目的以及水体质、量辩证统一的规律,通过物质、能量、信息、空间和时间五位一体的研究方法,使流域水生态承载力的研究更具有实践意义.%Research on the watershed ecological carrying capacity is an effective measure of settling sustainable development problem at basin scale from the perspective of water ecology in recent years. Through reviewing on previous literature, the origination and development of aquatic ecological carrying capacity in the basin are discussed;the theoretical foundation and previous related research are investigated;the further research is forecasted. Originally,the theory of carrying capacity is the foundation of the research;the theory of sustainable development and ecological footprint are the objectives; the theory of watershed ecology is the support. In the research progress, water ecological carrying capacity is the dynamic integration and deepening of water resource and environment carrying capacity

  8. Marine Carrying Capacity Assessment and Spatio-temporal Analysis in the Bohai Sea Ring Area, China%环渤海地区海域承载力测度与时空分异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙才志; 于广华; 王泽宇; 刘锴; 刘桂春

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is an important strategic resource in coastal countries and regions. The coastal area has the largest population, the biggest population density, and is the most developed area in China as in other coastal countries. Bohai Sea Ring Area and the Changjiang River Delta, Zhujiang River Delta are the three economic growth poles in China coastal area. With the great growth of economy and society, the contradiction between supply and demand of land resources has become increasingly prominent, marine resources have been predato-ry exploited, marine environment has been seriously polluted. Carrying capacity is an important study on coor-dinating development of resources, environment, and economy. Marine carrying capacity is generally be de-fined as the capacity or limit of the harmonious development of population, environment, and socio-economic that the ocean can carry in a certain period without damaging the sustainable development of marine resource and environment, and ensuring a certain living standard. Marine carrying capacity assessment is of great signif-icance for the sustainable exploitation of marine resources, the environment protection and the coordinated de-velopment of regional economy and society in coastal areas. In this context, evaluation on carrying capacity of Bohai Sea Ring Area is of great significance to the sustainable development of the Bohai Sea economic circle. Since marine resources system has mobility, renewability and other characteristics, marine carrying capacity has openness, dynamics and complexity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the population, environment and socio-economic development or limits that marine carrying capacity can support. But by constructing indicator system, we can measure the dynamic change trend and relative marine carrying capacity then guide the devel-opment of marine economic activities. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is based on the fuzzy math-ematics principle, to analyze and evaluate

  9. 基于数学模型的物流港口资源承载能力预测%Forecasting of Resource Carrying Capacity of Logistics Terminals Based on Mathematical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝坚

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we built the mathematical model of the resource carrying capacity of logistics terminals, then comprehensively forecast the transportation resource carrying capacity of the Qinhuangdao logistics terminal to verify the correctness of the mathematical model and presented the scientific planning for the future construction of the terminal.%建立了物流港口资源承载能力的数学模型,对港口交通资源承载力进行了综合预测预警,以河北省秦皇岛物流港口为例,验证了数学模型的正确性,并对秦皇岛港口未来的港口建设提出了科学的规划。

  10. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity of the delta using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.I.; van Dinter, M.; Dütting, M.K.; van Rijn, P.; Cavallo, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D.  – . The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m a

  11. 基于主成分分析的湛江市地下水承载力研究%A Study of Groundwater Carrying Capacity of Zhanjiang Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春玲

    2014-01-01

    为了评价湛江市地下水资源承载力,防止地下水过度开采所造成的生态环境问题,基于主成分分析方法建立湛江市地下水资源承载力评价指标体系,对湛江市地下水资源承载力进行评价。综合评价结果表明湛江市各行政区综合评价值各不相同:市区>徐闻县>遂溪县>吴川市>雷州市>廉江市。市区的综合评价值最高,分值达53.817,说明相对于其他行政区,市区的地下水资源开发潜力较小,承载力已趋于饱和,继续开发利用的潜力甚小。%In order to evaluate groundwater resources carrying capacity of Zhanjiang and prevent ecological and environmental issues caused by over-exploitation of groundwater , evaluation index system of Zhanjiang groundwater resources carrying capacity is estab -lished based on principal component analysis ( PCA) method, and the groundwater resources carrying capacity of Zhanjiang is evalu-ated.The general evaluation shows that the comprehensive values of boroughs are different :Downtown>Xuwen>Shuixi>Wuchuan>Leizhou>Lianjiang.The comprehensive value of Downtown is highest and the score is 53.817.Compared with other boroughs , the exploring and utilizing potential of groundwater resources is smaller and the carrying capacity has become saturated .

  12. 基于人粮关系的承德市土地资源承载力%Land Carrying Capacity of Chengde City Based on Man-Grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月丛; 成福伟; 孟宪峰; 苏国安

    2012-01-01

    以人粮关系为基础,用土地资源承载指数(Land Carrying Ca-pacity Index,LCCI)模型,定量评价1949—2009年承德市土地资源承载力。结果表明:1949—2009年承德市土地资源承载能力在波动中略有增长趋势,随着人口的持续稳定增长,到2009年承德土地资源承载力仍未达到人粮平衡状态。除了1996年和1998年以外的所有年份处于人口超载状态。34.42%的年份严重超载,其中有7年人口超载率Rg〉100%,这7年降水量均小于485.20 mm,承德市粮食产量与其降水量密切相关,应该增加旱作农业科技含量,以保证粮食产量的不断增加。%This paper quantitatively evaluates the land carrying capacity of Chengde between 1949 and 2009 using the land carrying capacity(LCC) and the land carrying capacity index(LCCI) models based on man-grain relationship.The results show that the land carrying capacity of Chengde tends to increase since 1949,and the land carrying capacity of Chengde City is slightly increasing in the volatility trend from 1949 to 2009 because of the population continued to grow steadily.It is in the state of population overload every year except 1996 and 1998.34.42% of the years are seriously overloaded.There are seven years population overload rate Rg〉100%.These seven annual precipitation is less than 485.20mm.Grain yield and its precipitation is closely related in Chengde.Dry farming should be scientific to ensure that food production is increasing.

  13. Research on Forewarning System of Tourism Carrying Capacity in Pingtan Island Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation%基于模糊综合评价的海岛旅游环境承载力预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽芳; 丁丽英

    2012-01-01

    以旅游环境承栽力预警相关理论为指导,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,建立旅游环境承栽力综合评价指标体系,并以平潭海岛为个案进行实证研究.结果表明:平潭旅游环境承栽力总体处于轻度超栽状态,为实现平潭旅游的可持续发展,提出了平潭旅游今后发展的重点方向.%This paper is using the process of qualitative and quantitative combination to build the tourism carrying capacity assessment criteria system under the guidance of the forewarning system of the tourism carrying capacity and based on the empirical research of Pingtan Island. The results show that. the overall tourism carrying capacity in Pingtan is slightly overloaded. In order to achieve the sustainable development of tourism in Pingtan,the paper presents key directions of its furture development.

  14. 农用拖拉机齿轮承载力分析%The Analysis of Farm Tractor Gear on the Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振华; 吕福玲

    2015-01-01

    Using agricultural tractor as the research object, the analysis model of the actual working conditions of agricultural tractor was established based on computer simulation software, and analyzed the gear bearing capacity, the tooth root stress distribution and the like, in order to solve the large power requirements of the heavy load on tractors. The final results showed that the agricultural tractors working condition was complex, but the safety factor met the requirements during actual use of tractors, and could still achieve the purpose of the security service. The force of gear tooth surface showed a trend of an increase first and then decrease with the gear running, and reached a maximum around in the middle of the tooth width. Gear root stress distribution increased first and then decreased along with the meshing, the maximum value appeared in the middle of the gear width.%以农用拖拉机为研究对象,基于计算机仿真软件建立了农用拖拉机实际工况的分析模型,为解决拖拉机重载、大功率等使用要求,分析了齿轮承载能力、齿根受力分布等。分析结果表明,农用拖拉机工况复杂,但是拖拉机实际使用过程中安全系数均满足要求,仍能实现安全服役的目的;随着齿轮运转,轮齿齿面受力呈先增大后减小的趋势,且在齿面中间前后达到最大值;齿轮齿根应力分布随着轮齿啮合先增大后减小,最大值出现在齿轮齿宽中间前后。

  15. Computing System Construction of Water Environment Carrying Capacity in Huaihe River Basin%淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严子奇; 夏军; 左其亭; 张永勇

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍了淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的总体设计、承载力数学模型的建立、软件系统的结构及应用.研究中通过计算在维系"良好水环境状况"目标下流域所能承载的社会经济规模上限来得到流域水环境承载能力.在耦合了社会经济系统模型、水资源转化关系模型、水环境系统模拟模型的基础上利用数据库、地理信息系统、可视化编程技术将"社会经济-水资源-水环境"系统模型、生态需水量计算模型、以及水环境承载能力计量模型中众多的边界条件、控制条件、可变参数及成果分析进行系统集成.所建立的淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统可有效地实现流域现状水环境承裁能力的计算以及对未来不同时刻、不同频率来水条件下的承载力进行情景分析计算,为流域水环境承载能力管理提供决策支持.%In this paper, the overall designs and mathematical model of water environment carrying capacity, as well as the system structure and application of water environment carrying capacity computing system in Huaihe River Basin are presented. The carrying capacity of water environment in river basin is reached by calculating the upper limit of the socio-economic scale that watershed can carry under the "good status of water environment". The system is based on an integrated "socio-economic-water resource-water environment" model which is coupled with the socio-economic system model, the water resource transformation relation model and the simulation model of water environment system. The population size is a key indicator to reflect the water environment carrying capacity of the basin, and iterative algorithm is used to get the maximum population size of different water environment carrying capacities. This system also contains a subroutine for ecological water requirement model. The mean value of the results from the Tennant method, base flow method and

  16. Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Dowd, Scot E; Zurek, Ludek

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five

  17. 生态承载力调控下洞庭湖区域协调发展策略研究%The Strategy of Regional Coordinating Development in Dongting Lake Area:A Perspective of Ecological Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建新; 陈端吕; 彭保发

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a temporal and spatial analysis of the ecological carrying capacity in the Dongting Lake area from 2001 to 2010 by using ecological carrying capacity evaluation model and ecological carrying capacity response model. The results show that: As a whole, the ecological carrying capacity of the Dongting lake area presents shape–U change trend in recent 10 years. The spatial pattern of ecological carrying capacity presents shape -W pattern state from the southwest to the northeast. The response status of ecological carrying capacity in 17 counties was divided into four categories of strong overload, overload, weak low-load and low-load, which reflects that coordination of economic development, social progress, resource use and environmental quality were poor at the level of regional development. Based on the above analysis results, we should take corresponding developmental strategy: The first is the innovation of system mechanism, which can resolve the contradiction between economic and social development and ecological system bearing; the second is to strengthen the ecological system regulation and the programming of landscape ecology, to maintain the elastic force of ecological system; the third is to change pattern of industrial devel-opment, to improve the ecosystem service value; the fourth is the people-oriented, meanwhile we should set up the e-cological oriented development; at last, we seize the opportunity of regional development strategy and policy, and in-crease the ecological carrying capacity.%运用生态承载力评价模型、响应模型和空间频数分异测度模型对洞庭湖区生态承载力进行时空分析,结果表明:近10年来洞庭湖区生态承载力整体上呈现“U”型变化趋势;空间格局上,从西南向东北依次呈现“较高—低—高—低—较高”的“W”字型格局;区域响应上,4种不同响应状态反映出县域经济发展、社会进步、资源利用和环境质量

  18. Analysis on Environmental Carrying Capacity in Planning Environmental Impact Assessment of Qunli%群力新区规划环境影响评价中的环境承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 付宁

    2012-01-01

    As the core element of planning environmental impact assessment,environmental carrying capacity analysis can characterize the environmental comprehensive impacts of projects from the view of whole system based on the environmental carrying capacity threshold.Its fundamental purpose is to determine whether the project planning suits the bearing capacity of the region's resources.Ultimately,it is to solve the coordinated development of regional socio-economic and environmental resource development issues.Taking the environmental impact assessment of Qunli District as example,this study establishes a comprehensive environmental indicator system and provides detailed description of general content,methods and other aspects of environmental carrying capacity analysis.%环境承载力分析作为规划环境影响评价中核心内容之一,可以在环境承载能力阈值的基础上真实地度量并以系统的观点表达一项规划对环境的综合影响程度,其根本目的在于确定规划开发强度能否与该地区资源环境承载力相协调,归根结底是解决区域社会经济与资源环境协调发展的问题。以群力新区规划环境影响评价为研究实例,建立群力新区的综合环境承载力指标体系,详细地阐述了环境承载力分析的一般内容、方法等方面的内容。

  19. Study on ecological carrying capacity in Shanghai based on sustainable development%基于可持续发展的上海市生态承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation system of ecological carrying capacity has been constructed from four aspects which include economic development,social progress,energy and resource utilization,en-vironmental quality. Index weights are determined by Coefficient of Variation,the ecological carrying capacity of shanghai from 2003 to 2010 has been calculated by Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation. The research shows that:The development of Shanghai shows a good momentum,the sustainable develop-ment capacity is constantly growing,and the ecological carrying capacity is constantly improving,how-ever,the coordination of social declines. We need adjust industrial structure for further,solve urban management issues posed by overpopulation. and improve the degree of social coordination.%从经济发展、社会进步、能源和资源利用、环境质量方面,构建上海市生态承载力评价指标体系,采用变异系数法确定指标权重,运用模糊综合评价法,研究上海市2003~2013年生态承载力.研究表明:上海市经济发展呈现良好态势,可持续发展能力不断增强,生态承载力不断提高,但社会协调度下降,需要进一步调整产业结构,解决人口过多所带来的城市管理问题,提高社会协调度.

  20. 台州地区地下水环境承载力评价研究%Study on the evaluation of groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李垚奎; 张征; 娄华君; 梅兴新

    2012-01-01

    The present article intends to introduce a case study result of groundwater environmental carrying capacity by taking Taizhou, Zhejiang, as an example. It is known that there is no uniform concept of groundwater environmental carrying capacity. On the base of conceptual studies proposed by former researchers, we define groundwater environmental carrying capacity as the maximum sustainable-development level of human society that a regional water environment can support under a certain period of time and technical level. In order to evaluate the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city, we have adopted a well-known method of analytic hierarchy process to build up three-grade-evaluation index system, which consists of die target layer, the rule layer and the index layer. The rule layer includes natural index and social index. The index layer is made of 10 indexes, which are aquifer thickness of groundwater, groundwater level, net groundwater charge, nature of unsaturated zone, topographic slope, treatment efficiency of discharged water, population density, per capita GDP, per capita groundwater extraction and water consumption per 10000 industrial production. The judgment matrix of AHP is used to get the weights of all indexes in the system. The geographic information system (GIS) is used to obtain the digital distributions of every index. The results of our study show that the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city ranges from 0.380 4 to 0.743 2. The average capacity is 0.548 1, which belongs to the medium level. The maximum constraint to groundwater environmental carrying capacity changes in different areas, which is natural index in west but social in east. In all areas of Taizhou City, it is necessary to accelerate industrial restructuring and strengthen the planning and management of groundwater. It is an effective way to develop water-saving industry, which can promote the sustainable development of economy, population and

  1. CARRYING CAPACITY OF PINCTADA MARTENSII IN LIUSHA BAY AND YINGPAN PEARL-CULTURED ZONES%流沙湾、营盘珍珠养殖区马氏珠母贝养殖容量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹占旺; 王大鹏; 何安尤; 张益峰; 雷建军; 甘西

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of nutrition dynamics in marine ecological system, the investi-gation and research were carried out on primary production, the existence biomass of wild filtering animals, organic carbon content in Pinctada martensii, the filtering ratio of the shellfish and etc. , in Liusha Bay and Yingpan pearl-cultured zones. Nutrition motive model and coast energy flowing model were used to estimate shellfish maximum production. The carrying capacity of shellfish was estimated by excluding the existence biomass of wild filte-ring animals, and inspected by the methods of food limited indexes. Results are as follows that the above-mentioned two areas have approximate capacity, the capacities were 2142. 6kg (with shell weight) per hectare, 10. 3 104ind and 2310.0kg (with shell weight) per hectare, 11.1 104ind. Analyzed by the methods of food limited indexes to Yingpan pearl-cultured are-a, the number of breeding under carrying capacity wouldn't constitute a significant pressure onto ecosystem, and that is suitable to do as a reference of carrying capacity.%本文通过对流沙湾和营盘珍珠养殖区初级生产力和野生滤食性动物现存量等的调查、马氏珠母贝的有机碳含量和滤水效率等的测定,应用营养动态模型和沿岸能流模型计算贝类生产量,并扣除野生滤食性动物现存量来计算贝类养殖容量,再通过食物限制性指标法进行检验.测定的结果如下:流沙湾和营盘珍珠养殖医马氏珠母贝的养殖容量较为接近,每公顷的容量分别为2142.6kg(含壳重)、10.3×104 ind和2310.0kg(含壳重)、11.1×104 ind.对营盘珍珠养殖区进行食物限制性指标分析的结果看,由以上2种模型得出的养殖容量不会对生态系统构成显著性压力,适合作为养殖容量的参照标准.

  2. Calculation method of livestock carrying capacity of irrigation forage grassland in arid area%干旱区灌溉饲草料地载畜量计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖梓龙; 魏永富; 郭中小; 徐晓民; 龙胤慧; 宋一凡

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key factor to in management of grassland and livestock balance in arid area. The effective way of management is to achieve a balance of supply and demand for water forage grass and livestock. This balance consists of three parts:forecasting the forage grass yield by the water balance theory, planning the livestock carrying capacity related to the forage grass intake and drinking water consume, and estimating the optimal number of livestock husbandry under the coupled limitation of the available forage grass intake carrying capacity and the available water resources quantity. There are some inaccuracy problem in applying traditional carrying capacity calculation method, such as the yield forecasting of forage grass and livestock intake feeding. The objective of this paper was to build a new livestock carrying capacity calculation model based on water-grass-livestock balance. Using Damao county in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as research area, we analyzed the curve of water productivity under the different rainfall and irrigation conditions, and forecasted the yield of silage corn by water productivity curve. The irrigation experiment of silage corn under different water condition and different precipitation revealed that there was a non-linear relationship between the water productivity and the sum of precipitation and irrigation. Increasing the sum of precipitation and irrigation can promote the water productivity, but excessive supplying from precipitation and irrigation may lead to a reduction of crop water use efficiency. Based on analyzing the curve of water productivity, the experiment result suggested that the highest water productivity was 12.42 kg/m3 water which achieved with 550 mm water from both precipitation and irrigation. Precipitation was the vital limited factor for silage corn yield. The calculated silage corn yield of humid, medium and arid scenario was 6.83 kg/m2, 5.25 kg/m2, 3.47 kg/m2 respectively. For livestock intake feeding

  3. Advances in Study on Eco-environmental Carrying Capacity in the Drainage Basins with Shortage of Water Resources%缺水流域生态承载力研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永华; 任立良; 夏军; 吕海深; 余钟波; 方秀琴

    2011-01-01

    In the drainage basins with shortage of water resources,water resources is the main factor affecting eco-environmental quality and social and economic development.Therefore,it is necessary to study the eco-environmental carrying capacity related to water resources in these basins so as to provide the references for realizing sustainable development.Shortage of water resources in the drainage basins is caused by low mean annual precipitation.Eco-environmental carrying capacity is defined as the largest population and economic scale(usually expressed as gross domestic product,GDP) that can be sustained in a particular region or drainage basin over a specified time and under a certain environmental protection standard and social welfare level,when the eco-environment,society and economy of the region are reached a critical acceptable level by using local(or diverted) water and other resources available.After analyzing the documental data since the 1980s,firstly,the significance of study on eco-environmental carrying capacity and the current status of the study are described,on which the future challenges are proposed as follows: ① The theory needs to be improved from developing a measuring system so as to apply it in drainage basins.The measuring system includes the concept of eco-environmental carrying capacity is given based on the concept,a measuring index system and a measuring model is developed,and an application case of the abovementioned measuring model is given.② In the measuring system,social and economic sustainable development in the drainage basins with shortage of water resources needs to be considered so as to serve national needs.In this respect,the serving value and dynamic change of eco-environmental carrying capacity is emphasized.Because the carrying capacity is the threshold of social and economic sustainable development in the drainage basins,the development of the drainage basins will be reasonable and feasible under the limitation

  4. 河北省武安市生态人口承载力动态变化及其驱动力%Dynamic Change of Population Carrying Capacity and Its Driving Forces in Wuan City of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元利; 孙桂平; 闫妍; 李珊; 陈利东

    2012-01-01

    基于生态足迹理论,设计出了河北省武安市生态环境人口承载力评价指标体系。应用生态足迹模型对2000—2010年武安市生态环境人口承载力进行了研究,并通过SPSS软件对结果数据采用相关分析法和回归分析法,进行了可持续状态分析和驱动因素分析。研究表明,武安市2000—2007年生态足迹与生态承载力矛盾较为突出。2007年以后武安市加强转变经济增长方式,提高了对自然资源的利用率,使生态足迹和生态承载力之间的矛盾逐步缓和,开始向可持续的方向发展。该市人均化石燃料足迹强烈影响着可承载人口数量,是影响武安市生态承载人口动态变化的主要因素。%An evaluation index system for the eco-environment population carrying capacity of Wuan City is designed based on ecological footprint theory.Ecological footprint model is applied to analyze the eco-environment population carrying capacity in 2000—2010.The sustainable development stature and driving factors are analyzed with the help of SPSS.Results show that the contradiction between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was more prominent in 2000—2007.After 2007,the contradiction was alleviated towards a sustainable development through the transformation of economic growth and the improved utilization of natural resources.The population carrying capacity was strongly influenced by the per capita fossil fuel footprint that is the main factor for the dynamic change of ecological carrying population in Wuan City.

  5. Model of ecological carrying capacity computing and applications in area of regional development%区域开发生态承载力计算模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷文明; 赵睿明; 徐太海

    2011-01-01

    As the characteristic of less synthetic research between computational model of ecological carrying capacity and regional planning, ecological footprint model was applied to quantitively calculate the ecological carrying capacity (ecological footprint supply) of Jiamusi of Heilongjiang province and Xingan alliance of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that the ecological footprint supply level of both area are above 2. 5× 104 m2, in the high level. The results of the synthetic assessment based on AHP showed that the ecosystem of Jiamusi and Xingan alliance were steady, the resource-environmental synthetic carrying capacity of both area were in higher middling position. The CCPS were less than 1 before the regional planning carrying out, the regions have some room for development, at the premise of protective exploitation, the CCPS were also less than 1 after the regional planning carrying out. Although the two methods have their own limitations, they have distinct advantage, it could explain the conditions of ecological carrying capacity from various aspects, and reflect the developmental preponderance and resource-environmental restrict factors. Two quantitative models of ecological carrying capacity can be combined and calculated at the regional and strategic environmental impact assessment, which provided effective theoretical foundation and technical support to the region' s sustainable development.%鉴于国内对生态承载力计算模型与区域开发规划结合研究较少的特点,采用生态足迹模型对黑龙江省佳木斯市和内蒙古自治区兴安盟的生态承载力(生态足迹供给)进行了定量的计算,结果显示,两个地区的人均生态足迹供给在2.5×104m2,处于较高的水平.基于AHP的综合评价方法计算结果显示,佳木斯市和兴安盟地区生态系统处于较稳定状态,两个地区的资源-环境综合承载力总体上处于中等偏高的承载水平,区

  6. Human Carrying Capacity and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Colin D

    2004-01-01

    The issue of overpopulation has fallen out of favor among most contemporary demographers, economists, and epidemiologists. Discussing population control has become taboo. This taboo could be hazardous to public health

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity in Xi'an City Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的西安市地下水资源承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢旭光; 史文娟; 张译丹; 谢金宇

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater resources carrying capacity is full of great significance for maintaining the local ecological environment security and promoting sustainable socio-economic development.This paper evaluated the groundwater resources carrying capacity in Xi'an City using seven evaluation indexes, such as rate of groundwater development, modulus of groundwater supply, groundwater recharge modulus, groundwater discharge modulus, per capita consumption of groundwater, water consumption per unit of GDP and water resources recycling, based on principal component analysis.The results show that the groundwater resources in Xi'an City has a certain carrying capacity, but its rate of exploitation is too high in total and the potential of further development is small.The evaluated value of urban in Xi'an City is 70.816, and its groundwater resources carrying capacity nearly saturates and the potential of further development is the smallest.The evaluated value of Zhouzhi County is -240.998 and the potential of further development is the largest.The results provide reference for rational use of groundwater resources.%区域地下水资源承载力评价对于维护区域生态环境安全和促进社会经济可持续发展具有重要意义.运用主成分分析法,根据地下水开发率、地下水供水模数、地下水补给模数、地下水排泄模数、人均地下水占有量、单位GDP用水量和水资源重复利用率等7项评价指标,对西安市地下水资源承载力进行评价.综合评价结果表明:西安市地下水资源有一定的承载力,但整体上地下水开发率过高,继续开发利用的潜力甚小.其中城六区综合评价值为70.816,地下水承载力趋于饱和且继续开发潜力最小,周至县综合评价值为-240.998,地下水开发潜力最大.评价结果为地下水资源的合理开发利用提供参考.

  8. Multi Scale Spatial -Temporal Variation Analysis on Land Carrying Capacity in Shanxi Province%山西省土地资源人口承载力多尺度时空差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林筱; 任志远; 赵胜男; 魏倩倩

    2015-01-01

    以人粮关系为基础,利用土地资源人口承载力(LCC)和土地资源人口承载力指数模型(LCCI),从全省、分区、分县3个空间尺度定量评价山西省2003~2012年土地资源人口承载力的时空变化。结果表明:(1)2003~2012年全省人口承载力呈增加趋势,其中2009年以后 LCCI 逐年降低,但人粮关系仍处于超载状态。(2)分区格局:人口承载力晋南>晋北>晋中,晋南人粮关系处于平衡有余状态,发展潜力较大,而晋中地区一直处于严重超载状态,人粮关系紧张;十年间各区 LCC 均呈增加趋势,但增加幅度晋南>晋中>晋北。(3)分县格局:人口超载区主要分布在晋中大部分县域,粮食盈余区主要分布在晋东南地区及晋北部分县域,但2008~2012年比2003~2007年盈余的县域增加了18个,人粮关系有所改善。%On the basis of man -grain relationship,using the land carrying capacity (LCC)and land carrying capacity index (LCCI)models,from 3 spatial scales,province,region and county,the spatial -tem-poral variation of land carrying capacity was quantitatively evaluated in Shanxi from 2003 to 2012.The results showed that:(1)The provincial land carrying capacity showed an increasing trend from 2003 to 2012.Since 2009,the LCCI decreased.However,the increasing population resulted in lacking of grain.(2)The land car-rying capacity was in the order of Jinnan >Jinbei >Jinzhong.Jinnan kept balance between population and grain,and had great development potential.But Jinzhong had been seriously overloaded.The LCC improved in these regions in 10 years,and the increase range was Jinnan >Jinzhong >Jinbei.(3)The overloading coun-ties mainly located in Jinzhong.The food surplus counties mainly distributed in the north and southeast of Shanxi.The number of man -grain balancing county increased by 18 from 2003 ~2007 to 2008 ~2012, which indicated that the man -grain relationship was

  9. Study on unified calculation method for the ultimate load carrying capacity of concrete filled steel tubular columns%钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧智菁; 陈宝春

    2012-01-01

    介绍国内外各设计规程关于钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的计算方法并进行比较分析。钢管混凝土单肢柱、哑铃形柱、格构柱的受力性能具有共性,即长细比和偏心率对柱面内整体极限承载力的影响基本上是独立的。基于上述规律,在分析评价国内外各规程计算方法的基础上,对钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法开展研究。分别进行钢管混凝土单肢柱、哑铃形柱、格构柱的算例分析,研究结果表明,计算值与试验值吻合良好。最后提出适合工程应用的钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法,为钢管混凝土计算理论的进一步完善和规程修订提供参考。%Calculation methods for the ultimate load carrying capacity of CFST (concrete filled steel tube column) columns from foreign and domestic design criteria are introduced. For CFST single tube columns, dumbbell shaped columns and laced columns, the influence of slenderness ratio and eccentricity on the ultimate load carrying capability are all basically independent. Following this rule, a unified calculation method for the load carrying capacity of CFST columns is studied from an analysis of the calculation methods of design criteria. Test verifications of the new calculation method on CFST single tube columns, dumbbell shaped columns and laced columns are conducted, respectively, and the results indicated that the calculated values agree well with the test values. Finally, the unified method for calculating the load carrying capacity of CFST columns is provided.

  10. Modified Model of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Cropland Based on Heavy Metal Pollution%基于重金属污染的耕地生态承载力改进模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利群; 陈长青; 卞新民

    2009-01-01

    将耕地重金属污染引入耕地生态足迹研究中,对传统耕地生态承载力模型进行了改进,并以江苏省为例进行实证研究.结果表明,运用改进的生态承载力模型计算所得2005年江苏省人均耕地生态承载力为0.127 hm2,比传统模型计算结果0.134 hm2小;人均耕地生态赤字为0.067 hm2,比传统模型计算结果0.060 hm2大;耕地生态可持续指数为0.39,比传统模型计算结果0.41小,但2种模型计算方式下耕地利用均属于弱不可持续状态.与传统模型计算结果相比,改进模型所得结果能够反映江苏省耕地利用的实际情况,以及重金属污染对江苏耕地可持续利用所产生的负面影响.%Modification is made of the traditional model of ecological carrying capacity of cropland through introducing the factor of cropland heavy metal pollution into the study of the ecological footprint theory,with Jiangsu Province set as an example in case study.Results show that by using the modified model the ecological carrying capacity of cropland in Jiangsu in 2005 was calculated to be 0.127 hm2 per capita,5.2% lower than 0.134 hm2 per capita calculated by using the traditional model;the cropland ecological deficit 0.067 hm2 per capita,11.7% higher than 0.060 hm2 per capita calculated by using traditional model;and the cropland ecological sustainability index 0.39,lower than 0.41 calculated by using traditional model.Although the results of the calculation using both models put the cropland of Jiangsu under the category of "weak unsustainability",the modified model more truly reflected the practical situation of the land use,and the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on ecological carrying capacity of the cropland in Jiangsu Province as well.

  11. 基于生态足迹法的疏勒河流域水资源承载力评价%A study on water resource carrying capacity in the Shule river basin based on ecological footprints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 张仁陟; 周冬梅

    2012-01-01

    利用生态足迹法研究了疏勒河流域水资源承载力与生态赤字,结果表明,疏勒河流域水资源承载力从2003年的1 696.35 hm2增加至2007年的1 925.26 hm2,增长幅度为13.5%;总生态足迹从2003年的19 714.23 hm2增加至2007年的32 236.35 hm2,增长幅度为63.5%;而生态赤字从2003年的18 017.88 hm2增加至2007年的30 311.08 hm2,增长幅度为68.2%.水资源负载指数结果表明,疏勒河流域水资源开发潜力不大.未来在水资源管理方面采取适度移民、加强民众的节水意识教育,以及调整产业结构,特别是不适宜再扩大种植业面积.%Water resource carrying capacity and ecology deficit in the Shule river basin were studied using ecological footprints. The capacity gradually increased from 1 696. 35 ha to 1 925. 26 ha, the total ecological footprint from 19 714. 23 ha to 32 236. 35 ha, and ecological deficit from 18 017. 88 ha to 30 311. 08 ha from 2003 to 2007. The water resource ecological carrying capacity is presently overloaded in the Shule river basin. Because of increasing population growth and farmland expansion, there are more pressures on the regional water resources. In the future, measures such as taking an appropriate immigration policy, increasing public awareness of water conservation education, adjusting the industrial structure, and controlling the planting area should be carried out.

  12. 基于水环境承载力的沁河流域系统优化调控%Optimal regulation of Qinghe River watershed system based on water carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶龙浩; 周丰; 郭怀成; 高伟; 何成杰; 王翠榆

    2013-01-01

    Optimal watershed system regulation approach is proposed based on water carrying capacity model,and it is applied in the Qinhe River Watershed,one of tributaries of Yellow River.The proposed approach consists of three parts:(i) to calculate watershed-scale water carrying capacity for 2015 and 2020 subject to aquatic,water resources and the others constraints; (ii) to compare the computed water carrying capacity with the economic sizes of 2015 and 2020 predicted by system dynamics; (iii) to analyze the sensitivity of industrial emission standard,collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater,utilization efficiency of water resources,reuse rate of recycled water,leading to determine optimal economic development mode.The results indicate that:(i) it is essential to give priority to adjust collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater; (ii) for 2015,industrial emission standard and collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater would be set as the second level and more than 71.4%,respectively,the corresponding the threshold of economic size of Qinhe River Watershed is 47.6 billion; (iii) for 2020,industrial emission standard should be enhanced to the first level,while the collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater is also increased to 78.4%,leading to the threshold of economic size of 81.6 billion; (iv) For more specific suggestions,By 2015,daily capacity of urban domestic sewage treatment should reach 8.71 t for COD and 1.08t for NH4+-N; By 2020,daily capacity of urban domestic sewage treatment should reach ll.13t for COD and 1.38 t for NH4+-N.%基于水环境承载力核算模型,提出流域系统优化调控方法,并应用于沁河流域.通过承载力核算模型计算出2015年和2020年流域水环境承载力,当系统动力学预测的2015年和2020年经济发展规模高于承载力时,通过约束条件中工业企业排放浓度、城镇生活污水收集率、水资源利用率、尾水回用率等4项调控指标进行敏感度分析,最终

  13. Study of Mechanical Behavior and Ultimate Carrying Capacity of Suspender Anchorage Zone in Axial Direction of Bridge%顺置式吊杆锚固区受力特性与极限承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小妮; 贺拴海; 齐宏学

    2012-01-01

    To have an understanding of the mechanical behavior and ultimate carrying capacity of suspender anchorage zone set in the axial direction of bridge under the action of suspender forces, a combined cable-stayed and self-anchored suspension system bridge that was being constructed was cited as an example, the software ANSYS was used to set up the spatial shell finite element model, the mechanical behavior of the anchorage zone under the action of the worst load was studied, the ultimate carrying capacity of the anchorage zone was analyzed, respectively u-sing the linear elasticity and nonlinearity analysis methods and the force conditions of the components in the anchorage zone were discussed. The results of the study show that under the action of the worst load, the stress in the steel anchor box and steel anchor beam is less than that in the diaphragm. With the exception that the stress concentration in the welding of the steel anchor beam and diaphragm is notable, the stress distribution in all components is uniform and the deformation of the components in the axial direction of the bridge is great. The results of the different analysis methods for the ultimate carrying capacity also show that when the ultimate carrying capacity of such type of the structure is analyzed, using the shell element model, the material nonlinearity should considered only and in the design of the structure, it is proposed that adequate attention should be paid to the problem of insufficient rigidity of the diaphragm.%为掌握顺桥向设置的吊杆锚固区在吊杆力作用下的受力特性和极限承载力,以某在建斜拉—自锚式悬索组合体系桥为依托工程,利用ANSYS软件建立壳单元空间有限元模型,对锚固区在最不利荷载作用下的受力性能进行研究;并分别采用线弹性及非线性分析方法对吊杆锚固区极限承载力进行分析,讨论构件的受力情况.结果表明:在最不利荷载作用下,钢锚箱及钢锚梁

  14. Incorporación de la cobertura de escape en un modelo de capacidad de carga para venado de cola blanca Incorporation of escape cover in a model to estimate carrying capacity for white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar la incorporación de la cobertura de escape en un modelo de capacidad de carga (K de venado cola banca, evaluar el modelo por análisis de sensibilidad y comparar la estimación de la K con el modelo versus un modelo basado en disponibilidad de nutrientes. El trabajo se desarrolló en la localidad de Santa Cruz Nuevo, Puebla, México, en un área de 50 km², donde se establecieron 13 transectos de 800 m de longitud por 6 de ancho y se colectó información para establecer la relación entre la cobertura de escape y la presencia de indicios de venado mediante regresión lineal. Dicha relación se incorporó en un modelo de estimación de K, después de lo cual se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad del mismo. Los indicios animales se observaron principalmente en las áreas con una cobertura de escape mayor al 59% y se distribuyeron en una forma cuadrática hasta llegar al 100%. El análisis de sensibilidad mostró que la cobertura de escape y la vegetación arbustiva fueron los principales componentes para aumentar la capacidad de carga, mientras que el peso vivo del venado para disminuirla.The objective of this study was to establish the incorporation of escape cover in a carrying capacity (K model for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. The study was carried out in Santa Cruz Nuevo, Puebla, Mexico in an area of 50 Km². The information was gathered through 13 transects of 800 by six m. The information served to establish the relationship between the escape cover and the faecal pellets of deer using a linear regression analysis. The relationship was included in a model for estimation of K, then a sensibility analysis was conducted. Faecal pellets were found in areas with an escape cover bigger than 59% and they were distributed in a cubic arrangement until reaching the 100%. The sensibility analysis showed that the escape cover and the brush vegetation were the main components to increase the

  15. Development of Grain Production and Spatial Pattern of Land Carrying Capacity in Chongqing City%重庆市粮食生产发展特征及土地资源承载力空间格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施开放; 刁承泰

    2012-01-01

    首先分析了1985—2010年重庆市粮食生产发展过程的特点,随后以人粮关系为基础,构建了土地资源承载力(LCC)模型和土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型,从区县尺度对重庆市土地资源承载力空间格局现状进行了分析。结果表明:1985—2010年重庆市粮食生产呈周期性波动特征,具有明显的不稳定性;人均粮食占有量起伏较小,基本维持在356.5kg/人左右,人口增幅略小于粮食产量增幅。2009年重庆市区县土地资源承载力主要以人口超载、粮食短缺为主要特征。都市发达经济圈的8个区县以及渝东北翼的大部分区县表现为粮食亏缺、人口超载,渝东南翼的大部分区县以及渝西的大部分区县表现为人粮均衡,只有合川区、南川区、黔江区、石柱县和秀山县5个区县处于粮食盈余状态。因此必须加强重庆各区县以及重庆市与其他省市之间的粮食贸易和调配来满足人口超载区的粮食需求。%With the growth of population,land carrying capacity and food safety have attracted great attention worldwide.In this study,the characteristics of development of grain production in Chongqing City were analyzed and summarized firstly,and then,land carrying capacity(LCC) and land carrying capacity index(LCCI) models were developed from the point of man-grain relationship.Finally,the LCCI was calculated for each county of Chongqing in 2009,and the current situation of land carrying capacity and its spatial pattern were systematically evaluated.The results showed that: from 1985 to 2010,the grain production of Chongqing City presented an upward tendency and the population growth rate was less than that of grain yield,and the grain yield per capita kept stable;food deficits and population overloading remained the primary characteristics of LCC of Chongqing City at a county scale in 2009.The 8 counties of Metropolitan Developed Circle and the counties of Northeast of

  16. 浙江嵊泗人工鱼礁区渔业资源生态容纳量变动的研究%Preliminary study on the variation of the carrying capacity of fishery resources in Shengsi artificial reef area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹增强; 章守宇

    2011-01-01

    fishery re-source is analyzed, and the variation tendency of the fishery resource density is simulated by u-sing improved Logistic model. The parameters of the model are calculated via Genetic Algorithm method. The result indicates that the original ecological carrying capacity is approximately 6. 00~ 8. 03 ind/km · kW, and the enlarged carrying capacity is approximately 4. 4~5. 89 ind/km · kW of type Ⅱ fish and macro-invertebrates in the artificial reef area. The carrying capacity has periodically fluctuated along with the change of seasons.

  17. 下套拱加固石拱桥复合拱圈极限承载力研究%Research on ultimate load -carrying capacity of composite arch ring ofstone arch bridge reinforced by concrete arch -lifted method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙潮; 刘明; 陈宝春; 吴庆雄

    2012-01-01

    The composite arch ring formed by soffitting method for stone arch consists four materials, i.e. , stone, mortar, concrete and steel bars. It is a secondary loaded structure, so its behavior is complicated. A finite element method (FEM) to calculate the ultimate load -carrying capacity of the composite arch ring is proposed by using both smeared model and discrete model. The computing results from FEM agrees well with the test results, which indicates that the behavior of the composite arch ring can be depicted well by the proposed FEM. Analysis of a real engineering have been done by using this FEM. Analysis results shows that under the half span distributed load and quarter point load, the failure mode of the composite arch ring is a four - hinges mechanism. The load reaches 77.9% of the ultimate load when the second hinge appears. Ultimate load - carrying capacity decreases with the increase of the ratio of concentrated live load to the total live load, also increases with the increase of the thickness of reinforcement layer and reinforcement ratio. The concrete strength has a little influence on the ultimate load - carrying capacity of composite arch ring, so high strength concrete is not necessary to be adopted in this method.%下套拱加固石拱桥形成的复合拱圈由石块、砂浆、混凝土和钢筋四种材料组成,而且属于二次受力结构,受力复杂.采用分离模型和整体连续体模型相结合的方法,提出复合拱圈的极限承载力有限元计算方法.有限元计算结果与试验结果吻合良好,表明有限元计算方法能够反映复合拱圈的受力性能.应用该方法,对某实桥进行了分析,结果表明,复合拱圈在半跨均布活载和L/4集中活载联合作用下的破坏模式为四铰破坏,第二个铰出现时荷载已达极限荷载的77.9%.复合拱圈的极限承载力随着集中活载占总活载的比例的增大而减小,随加固层厚度和配筋率的增大而增大.

  18. 倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆副承载能力研究%Research on the load carrying capacity of inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳在鑫; 王进戈; 张均富; 向中凡

    2013-01-01

    为了评价倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆传动的承载能力,提出了求解该传动齿间载荷分配和接触线上载荷分布的解析算法.根据倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆传动的特点,在一定假设基础上建立了蜗杆副承载计算模型,以此为基础,确立了齿对载荷分配系数计算公式,并由布希涅斯克公式和有限差分法建立了该传动的接触线上载荷分布计算模型,在数值分析基础上,分析了滚柱偏距、滚柱半径、倾斜角等啮合参数对该传动齿间载荷分配与接触线上载荷分布的影响.研究表明:从啮入端到啮出端其齿间载荷分配呈抛物线变化规律;接触线上载荷分布从齿根到齿顶呈递减趋势.要使该传动保持良好的承载能力,滚柱偏距宜在5cm ~ 8cm之间,滚柱半径在7cm ~ 9cm之间,倾斜角在8°~12°之间.%To evaluate the load carrying capacity of inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears,analytical models for solving the load sharing among teeth and the load distribution along the contact line were presented.According to the characteristic of the inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears,a load calculation model was established based on some reasonable assumptions.Based on the work mentioned above,the calculation formula for load sharing among the meshing pairs was given.The calculation model for load distribution of the contact line was established based on the Boussinesq' s formula and the finite-difference method.The influencing factors such as installed offset of roller,roller radius and inclined angle of load carrying capacity were analyzed based on the numerical simulation.The results show that the curve of the load sharing among the meshing pairs is a parabola from the starting point to the end point,and the load distribution along the contact line shows the tendency to decrease from root to top of the tooth.Finally,the installed offset of roller,the roller radius and the

  19. 甘肃省土地资源承载力格局的时空演变分析%Spatio-temporal Variation Characteristics of Land Resources Carrying Capacity in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小娟; 刘普幸; 赵敏丽; 卓玛兰草

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of population,land carrying capacity and food safety have attracted great attention all over the world.From the point of man-grain relationship,on the basis of the theory of sustainable development and by using the land resources carrying capacity (LCCI) mode,the paper selected Gansu as the example that is the main dry land farming agricultural region in north western China.The results showed that:1) General tendency of land resources carrying capacity improved in GanSu from 1985 to 2010,and grain possession increased gradually.However,the increasing population resulted in lacking of grain and overload.2) The grain possession of Hexi Corridor was surplus and it was first in capacity in Gansu; Longdong Plateau kept balancing between population and grains in recent years,while the others such as Longzhong Plateau,Longnan Mountain and Gannan Plateau were overloaded.3) Over the last 26 years (1985-2010),the number of overloading county in Hexi Corridor and Longdong Plateau decreased and the overloading counties mainly concentrated in agriculture developed regions,which indicated that the man-grain relationship was improved obviously during the past 26 years locally.4) Based on the results,the man-grain contradiction in Gansu generally would keep stem for years although the carrying capacities of in some regions were improved.%以人粮关系为基础,构建了土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型,从时间和空间2个尺度定量评价了1985-2010年甘肃省土地资源承载力的时空格局,并以1985、1990、2000、2010年为代表年份,讨论了全省14地州(市)、86县(区)近26年来土地资源承载力的发展趋势.研究结果表明:①1985-2010年全省粮食产量稳中有升,土地资源承载力指数逐年降低,土地资源承载力略有增强,但全省人粮关系总体形势依然严峻.②河西走廊绿洲农业区是全省主要粮食盈余区,土地资源承载力稳居全省之首;陇东高原区以低水平的人粮

  20. 考虑后屈曲的复合材料加筋壁板承载能力分析%Load Carrying Capacity Analysis of Stiffened Composite Panel Considering Post-buckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国凡; 孙侠生; 孙中雷

    2015-01-01

    The load carrying capacity prediction of stiffened composite structure is an important part of air-craft designing,and the key problem is post-buckling analysis taken material failure into account.A con-cise progressive damage analysis methodology considering intralaminar failure,delamination and stiffness degradation was established based on cohesive elements and Hashin damage criteria subjected to the post-buckling analysis beared compressive loading,and UMAT subroutines of ABAQUS were developed.The comparison indicates that the load carrying capacity,failure mode and strain analysis results of this paper agree well with test results,and the relative error is less than 10% which proves the effectiveness of the present methodology.%复合材料加筋结构的承载能力预估是飞机设计中的重要内容,其关键问题就是考虑材料失效的后屈曲分析。针对复合材料加筋壁板承受压缩载荷的后屈曲承载能力预估问题,考虑层内损伤、层间分层以及刚度退化,基于内聚力单元与Hashin损伤准则,建立了一种简洁的渐进损伤分析方法,编制了相应的ABAQUS UMAT子程序,并利用复合材料加筋结构破坏试验进行了验证。验证结果表明,预估的承载能力、破坏模式和结构应力状态与物理试验结果符合得很好,承载能力误差在10%以内,证明了方法的准确性和工程实用性。

  1. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER RESOURCES ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITY IN YUNNAN PROVINCE%云南省水资源生态足迹与生态承载力动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常龙芳

    2012-01-01

    利用水资源生态足迹计算模型对云南省近十年水资源生态足迹和生态承载力进行了分析,结果表明:(1)云南省近十年水资源生态承载力差异较大,2001年最高,为285×10^6hm^2,2009年最低,为175×10^6hm^2,而水资源生态足迹变化不明显;(2)人均水资源生态足迹在0.5306hm^2/人~0.5669hm^2/人,万元GDP水资源生态足迹呈逐年下降的趋势;(3)各用水指标中生产用水水资源生态足迹所占份额最大,均大于21.0×10^6hm^2,生态环境用水所占份额最小,均小于1.0×10^6hm^2。%According to the calculation model of water resources ecological footprint, the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in the last ten years in Yunnan Province were analyzed. The results showed: ( 1 ) There are big differences in the ecological carrying capacity in the last ten years, the maximum of 285 × 10^6hm^2 in 2001, and the minimum of 175× 10^6hm^2 in 2009, but the water resources ecological footprint is nearly on the same level; (2) The ecological footprint of water resources per capita was at the range of 0. 5306 hm^2 -0. 5669hm^2, while the water resources ecological footprint per 104 yuan GDP continued to decrease; (3) Production water resources accounted for the largest ecological footprint among all the using water index, all over 21.0 × 10^6hm^2, and ecological environment water consumption was the least, all under 1.0 × 10^6hm^2.

  2. Carrying Capacity of Livestock in Cropland of Two Typical Regions Dominated by Agriculture in China%我国典型农区耕地承载畜禽容量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武兰芳; 欧阳竹; 谢小立

    2013-01-01

    According to the nutrients demand and available loss of current cropping system, livestock density under environmental capacity in two different areas, i. e., Yucheng County in Shandong Province and Taoyuan County in Hunan Province, was analyzed on the basis of nutrition budget of cropland by different input scenarios of manure N and manure P2O5. When the input of manure N accounted for 30% , 60% and 100% of total input of N in cropland, the carrying capacities of livestock in the farmland of Yucheng are 4. 1 LU · hm-2, 8. 3 LU · Hm-2, 13. 8 LU · Hm-2 and the corresponding load indexes of the farmland are 2. 2, 1.1, 0. 7; and those in the farmland of Taoyuan are 4. 4 LU · Hm -2, 8.7 LU · Hm -2, 14. 6 LU · Hm -2 and 1.4, 0. 7, 0. 4 respectively. When the input of manure P2O5 accounted for 30% , 60% and 100% of total input of P2O5 in cropland, the carrying capacities of livestock in the farmland of Yucheng are 6. 7 LU · Hm -2, 13. 5 LU · Hm -2, 22.5 LU · Hm-2 and the corresponding load indexes of the farmland are 1. 3, 0. 7, 0. 4. Those in the farmland of Taoyuan are 2. 5 LU · Hm-2 , 5. 1 LU · Hm-2, 8. 5 LU · Hm-2 and 2. 4, 1. 2, 0. 7 respectively. The results show that the carrying capacity of livestock in farmland of Yucheng depending on nitrogen budget is smaller than depending on phosphorus budget and the load index by nitrogen budget is higher than by phosphorus budget, and that of Taoyuan are opposite with Yucheng. Furthermore, the obvious differences existed among townships within the two areas. Therefore, to prevent regional environment from livestock manure related pollution the livestock density and the quantity of manure should be restricted based on the assimilative capacity of cropland to nutrition. Nitrogen balance in Yucheng and phosphorus balance in Taoyuan should be paid special attention to separately; and the livestock and manure should be distributed evenly within each region.%根据农田养分平衡理论,对我国南北两个县级

  3. 中国粮食生产发展特征及土地资源承载力空间格局现状%Characteristics of grain production and spatial pattern of land carrying capacity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 封志明; 杨艳昭; 游珍

    2011-01-01

    China has made great achievements in grain production during the recent 60 years. However, still considered one of the largest developing countries with a fast population growth in the world, China's food security has always been a global concern and an important topic in the world, in which land carry capacity based on grain and population is one of the important fields. In this study the characteristics of China's grain production was analyzed and summarized firstly, and then, land carrying capacity (LCC) and land carrying capacity index (LCCI) models were developed from the point of man-grain relationship. Finally, the LCCI was calculated for each county of China in 2007 and systematically evaluated towards the land carrying capacity and its spatial pattern. The results showed that: from 1949 to 2008, with a periodic fluctuation, the grain production of China showed an upward tendency from 200 million to 500 million tons. The population growth rate (an increase of 145%) was less than that of grain yield (an increase of 367%), and the grain yield per capita rose steadily from 209 kg in 1949 to 400 kg in the early 21st century; food deficits and population overloading remained the primary characteristics of China's LCC at a county scale in 2007. The grain surplus counties located in the major grain-producing areas so that the population was less than the regional LCC, such as Northeast Plain, North China Plain, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Hexi Corridor, Hetao Plain and Sichuan Basin. While, those counties located in southeast coastal regions of China with a high population density, and regions with critical natural environment and low grain production, such as the arid region of Northwest China, the Tibetan Plateau, the Loess Plateau, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Mountain of North China, had a man-grain conflict and appeared to be population overloading. China had a large net grain surplus at a national scale in 2007, thus for counties with a

  4. 北京密云水源地村级尺度生态安全承载力分析%Analysis of Eco-security Carrying Capacity on Village Scale in Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳霞; 周连第; 李红; 王亚芝; 解海静

    2011-01-01

    It' s important to study on the eco-security capacity of a social-economic-natural compounding system in certain areas, especially for sustainable development in urban watershed. The author took a village of Miyun watershed for an example to study the eco-security carrying capacity by using the method of system dynamics (SD) model simulation, aimed to solve the problems between industry development and environment. It explained that small agro-bio-cycle system could increase eco-security carrying capacity remarkably, but must be combined with village tour which developed rapidly. During the research, the eco-security had been divided into 4 subsystem, such as population, bio-cycle agriculture, village tourism and waste resources, then 9 schemes had been searched and system dynamics model had been built. The simulation results showed that: (1) mushroom industry was the ligament for the small eco-cycle system, and if all the greenhouse in the village had been used to produce mushroom, the eco-security would be better in the coming 10 years; (2) if the stalks, cattle manure, tree branches, mushroom sticks and waste water had been treated to 60%, the balance point for ecology and economy was coming, that is, the ecology and economy of the village would be in order and sustainable in the coming 10 years.%区域生态安全承载力的研究对于一定区域的社会-经济-自然复合生态经济系统的持续发展,尤其是大都市水源地的持续发展具有重要意义.笔者以北京密云水源地的1个村庄为案例,针对产业发展与环境矛盾突出问题,采用系统动力学的方法,从村级尺度上阐述了产业发展的农业生物小循环方式是显著提高生态安全承栽力的有效方法,但同时还需紧密结合该区域内发展迅速的民俗旅游产业,才能有效解决北京水源地的持续发展问题.研究中将生态安全承载力系统划分为人口、生物循环农业、旅游、废污资源4个子系统,构建

  5. Carrying capacity of livestock and poultry breeding based on feces disposal volume of land%基于土地消纳粪便能力的畜禽养殖承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜春; 孙超; 刘玉; 唐秀美; 任艳敏

    2015-01-01

    environmental capacity of farmland nitrogen, the poultry and animal feces pollution risk index and potential of livestock and poultry, then assessed the livestock carrying potential and potential contamination and analyzed the farmland and orchards’ livestock carrying potential of Pinggu and its town. The results indicated that: 1) During 2012, the total manure of Pinggu was 591 100 tons, containing nitrogen and phosphorus respectively 4 721, 998 t, which meant a huge organic resource, made it available to reduce the fertilizer use, and can effectively improve soil quality and the quality of the crops; 2) For ecological conservation development area, as the orchards occupied a large proportion of agricultural land, the agricultural land of livestock and poultry manure loading status achieved by taking the cultivated land and orchard as disposal site, may be more practical. The average manure load of agricultural land was 16.7 t/hm2, lower than the national standard of 30 t/hm2, and the orchard manure load accounted by 66.42%; If only taking the cultivated land as the consumptive manure carrier, the amount of agricultural land manure load was 49.74 t/hm2, far higher than the national standard; 3) The potential of livestock and poultry in Pinggu district, which were 62.5 and 94.8 thousands pigs’ equivalent for nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. Totally speaking, the district was available for bearing livestock and poultry, but the difference was significant among each town’s agricultural land: Xinggu, Yukou and Daxingzhuang, etc, were carrying excess, however, Dahuashan, Zhenluoying and Xiongerzhai, etc, still had great potential consumptions of livestock and poultry manure. Among them, Xingu region has greatly exceeded the carrying capacity of agricultural land, so it’s urgent to control the overall amount and take measures to make resources of animal manure harmless and ecological. According to that, taking the town as the basic research unit, can effectively reflect

  6. 基于土地消纳粪便能力的畜禽养殖承载力%Carrying capacity of livestock and poultry breeding based on feces disposal volume of land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜春; 孙超; 刘玉; 唐秀美; 任艳敏

    2015-01-01

    The livestock and poultry breeding industry in Pinggu district of Beijing developed rapidly. Compared with 1992, the slaughter of pigs and chickens increased by 18.95% and 22.29%, and the breeding stock of cattle, sheep, laying hens increased by 35.51%, 40.28% and 10.29%, especially the pig slaughter and egg production, which occupied by 11.81% and 20.21% of Beijing respectively. Gradually, the environmental pressure appears caused by the rapid growth of livestock and poultry manure quantity. And Pinggu district, the ecological conservation district, ecological barrier and water source protection of Beijing, is of a great importance to keep the environment of Beijing sustainable and healthy. As a result, it is important to connect farming and aquaculture, construct the circulation of agriculture economy chain, and determine the scale of farming according to local conditions. Based on the characteristic that orchard land took a large part of agricultural land, this paper set the cultivated land and orchard nitrogen limited standard, through calculation of the environmental capacity of farmland nitrogen, the poultry and animal feces pollution risk index and potential of livestock and poultry, then assessed the livestock carrying potential and potential contamination and analyzed the farmland and orchards’ livestock carrying potential of Pinggu and its town. The results indicated that: 1) During 2012, the total manure of Pinggu was 591 100 tons, containing nitrogen and phosphorus respectively 4 721, 998 t, which meant a huge organic resource, made it available to reduce the fertilizer use, and can effectively improve soil quality and the quality of the crops; 2) For ecological conservation development area, as the orchards occupied a large proportion of agricultural land, the agricultural land of livestock and poultry manure loading status achieved by taking the cultivated land and orchard as disposal site, may be more practical. The average manure load of

  7. 基于人粮关系的咸宁市土地承载力研究%Study on Carrying Capacity of Land Resources in Xianning City Based on Population-Grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝汉舟; 汪华

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the grey model GM(1,1) and the Logistic model were used to predict the changes in the future popu-lation, farmland and grain yield per unit area of Xianning city , Hubei province .The piecewise-revised model by using environ-mental factors was adopted to calculate the production potential of arable land in Xianning city .The results showed that:(1) the av-erage grain yield per unit area of arable land in Xianning city in 2011 was 6575.4 kg/hm2 , the theoretical production potential of ar-able land was 23760.2 kg/hm2, and the former accounted for 27.7% of the latter; (2) in 2011, the carrying capacity of arable land for food in Xianning city was great , and the population carrying index LCCI of every county ( except for Jiayu county ) was grea-ter than 1;(3) it was predicted that the grain yield per unit area of Xianning city in 2015 and 2025 was 8473.1 kg/hm2 and 9441. 7 kg/hm2 respectively;the predicted population of this city in 2015 and 2025 was 3.019 million and 3.243 million respectively;(4) as for the well-off-type population carrying capacity , LCCI in Xianning city was 0.79 in 2015 and 0.59 in 2025, and the population saturability revealed a downward trend .%以湖北省咸宁市为例,采用灰色模型GM(1,1)及逻辑斯蒂模型分别预测咸宁市未来人口、耕地及粮食单产的变化。采用环境因子逐段订正模型计算咸宁市土地耕地生产潜力,研究结果表明:咸宁市2011年耕地单产平均水平为6575.4 kg/hm2,理论计算的耕地生产潜力为23760.2 kg/hm2,实际单产为潜在耕地生产潜力的27.7%。2011年咸宁市耕地粮食承载力压力很大,除嘉鱼县外,人口承载指数LCCI均大于1。2015年和2025年咸宁市粮食单产预测为8473.1 kg/hm2和9441.7 kg/hm2。2015年和2025年人口预测为301.9万和324.3万。对于小康型人口承载力来讲,人口承载指数LCCI,在2015年为0.79,在2025年为0.59,人口饱和度呈现下降的趋势。

  8. Eco-tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity of the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City%襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳; 张弢; 李柱

    2015-01-01

    旅游环境承载力是判断旅游活动与生态环境是否协调的重要指标. 建设湿地公园是湿地保护和开发的重要途径,评估湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力能有效促进其可持续发展. 文章以襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园作为研究对象,从旅游环境承载力的特征、指标、潜在问题等,尝试对它的生态旅游综合环境承载力进行了评估. 并依据环境承载力的限制因子,结合湿地实际情况提出了相应的优化策略,以期为湿地旅游资源开发的长期规划提供客观依据,为实现湿地公园的可持续发展提供必要的参考.%Eco-tourism environmental capacity(ETEC) is the important evaluation basis of the harmonious relation between tourism activities and eco-environment resources. Wetland parks construction has been as the effective method for protecting and exploiting the wetland resources. ETEC assessment can effectively promote the sustainable development of wetland ecotourism. Taking the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City as an example, this paper scientific calculated the Eco-tourism carrying capacity and discussed the features, evaluation indicators selection and potential risks of the ETEC. According to the limitation factors, this paper has put forward the corresponding optimal projects. The results of this study offer a scientific decision-making for the programming and management of wetland tourism and promote realizing the sustainable development of the wetland park.

  9. Psychological Carrying Capacity of Non-motorized Traffic Environment in Historical Districts%历史街区非机动车交通环境心理承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋平; 韩霞

    2015-01-01

    Travel by non-motor vehicles accounts for a big proportion in historical districts, but because of the limitation of the space scale and road network pattern of historical districts, non-motor vehicles drive chaotically with pedestrians and motor vehicles, which results in a poor travel environment. Through the practical survey in Shuyuan historical district in Zhengzhou, Gulou historical district in Kaifeng and Dongxinanyu historical district in Luoyang , the influence factors and evaluation index of psychological carrying capacity of non-motorized traffic environment in historical districts is studied, and its evaluation models of negative binomial distribution is established by introducing tolerance thresholds. According to the data of Shuyuan historical district in Zhengzhou and Gulou historical district in Kaifeng, which show that the study method is feasible, also suitable for accurately evaluating the non-motor vehicle lane capacity and optimizing the road cross-section, to improve the environment of non-motorized traffic for a sustainable development in historical districts.%历史街区非机动车交通所占出行比例较大,但由于街区空间尺度和路网格局的限制,人、机、非混行严重,非机动车出行环境较差.通过对郑州书院街、开封鼓楼、洛阳东西南隅3个历史街区的实地调研,研究了历史街区非机动车交通环境心理承载力的影响因素和评价指标,以郑州书院街和开封鼓楼2个历史街区的观测数据建立了非机动车流量的负二项评估模型,引入骑行速度容忍阈值,得到非机动车交通环境心理承载力评估模型,最后以洛阳东西南隅历史街区的观测数据进行验证,结果表明该研究方法是可行的,可以为更准确的评估历史街区非机动车道通行能力,优化历史街区道路横断面,改善街区非机动车交通环境,实现街区交通的可持续发展提供理论依据.

  10. 旅游者数量与旅游环境承载力耦合关系研究%Coupling Relationships Research of Tourist Number and Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀平; 王立岩; 翁钢民

    2015-01-01

    The realities of rapid development of China′s tourism industry , the rapid expansion of tourism demand , con-centration of tourist holiday travel and the uneven spatial distribution , result in problems that negative impact of tourism activities on the environment has become increasingly prominent .Using the coupling theory , and taking the sustainable carrying of tourism environment as the objective , this paper defines the connotation of coupling relationship about tourist number and tourism environment carrying capacity , and analyzes the characteristics and application mechanism , forma-tion mechanism and the module of coupling relationship , as well as takes Nandaihe International Amusement Centre spot as an example to analyze .The research shows that the development of the tourism environment in the system depends on the matching degree between the elements , so we should refine the interaction between the tourism and the tourism envi-ronment to make the mechanism and process of coupling concrete .%旅游业的快速发展、 旅游需求的激增、 国内假期旅游的集中及旅游资源空间分布的不均,导致旅游环境承载力与旅游者人数之间的矛盾日益突出. 本文借鉴耦合理论, 以旅游环境可持续承载为目标, 界定了旅游者数量与旅游环境承载力耦合关系的内涵, 分析了该耦合关系的特征与适用机制、 形成机理与模块组成, 并以河北省南戴河国际娱乐中心旅游区为例进行了实证分析. 研究表明: 系统内旅游环境发展状况取决于构成要素之间的匹配程度, 需细化旅游者与旅游环境承载力耦合的相互作用, 使耦合的机理和流程具体化.

  11. 基于开发区规划环评的土地资源承载力评价%Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅世锋; 张平; 蒋金龙

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93. 1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134. 0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.%土地资源承载力评价是规划环境影响评价的重点,是决定规划是否可以实施的重要依据.基于地理信息系统技术的空间分析功能,选取高程、坡度、土地利用现状、距居民点距离、距主要交通道路距离和距环境敏感区距离作为敏感因子,综合评价了漳州招商局经济技术开发区生态敏感性程度及其

  12. The Pre-Warning System of the Employment Carrying Capacity:Concepts, Design & Application%就业承载力预警系统:概念、设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代明; 范慧芳; 牛昕

    2015-01-01

    构建就业承载力预警系统是完善公共安全及应急管理体系的需要。为此,本文梳理了承载力、就业承载力、就业承载力超载及就业市场情景假定等相关概念,讨论了就业承载力预警原理及建模思路、超载度分级及量化标准、多维及一维预警系统设计等问题,并应用于样本城市的就业承载力预警实测,显示这一系统是可行的。%The construction of early warning system for employment capacity is the need of improving public safety and emer-gency management system. For this reason, this article combed those related concepts of the bearing capacity, the bearing capacity of employment, employment capacity overload and scenario assumes of the job market. We discusses some problems that include the employment capacity early-warning theory and modeling, the overloading degree classification and quantita-tive standards, the multidimensional and one-dimensional design of early warning system , and applied to the sample urban of employment capacity early warning .It indicates that the system is feasible.

  13. General Measurement of Marine Ecological Carrying Capacity and Biological Immunology :A Case Study in Liaoning Province%基于生物免疫学理论的海域生态承载力综合测度研究——以辽宁省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄乾斌; 吴佳璐; 张洁

    2013-01-01

    本研究根据海洋生态承载力对海洋生态系统健康的作用与人体免疫力对人体健康的维系作用的相似性,利用生物免疫学原理,构建了辽宁省海域生态承载状态综合测度指标体系,并进行了辽宁省海域2000年-2009年10年间的综合测度研究.结果表明:辽宁省海域自然承载力指数和承载力潜力指数整体分别呈下降和上升趋势,但是资源环境承载力总体却是波动下降趋势;人口与社会经济发展压力指数在2000年-2005年间波动较小,2006年呈现大幅度上升,之后稍有下降,总体上后期比前期增长较多.近几年来,辽宁省海域资源环境承载力的可持续发展状态较差,需要在海洋产业结构调整、污染治理和海洋科研方面加大力度.%Research on carrying capacity, regarded as the basis for the sustainable development of resources and the environment, is gaining more and more attention. With the growing popularity of marine issues, scholars are following the field of marine carrying capacity closely. Studies on marine carrying capacity are instrumental in planning economic development of coastal regions; however, most research findings are quantitative rather than qualitative. Because of the role of marine ecological carrying capacity in marine ecosystems is similar to the role of the human immune system in human health, we introduce a model of biological immunology using the Liaoning marine system as a case study. Numerical models such as entropy, discriminant models of sustainable development and fuzzy membership functions were used to calculate related index values. Results show that from 2000-2009 the natural carrying capacity index increased and the potential capacity index decreased, while overall carrying capacity experienced a floating decline. From 2000-2005 the pressure index of population and economic development was relatively stable, but after 2006 it encountered a sharp rise and then declined slightly with

  14. Evaluation of Water Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on Ecological Footprint Theory: A Case Study of Huzhou%基于生态足迹法的区域水生态承载力研究——以浙江省湖州市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子刚; 郑瑜

    2011-01-01

    本文初步界定了水生态足迹和水生态承载力的内涵,将水生态足迹分为水产品生态足迹、水资源生态足迹与水污染生态足迹,并建立了水生态足迹模型.其中,采用了Wackemagel的水产品生态足迹模型;水资源生态足迹采用了基于水资源消耗量的计算模型;采用零维模型计算污染稀释净化需水量,构建水污染生态足迹模型.最后,以扣除60%生态需水为前提建立了水生态承载力计算模型.以浙江省湖州市为例,模型计算了湖州市2000年-2007年水生态足迹和水生态承载力,结果显示,湖州市2000年-2007年水生态承载力超过水生态足迹,呈现生态盈余,但是水生态承载力波动较大,水生态足迹在不断增大;由于水产品的消费量逐年增大,水产品生态足迹在水生态足迹中所占比例也相应增大.%Ecological footprint is widely used in many countries and regions and has become an important method to evaluate ecological carrying capacity. Based on the ecological footprint model, an evaluation model on water ecological carrying capacity was built and was used to assess water ecological carrying capacity in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province. The concept of water ecological carrying capacity was defined. Water ecological carrying capacity consists of water product footprint, water resource footprint, and water pollution footprint. The original model raised by Wackemagel was used to calculate water product footprint. Water resource footprint was divided into four third level accounts, i.e., agriculture water footprint, industrial water footprint, domestic water footprint, and other water footprint. Besides, based on the ecological footprint model, the zero-dimensional model was used to calculate water demand of pollution dilution and purification and then water pollution footprint was calculated. At last, a water carrying capacity model was built on the basis of 60% of all the water resource being necessary to

  15. 城市山地公园环境承载力分析——以重庆市照母山公园为例%Environmental carrying capacity of urban mountain parks: a case study of the Zhaomu Mountain Park of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱达金; 陈雪梅; 周建华

    2014-01-01

    The major ecological characteristics of urban mountain parks are relatively high heterogeneity,vulnerable ecoenvironment,unstable slopes,and susceptibility to soil erosion,water and soil loss,vegetation destruction and slope slide.Thus environmental carrying capacity must be considered in the planning and designing of urban parks,especially mountain parks.Conducting quantitative analysis on environmental carrying capacity of urban mountain parks,identifying the limiting factors for the environmental carrying capacity and promoting a coordinated development of those factors is needed to pursue methods to protect park environmental resources.Taking the Zhaomu Mountain Park of Chongqing as subject,this research analyzed the environmental carrying capacity out of 4 aspects:ecological carrying capacity,space carrying capacity,facility carrying capacity and sociological carrying capacity.The individual integrated value of the four carrying capacity was 170 499 p/d,56 958 p/d,9 736 p/d and 10 342 p/d,respectively.Therefore the final integrated value of environmental carrying capacity of the Zhaomu Mountain Park was 170 499 person-time/d.Evaluated by the above analysis,the master plan for the Zhaomu Mountain Park is reasonable.In conclusion,quantitative analysis of environmental carrying capacity will provide reference bases and relevant solutions for further park development and management.%对重庆市照母山公园的环境承载力进行测算分析,以期找出环境承载力的限制性因子及检验各因子是否协调发展,进而从规划设计的角度寻求山地公园环境资源的保护策略与方法.结果表明:照母山公园水体生态承载力仅为4 552人次/d,由于不以水景作为主要观赏资源,且固体垃圾为及时人工处理,因此生态承载力取值大气生态承载力,极限值为170 499人次/d;基于公园建筑空间、室外面状游憩空间和道路空间测算得到的空间承载力极限值为56 958人次/d;停车场

  16. Regulating of current harmonics in the neutral conductor to a suitable value taking into account the specific current carrying capacity; Regelung des Netzstroms im Neutralleiter auf einen geeigneten Sollwert unter Beachtung der speziellen Strombelastbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakra, I.; Ellinger, T.; Raedel, U. [TU Ilmenau (Germany). Leistungselektronik und Steuerungen in der Elektroenergietechnik

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a practical application of DSP-based current controller for 3-Phase 4-Wire shunt active filter with a new Control Strategy of current harmonics in the Neutral conductor in an unbalanced nonlinear load. The current harmonics in Neutral conductor will be compensated to a suitable set point (given value) considering the special capacity. (orig.)

  17. A review on grassland carrying capacity (Ⅱ):Parameters and calculation methods%草地载畜量研究进展:参数和计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏云; 高立杰; 李运起

    2014-01-01

    根据生长季末草地产量,利用草地利用率等校正系数校正,除以家畜牧草需求量,是草地载畜量最基本的计算方法。但在草地产量及其测定时间跨度、草地利用率和家畜折算系数等参数的确定上存在争议。基于放牧压力或家畜采食量需求的家畜单位用于不同畜种的折算,牛单位和羊单位是常采用的家畜单位,但家畜单位主要依据家畜活体重量确定,对家畜代谢体重,以及混群放牧中因家畜食性差异造成的采食重叠考虑不足;草地利用率是放牧管理的重要参数,主要根据放牧经验和试验方法确定,实际应用中通常遵循“采食一半、保留一半”的经验法则,但在不同草地类型、地形差异、水源距离等因素影响下,草地利用率并不确定,其估计和测定方法也存在争议。此外,不同草地利用率下的草地载畜量差异很大。本文结合国内外研究进展,综述了草地载畜量估算中草地产量、草地利用率、家畜单位等参数的概念、确定方法和应用上的争议,总结草地载畜量的计算方法及校正因子,以期为草地放牧管理决策提供参考。%The traditional technique for determining grassland carrying capacity (CC)is to calculate the total a-mount of forage at the end of the growing season,multiply this by a correction factor,and then divide by the average yearly feed requirements of a livestock unit.But there has been no consensus on the correction factors and time span.For convenience of management,ananimal unit (AU)is defined,based on the grazing pressure on grassland or grass consumption of certain specific animals,as the standard so other animals can be converted into animal units by comparing the same items.Currently,the most widely used animal units are animal unit (cow unit)and sheep unit (SU).But the AU is often defined on a live body weight (LBW)basis,which does not distinguish between

  18. Assessment of Regional Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment in Ganzhou City Based on GIS%基于GIS赣州市资源环境承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪军; 付晓; 孙玉军; 黄国胜; 张煜星

    2013-01-01

    Regional carrying capacity of resources and environment ( RCCRE) is related closely with some factors of city ,such as resources ,environment and economic&social activities .This study constructed a RCCRE indicator system for Ganzhou City .The system included landform ,forest resource ,eco-environment ,and social-economy indexes ,and also some concrete assessment factors .Weights of all the indexes and factors were as-sessed by GIS and the Analytical Hierarchy Process method .The RCCRE model was established by state-space method,the comprehensive evaluation values were calculated by it at the township level .The comprehensive e-valuation results were analyzed ,and the spatial distribution of it was mapped by ARCGIS .The results showed that,firstly,the RCCRE of Ganzhou was close to saturation on the whole .Hence,intensity and scale should be restricted in the future economic development , and the balance between resource utilization and environment protection be kept.Secondly,counties had different RCCREs in Ganzhou:1) six counties(Quannan,Chongyi, Anyuan,Dingnan,Shangyou and Huichang ) had higher RCCREs and lower intensity ,which suggested a larger room for the development of economy;2) RCCREs of five counties ( Longnan,Ningdu,Ganxian,Shicheng and Dayu) were at a medium level;3) other seven counties ( Xunwu,Ruijin,Xingguo,Xinfeng,Yudu and Zhang-gong) had higher development intensity ,followed with lower RCCREs ,which called for eco-environment pro-tection and construction in the future economic development .%根据赣州市资源状况、环境条件和社会经济等方面与区域资源环境承载能力密切相关因素,选取地形地貌、土地利用、森林资源、生态环境、社会经济等指标,建立赣州市资源环境承载力评价指标体系,应用GIS技术和层次分析方法,综合赣州市实际情况确定各指标指数和权重,并采用状态空间法建立区域资源环境承载力评价模型,以乡为单位计算资

  19. Tissue-Specific Replicating Capacity of a Chimeric Poliovirus That Carries the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Hepatitis C Virus in a New Mouse Model Transgenic for the Human Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagiya, Akiko; Ohka, Seii; Hashida, Noriyasu; Okamura, Masahito; Taya, Choji; Kamoshita, Nobuhiko; Iwasaki, Kuniko; Sasaki, Yukari; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nomoto, Akio

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotides (nt) 108 to 742 of an infectious cDNA clone of poliovirus (PV) Mahoney strain, including the corresponding region of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), was replaced by nt 28 to 710 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA corresponding to the whole HCV IRES. A chimeric PV (2A-369) was generated by transfecting mammalian cells with an RNA transcribed in vitro from the cDNA. To examine replicating capacity of virus 2A-369 in the brain and liver of a mouse model for poliomyelitis, a new...

  20. 昆明新机场航站区下伏溶洞地基承载力分析%The Carrying Capacity Analysis of Kunming New Airport Terminal Area Underlying Cave Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰文; 彭大雷; 刘宏

    2012-01-01

    溶洞地基承载力的影响因素众多.溶洞埋深、溶洞直径(跨度)、水平相邻溶洞的间距,竖向相邻溶洞的间距及溶洞断面形态等对地基的承载力影响很大.应用工程地质分析和数值模拟相结合的方法,对昆明新机场下伏溶洞地基承载力进行了分析,得出当单个溶洞埋深大于2倍直径后,上部荷载与下部溶蚀空间的关系较小.当水平相邻溶洞的间距大于1倍跨度以及当竖向相邻溶洞间距大于0.5倍跨度后,可以忽略溶洞对上部荷载的影响.溶蚀率每增加5%,上部最大荷载qmax降低幅度约6 %~10%.当跨度大于3倍洞高时,上部最大荷载的降低幅度相对较小,竖向型溶洞所能承受的荷载相对较大.%There are many factors that affect bearing capacity of Cave foundation, such as Cave depth, the caves diameter (span) , spacing vertically adjacent caves and caverns section form the foundation bearing capacity. The way, combined engineering geology analysis with numerical simulation, was applied to analyze the underlying bearing capacity of Cave foundation, According to this way, it concludes that the relationship between the diameter of the upper load and the lower part of the dissolution is smaller when a single cave depth is greater than 2 times, and the impaction of the cave to the top load can be ignored when the spacing of the level of the adjacent cave is greater than one times and the vertical distance is greater than 0. 5 times of the span- Besides, the upper part of the maximum load qmax decrease about 6% to 10% from each additional 5% of dissolution rate. When the span is greater than three times of the hole high, the decrease range of the maximum load on the top of foundation is relatively small; on the contrary, the load that vertical type caves can withstand is relatively large,

  1. 钢管混凝土格构柱极限承载力实用计算公式%Practical calculation formula of ultimate load carrying capacity about concrete filled steel tubular laced columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旺保; 蒋丽忠

    2011-01-01

    在理论分析基础上,提出钢管混凝土格构柱长细比折减系数计算模型及等效长细比计算公式,并改进等效长细比计算公式.同时,利用数值计算方法对不同混凝土强度、钢材强度、缀条横截面积、缀条布置形式、偏心率、长细比的钢管混凝土格构柱构件的承载力进行仿真计算,并在改进的等效长细比基础上,分析它们对长细比折减系数的影响.结合数值计算结果及长细比折减系数计算模型,提出长细比折减系数计算公式.利用本文提出的长细比折减系数计算公式及规程CECS28:90中双系数乘积公式对构件极限承载力进行计算,并与数值计算结果及试验结果进行比较.研究结果表明:在改进的等效长细比基础上,混凝土强度、钢材强度、缀条横截面积、缀条布置形式对长细比折减系数的影响很小,可以忽略;3种计算方法计算结果吻合良好,验证了本文提出的长细比折减系数计算公式的正确性.%The slender ratio reduced coefficient model and the equivalent slenderness ratio calculation formula of the concrete filled steel tubular laced columns were proposed on the basis of theory analysis, and the equivalent slenderness ratio calculation formula was improved. A lot of ultimate bearing capacities of concrete filled steel tubular laced columns with different concrete strengths, steel strengths, lace bar areas, layout forms of lace bar, eccentricity ratio and slender ratio were computed using the numerical method, and the influence of them was analysised on the basis of improved equivalent slenderness ratio. The calculation formula on the slender ratio reduced coefficient of slender ratio reduced coefficient was proposed by combining numerical calculation results and the slender ratio reduced coefficient model. Finally, a lot of ultimate bearing capacities of components were computed using the calculation formula of slender ratio reduced coefficient and

  2. 塔里木河流域基于资源环境水价的农业水价的承受力分析%An Analysis of the Farmers Carrying Capacity of the Future Agricultural Water Prices Based on the Resourceful and Environmental Water Prices in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建光; 韩桂兰

    2012-01-01

    首先在成本水价基础上,分别构建塔河流域作物和流域基于水资源费的未来农业水价,然后进一步;E总和计算了塔河流域农户对基于资源环境水价的未来农业水价的承受力分析的基本指标;在此基础上,分析了塔河流域农户对基于资源环境水价的未来农业水价的承受力,主要结果表明:除叶尔羌河、和田河流域和干流下游基于资源环境水价的未来流域和作物水价的农户承受力超过适宜经济承受力外,其他源流和干流上中游的农户水价承受力则处于适宜经济承受力范围,未来塔河流域应当实行差别水价政策;干流下游、叶尔羌河流域未来农业水价承受力很低,尤其是流域未来粮食作物水价的承受力很低,必须给予粮食作物农业水价直接补偿。而且,环境水价对农户水价承受力影响较小,能够成为未来流域生态环境保护的主要经济手段。%Based on the water price of the cost, the future agricultural water price on the basis of water resources fee and the future agricultural water price based on water resources fee and environmental water price are determined in the Tarim River Basin; then the basic index of farmers" carrying capacity of the future agricultural water price are calculated according to them, this paper analyzes the farmers" carrying capacity of the future agricultural water prices based on water resources fee and environmental water prices in the Tarim River Basin, the results indicate that besides farmers' carrying capacity of the future agricultural water price based on water re- sources fee and environmental water prices is beyond the suitable scope of farmers" carrying capacity in theYerqiang River Basin, He- tian River Basin and the low part of the Tarim River, the other basin is lower than the suitable scope of farmerg carrying capacity. The water policy should be carried out to use different water prices

  3. Analysis on Load-Carrying Capacity of New Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Steel Roof Truss%新型冷弯薄壁型钢屋架结构承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 李元齐; 沈祖炎

    2009-01-01

    基于已完成的G550冷弯薄壁型钢屋架结构承载力试验,采用通用有限元软件ANSYS,建立考虑材料和几何非线性的分析模型.分析结构的特征值屈曲和非线性屈曲承载能力,通过对比试验数据结果,研究屋架结构的合理分析模式.结果表明,屋架结构的破坏模式为上弦杆的整体弯扭屈曲,与试验观测到的现象一致,极限承载力和试验结果非常接近.研究表明,有限元分析模型设计合理,节点处自由度耦合的手段能模拟自攻螺钉连接的受力情况.%Based on the experiments of G550 cold-formed thin-walled steel roof truss structures,an analysis model considering geometry and material non-linearity is established using general FEM software ANSYS.Both eigenvalue buckling and non-linear stability analysis of this structure are performed,a reasonable analysis model for roof truss structure is studied by comparing with test data The results showed that the failure mode of roof truss is flexual-torsional buckling of top chord members,which accords with the phenomena observed during test,the ultimate load-bearing capacity is also very close to test data.The study demonstrates that the FEM analysis model is rational,the measure of coupling nodes' degree of freedom can simulate force state of self-taping screw connections.

  4. 碳纤维加固钢-混凝土组合梁承载力极限状态计算%Analysis of Ultimate Load-carrying Capacity of Strengthening Steel-concrete Composite Beam Using Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣学亮; 黄侨

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber is a kind of optimal materials for bridge maintenance and reinforcement. Design method of strengthening steel-concrete composite bridges using carbon fiber was studied. Characteristic of bridge reinforce-ment under load and phasing of stress features were considered, and calculation method of ultimate limit state was suitable for existing bridge design code . Ultimate strain of carbon fiber in ultimate limit state is firstly established based on plane-section assumption and strain-lag of carbon fiber. Then computational scheme and calculation meth-od of flexural capacity in positive moment area and negative moment area for strengthening steel-concrete composite beam using carbon fiber are established respectively, which is reference for design of bridge strengthening.%碳纤维复合材料是进行桥梁维修和加固的理想材料.对采用碳纤维复合材料加固钢-混凝土组合梁桥的设计方法进行了分析.考虑桥梁结构带载加固分阶段受力的特点,与现行桥梁设计规范中承载能力极限状态计算方法相适应.首先基于平截面假设和碳纤维应变滞后的特点,确定承载能力极限状态下碳纤维片材的极限应变值.然后分别建立了碳纤维片材加固钢-混凝土组合梁在正弯矩区和负弯矩区抗弯承载力的计算图式和计算方法,可供桥梁加固工程设计参考.

  5. 基于人粮关系的汉江流域湖北段土地资源承载力评价%Evaluation of Land Carrying Capacity of the Han River(in Hubei Province) Based on Man-grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢菲; 孙小舟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the man-grain relationship, it established a LCCI(Land Carrying Capacity Index) model, quantitativly evaluated the present population carrying capacity of the land resources in the Han River( in Hubei Province) from three aspects: counties, prefecture-level cities, and drainage basins.The result revealed the geographical features and spatio-temporal evolution pattern of land carrying capacity in different areas of Hubei Province, discussed the coupling relationship between land resources, grain and the population.%土地资源承载力是研究区域人口消费与食物生产、人类需求与资源供给间的平衡关系问题,研究土地资源承载力能为区域发展和生态建设提供科学依据和决策支持。文章以人粮关系为基础,建立土地资源承载指数(Land Carrying Capacity Index,LCCI)模型,从县、地级市、流域三个尺度定量评价了汉江流域湖北段的土地资源现实人口承载力。土地资源承载力的研究结果揭示了汉江流域湖北段不同地区土地资源承载力的地域特征与时空演变格局,反映出土地资源、粮食、人口的耦合关系,为湖北省粮食安全和区域可持续发展提供参考。

  6. 首都圈人口空间分布优化策略--基于土地资源承载力估测%Optimization Strategy of Population Distribution in Capital Metropolitan Region:Based on Land Resources Carrying Capacity Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文英; 刘念北

    2015-01-01

    采用单项指标估测,分析了首都圈土地资源人口承载及其限制性,提出了人口空间分布优化策略。首都圈水资源及建设用地生态适宜量限制了人口承载能力,京津土地资源人口承载力已基本达到饱和,环京津的冀东、冀中地区承载潜力还较大,冀北地区应紧缩开发空间而拓展生态空间。首都圈土地资源开发利用及人口发展战略分区为:首都圈北部生态屏障建设区,人口限制发展;中部都市功能优化区,人口控制增长;东部人口产业沿海集聚区,人口鼓励增长;南部绿色空间优化区,人口适度增长。首都圈的健康发展,应实施差异化的土地利用及人口发展政策,整体提升人口承载力,并加大区域统筹力度,科学、合理地引导人口的空间分流和聚集。%Relieving the pressure of megacities’central urban area is a hot issue on regional development and urban economy studies in our country, and it is an important national population development strategy to active-ly promote the economically developed urbanized area where the resources and environmental carrying capaci-ty is strong to absorb and cluster population. Capital metropolitan region of China in this study, including Bei-jing and Tianjin municipalities and 7 cities in Hebei Province around Beijing, such as Baoding, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Cangzhou, Chengde, Zhangjiakou and Tangshan. The resources and environment, population distri-bution, urban economy development level have obvious differences among cities. Therefore, it is of important theoretical and practical significance to study the population space distribution optimization on the basis of re-sources and environment carrying capacity of the metropolitan region. On the basis of land resources utilization and its population carrying capacity situation, by estimating the population carrying capacity of construction land and water resources and evaluating

  7. Destabilizing Carry Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Plantin, Guillaume; Shin, Hyun Song

    2014-01-01

    We offer a model of currency carry trades in which carry traders generate self-sustained excess returns if they coordinate on supplying excessive capital to a target economy. The interest-rate differential between their funding currency and the target currency is their coordination device. Such self-fulfilling pro table currency trades arise when the central bank of the target economy ignores the impact of carry-trade in flows on domestic asset prices, and responds only to their effect on inf...

  8. Destabilizing carry trades

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Plantin; Hyun Song Shin

    2015-01-01

    We offer a model of currency carry trades in which carry traders generate self-sustained excess returns if they coordinate on supplying excessive capital to a target economy. The interest-rate differential between their funding currency and the target currency is their coordination device. Such self-fulfilling pro table currency trades arise when the central bank of the target economy ignores the impact of carry-trade in flows on domestic asset prices, and responds only to their effect on inf...

  9. Research on tourism environmental carrying capacity of island tourist destination---A case study of Shanghai Chongming island%岛屿型旅游目的地旅游环境承载力研究--以上海崇明岛为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世栋; 高峻

    2014-01-01

    以上海崇明岛为例,以长江隧桥贯通以及上海世博会为人类活动影响驱动因子,从时空角度选择旅游环境承载力评价模型,研究人类活动对岛屿型旅游目的地的影响以及崇明岛旅游业发展限制因子的变化。研究结果表明:崇明岛内水环境以及宾馆接待能力良好;入岛交通从以轮渡水上交通为主演变为隧桥陆上交通为主,隧桥陆上交通在“井喷式”旅游后逐步减压,但旅游旺季入岛交通限制因子也从轮渡水上交通变为隧桥陆上交通;崇明岛旅游发展的最大限制因子目前是旅游旺季的游客接待能力以及岛屿内部固体废弃物的清运能力。%Based on the spatial and temporal tourism environmental carrying capacity assessment model,taking the Yangtze River tunnel bridge linking and the EXPO as the human activity driv-ing factors,the impacts of human activity on the island-tourist destination and the limiting factors for the tourism industry development of Shanghai Chongming island are studied.The results showed that hotel reception and water carrying capacity can meet the needs of tourists;The out-land traffic had changed from ferry boat to bridge-road traffic,and the carrying capacity of road traffic gradually decompressed after “spurt tourism”,but it still was one of the limited factors in its′peak season.At last,the biggest limited factors of tourism industry were tourist reception carrying capacity in peak season and the removal capacity of solid waste for Chongming island.

  10. 资源型城市土地人口承载力研究——以河南省平顶山市为例%Resource industrial city land population carrying capacity research——take pingdingshan of henan province as an instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄倩; 杨锋

    2015-01-01

    Study on the carrying capacity of land resources for the reasonable agricultural policy and population policy, guide the agricultural production and economic development, the rational use of land, which provides scientific basis for the sustainable use of land resources. In this paper, using the land carrying capacity index (LCCI) model of population carrying capacity of land resources in Pingdingshan city,the results showed that: Pingdingshan land population carrying capacity index from 0.951 in 2006 to 1.107 to 1.034 in 2014 and 2014,stage of development by the balance for overload to the critical phase, various counties city land population carrying condition difference is obvious. This paper suggestes that Pingdingshan city should integrate and cultivated land resources in mining, enlarge the center city space development, reduce the pressure of heavy industry on the environment.%土地资源承载力研究为合理的农业政策和人口政策,指导农业生产和经济建设,合理利用土地,保证土地资源的可持续利用提供科学依据.本文采用土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型对资源型城市平顶山市进行土地人口承载力研究,结果表明:平顶山市土地人口承载力指数从2006年的0.951发展到2014年的1.034和2020的1.107,发展阶段由平衡有余阶段到临界超载阶段,各县市的土地人口承载状况差异明显.建议平顶山市要整合和挖掘耕地资源,扩大中心城市空间,实行跨市县一体化发展,减小重工业对环境的压力.

  11. The curves not carried

    OpenAIRE

    Gadre, Vaibhav; Schleimer, Saul

    2014-01-01

    Suppose $\\tau$ is a train track on a surface $S$. Let $C(\\tau)$ be the set of isotopy classes of simple closed curves carried by $\\tau$. Masur and Minsky [2004] prove $C(\\tau)$ is quasi-convex inside the curve complex $C(S)$. We prove the complement, $C(S) - C(\\tau)$, is quasi-convex.

  12. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  13. 基于人粮关系的土地资源承载力空间格局研究——以河西走廊绿洲为例%Evaluation of land carrying capacity based on man-grain relationship——A case study of oasis in Hexi corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏丽; 刘普幸; 朱小娟; 侯成成

    2013-01-01

    河西走廊绿洲区的粮食生产在干旱区的粮食生产、供求和粮食安全中一直处于重要的位置,本文基于人粮关系,运用土地资源承载力(LCC)模型,从分市和分县两个空间尺度上对河西走廊绿洲1985-2009年的土地资源承载力的时空格局进行了分析.结果表明:1985-2009年河西走廊绿洲的土地资源承载力指数(LCCI)介于0.690 ~ 0.894之间,其中,只有2000年和2001年处在0.875 ~l,其他年份的土地资源承载力指数总体上处在富裕和盈余状态;从分市格局来看,1985-2009年河西走廊绿洲的土地资源承载力与总体水平的变化趋势相一致,粮食盈余和人粮平衡的市多于严重超载的市;从分县尺度上来看,河西走廊绿洲土地资源承载力以粮食盈余为主,55%的县域处于不同程度的盈余状态,这些县域主要分布在河西走廊中部和东部;人粮关系处于平衡的县域占全区的5%;40%的县域处于不同程度的粮食亏缺状态,需要大量区外调配.%The production of grain in the oasis of Hexi corridor plays an important role in the grain supply and food security for the arid areas. From the viewpoint of man-grain relationship, the land carrying capacity ( LCC) models were used to analyze the spatial-temporal dynamic patterns of land carrying capacity in the oasis of Hexi corridor from 1985 to 2009 at city and county level. The results showed that the overall land carrying capacity index ( LCCI) in the oasis of Hexi corridor was 0.690 ~0.894 from 1985 to 2009. Except for the year of 2000 and 2001 when the land carrying capacity index was 0.8751, it was at rich and surplus level in other years. At the city level, the change tendency of the land carrying capacity index was identical to that of the overall level from 1985 to 2009. The number of cities at grain surplus and balance level was more than that at severe overload level. At the county level, the land carrying capacity index in the

  14. 后发地区生态承载力及其评价方法研究——以海峡西岸经济区为例%Ecological Carrying Capacity and Its Assessment Method in Late-Developing Regions——A Case Study in the Economic Zone on the West Side of the Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫; 沈渭寿; 张慧; 孙明; 孙俊

    2011-01-01

    在区域生态承载力及其与资源、环境承载力相互关系的基础上,针对后发地区敏感的生态环境、强烈的发展愿景和以产业区域转移为主的后发优势战略,阐明了后发地区生态承载力的判定标准和衡量对象,构建了后发地区生态承载力概念模型;与区域生态系统健康评价相结合,运用多目标规划,建立了后发地区生态承载力评价模型,对海峡西岸经济区生态承载力进行了综合评价。目前海西区生态系统所承受的人类干扰总体上较轻,重点产业发展尚未对区域生态系统的结构、功能和健康等级构成威胁。若海西区土地产出率升至2007年上海市土地产出率的75%,海西区及其多数分区生态系统可以持续支撑其重点产业中长期发展。海西区生态系统的承载能力和承载状况具有显著的区域差异,有利于该地区经济社会的健康发展、生态服务功能的持续发挥和区域生态安全的有效保障。%Based on ecological carrying capacity and the relationship between ecological carrying capacity and other carrying capacity,the judgment standard and measurement object of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions were defined,the conceptual model of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions was also built,according to their sensitive eco-environment,relative slowness of socio-economic development,strong aspiration of development and late-developing strategy.The assessment method of ecological carrying capacity in late-developing regions was also established by multi-objective programming,combining with regional ecosystem health assessment.A case study was carried out in the economic zone on the west side of the Straits(called "Haixi Zone" for short),aiming at the sustainable development of key industry.Results showed that the human disturbance index of Haixi Zone was 2.68% in 2007,which is lower than the average level(3.13%) of China

  15. 基于生态足迹的沿海地区生态承载力评价--以汕头市为例%Ecological Carrying Capacity of Costal Cities Based on Ecological Footprint Model--A Case Study of Shantou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨木壮; 吴涛; 谢鸿宇

    2013-01-01

      利用生态足迹模型的理论与方法,研究2004~2008年汕头市生态承载力变化情况。结果表明,5年来汕头市人均生态足迹呈现下降趋势,人均生态承载力略有下降但变化不大,人均生态赤字也呈下降趋势。与同期其他城市对比表明,汕头市生态足迹相对较低。从生态供需结构看,化石能源用地对生态足迹贡献较大。应通过提高资源利用效率,减少废弃物排放,科学合理地进行国土规划,转变经济增长方式,优化产业结构,从而提高汕头市的生态承载力,促进该区域可持续发展。%The objectives of this study were thus to use the Ecological Footprint Model explore the ecological carrying capacity of Shantou from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the ecolog-ical footprint, ecological carrying capacity, ecological deficit of Shantou were at the trend of downward, and by compared other cities, the ecological footprint of Shantou was lower than others;The structure of ecological footprint supply and demand, the land of fossil fuel with the greater contribution to the ecological footprint. Finally, we should improve the efficiency of resource use and reduce waste emissions, make land use planning scientifically, transform the economic growth mode, optimize the industrial struc-ture, thereby the ecological carrying capacity of Shantou City can be improved, the sustainable development of the region can be promoted.

  16. Load carrying capacity analysis of materials for aluminium rims

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Matija; Čižman, Jure

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we present an experimental simulation of the fatique strength of clamped aluminium rims. This is supported by numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method (FEM), which was used for stress-strain analysis of a model representing a clamped detail during bendings. The design and analysis of the model are made simultaneously on an integrated computer controlled test rig for testing the fatique strength of clamped parts subjected to bending. The simulation is evaluated ...

  17. 资源型城市土地利用变化对区域环境承载力的影响--以平顶山市为例%Land Use Change Influence on the Regional Carrying Capacity in Rse ource City:Taking Pingdingshan as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世界; 吴楠楠; 岳伟明; 高磊

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the resource-based city Pingdingshan as the research object, and researches the relationship between re-gional carrying capacity and land use changes in Pingdingshan.The result shows that land use changes′increase is as same as the re-gional carrying capacity generally and the former is more than the latter obviously.In the spatial distribution, the land use change of e-valuation unit improves continuously, and the regional carrying capacity indicates growth trend except Shilong district.In the time dis-tribution, the structure of land use changes enormously among evaluation unit, and most lands rise using hierarchy, and the regional carrying capacity indicates growth trend on most sub districts.%选取资源型城市平顶山市为研究对象,以Landsat影像及统计资料为基础数据,对平顶山市2000~2011年各子区环境承载力与土地利用程度变化之间的关系进行研究,结果显示平顶山各辖区间土地利用变化与区域环境承载力呈正相关关系,且前者的变化幅度明显大于后者。在空间分布上,各评价单元的土地利用变化程度在不断提高,区域环境承载力除石龙区外均呈增加趋势;在时间分布上,评价单元内土地利用结构变化较大,大部分土地利用层级有所提升,区域环境承载力在主要子区上均有所增加。

  18. Evaluation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Index System with Parameter Projection Pursuit Model——A Case Study in Shijiazhuang%基于指标体系投影寻踪模型的水资源承载力评价——以石家庄为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马峰; 王千; 蔺文静; 王贵玲

    2012-01-01

    石家庄市处于我国缺水严重的华北地区,水资源利用一直倍受人们的关注,水资源承载力评价可为今后的地区水资源利用及规划提供建议.文章采用了综合指标法,根据石家庄市水资源具体情况和指标体系结构特点,选取了18个指标建立水资源承载力评价指标体系及指标标准,运用投影寻踪方法建立评价模型,通过归一化处理、线性投影、构造投影指标函数和优化投影指标函数的方法,将选取的指标运用matlab数学软件进行投影寻踪分析,得到石家庄市水资源承载力等级水平为Ⅳ级,主要影响水资源承载力的指标为基本农田比例、节水灌溉率、灌溉用水有效利用系数、水资源可开发利用系数和万元工业增加值用水量等.%Shijiazhuang lies in the north of china which is seriously lack of water, and its water resources utilization always receives attention. The evaluation of water resources carrying capacity could provide advices for water resources utilization and planning in this area in future. Based on the specific conditions of water resources and the structural features of the index system in Shijiazhuang.18 indexes were selected to build the evaluation index system of water resources carrying capacity. The projection pursuit method was used to assess the model. Relying on the methods of normalization treatment, linear projection, constructing projection target function as well as optimizing projection target function, the selected indexes were analyzed using the projective pursuit method based on matlab platform. The results showed that the water resources carrying capacity level is grade IV in Shijiazhuang. The main indexes affecting the water resources carrying capacity included the basic farmland proportion, water-saving irrigation rate,effective utilization coefficient of irrigation water, utilization coefficient of available water resources, and water consumption of ten thousand yuan

  19. Influence of Slot Tolerance on Load-Carrying Capacity of Dowel Type Timber Connections with Slotted-In Steel Plates%开槽误差对内嵌钢板销式连接木节点承载力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新海; 张盛东; 屈文俊

    2011-01-01

    The dowel connections with slotted-in steel plates is one of the most efficient joints for heavy timber structures, which are widely used in modern timber constructions. In the actual timber connection project, slot width of timber components is greater than the thickness of steel plate, which has a certain influence on the load-carrying capacity of the connection. To understand the influence of slot tolerance on the load-carrying capacity, the formula of the dowel type timber connection with three slotted-in steel plates considering the slot tolerance was derived based on the Johansen yield theory, the effect of slot error on load-carrying capacity was analyzed. The results show that the load-carrying capacity of connections is decreased with the increasing of slot width. In the actual timber engineering the tolerance of the slot width should be minimized.%内嵌多块钢板销式连接是现代重型木结构节点连接方式中最为有效的一种,被越来越广泛地使用在木结构节点连接中.在实际工程中,由于制作误差,通常木构件的开槽宽度大于钢板厚度,可能对连接节点的承载力有一定影响.为了更好地了解开槽宽度对承载力的影响,基于Johansen屈服理论推导了考虑开槽误差时内嵌三块钢板承栽力的计算公式,并进一步分析了开槽误差对其承载力的影响.分析结果表明,连接节点的承栽力随开槽误差的增加而减小,所以在实际木工程连接节点中应尽量降低开槽误差.

  20. 基于人粮关系的重庆市土地资源承载力水平时空差异研究%Spatial-Temporal Difference Analysis of Land Carrying Capacity Based on Man-Grain Relationship in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀锋; 秦建; 刁承泰; 左太安

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of population ,land carrying capacity and regional food security have attracted great attention worldwide .Evaluating regional land carrying capacity and analyzing its spatial‐temporal difference are important for regional grain security and land resource sustainable utilization .Based on the relationship between population and grain ,land carrying capacity (LCC) and land carrying capacity index (LCCI) models are built in this study to analyze the temporal and spatial disparities of land carrying capaci‐ty of each county/district in Chongqing so as to provide a scientific basis for decision‐making and overall planning of land use and sustainable development .In the period from 2004 to 2010 ,the gap in land carry‐ing capacity level between various counties/districts of Chongqing city became increasingly larger and the overloading of land resources was serious .In the 7 years ,the quantitative distribution of various levels of land carrying capacity of the 40 counties/districts exhibited an M‐shaped model .The counties showing the critical overload and over‐balanced situations stood on the peaks of “M” ,seriously overloaded counties/dis‐tricts lay in the middle of “M”and overload and surplus counties/districts were at the bottom ends of “M”. In the same period ,the number of the counties/districts of Chongqing with coordinated levels of land car‐rying capacity and social and economic development remained unchanged ,the number of the counties/dis‐tricts w hose social and economic development lagged behind their land carrying capacity diminished ,and the number of the counties/districts whose social and economic development surpassed their land carrying capacity increased from 13 in 2004 to 15 in 2010 .%定量评价区域土地资源承载力水平以及时空差异对于区域粮食安全和土地资源可持续利用起着至关重要的意义.论文以人口和粮食关系,建立土地资源承载力模型和土

  1. Analysis of the Effect on the Carrying Capacity when Train Trace Interval Shortened from 8 to 7 on Line Hu Ning%沪宁线追踪间隔“8改7”对通过能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙焰; 董志国; 季令; 张国宝

    2001-01-01

    通过大量实例计算,研究沪宁线列车追踪间隔时间由8 min改为7min后对客车扣除系数和区段通过能力的影响,分析了客货列车速度、追踪间隔、旅客列车对数等因素对通过能力的影响关系,得到了一系列结论.%Through a substantial calculation, the effect is studied on the deducting coefficient of the passenger train and on the carrying capacity of the railway division when train trace interval shortened from 8 minutes to 7 minutes on Line Hu Ning. The relation of the variations is analyzed about the factors affecting the carrying capacity-the speed of the passenger train, the trace interval and the number of the passenger trains. A series of significant conclusions is reached in this paper.

  2. An Investigation of Load-carrying and Speed-resistant Capacities of Bonded MoS2 Solid Lubricating Films%粘结MoS2基钼固体润滑膜的抗承载能力和耐速度性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶银平; 陈建敏; 周惠娣

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜在干摩擦条件下的抗承载能力和耐速度性能,使用国产的环一块摩擦磨损试验机在干摩擦下对粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜在不同载荷和不同速度试验条件下的摩擦磨损性能进行了研究.试验结果表明:粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜的承载能力有高达2100N,在0.512~3.84m/s的滑动速度范围内具有良好的抗磨减摩性能.对转移膜的研究结果表明高载高速试验条件有利于促进对偶表面生成高质量的转移膜.粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜具有良好的抗承载能力和耐速度性能的机理应归结于在摩擦过程中对偶表面高质量转移膜的生成.%In order to inquire into the load-carrying and speed-resistant capacities of bonded MoS2 solid lubricating films under dry friction conditions,the friction and wear behaviors of the MoS2 lubricating films were investigated under different speed and load testing conditions.Results show that the MoS2 lubricating films have a high load-carrying capacity up to 2100 N,and a wide speed-resistant capacity of 0.512-3.84m/s.The higher load and higher speed can promote the counterpart surface to form the transfer film with a fine quality.The predominant mechanism of the MoS2 lubricating films with excellent load-carrying and speed-resistant capacities can be attributed to the formation of the transfer film with a fine quality.

  3. 全国资源环境承载能力监测预警(2014版)学术思路与总体技术流程%Academic Thought and Technical Progress of Monitoring and Early-warning of the National Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity (V 2014)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊杰; 王亚飞; 汤青; 周侃

    2015-01-01

    It is an innovative work of comprehensive deepening reforms of China to establish the mechanism of monitoring and early-warning of carrying capacity. Based on the scientific connotation of the carrying capacity of national resources and environment and oriented to regional sustainable development, this article explores the“pressure-state-response”process of the interaction between the carrying body: the natural foundation (which consists of resources, environment, ecology and disasters) with the carrying object:the human produc-tion and life activities, and presents the academic thought that the early-warning of the national resources and environment carrying capacity is an overload early-warning according to the cap of the constraints of resources and environment or the population and economic rational scales or other key thresholds, and also presents a process early-warning in terms of the changes of the natural basic conditions or the tendencies of the impact of resource utilization and environmental changes. According to the exploration on the principles of early-warn-ing carrying capacity, this article constructs the differential indicator system and the overall technical process of early-warning of marine and terrestrial resources and environment carrying capacity. Land resources stress index, water resources use intensity index, environmental stress strength index and vegetation coverage change range index are chosen as basic indicators to conduct an overall regional evaluation, and different specific indi-cators, such as the pollution level of dust-haze, the increase and decrease of arable land, equilibrium index of grass and livestock and the variation of eco-environmental quality, are chosen to conduct the specific evalua-tion respectively for the urbanized areas, major grain producing areas, pastoral and semi-pastoral areas and eco-logical function areas, and then the key thresholds of these indicators are determined to conduct classifying evaluation

  4. "Christian carrying goomies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Passingan Usurup tells critics of his pragmatic approach on condom promotion that he is a Christian carrying condoms for Christ. He is head of the University of Papua New Guinea Medical Center and is credited with developing an AIDS/HIV policy for the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The condoms were named Goomy and promoted at launching in 1992 in a blue packet under the slogan "The bond that guards." Goomy was chosen as the name because it is pidgin for rubber, chewing gum, and anything associated with rubber. Blue packets were chosen over the calls of most soldiers for a camouflage design because of its universal appeal as the color of the sea and sky and because it was the preference of women in the airlines. Once firmly ensconced in his role at the University, Usurup plans to develop a policy for students and staff and help to conduct AIDS prevention and education activities on campus. He will encourage students to test for HIV rather than highlighting the gloom and doom of infection and disease.

  5. Appropriate urban scale in arid inland river basin based on water resource carrying capacity:A case of Liangzhou District in Shiyang River Basin%基于水资源承载力的干旱内陆河流域城市适度规模研究——以石羊河流域凉州区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石培基; 杨雪梅; 宫继萍; 张光永; 魏伟

    2012-01-01

    以典型的干旱内陆河流域城市武威市凉州区为研究对象,对水资源承载力、城市适度规模的内涵进行阐述;基于可利用水量、水权及水质三要素建立水资源承载能力及城市适度规模计算模型,构建了城市适度规模与实际人口的距离协调度评价模型,并给出评价区间标准;对未来可利用水量、未来可能配水量、未来城市适度规模、水资源超载度进行预测并分析.结果表明:近10 a凉州区的地表径流量变化幅度不大,相比20世纪50年代下降程度显著,凉州区水资源超载度逐年增长,城市适度规模与实际人口的距离协调度处于初级协调发展绿灯区向濒临失调衰退黄灯区过渡阶段.未来20 a水资源超载度增长率降低,基于水资源承载力的城市适度规模远小于预测的城市人口规模,城市适度规模与实际人口距离协调度进入轻度失调双黄灯警区.%Most of the cities in the arid inland river basin of northwest China are being perplexed by the pioblems of water shortage and inefficient water utilization. Thus the process of urbanization and the city development scale in this region have been restricted by the water shortage and irrational water utilization structure. It is significant and in urgent need to research the urban appropriate scale based upon its water resource carrying capacity as water shortage and fragile ecological environment has been the key factor which restricts the eco-social development of this region. Taking the Liangzhou District of the Wiiwei city located in the Shiyang River basin as the case study, based on available water quantity, water rights and water quality, computing models for urban water resource carrying capacity and for the urban appropriate population scale were established. Then, a model named after the coordination degree evaluation was set up for researching on the relationship between urban appropriate population scale and its actual

  6. Study on the Assessment of the Comprehensive Carrying Capacity in Core Grain-production Districts --Taking Shangqiu City, Henan Province as an Example%粮食生产核心区综合承载力评价研究——以河南省商丘市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建涛; 高建华; 王进学

    2012-01-01

    提高粮食生产核心区综合承载力是实施国家主体功能区战略、推进粮食生产核心区建设的重要价值取向。以综合承载力研究成果为基础,从我国粮食生产核心区城乡三次产业承载水平的角度,初步构建评价区域综合承载力的影响因子和模型,对商丘市2000-2009年城乡三次产业综合承载力实证研究的结果表明:当前农村呈现超载状态,城镇虽尚可载但水平不足,城乡综合承载力与现有人口规模基本持平,区域城镇化和城乡统筹发展有待提速。因此,粮食生产核心区应着力发展现代农业、大力提高城市综合承载力、不断拓展城市市区和功能新区发展空间。%To improve the Comprehensive Carrying Capacity (CCC) in Core Grain-production Districts (CGD) is an important goal for the implementation of Principal Functional Region strategy and the construction of CGD. Based on the researching progress analysis of CCC, this paper initially constructs CCC impact index and the CCC assessment model from the point of urban-rural industrial carrying capacity, and takes Shangqiu City as an example to empirically research its industrial carrying capacity in 2000 -2009. Studies show that the current status of rural CCC is overloading, the urban CCC is strong but can hold on less, the overall level of urban-rural CCC is as fiat as the existing population size. Then it points that regional urbanization and urban- rural coordinating development is to be accelerated. Therefore, to improve CCC, steps should be taken in CGD to pay close attention to modern agriculture, to enhance urban CCC vigorously, and to extend the development space of urban district and new functional districts.

  7. Can Structural Adjustment and Carrying Capacity Promotion Promote the Tourism Economic Growth?-Case of the Three Coastal Economic Zones in Eastern China%结构调整、承载力提升能促进旅游经济增长吗?--以东部沿海三大经济区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 周长晓

    2015-01-01

    With China’s Bohai coastal region,Yangtze river delta and Pan-pearl river delta coastal economic zone as the object of research,this paper evaluates and measures the three regions’tourism industry structure level and tourism ecological carrying index respectively from 2003 to 2012,and reveals the spatial difference of the coast-al three regions from the perspectives of structure and bearing capacity,then analyses and tests the effect of industri-al structure and bearing capacity on the tourism economic growth.The results show that three coastal regional tourism industrial structure transformed to rationality,the overall level of development is on the rise,but the Yangtze river delta and the Pearl river delta are instability,the fluctuation trend of tourism industry in Bohai Coastal region become smaller.The tourism ecology capacity of three regions has a slight increase,but tourism ecological demand is greater than the supply,it makes the three regions’tourism ecological in the deficit state,and the tourism ecological deficit is bigger and bigger,the promotion of tourism ecological carrying capacity and the tourism industry structure adjustment can effectively promote the tourism economic growth,but the positive effect of tourism industrial structure is greater than the tourist ecological carrying capacity.%以中国环渤海、长三角、泛珠三角三大沿海经济区为研究对象,分别对2003—2012年三大地区的旅游产业结构水平和旅游生态承载力指数进行测度和评价,并从结构和承载力视角,揭示沿海三大区域空间差异特征,进而分析和检验产业结构、承载力对旅游经济增长的作用。结果表明,2003—2012年中国沿海三大区域的旅游产业结构向合理化和高度化转化,总体发展水平呈上升趋势,但长三角、珠三角波动较大表现出不稳定性,环渤海地区旅游产业结构波动趋势逐渐变小。各地区旅游生态承载力略有提升

  8. Investigation Influence on Carrying Capacity of Hydraulic Cylinder with Residual Stress of Cold-Rolling Seamless Steel Tube%冷轧无缝钢管残余应力对液压缸筒承载能力影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍岩; 叶金铎; 马叙; 张春秋

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the carrying capacity of the hydraulic cylinder with the residual stress of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube was conducted by nonlinear finite element method ( FEM) , which was aimed at quantitative analysis of influence on carrying capacity of hydraulic cylinder with residual stress of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube. The forming process of seamless steel tube was in⁃vestigated, and the residual stress after cold⁃rolling and pulling off of the mould was obtained. Based on the work, the inner surface of seamless steel tube after pulling off of the mould was imposed by pressure in order to simulate the real operating state of hydraulic cylin⁃der, and stress field acted both with residual stress and working stress was acquired. The stress distribution of hydraulic cylinder acted by inner pressure without residual stress was calculated, and carrying capacity of hydraulic cylinder without residual stress was com⁃pared. The results show that the initial stress in presence changes the amount and distribution mode of equivalent stress of hydraulic cyl⁃inder and the maximum equivalent stress of hydraulic cylinder is three times as large as that of which without initial stress. The initial stress reduces the carrying capacity of the hydraulic cylinder, and the hydraulic cylinder made of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube must be experienced with heat treatment first to eliminate the initial stress.%采用非线性有限元法对经冷轧成型无缝钢管的液压缸筒承载能力进行了研究,目的在于定量分析冷轧钢管残余应力对液压缸承载能力的影响。对冷轧钢管成型过程进行了研究,获得了冷轧钢管脱模后的残余应力,在此基础上,在脱模后钢管的内表面施加内压模拟工作时的液压缸,获得残余应力和工作应力共同作用的应力场。计算了无残余应力缸筒在内压作用下的应力分布,并对有无残余应力液压缸筒的承载能力进

  9. 龙滩水库八达村库湾水质变化及网箱养鱼容纳量%Effect of Water Qual ity Change on Carrying Capacity in Net Cage Aquaculture along Bada Village Bay of Longtan Reservoir in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巧雄; 姚俊杰; 周路; 莫仁义; 张健; 罗永成; 崔巍

    2014-01-01

    为充分利用龙滩水库的水域,使水面既发挥其养殖功能,又最大限度地保护水体的其他功能,采取化学分析法与物料平衡法联用的估算方法,以养殖过程中物质输入输出的平衡方程间接推算水域环境对投饵网箱养殖容量的限制程度。结果表明:龙滩水库罗甸县茂井镇八达村库湾水体溶解氧、总磷、透明度指标基本处于贫中营养与中营养水环境标准之间,化学需氧量、总氮则达到富营养水环境标准。若全部采用A网箱、B网箱、C网箱模式,龙滩水库罗甸县茂井镇八达村库湾水域的鱼类负载量分别为230.3~276.5 t、364.4~437.4 t和944.4~1133.8 t,C网箱、B网箱的养殖容量分别是A网箱模式的4.1倍和1.6倍,表明不同的网箱养殖模式直接影响水产养殖容纳量的变化。%The effect of water quality on carrying capacity in net cage aquaculture was studied by estimation methods of chemical analysis and material balance to develop and protect the aquaculture function and other water function of Longtan reservoir.The results showed that the indexes of dissolved oxygen,total P and transparency were between poor-middle nutrition and middle nutrition environment standard and the indexes of chemical oxygen demand and total N reached the eutrophic water environment standard.The fish capacity of net cage A,B and C aquaculture patterns can be 230.3~276.5 t,364.4~437.4 t and 944.4~1 133.8 t respectively,which indicates that net cage aquaculture pattern has the direct effect on carrying capacity in aquaculture production.

  10. 阿尔金山自然保护区基于野牦牛、藏野驴、藏羚羊适宜栖息地的生态容量估测%Estimation of ecological carrying capacity for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope based on habitat suitability in the Aerjin Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世魁; 翁晋; 武晓宇; 刘世梁; 苏旭坤; 吴娱; 石建斌; 李晓文; 张翔; 许东华

    2015-01-01

    National Nature Reserve ( AMNNR) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, is a major refuge for three wild ungulates;wild yak ( Bos mutus) , kiang ( Equus kiang) , and Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsoni) . This nature reserve is important for conserving these three wild endemic ungulates and their habitats. Over decades of conservation, the populations of these three ungulates have increased rapidly. However, the administrators of AMNNR considered that the kiang might have become overpopulated, which would result in habitat degradation. Thus, it is vital implement wildlife management planning based on the quantification of ecological carrying capacity for sustainable nature reserve management. In this study, vehicular transects were conducted to survey the distribution data and record the populations of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope from May to June, 2012, and June to July, 2013, in the AMNNR. We integrated remote sensing data analysis with on-the-ground plot surveys to identify suitable habitats ( alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow) for all three ungulates, and we estimated habitat production. A dietary analysis of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope was completed to estimate the amount of edible grasses required for the three wild ungulates in suitable habitats. Using the empirical formula ( calculation of the proper carrying capacity of rangelands) provided by the PRC Ministry of Agriculture, we quantified the carrying capacity for all three species in suitable habitats and in the whole natural reserve. The results showed that areas of suitable habitat for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope were 31866. 07 km2 , 24035. 51 km2 , and 24035. 51 km2 , respectively. There were big overlaps in the suitable habitats for all three wild ungulates, which shared almost the same suitable habitats. Within the suitable habitats, alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow could potentially provide 3944.91

  11. 基于生态足迹的半干旱草原区生态承载力与可持续发展研究——以内蒙古锡林郭勒盟为例%Ecological footprint analysis of a semi-arid grassland region facilitates assessment of its ecological carrying capacity: a case study of Xilinguole League

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 牛建明; 张庆; 张艳楠

    2011-01-01

    The development and testing of regional sustainable development indicators is an active research area. This study uses quantitative indicators to determine whether nature's ecological carrying capacity can satisfy the needs of humans. There are many quantitative measuring methods for sustainable development, but the ecological footprint analysis has a more widespread application. This method is used to calculate ecological footprints by looking at need and the ecological carrying capacity in terms of support, and study the use degree of humanity to natural. Using these results, the circumstances of an area or country's sustainable development may be .established.Xilinguole League is located 111°59'-120°00'E and 42°32'-6°41'N. The total area is 201442 km2, with agrassland area of 192000 km2, and covers one-quarter grassland area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.In this study we conducted an ecological footprint analysis of the Xilinguole League, using statistical data from 1981 to 2008. The computed ecological carrying capacity and its 30-year dynamics revealed the major development trends of this semi-arid grassland region. Our findings showed the following. (1) Rapid industrialization and urbanization altered the area's per capita ecological footprint dramatically. The area increased from 1.0868 hm2 in 1981 to 24.2176 hm2 in 2008, surpassing China's national average and that of other domestic grassland areas. The main driver of this increase was the rapid expansion of areas involved in the extraction of fossil fuels and other grassland uses. (2) Rapid population growth resulted in the decline of per capita ecological carrying capacity for this region, with grassland-cropland capacities being most affected. The total per capita ecological carrying capacity decreased from 3.1565 hm2 in 1981 to 2.3915 hm2 in 2008. (3) Development has been accompanied by a shift from a regional ecological surplus to an ecological deficit.Two factors are responsible for

  12. Comparación de métodos basados en los requerimientos nutricionales y disponibilidad de biomasa para estimar la capacidad de carga para venado cola blanca Comparison of methods based on the nutritional requirements and availability of biomass to estimate carrying capacity for white tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que tiene la metodología en la estimación de la capacidad de carga (K animales/ha en venado cola blanca, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1 Comparar la estimación de la K por cinco métodos; tres basados en disponibilidad de compuestos nutritivos (materia seca (MS, energía digestible (ED y nitrógeno (N, otro basado en la presión de pastoreo y un último en el requerimiento de energía metabolizable (EM estimado con base al metabolismo ecológico del venado, y 2 Comparar la K estimada al usar la biomasa total o por los grupos de vegetales consumidos por el venado (gramíneas, herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas. Se utilizó la información de composición de la dieta y de biomasa de un rancho cinegético localizado en Aguascalientes, México. Los resultados fueron analizados de acuerdo a un modelo con arreglo factorial (5 x 5, donde los factores fueron el método de estimación y el grupo vegetal. Los valores de K estimados con biomasa total fueron los mayores (1,449, seguidos por los pastos (0,707, luego por las herbáceas (0,325, mientras que los estimados con arbóreas y arbustivas dieron los menores valores (0,228 y 0,03. La estimación de K por medio de plantas arbustivas (0,033 venados/ha proporciona un valor más similar al de la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha que el estimado con otros grupos vegetativos, independientemente del método seleccionado (disponibilidad de MS, ED, N, metabolismo ecológico y la presión de pastoreo. Considerando la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha como el indicador apropiado para evaluar la capacidad de carga, se concluye que debe estimarse con base a la disponibilidad de arbustivas.Due to the importance of the estimation of carrying capacity (K animals/ha in white tailed deer, the objectives of this study were: 1 To compare the estimation of K with five methods, three of them based on nutrient availability (dry matter (DM, digestible energy (DE and

  13. Adecuación y análisis de sensibilidad de un modelo para la estimación de la capacidad de carga del hábitat de venado cola blanca Fitness and sensitivity analysis of a model to estimate carrying capacity in the habitat from white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se adecuó un modelo para estimar la capacidad de carga (K de venados de cola blanca y se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad utilizando datos de un rancho cinegético localizado en la región semiárida de Aguascalientes, México. El modelo está compuesto por dos componentes, el primero estima la energía metabolizable disponible en un área dada a partir de la disponibilidad de materia vegetal por estratos (gramíneas, herbáceas, arbustivas, arbóreas y la biomasa total y el segundo estima el gasto energético del venado basado en su estado fisiológico, sexo, peso vivo aproximado y época del año. El análisis de sensibilidad reveló que las variables con mayor impacto en el valor de cambio de K (> 5 son la digestibilidad del alimento, la biomasa total disponible y el peso vivo del animal. El menor impacto sobre K (The aim of this study was to fit a model to estimate the carrying capacity (K for white-tailed deer and to perform a sensitivity analysis using data of a hunting ranch located in the semi-arid region of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The model had two main components, the first one calculates the metabolizable energy available in a given area from the accessibility of vegetal matter by strata (forbs, grasses, shrubs, trees and the total biomass, and the second component considered the energetic cost of the deer based on its physiological state, sex, approximated live weight and time of the year. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the variables with a higher impact on the value of change of K (> 5% are the digestibility of the food, the total available biomass and the live weight of the animal. The lower impact on K (< 5% is caused by the type of plant, their proportion in the site and the sex or the physiological state of the animal. It was possible to observe that the increase in the plant variables improves the carrying capacity whereas the increase in the animal energy requirements reduces it.

  14. 分层损伤和完好复合材料薄壁加筋板的后屈曲承载能力及破坏形式%Post-bucking Carrying Capacity and Failure Modes of Composite Thin-wall Stiffened Panels with and without Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢紫龙; 尚柏林; 常飞; 杨哲; 尹俊杰

    2013-01-01

    Delamination damage was prefabricated on composite thin-wall stiffened panels used in advanced aircraft by impact test,and then the buckling,post-buckling carrying capacity and failure modes of the samples with and without damage at shear load were studied by shear tests.The result show that the delamination damage could reduce the stiffness of the composite thin-wall stiffned panel and change its failure mode,and cause the obvious local buckling appearing during shear process,and thus greatly reduced bucking,post-bucking and damage loads.%利用冲击试验对先进飞机上常用的复合材料薄壁加筋板预制分层损伤,通过剪切试验研究了完好试样和损伤试样在剪切载荷下的屈曲、后屈曲承载能力及破坏形式.结果表明:分层损伤会降低复合材料薄壁加筋板的刚度,并改变其破坏形式,使其在剪切过程中出现明显的局部屈曲,进而大大降低其屈曲失稳载荷、后屈曲承载载荷和破坏载荷.

  15. Valuation of ecological carrying capacity and ecological restoration research of resource-based city--Case Study in Hunan Lengshuijiang%资源型城市生态承载力评价和生态修复研究--以湖南省冷水江市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘艳平

    2013-01-01

      资源型城市的过度开发以及开发初期环境保护意识的淡薄,导致资源型城市面临地形地貌破坏、地表塌陷、裂缝、尾矿废石污染、地下水污染等各种生态问题。本文以湖南省冷水江市为例,对其城市的生态承载力进行综合评价,提出了相应的生态修复措施,为资源枯竭型城市可持续发展提供参考。%The over-exploitation of resource-based cities and the weak awareness of environmental protection in the early development stage that have resulted in destruction topography, surface subsidence, cracks, tailings waste pollution, groundwater pollution and other ecological problems in resource-based cities. In this paper, Lengshuijiang City as an ex-ample, the city's ecological carrying capacity have been comprehensively evaluated and the corresponding ecological restoration measures have put forward.The article have been provided some references for the sustainable development of resource-exhausted cities also.

  16. Improved virtual work method to calculate the load-carrying capacity of one-way concrete slabs subjected to large displacements%改进机动法计算大变形下混凝土单向板承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大山; 董毓利; 吴亚平

    2012-01-01

    基于经典屈服线理论的机动法,建立虚功方程时考虑了大变形下混凝土板塑性铰线截面处的钢筋伸长做功,提出了计算大变形下混凝土单向板在均布荷载作用下极限承载力的改进机动法.为验证本方法的合理性,开展了3种边界条件的6块钢筋混凝土单向板在大变形下的静载试验,并将试验结果与计算结果进行了对比.结果表明:在大变形下混凝土单向板的破坏模式与经典屈服线理论的塑性铰线模式一致;由于受拉薄膜效应的存在,单向板挠度达到跨度的1/15时,仍能承受较大荷载;本方法计算的板极限承载力与试验结果相差不超过10%,具有较好的精度.%An improved virtual work method was proposed to calculate the ultimate load-carrying ca- pacity of one-way concrete slabs under uniformly distributed load at large displacements, and its deri- vation was based on the classical yield-line theory. The work, which caused by the extension of steel reinforcements at the sections of plastic hinge line under large displacements, was added in the meth- od. Six one-way slabs with three types of edge conditions were tested to validate the method. Then the theoretical predictions by the method were compared with experimental results. It is shown that the failure mode of the test slabs subjected to large displacement is almost identical with that assumed in the classical yield-line theory. The slabs can carry test load steadily due to the tensile membrane ac- tion, even when their displacements reach 1/15 of the span-length. The predicted load-carrying capac- ity of the method is no more than 10% error compared with the test results, and it shows good accura- cy.

  17. Application Practice of Ultrasonic Flow Meter in the Calibration of Pumping Unit Power Water Carrying Capacity%超声波流量计在泵站单位电量提水量率定中的应用实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘忠良; 顾晓蕾; 王维汉; 王茜; 赵晓波

    2015-01-01

    为了准确测算平原河网提水灌区的毛灌溉用水量和灌溉水有效利用系数,需要对灌溉泵站常水位下的单位电量提水量进行率定。采用超声波流量计测定水泵流量,同时观测水泵在同一时段内的用电量,通过计算水泵实际功率获得泵站单位电量的提水量。结果表明,水泵实测流量均小于额定流量,超声波流量计与断面流速法观测到的水泵流量接近,可以用于水泵流量的率定。超声波流量计快捷方便,具有一定精度,是泵站单位电量提水量率定的一种可行方法。%In order to accurately measure the irrigation water efficient utilization coefficient and gross irrigation water consumption in plain river network water pumping irrigation area , we need to calibrate the unit electricity water carrying capacity under normal water level of the irrigation pumping station . We used ultrasonic flow meter to measure the pump flow , while observing the electricity consumption of the pump station in the same period , obtaining pumping water capacity of per unit of electricity by calculating the actual pump power . The results show that pump flow measured is less than the rated flow , and pump flow observed by using ultrasonic flow meter is close to that of section velocity method , suggesting that ultrasonic flow meter can be used for the calibration of pump flow . Ultrasonic flow meter is quick and convenient with a certain degree of accuracy . It is a feasible method to calibrate pumping unit power flow rate .

  18. 艾司洛尔与急性心肌梗死患者红细胞携氧能力的关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between Esmolol and Erythrocyte Oxygen Carrying Capacity in Pa-tients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向华; 韩莲花; 李红霞; 惠杰

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨艾司洛尔是否影响急性心肌梗死患者红细胞血红蛋白的携氧能力。【方法】采集急性心肌梗死患者红细胞,悬浮于不同pH值(pH7.4、pH5.0)等渗PBS缓冲液,分别用肾上腺素、艾司洛尔、艾司洛尔+肾上腺素预处理红细胞,在拉曼光谱点扫描检测单个活态红细胞内血红蛋白特征光谱变化。【结果】在pH5.0时,氧化血红蛋白特征峰峰强在PBS、艾司洛尔的作用下明显降低;在肾上腺素的作用下显著升高(P<0.05);而经艾司洛尔+肾上腺索预处理后,肾上腺素的这一作用不明显。【结论】艾司洛尔能减轻肾上腺素在酸性环境中增加红细胞血红蛋白的氧合力的作用,增加氧从血红蛋白的解离,有利于缺氧组织的供氧。%[Obj ective]To explore whether esmolol affects erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity in patients with acute myocardial infarction.[Methods]Erythrocytes from patients with acute myocardial infarction were collected and suspended in isotonic PBS buffer solution with different pH value(pH7.4 and pH5.0).Erythro-cytes were pretreated with adrenaline,esmolol and adrenaline plus esmolol,respectively.The characteristic spectral changes of hemoglobin in single living erythrocytes were detected by using Raman spectroscopy analy-sis.[Results]Characteristic peak of oxyhemoglobin treated with PBS and esmolol at pH5.0 was decreased obvi-ously,but that treated with adrenaline was increased significantly. After pretreatment with esmolol plus adrenaline,the effect of adrenaline was not obvious.[Conclusion]Esmolol can reduce the effect of adrenaline for enhancing erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in acid environment,and increase the disso-ciation of oxygen from hemoglobin,and is helpful for oxygen supply of anoxia tissue.

  19. 无加劲冷成型方钢管-H形钢梁翼缘板焊接节点受拉性能试验研究%Experimental study on load carrying capacity of welded joint assemblage between no-diaphragm cold-formed rectangular tube column and flange plate of H-shaped beam under statically tensile load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以一; 张梁; 王拓

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of the no-diaphragm joint connecting the cold-formed tube column and the H-shaped beam, 11 specimens consisting of flange plate of H-shaped beams that were welded to rectangular columns at flange plates were tested under statically tensile load considering the effect of molding types, location of seams of tube column, the restriction of flange plates in the orthogonal direction and the dimension parameters of tubes and flange plates.After the test some conclusions can be drawn that the load carrying capacity and stiffness of cold formed section specimens are higher than the welded section one.The location of tube seams has almost no effect on the capacity and initial stiffness of the connection.The restraints in the orthogonal direction makes the initial stiffness of specimens a little higher.When the end of flange plate is hunched, the average stress of the flange plate will be higher.The most important parameters which affect the capacity of joints are the ratio of width to thickness of tube section, the ratio of width of flange plate to that of tube and the ratio of flange plate thickness to the tube thickness.%为研究无加劲方钢管柱-H形钢梁节点的特性,对粱翼缘板与柱段焊接组成的节点进行试验研究,分析截面形成方式、钢管成型焊缝位置、与平面受力正交方向上的梁翼缘板约束作用、梁翼缘板端部构造形式以及钢管与梁翼缘板几何参数对连接的力学性能的影响.试验设了3组11个试件,得到单调拉伸荷载作用下各试件的开裂荷载、极限荷载与各部分变形等力学指标.试验研究表明:冷成型钢管承载力和初始刚度较焊接组合截面试件有所提高;钢管成型焊缝的位置对节点受拉承载力及初始刚度没有影响;正交方向梁翼缘板的约束对节点初始刚度略有提高作用;梁翼缘板加宽的连接方式可以提高梁翼缘板的平均应力;影响节点受力性能的主要

  20. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  1. 基于生态服务价值和生态承载力的"两型社会"城市可持续发展能力分析%Sustainable Development Ability Analysis of ‘Two-Oriented Society' City Based on Ecosystem Service Value and Ecological Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲霞; 黄朝禧; 赵微

    2011-01-01

    Taking the‘two-oriented society', Wuhan City, as an example, this paper computes and analyzes its ecosystem service value and ecological carrying capacity during 2000-2008 using its land-use change data. On this basis, based on industrial stage of development theory, it synthetically judges and forecasts sustainable development of Wuhan City combing with relevant data. The results shows that: ①Ecosystem services value of 2000-2008 in Wuhan shows slowly increasing trend, from 47.965 billion Yuan in 2000 to 48.771 billion Yuan in 2008, increasing by 1.68%; and over the same period, ecological capacity declines from 3,955,300 hm2 in 2000 to 3,770,200 hm2 in 2008, decreasing by 4.68%.The key causes of which are due to weight difference of the same land types. The ecosystem service value per unit area in use currently is not considered the human factors are also an important factor. ②Economic development in Wuhan is still extensive, economic development is still in an unsustainable status. ③Wuhan should grasps good situation of both international and domestic, especially grasps opportunities of constructing Wuhan urban cluster to ‘Two-Oriented Society' by nation and the‘Strategy of Emerging Central China' to optimize and upgrade industrial structure, tries to realize the goal of a coordinated and sustained development of economy, society, resources and environment.%以"两型社会"城市-武汉市为例,利用其土地利用变化数据,对其2000-2008年生态服务价值和生态承载力进行计算和对比分析.并在此基础上运用工业化发展阶段等理论判断和预测武汉市社会经济发展的可持续性.结果表明:①武汉市2000-2008年生态服务价值缓慢递增,由2000年的479.65亿元增至2008年的487.71亿元,增加了1.68%;而同期生态承载力逐年下降,由2000年的395.53万hm降为2008年的377.02万hm,下降了4.68%.二者变化产生差异的主要原因是指标侧重点不同而对相同地类赋予权

  2. Application of space entity the unit model calculations in the testing of the carrying capacity of the stone arch bridge%空间实体单元模型计算在石拱桥承载能力检测试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴安杰

    2012-01-01

      Currently, domestic and international bridge design software is mostly beam element modeling. In recent years, the space grillage method is the more common.Beam elements for most of the beam bridge analysis relatively simple to apply, but the stone arch bridge analysis is not so ap-ply. Bridge calculation and analysis of the most concern is the the transverse stiffness size and load lateral distribution unit of space entity model can be used to solve this kind of problem. Testing of the carrying capacity of the stone arch bridge engineering background, space solid element modeling in detector design and application of static and dynamic load test calculations, analysis and comparison of the solid element modeling cal-culations,beam element modeling calculations as well as the results of the tests measured.%  目前,国内外桥梁计算设计软件大部分采用梁单元建模。近年来,空间梁格法应用较普遍。梁单元对于大部分梁桥分析比较简单适用,但对于石拱桥分析就不那么适用了。桥梁计算分析中最关注的是结构横向刚度大小和荷载横向分布的问题,空间实体单元模型能很好地解决这类问题。以石拱桥承载能力检测试验为工程背景,介绍了空间实体单元建模在检测方案设计和静、动载试验计算中的应用,并分析对比了实体单元建模计算结果、梁单元建模计算结果以及试验实测结果。

  3. 西部矿产资源开发的地质生态环境承载力理论与方法探讨%Discussion on the Geo-ecological Environmental Carrying Capacity of Mineral Resource Exploitation in Western Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何政伟; 刘峻杉; 赵银兵; 于欢; 薛东剑

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation and utilization of mineral resources with basic, native, public and non-substitutable characteristics are a basic industry of the national economy. The distribution and exploitation of mineral resources often cross and overlap with water resources, agricultural and animal husbandry resources, tourism resources, and forest resources. This spatial feature leads to comprehensive, cumulative action between different mining activities in the same environmental background, which increases the burden on the environment and influences the sustainable development of resources; there were some serious geo-ec-ological problems in some mining areas such as frequent geological disasters. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the geo-ecological carrying capacity in combination with the scale, intensity and effect of human activities in the ecologically fragile mining area in western regions. This paper made a wide range of discussion on research frame, assessment system, model, methodology and key application.%矿产资源开发利用是国民经济的一项基础产业,具有基础性、原生性、公共性和不可替代性等特点.西部矿产资源在空间分布及开发活动中多与水电资源、农牧资源、旅游资源、林业资源等存在交叉与重叠,导致同一环境本底的不同资源开发的多重、链接作用,由此加重了环境负担,影响了资源的可持续利用,部分矿区已出现较严重的地质生态环境问题,频发的地质灾害已成为地质生态环境质量剧变的前兆.因此需要在西部生态脆弱的矿产资源开发区探索以人类活动规模、强度和效应等为一体的地质生态环境承载力.论文在地质生态环境承载力的研究框架、评价体系、模型与方法、关键应用等方面进行了广泛探讨.

  4. 基于熵模型的城市水资源承载力研究——以开封市为例%Study on Water Resources Carrying Capacity of Urbanized Area Based on Entropy Model-A Case Study in Kaifeng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军凯; 李九发; 戴志军; 闫虹; 赵秉栋

    2009-01-01

    Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is an index, which reflects the supporting ability of the water resources system for sustainable socio-economic development. And it is the foundational measurement of water resources security, also it is a complex system which involves socio-economic system, water resources system and eco-environmental system. Therefore, through studying WRCC of urbanized area, not only the supporting functions for social development, resources, environment and harmonized developmental relationship among the population will be understood, but also the socio-economic sustainable development can be comprehended well. WRCC of Kaifeng city in the future years was analyzed by using the entropy model, which was combined by the grey system theory, the fuzzy theory and the theory of maximum entropy. Notablely, the water of the Yellow River was considered and the index of the ratio of using exterior reach water was selected in this essay. The results were shown as follows: Developing economy of Kaifeng under any scenario of forecasting projects in the year of 2010 and 2020 will have the WRCC level laid between grade 2 and 3, and it is more close to grade 2. And the serious problem of water shortage must be resolved by relevant authorities.%城市水资源承载力是水资源对城市社会经济发展规模支撑能力的表征,是城市水安全的基本度量,它是涉及社会经济系统、水资源系统和生态环境系统的一个衡量指标.论文利用灰色系统理论、模糊集理论和最大熵原理相结合的熵模型对开封市未来预测年份水资源承载力进行评价,特别考虑了半湿润地区开封城市主要利用黄河客水资源的特点,选取了客水利用率这一评价指标.研究结果表明,2010年和2020年开封市城市发展无论在哪种预测情景方案下的水资源承载力综合评价都处于2级与3级之间,并且距离2级很近,说明水资源的开发强度很高,继续开发利用的

  5. 九寨沟旅游陆地交通环境承载力及其调控模式研究初论%Preliminary study on carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 冯山; 刘延国

    2013-01-01

    carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou has a high theoretical and practical significance.

  6. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  7. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  8. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mann

    Full Text Available Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1 help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2 indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation between ecological and social factors and, (3 constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  9. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  10. Integrated Assessment and Obstacle Factors of Environmental Carrying Capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones Based on Entropy and Catastrophe Progression Methods:A Case Study in Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang Development and Opening-up Pilot Area%基于熵值-突变级数法的国家战略经济区环境承载力综合评价及障碍因子——以长吉图开发开放先导区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏波; 马延吉; 苗长虹

    2015-01-01

    The environmental carrying capacity is a parameter to measure the capacity degree between human being social activities and the environment. To study the theories and quantification, methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. With the rapid development of social economy and population growth sharply in National Strategic Economic Zones, the resource consumption and pollutant emission are increasing accordingly, which made resources and environment system under tremendous pres-sure, this situation would impact the level of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones. According to the catastrophic characteristics of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones, we selected Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang development and opening-up Pilot Area as the re-search object. Based on the entropy and catastrophe progression methods, we built an index system to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity, in which Nature-Economy-Society (N-E-S) indexes are included. Using obstacle degree models, we analyzed the temporal pattern of environmental carrying capacity and the obstacle factors from 2000 to 2011.Results are shown as follows:1) Temporally, the level of environmental carrying ca-pacity rose from weak to moderate level from 2000 to 2011. 2) The proportion of environmental protection in-vestment in GDP, industrial waste water emissions, cultivated land fertilizer usage, the per Capita GDP, the en-ergy consumptions per GDP and economic density are the main obstacle factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity. The approach established in the article has a lot advantages when dealing with municipal projects under complex evaluation problems and it does not use any weight, only need to arrange indicators in an order of important degree according to the inherent logic

  11. carry a torch for someone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2004-01-01

    【英语对话】 A:It’s unbelievable that Mark would carry a torch for a girl like Jenny. B:But she does have the charm to win over men.She has many good-loo-king men eating out of her hand. A:But the way she talks to man make me eel sick. B:That’S why you can’t twist men around your little fingers.【对话译文】 A:真不敢想Mark会对Jenny这样的女孩害上了单相思! B:不过,话要说回来,Jenny确实具有吸引男人的魅力。有很多帅哥都乖乖地听她的话。

  12. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity Land-Based Layout to Mitigate Flood Risk (Case Study in Tempuran Floodplain, Ponorogo Regency) Novia Lusiana1 Bambang Rahadi2 Tunggul Sutanhaji3 1Environmental and Natural Resources Management Graduate Program University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia 23Laboratory of Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia Email : novialusiana@rocketmail.com, jbrahadi@ub.ac.id, tunggulsutanhaji@yahoo.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Floods haves frequently hit Indonesia and have had greater negative impacts. In Javaboth the area affected by flooding and the amount of damage caused by floods have increased. At least, five factors, affect the flooding in Indonesia, including rainfall, reduced retention capacity of the watershed, erroneous design of river channel development, silting-up of the river, and erroneous regional layout. The level of the disastrous risks can be evaluated based on the extent of the threat and susceptibility of a region. One methode for risk assessment is Geographical Information System (GIS)-based mapping. Objectives of this research are: 1) evaluating current flood risk in susceptible areas, 2) applying supported land-based layout as effort to mitigate floodrisk, and 3) evaluating floodrisk for the period 2031 in the Tempuran floodplain of Ponorogo Regency. Result show that the area categorized as high risk covers 104. 6 ha (1. 2%), moderate risk covers 2512. 9 ha (28. 4%), low risk covers 3140. 8 ha (35. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 3096. 1 (34. 9%). Using Regional Layout Design for the years 2011 - 2031, the high risk area covers 67. 9 ha (0.8%), moderate risk covers 3033 ha (34. 3%), low risk covers 2770. 8 ha (31, 3%), and the lowest risk covers 2982. 6 ha (34%). Based on supported land suitability, the high-risk areais only 2. 9 ha (0.1%), moderate risk covers of 426. 1 ha (4. 8%), low risk covers 4207. 4 ha (47. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 4218 ha (47. 6%). Flood risk can be mitigated by applying supported land-based layout as shown by the reduced high-risk area, and the fact that > 90% of the areas are categorized as low or lowest risk of disaster. Keywords : Carrying Capacity, Land Capacity, Flood Risk

  13. Theoretical and Empirical Study on Urban Population Cawing Capacity: Case of Haidian District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lihua; Chen Gang; Xu Xiaoxin; Liu Huiwu

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of urban population carrying capac-ity is the basis for cities' sustainable development. However, the traditional study on population carrying capacity which was based on food supply is not applicable to the single urban area. This paper built a model for the analysis of urban carrying capacity, and took Haidian District in Beijing as an example to calculate the urban carrying capacity of Haidian District in the future, which was the basis for the improvement of the population carrying capacity. This study would also provide a reference to the meas-urement of the urban population carrying capacity for other cities and districts in China.

  14. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  15. Predicting the ecological carrying capacity of the Lidao artificial reef zone of Shandong Province for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, (Selenck) and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, using a linear food web model%基于线性食物网模型估算荣成俚岛人工鱼礁区刺参和皱纹盘鲍的生态容纳量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠鑫; 张秀梅; 张磊; 佟飞; 刘洪军

    2013-01-01

    The Lidao reef zone is a typical artificial reef ecosystem for rare marine animal stock enhancement in the coastal sea of North China. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck), and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, are the main enhancement species in the system. Based on the data of biological resources obtained from an investigation of the Lidao artificial reef zone in 2009, a balanced trophic model of the area was con-structed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software package. The effects of uncertainty of input parameters and Ecopath analysis sensitivity were explored. Trophic flow and system attributes of the Lidao artificial reef system were analyzed. The ecological carrying capacity for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were also predicted. The model consisted of 19 functional groups, which covered the main trophic flow in the Lidao artificial reef ecosys-tem. The results showed that the pedigree index of the model was 0.51, and the input parameters having the great-est effects on the output parameters were the production/biomass ratios (P/B) of small demersal fish groups. A–50% change in the production/biomass ratios in small demersal fish groups gave a sensitivity of the biomass (B) of the same group from 100% to 136%. The total system throughput was estimated to be 10 786.680 t/(km2·a), 27% of which flowed to detritus and 17% of which is tranferred out of the ecosystem in the forms of fishing and sediment. Total net primary production was 4131.966 t/(km2·a) and the total energy transfer efficiency was 10.5%. The proportion of the total flow originating from detritus was 39%, and that from primary producers was 61%, indicating that the energy flow was dominated by grazing food chain. The ecological carrying capacity was de-fined as the level of enhancement that could be introduced without significantly changing the major trophic fluxes or structure of the food web. The ecological carrying capacities for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were

  16. A FEMINIST READING OF SISTER CARRIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高陈科

    2011-01-01

    In the history of American literature, Sister Carrie has always been a controversial character. The critics regard Carrie either as a "fallen woman" or as a "new women". This thesis aims to offer a feminist reading of the image of Sister Carrie in the con

  17. The carryng capacity of ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Del Monte Luna, Pablo; Brooks, Barry W.; Zetina Rejón, Manuel Jesús; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the concept of carrying capacity (CC), from populations to the biosphere, and offer a definition suitable for any level. For communities and ecosystems, the CC evokes density-dependence assumptions analogous to those of population dynamics. At the biosphere level, human CC is uncertain and dynamic, leading to apprehensive rather than practical conclusions. The term CC is widely used among ecological disciplines but remains vague and elusive. We propose the following definition: the...

  18. Sister Carrie:A Material Pursuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春花

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie dramatized by Dreiser is totally a material pursuer. She is selfish and accumulates money in a crazy way. What she does inevitably centers on materials. Living with Drouet and later Hurstwood, Carrie gets what she wants and enjoys the luxurious life in an easy way. However, with the satisfaction of some of her desires, Carrie ’s desires grow and expand. With enough food and clothes, she needs luxury. Hurstwood’s failure in business leads Carrie to the stage and finally she makes a suc⁃cess and becomes a famous actress in Broadway. She gets more money, but her desires grow even higher. Nothing can satisfy her. In this essay, the author tries to analyze Carrie according to Freud’s and Guo Weilu’s theories and prove that Carrie is totally a material pursuer.

  19. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Rule On December 4, 2007 (72 FR 68442) (Docket No. NHTSA-2007-0040), NHTSA published a final rule that... problems can be found in the August 31, 2005 notice of proposed rulemaking (70 FR 51707, 51708) (Docket No... can be verified by NHTSA during a compliance test (FMVSS No. 110 paragraphs S9.3.2 and S10.2; FMVSS...

  20. Conservation endocrinology: A noninvasive tool to understand relationships between carnivore colonization and ecological carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Testa, J.W.; Roffe, T.; Monfort, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Reproductive technology, especially the diagnosis of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of fecal steroid metabolites, is an important component of captive propagation, but its role in our understanding of ecological interactions and in situ biological restoration has been more limited. Where large herbivores have been 'released' from predation by the extirpation of carnivores, controversy often exists about possible detrimental effects at the ecosystem level A related concern is that the reestablishment of large carnivores may decrease the availability of prey populations for human subsistence. We suggest that pregnancy assays can be a valuable tool to help distinguish between the roles of predation versus food-imposed limitations on population size and their effects on juvenile recruitment in wild species. We explored this issue through analyses of fecal progestagen concentration (FPC) levels to document pregnancy in moose (Alces alces) in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a site where wolves (Canis lupus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) are recolonizing former habitats after an absence of more than 60 years. Pregnancy was clearly discernible (mean FPC for pregnant and nonpregnant females, respectively: 10.60 vs. 2.57 ??g/g; p animals. With these issues accounted for, the local moose population experienced juvenile survival rates among the highest in North America. Pregnancy rates, however, dropped from 90% in 1966 to about 75% today, rendering them in the lowest fifteenth percentile among moose populations in North America. Our findings suggest that a relatively low frequency of juvenile moose is not the likely result of predation, and they illustrate how endocrinology can be applied to issues involving reproductive events within an ecological context. They also affirm that noninvasive and generally inexpensive endocrinological procedures will be applicable to understanding interactions between recolonizing predators and prey, an issue that will continue to arise because of global restoration efforts, and to the study of rare ungulates in remote systems where data on reproductive events are difficult to obtain.

  1. Effect of animal husbandry on herbivore-carrying capacity at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterheld, M; Sala, O E; McNaughton, S J

    1992-03-19

    All significant properties of the herbivore trophic level, including biomass, consumption and productivity, are significantly correlated with primary productivity across a broad range of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we show that livestock biomass in South American agricultural ecosystems across a 25-fold gradient of primary productivity exhibited a relationship with a slope essentially identical to unmanaged ecosystems, but with a substantially greater y-intercept. Therefore the biomass of herbivores supported per unit of primary productivity is about an order of magnitude greater in agricultural than in natural ecosystems, for a given level of primary production. We also present evidence of an increase in livestock body size with primary productivity, a pattern previously characterized in natural ecosystems. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative documentation at a regional scale of the impact of animal husbandry practices, such as herding, stock selection and veterinary care, on the biomass and size-structure of livestock herds compared with native herbivores. PMID:1552941

  2. SOCOMO: a soil compaction model to calculate soil stresses and the subsoil carrying capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Intensification of crop rotation and increasing use of machinery with high wheel loads are clearly related to compaction of the subsoil. Subsoil compaction is persistent and the effect of natural and artificial loosening has been disappointing. Therefore, prevention of subsoil compaction is the best

  3. SHEAR CARRYING CAPACITY OF SEGMENTAL CONCRETE BEAMS WITH DRAPED EXTERNAL TENDONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Hung; Matsumoto, Koji; Watanabe, Ken; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Niwa, Junichiro

    This study presents an investigation of the shear be havior of segmental concrete beams with draped external tendons. Deviator force and transfer mechanism of prestressing force from an anchorage that affect the shear failure mechanism have been examined base d on the results of experimental procedure and FEM with different location of deviator and inclined angle of draped tendons. The modified model proposed by authors has been extended for segmental concrete beam s with draped external tendons with considering the effect of deviator force and transfer mechanism of prestressing force from the anchorage. The results from the extended modified model for draped external tendons had a good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  5. Influence of local carrying capacity restrictions on stochastic predator-prey models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenberger, Mark J [Department of Physics and Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States); Mobilia, Mauro [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for NanoScience, Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Taeuber, Uwe C [Department of Physics and Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-02-14

    We study a stochastic lattice predator-prey system by means of Monte Carlo simulations that do not impose any restrictions on the number of particles per site, and discuss the similarities and differences of our results with those obtained for site-restricted model variants. In accord with the classic Lotka-Volterra mean-field description, both species always coexist in two dimensions. Yet competing activity fronts generate complex, correlated spatio-temporal structures. As a consequence, finite systems display transient erratic population oscillations with characteristic frequencies that are renormalized by fluctuations. For large reaction rates, when the processes are rendered more local, these oscillations are suppressed. In contrast with the site-restricted predator-prey model, we also observe species coexistence in one dimension. In addition, we report results on the steady-state prey age distribution.

  6. Can stochastic variations in recruitment induce long-term fluctuations in the carrying capacity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Las fluctuaciones a largo plazo en la abundancia de peces suelen atribuirse generalmente a procesos de baja frecuencia, como la explotación humana o los cambios climáticos y medioambientales. Basándose en estudios recientes y simulaciones simples, este documento muestra que las fluctuaciones a largo plazo de la capacidad de transporte y/o de la biomasa del stock reproductor de una especie longeva, como el atún rojo del Atlántico, pueden producirse por variaciones estocásticas del reclutami...

  7. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  8. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  9. The carrying capacity of a tourist destination. The case of a coastal Italian city

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, Elena; Fredella, Franco Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades the world tourist flows rapidly grew and travel and tourism has become one of the world’s highest priority industries and employers. According to UNWTO world tourism barometer, in 2008 international tourist arrivals reached 919 million (880 million in 2009, a cause of the international recession), with a growth of 72% since 1995. Italy, which accounts in 2009 43 millions of tourist arrivals, is one of the most preferred destinations. Tourism gives an important contribu...

  10. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la velocidad de propagación de ultrasonidos con un límite de 4.900 m/s. En este caso la clase resistente alcanzada sería FI6/E10/D380

  11. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  12. Load carrying capacity of large mortise and tenon joints in wooden mitre gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Otterloo, J.; Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; De Vries, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wooden mitre gates are used for centuries in waterways and canals. For newly built as well as the renewal of such gates, a number of wood species is used, ranging from oak to dense tropical hardwoods. As mitre gates have high loads to withstand, their strength verification has become more and more i

  13. Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.

  14. Comments on the image of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2016-01-01

    Thedore Oreiser was one of America's greatest writers and one of his famous masterpieces is Sister Carrie. the heroin of the novel was a country girl who struggled for success and finally became a movie star. Analysis on the image of Carrie is of practical significance to the country girls swarming into the city nowdays in our country.

  15. Carrie Chapman Catt and Woman Suffrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the material for this issue of the "Goldfinch," which explores the life of Carrie Chapman Catt, came from the archives of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) was an Iowan who advocated woman suffrage and spent 26 years actively working for that cause. The issue contains a biography of Catt, and information…

  16. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴水妹

    2007-01-01

    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  17. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  18. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  19. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2015-01-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  20. Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden Stress, finances may boost cardiovascular risks for U.S. mothers, study ... the June 16 online edition of the American Journal of Public Health . SOURCES: Frank van Lenthe, Ph. ...

  1. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  2. A Naturalistic Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈月

    2016-01-01

    Sister Carrie is well known as the works in which naturalism attained maturity in America. Up until now, the relevant research on Dreiser and his Sister Carrie abroad and at home is primarily concerned with the frustration of American dream, the naturalistic thoughts and pessimism. The paper attempts to study it from naturalistic point of view and explain how environmental, hereditary factors and the idea of“survival of the fittest”influence Carrie’s fate.

  3. Carry Trades, Monetary Policy and Speculative Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Plantin, Guillaume; Shin, Hyun Song

    2011-01-01

    We ask when currency carry trades are associated with destabilizing dynamics in the foreign exchange market, and investigate the role of monetary policy rules in setting of such dynamics. In a model where the exchange rate has a long-term fundamental anchor, we find that carry trades can be stabilizing or destabilizing at shorter horizons, depending on the propensity of capital inflows to overheat the recipient economy. In the destabilizing case, we solve for a unique equilibrium that exhibit...

  4. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  5. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  6. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  7. Optical information capacity of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...

  8. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  9. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply. Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city. She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  10. Lorentz Contraction and Current-Carrying Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The force between two parallel current-carrying wires is investigated in the rest frames of the ions and the electrons. A straightforward Lorentz transformation shows that what appears as a purely magnetostatic force in the ion frame appears as a combined magnetostatic and electrostatic force in the electron frame. The derivation makes use of a…

  11. Column buckling of magnetically affected stocky nanowires carrying electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-08-01

    Axial load-bearing capacity of current carrying nanowires (CCNWs) acted upon by a longitudinal magnetic field is of high interest. By adopting Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity theory, the governing equations of the nanostructure are constructed based on the Timoshenko and higher-order beam models. To solve these equations for critical compressive load, a meshfree approach is exploited and the weak formulations for the proposed models are obtained. The predicted buckling loads are compared with those of assume mode method and a remarkable confirmation is reported. The role of influential factors on buckling load of the nanostructure is carefully addressed and discussed. The obtained results reveal that the surface energy effect becomes important in buckling behavior of slender CCNWs, particularly for high electric currents and magnetic field strengths. For higher electric currents, relative discrepancies between the results of Timoshenko and higher-order beam models increase with a higher rate as the slenderness ratio magnifies. A magnetically affected current-carrying nanowire acted upon by an axial force. Axial buckling of stocky current-carrying nanowires in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field is of particular interest. Using Timoshenko and higher-order beam theories accounting for surface energy effect, the governing equations are derived and a meshfree methodology is applied to evaluate the buckling load.

  12. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....

  13. Nuclear Capacity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose nuclear capacity auctions as a means to improve the incentives for investing in nuclear power. A properly designed auction would (i) allocate the license to the most efficient bidder; (ii) sell the license if and only if new nuclear power was socially optimal. In particular, capacity auctions open the market for large-scale entry by outside firms. Requiring licensees to sell a share of capacity as virtual power plant contracts increases auction efficiency by softening incumbent pro...

  14. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  15. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  16. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply.Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city.She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  17. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  18. A decimal carry-free adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  19. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  20. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  1. The UIC 406 capacity method used on single track sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Jacobsen, Erik M.;

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 capacity method which is an easy and effective way of calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. However, it is possible to expound the method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC...... 406 method for single track lines and how it is expounded in Denmark. Many capacity analyses using the UIC 406 capacity method for double track lines have been carried out and presented internationally but only few capacity analyses using the UIC 406 capacity method on single track lines have been...... presented. Therefore, the differences between capacity analysis for double track lines and single track lines are discussed in the beginning of this paper. Many of the principles of the UIC 406 capacity analyses on double track lines can be used on single track lines – at least when more than one train...

  2. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  3. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  4. Colliding particles carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2011-05-01

    Photons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, using Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies was suggested. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted particles in the initial and/or final state. In order to avoid additional complications arising from nontrivial polarization states, we focus here on scalar fields only. We show that processes involving twisted particles allow one to perform a Fourier analysis of the plane-wave cross section with respect to the azimuthal angles of the initial particles. In addition, using twisted states, one can probe the autocorrelation function of the amplitude, which is inaccessible in the plane-wave collisions. Finally, we discuss prospects for experimental study of these effects.

  5. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  6. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  7. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...

  8. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  9. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  10. Capacities in function theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since the famous thesis of Frostman, capacities have been important in many areas of function theory. In this talk I shall be concerned only with one–variable function theory on arbitrary open subsets of the complex plane, C. It is important to stress that the open sets need not be connected. I will discuss the use of analytic capacities in connection with problems of removable singularities, holomorphic approximation, and boundary smoothness. A brief reference to the applications ...

  11. On the design of reconfigurable ripple carry adders and carry save multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yi-Feng

    1992-01-01

    The fault location and reconfigurable designs of Ripple Carry (RC) adders and Carry Save (CS) multipliers are studied in this thesis. The proposed designs can locate a faulty cell and reconfigure the faulty array to tolerate the faulty cell. Laser programming technique is used for fault location and reconfiguration. The key idea employed in the proposed methods is to perform diagnosis and reconfiguration at the same time. Appropriate fuses are programmed to locate a faulty cell...

  12. Testability Synthesis for Jumping Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-In Henry Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis for testability ensures that the synthesized circuit is testable by exploring the fundamental relationship between don't care and redundancy. With the exploration of the relationship, redundancy removal can be applied to improve the testability, reduce the area and improve the speed of a synthesized circuit. The test generation problems have been adequately solved, therefore an innovative testability synthesis strategy is necessary for achieving the maximum fault coverage and area reduction for maximum speed. This paper presents a testability synthesis methodology applicable to a top–down design method based on the identification and removal of redundant faults. Emphasis has been placed on the testability synthesis of a high-speed binary jumping carry adder. A synthesized 32-bit testable adder implemented by a 1.2 μm CMOS technology performs addition in 4.09 ns. Comparing with the original synthesized circuit, redundancy removal yields a 100% testable design with a 15% improvement in speed and a 25% reduction in area.

  13. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  14. Naturalism in Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪四祥

    2009-01-01

    "A woman should some day write the complete philosophy of clothes.No matter how young,it is one of the things she wholly comprehends.There is an indescribably faint line in the matter of man's apparel which somehow divides for her those who arc worth glancing at and those who are not.Once an individual has passed this faint line on the way downward he will get no glance from her.There is another line at which the dress of a man will cause her to study her own."-from Sister Carrie(900-film 1952,dir.by William Wyler,starring Laurence Olivier-Jennifer Jones."A famous satirical novel is softened into an unwieldy narrative with scarcely enough dramatic power to sustain interest despite splendid production values.Heavy pre-release cuts remain obvious,and the general effect is depressing;but it it very good tO look at."(Halliwell's Film Guide,1987)

  15. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  16. Damping Capacity of Hypo-Eutectic Zn-Al Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kurosawa; Otani, T.; Hoshino, K

    1996-01-01

    Damping capacity of hypo-eutectic Zn-Al alloys as a function of rolling ratio is investigated. Effect of heat treatment after cold rolling on the damping capacity is discussed. Damping tests were carried out using the method of the free decay of vibrations in bending oscillation. With an increase in rolling reduction, the damping capacity was increased. As the results of tensile and hardness testing show, the elongation was increased and hardness was decreased with an increase in rolling redu...

  17. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section...

  18. Efficient carry skip Adder design using full adder and carry skip block based on reversible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, binary full Adder with Design I and Design II are proposed. The performance analysis is verified using number of reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs, delay, number of logical calculations and Quantum Cost. According to the suitability of full adder design I and design II carry skip adder block is also constructed with some improvement in terms of delay in block carry generation. It is observed that Reversible carry skip Binary Adder with Design II is efficient compared to Design I

  19. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  20. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  1. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  2. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  3. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  4. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Zehmisch, Kai; Ziltener, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Comment: We include generalizations to higher dimensions due to the unknown referee and Janko Latschev. We add examples of open sets with connected boundary on which the shell capacity is not continuous. 3rd and 4th version: minor changes, to appear in J. Fixed Point Theory Appl

  5. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  6. Efficient Approaches for Designing Fault Tolerant Reversible Carry Look-Ahead and Carry-Skip Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Combinational or Classical logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit implements only the functions having one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors and therefore naturally takes care of heating. Reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing fault tolerant reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed high speed reversible adders include MIG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The MIG gate is universal and parity preserving. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs...

  7. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  8. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...... model shows positive correlation between serving London and the efficiency scores. There is negative correlation between offering regional services (average length of journeys less than 40 mi) and the efficiency scores. The overall study and the results can provide helpful insights for railway...

  9. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  10. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  11. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Function, Impairment, and Disability are words in which many physicians have little interest. Most physicians are trained to deal with structure and physiology and not function and disability. The purpose of this article is to address some of the common questions that many physicians have with the use of functional capacity evaluation and disability and also to provide a unifying model that can explain the medical and societal variables in predicting disability. We will first define the funct...

  12. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  13. Capacity Utilization and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fagnart, J.F.; Licandro, O.; Sneessens, Henri

    1997-01-01

    In a monopolistic competition framework, we propose a dynamic model in which capacity underutilization is a macroeconomic equilibrium feature relying on a diversity of microeconomic situations. Capacity underutilization follows from microeconomic uncertainty at the time firms must decide on their productive capacity. We settle a relationship between capacity utilization and markups via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power. We show that such a relationship inf...

  14. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  15. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  16. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  17. Quantum reading capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  18. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  19. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  20. Airport Capacity Forecast : Short-term forecasting of runway capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Henk; Nibourg, Joyce; D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience Airports expect major benefits from increasing predictability of the operation. This paper will investigate the use of forecast information to determine forecast airport capacity, which will allow airport stakeholders to optimize the use of their resources. The focus will be on forecasting runway capacity, at most airports the major factor for the overall airport capacity. The possibility to model forecast runway capacity, based on probabilistic inputs, will be inves...

  1. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  2. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  3. Estuarine chinook capacity - Estimating changes in juvenile Chinook rearing area and carrying capacity in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project has two objectives: 1. Estimate the amount of rearing habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon currently and historically (i.e., ~1850s) throughout...

  4. Predicting Endurance Time in a Repetitive Lift and Carry Task Using Linear Mixed Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Beck

    Full Text Available Repetitive manual handling tasks account for a substantial portion of work-related injuries. However, few studies report endurance time in repetitive manual handling tasks. Consequently, there is little guidance to inform expected work time for repetitive manual handling tasks. We aimed to investigate endurance time and oxygen consumption of a repetitive lift and carry task using linear mixed models.Fourteen male soldiers (age 22.4 ± 4.5 yrs, height 1.78 ± 0.04 m, body mass 76.3 ± 10.1 kg conducted four assessment sessions that consisted of one maximal box lifting session and three lift and carry sessions. The relationships between carry mass (range 17.5-37.5 kg and the duration of carry, and carry mass and oxygen consumption, were assessed using linear mixed models with random effects to account for between-subject variation.Results demonstrated that endurance time was inversely associated with carry mass (R2 = 0.24, with significant individual-level variation (R2 = 0.85. Normalising carry mass to performance in a maximal box lifting test improved the prediction of endurance time (R2 = 0.40. Oxygen consumption presented relative to total mass (body mass, external load and carried mass was not significantly related to lift and carry mass (β1 = 0.16, SE = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.04, 0.36, p = 0.12, indicating that there was no change in oxygen consumption relative to total mass with increasing lift and carry mass.Practically, these data can be used to guide work-rest schedules and provide insight into methods assessing the physical capacity of workers conducting repetitive manual handling tasks.

  5. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  6. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567. Except in the case of a vehicle... specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567. If the certification label shows...-pneumatic tire identification code, with which the vehicle is equipped. S10. Each motor home and...

  7. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine. Maximum loaded vehicle weight means the... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... limitations of S4.3.4. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's...

  8. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was coconut and palm oil. Confectionery had the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar services. Overall, real estate gained the highest real benefit, while repair not classified elsewhere had the lowest real benefit for the company. If Thailand uses an indicator of environmental harm, especially within the food manufacturing sector, it could help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in three areas of development, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  9. 赣州市土地承载力研究%Research on Land Carrying Capacity in Ganzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月娥; 郭志忠

    2012-01-01

    The land use structure of 2020 Rongchang County was optimized by using the linear programming model, with the consideration of social, economic and ecological three comprehensive benefits and all database was based on the second national land survey database of Rongchang County of Chongqing. The optimal results showed that: the cultivated land area reasonably reduced and met the demand for food and social economic development needs of Rongchang County; The land area of agricultural facilities, ecology and infrastructure increased, which is conducive to the development of special industries and promotes social economic development and ecological environment construction ; The internal structure of rural and urban construction land use reasonably increased or decreased, and the land use intensive degrees significantly improved; The area of unused land reduced 29.70 hm2, and the efficiency level of land use obviously improved.%根据赣州市社会发展情况、土地利用现状,确定赣州市主要食品消费量,然后将各类食品根据其所合营养成份转化为蛋白质、脂肪和热量.采用灰色GM(1,1)模型、线性回归模型,对赣州市蛋白质、脂肪、热量需求以及人口进行预测,根据预测结果分析得出土地承载力研究结论.

  10. Meta-analysis of intrinsic rates of increase and carrying capacity of populations affected by toxic and other stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.M.; Heugens, E.H.W.; Straalen, N.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Most of the thousands of substances and species that are of concern for environmental management will not be investigated empirically at ecologically relevant levels because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To allow risk assessment for these less well-known categories, we have devel

  11. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee; Wanvicechanee Tanoamchard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cos...

  12. What is the carrying capacity for fish in the ocean? A meta analysis of population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers, R.A.; MacKenzie, Brian; Bowen, K.G.;

    2001-01-01

    Population and community data in one study are usually analyzed in isolation from other data. Here, we introduce statistical methods that allow many data sets to be analyzed simultaneously such that different studies may "borrow strength" from each other. In the simplest case, we simultaneously m...

  13. Capacities on a finite lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Motoya

    2011-01-01

    In his influential work Choquet systematically studied capacities on Boolean algebras in a topological space, and gave a probabilistic interpretation for completely monotone (and completely alternating) capacities. Beyond complete monotonicity we can view a capacity as a marginal condition for probability distribution over the distributive lattice of dual order ideals. In this paper we discuss a combinatorial approach when capacities are defined over a finite lattice, and investigate Fr\\'{e}c...

  14. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  15. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can eith

  16. Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important components of river mechanics,sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many researchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow,an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional,steady,uniform,fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data,which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium,in combination with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hyperconcentrated flow,the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated,and a new formula of sediment transport capacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River,Wuding River,and Yangtze River,etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for management of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each...

  18. Interpretations of the Image of Caroline in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱绘

    2014-01-01

    In the history of American naturalistic literature, Sister Carrie is a representative work of this literary genre. And the protagonist of this novel Caroline has always been a controversial character. Based on Sister Carrie and the social background of that period in America, this paper discussed the various interpretations of the image of Carrie from different aspects.

  19. Heat Capacity and Thermodynamic Properties of Myclobutanil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓红; 刘源发; 谭志诚; 贾婴琦; 王美涵; 邸友莹

    2005-01-01

    The low-temperature heat capacities of myclobutanil (C15H17CIN4) were precisely measured with an automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 368 K. The sample was observed to melt at (348.800+0.06) K. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the melting as well as the chemical purity of the substance were determined to be △fusHm=(30931±11) J·mol-1, △fusSm=(88.47±0.02) J·mol-1·K-1 and 99.41%, respectively. Further research of the melting process for this compound was carried out by means of DSC technique. The result was in agreement with that obtained from the measurements of heat capacities.

  20. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  1. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  2. Quantum Reading Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...

  3. Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common believe, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires to take various actions, ranging from a daily basis to a multi-annual prospective standpoint. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary. The coordination systems implemented by EDF aim to control these parameters for the benefit of electricity consumers. (author)

  4. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  5. Perioperative functional residual capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, R W

    1991-04-01

    The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia. PMID:2036700

  6. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xishu; Zuidwijk, Rob; Koster, René; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can either choose to plan its investments proactively, taking into account possible responses from the other firm, or decide to respond reactively to the competition. In both cases, the optimal decision at...

  7. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.;

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded ...

  8. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  9. Multi-objective Trajectory Planning of FFSM Carrying a Heavy Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at carrying a heavy payload to a desired pose (including position and orientation, a multi-objective optimization-based approach for maximum-payload trajectory planning of free-floating space manipulators (FFSM is proposed in this paper. The presented approach corresponds to two typical applications: (i the manipulator joints attain the desired states; (ii the inertial pose of the end-effector (pose with respect to the inertial frame attains the desired values, for which a novel two-stage method is presented. Firstly, for the purpose of reducing computational complexity, dynamics equations are derived using a spatial operator algebra (SOA method. Secondly, objective functions are defined according to the improvement of load-carrying capacity and pose requirements of the end-effector. Then, the joint trajectories are specified using sinusoidal polynomial functions. Finally, a multi objective particle optimization (MOPSO algorithm is employed to obtain a non-dominated solution set, during which process particles that do not satisfy the constraints are eliminated. Simulations are performed for a 7-DOF FFSM, considering three and five objectives for optimization in the two applications, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can provide satisfactory joint trajectories and improve load-carrying capacity effectively.

  10. The Disillusion of American Dream in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    Dreiser is a generally acknowledged writer as one of American's literary naturalists. In Sister Carrie, the author skillfully used the naturalistic writing style which incisively and vividly showed the society environment at that time. The paper states the process that how the American dream in Sister Carrie disillusioned gradually.

  11. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  12. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 122.340 Section 122.340... Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 122.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be...

  13. 14 CFR 91.869 - Carry-forward compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carry-forward compliance. 91.869 Section 91.869 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED....869 Carry-forward compliance. (a) Any operator that exceeds the requirements of paragraph (b) of §...

  14. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  15. Information capacity of quantum observable

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give simple examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C

  16. Information capacity of quantum observable

    CERN Document Server

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  17. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European rai...

  18. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  19. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This report presents the results of work carried out by Aalborg Univesity for NGI related to the effects of ageing on the axial capacity of piles in clay and sand. The document is the fourth of four notes regarding the subject and it includes a recommended approach to account for ageing effects f...

  20. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  1. Carrying Network Accessing Architecture and Strategy Based on Business Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abilities of real-time sensing and information sharing, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has been applied in more and more fields. Basing on the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT, the issue about heterogeneous network integration is becoming more important. We first analyze the new businesses that arise recently for cell phone users as well as the potential effect on carrying network. After that we mainly discuss the influence on traditional carrying network for WSN accessing and taking concurrent businesses as the study case, common access architecture from WSN to carrying network is constructed, which makes use of business differentiation. Furthermore, we propose the idea of tortuous access from WSN to the gateway in the carrying network to avoid congested paths with simulation and verification. Finally, we conclude the possible impacts for the integration of these two networks and present possible solutions.

  2. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products come with claims that they can prevent MRSA infections. Don't believe them. These statements are ...

  3. A classical to quantum optical network link for orbital angular momentum carrying light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potentials in both classical and quantum optical communications such as enhancing the transmission capacity of a single communication channel because of its unlimited dimensions. Based on OAM conservation in second order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in OAM degree of freedoms of light via sum frequency generation (SFG) following by a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). A coherent OAM-carrying beams at telecom wavelength 1550nm is up-converted to 525.5nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, then up-converted OAM-carrying beam is used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795nm and 1550nm. By switching the OAM carries by the classical party, the OAM correlation in the quantum party is shifted. High OAM entanglements in two dimensional subspaces are verified. This primary study enables to build a hybrid optical communication network contains both ...

  4. Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Geysa Aguiar Romeu; Larissa Varela de Paiva; Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, with the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and Se...

  5. Do waves carrying orbital angular momentum possess azimuthal linear momentum?

    OpenAIRE

    Speirits, Fiona C.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    All beams are a superposition of plane waves, which carry linear momentum in the direction of propagation with no net azimuthal component. However, plane waves incident on a hologram can produce a vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum that seems to require an azimuthal linear momentum, which presents a paradox. We resolve this by showing that the azimuthal momentum is not a true linear momentum but the azimuthal momentum density is a true component of the linear momentum density.

  6. Getting Started With Research "Carrying Out Your Research Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the considerations and practical aspects of carrying out a research project which may be of use to those beginning their research career or simply carrying out a research project for the first time as part of an academic qualification. It outlines practical steps for consideration in the day to day management of a research project and highlights areas which require particular consideration for a project to be completed successfully.

  7. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  8. The Broken American Dream Based on Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenjuan

    2012-01-01

      Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, It tells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway. In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as its distinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue American dream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society%  Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, Ittells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway.In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as itsdistinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue Americandream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society

  9. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments.

  10. Quantitative Appraisement on Ecological Cawing Capacity in Coastal Rapid Developing Region of Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fugang; Liu Yansui

    2008-01-01

    The ecological carrying capacity, an important indica-tor to evaluate the sustainable development of the ecosystem, means the potential ability of the natural ecosystem to carry so-cioeconomic development while the ecosystem is healthy. It is limited by the carrying capacity of natural resources and environ-merit and the elasticity of the ecosystem. It will be greatly signifi-cant to study the ecological carrying capacity of Hainan Province, the first ecological province admitted by the State Environmental Protection Administration in China. Not only is the natural eco-system reflected, but also the effects of human activities are em-phasized by integrating the ecosystem health analysis into the ecological carrying capacity research. The research results, using the Factor Analysis tools of software SPSS, indicate that the eco-logical carrying capacity of Hainan Province fluctuated obviously from 1996 to 2005. The level of the ecological carrying capacity of Hainan Province was relatively high in 1996, and reached into trough from 1997 to 1999. It has steadily ascended to be above the middle level since the 21st century. The results also show that policy factors, especially the implementation of the 'Ecological Province' strategy, were important driving forces to influence the ecological carrying capacity. With the population rapidly increas-ing, the land and water resources per capita have decreased quickly. The amount of the ecological carrying capacity was pro-rooted remarkably by socioeconomic development especially economic growth and technology applications. All of these will provide useful suggestions to establish and enact regional devel-opment policies, especially for protecting and reconstructing the ecology and environment of Hainan Province.

  11. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  12. Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication

    CERN Document Server

    Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...

  13. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  14. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  15. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  16. Affine transformations and analytic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Thomas; O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic capacities are set functions defined on the plane which may be used in the study of removable singularities, boundary smoothness and approximation of analytic functions belonging to some function space. The symmetric concrete Banach spaces form a class of function spaces that include most spaces usually studied. The Beurling transform is a certain singular integral operator that has proved useful in analytic function theory. It is shown that the analytic capacity associated to ...

  17. Capacity achieving multiwrite WOM codes

    OpenAIRE

    Shpilka, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give an explicit construction of a capacity achieving family of binary t-write WOM codes for any number of writes t, that have a polynomial time encoding and decoding algorithms. The block length of our construction is N=(t/\\epsilon)^{O(t/(\\delta\\epsilon))} when \\epsilon is the gap to capacity and encoding and decoding run in time N^{1+\\delta}. This is the first deterministic construction achieving these parameters. Our techniques also apply to larger alphabets.

  18. SEDIMENT-REMOVING CAPACITY AND RIVER MOTION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Yin WANG; Yongsheng WU

    2001-01-01

    Unsteady flow in fluvial rivers scours or deposits sediment, and exhibits sediment-removing capaciiy,which is defined as the capacity of the flow to remove sediment from per unit length of a river channel to other places per time. Differing from the well-defined sediment-carrying capacity, which is the feature of the mean flow and explains how much sediment load the flow can transport through the channel, the sediment-removing capacity is the feature of unsteady, non-equilibrium flow and represents the capability of the flow to change the channel shape and location. Measurement of the sediment-removing capacity was performed at 12 cross sections of the wandering lower Yellow River. Analysis demonstrates that the removing capacity depends mainly on the fluctuation intensity of the flow discharge. The power spectrum of discharge is presented with Fourier transformation and it revealed the mechanism of high measurement frequency-high sediment removing capacity. The movement of a river channel within the fluvial plain is defined as the river motion. The patterns of river motion are aggradation, degradation, widening,translation, rotation, wandering, bifurcation, and migration from one channel to another channel. The speed of the river motion is given as a function of the sediment-removing capacity.

  19. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  20. Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-09-01

    Bioremediation refers to cost-effective and environment-friendly method for converting the toxic, recalcitrant pollutants into environmentally benign products through the action of various biological treatments. Fungi play a major role in bioremediation owing to their robust morphology and diverse metabolic capacity. The review focuses on different fungal groups from a variety of habitats with their role in bioremediation of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds; persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, effluents from textile, bleached kraft pulp, leather tanning industries, petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and pesticides. Bioremediation of toxic organics by fungi is the most sustainable and green route for cleanup of contaminated sites and we discuss the multiple modes employed by fungi for detoxification of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds including prominent fungal enzymes viz., catalases, laccases, peroxidases and cyrochrome P450 monooxygeneses. We have also discussed the recent advances in enzyme engineering and genomics and research being carried out to trace the less understood bioremediation pathways.

  1. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  2. Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns.

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, John R, Jr; Mustard, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Using cross-sectional time-series data for U.S. counties from 1977 to 1992, We find that allowing citizens to carry concealed weapons deters violent crimes, without increasing accidental deaths. If those states without right-to-carry concealed gun provisions had adopted them in 1992, county- and state-level data indicate that approximately 1,500 murders would have been avoided yearly. Similarly, we predict that rapes would have declined by over 4,000, robbery by over 11,000, and aggravated as...

  3. Child Access Prevention Laws, Youth Gun Carrying, and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; SABIA, JOSEPH J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite intense public interest in keeping guns out of schools, next to nothing is known about the effects of gun control policies on youth gun carrying or school violence. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) for the period 1993-2013, this study is the first to examine the relationship between child access prevention (CAP) gun controls laws and gun carrying among high school students. Our results suggest that CAP laws are associated with a 13 percent decrease in the rate of...

  4. Carry trade as a speculative investment strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bungin Sanja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyses causes and the consequences of a speculative investment carry trade strategy in the exchange market in Serbia. The presence of such type of investor is related to high yields of risk free securities denominated in dinars, as well as the perception of future movements of dinar exchange rate related to currency that serves as source of investment. The consequences of carry trade may significantly influence exchange rate movements when monetary policy has limited facilities to combat negative and sudden shocks.

  5. Description of Model Tests Carried Out by Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Schlütter, F.; Andersen, H.

    1996-01-01

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects.......As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  6. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  7. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  8. The Influence of Lung Function on Exercise Capacity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2010-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise capacity. While numerous factors are known to contribute to impaired exercise capacity, the role of lung function remains unclear. We conducted the present study to investigate the influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 31 male patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications or cardiopulmonary diseases. Patients with abnormal spir...

  9. Peculiarities of phonon spectra and lattice heat capacity in Ir and Rh

    OpenAIRE

    Katsnelson, M. I.; Naumov, I. I.; Trefilov, A. V.; Khlopkin, M. N.; Khromov, K. Yu.

    1997-01-01

    A simple pseudopotential model is proposed, which allows the phonon spectra and temperature dependence of the lattice heat capacity of Ir and Rh be described with a high enough accuracy. A careful comparison of the calculated and experimental values of the lattice heat capacity is carried out, with the procedure of the identification of the phonon contribution to the heat capacity and determination of the characteristics (momenta) of the phonon density of states from the experimental values o...

  10. 12 CFR 221.112 - Loans by bank in capacity as trustee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. 221.112... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.112 Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. (a... been pledged as collateral for loans. Loans are not made, under the plan, from bank funds,...

  11. RESEARCHING OIL CAPACITY OF MOSS FUSCUM PEAT TO THE COMMERCIAL OIL AND STABLE GAS CONDENSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles talks about influence of fractional composition of moss fuscum peat on its oil capacity. The technique for determining oil capacity of peat are discribed. The experiments were carried out for hydrocarbons with different density ( ρ =880 kg/m3 and ρ =770 kg/m3.

  12. Simulation Applied to the Storage Capacity and Stockpiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alejandra Giubergia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is focused on process based simulations. The simulation is carried out (using the FlexSim 7.3.0 software to a mining process including storage hoppers and haulage equipment in order to estimate the desirable truck fleet size and the capacity of the trucks and the hoppers as well as assessing whether the design of the access roads is acceptable for the success of the operations. It is concluded that the dimensions of the loading system has been overestimated compared to the existing equipment fleet size. Therefore, it is required to increase the number of trucks or the truck haulage capacity to improve the mine productivity.

  13. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can...... be delivered from their sources to their destinations while ensuring that the vehicle carries at most k objects at any point in time. In the preemptive version an object may be dropped at intermediate locations and picked up later and delivered. Let N be the number of nodes in the input graph. Charikar...

  14. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  15. Carrying Out Collaborative Action Research in a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    To help in-service English teachers improve their teaching practices and pupils' learning opportunities through an enquiry-oriented and cooperative approach, the author carried out collaborative action research during a practicum in a teacher education course at a university in Hong Kong. This article describes how the collaborative research…

  16. Must-carry regulation: a must or a burden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk; B. van der Sloot

    2012-01-01

    The first must-carry rules date back to 1990, the time when space on analogue broadcasting networks was limited and when supply grew quickly due to the introduction of private broadcasters. To ensure that channels of general interest would still be transmitted, countries introduced rules to regulate

  17. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…

  18. Nanoparticles carry chemotherapy drug deeper into solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS researchers have developed a new drug delivery method using nano-sized molecules to carry the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin to tumors, improving the effectiveness of the drug in mice and increasing their survival time. Their work has been reported online June 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  19. De bloemen van het kwaad. Carry van Bruggen over taal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    In Hedendaags Fetisjisme (1925), het 'taalboek' van Carry van Bruggen, keert de auteur zich tegen allerlei vormen van taalnationalisme. Ze maakt daarbij cruciaal gebruik van het beginsel dat het taalteken arbitrair is, een beginsel dat in de taalkunde al vele eeuwen bekend was. Van Bruggens boek kan

  20. Arrangement for carrying out and studying chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, A.D.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9102029 (A) Described is an arrangement for carrying out TAP experiments. Such an arrangement comprises a reaction chamber in which a very short-lived beam of molecules is directed at a target to produce a short-lived beam of intermediate-product molecules, and a vacuum chamber wher

  1. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. 177.870 Section 177.870 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND...

  2. Sex-Linked Carrying Styles and the Attribution of Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R.; Dillon, Nina E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the attribution of homosexuality as a consequence of behavioral displays that are either sex typical or sex atypical, by using pairs of slides showing three women and three men displaying sex-linked carrying styles. Presents the results in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

  3. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  4. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  5. Stress Carry-Over and College Student Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a stress carry-over perspective, this study examines the relationship between stress stemming from school and family domains and physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: The study sample included 268 undergraduate men and women from a Midwestern university. Participants completed an anonymous online questionnaire. OLS…

  6. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian;

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  7. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  8. Monotheistic religions capacities in the field of international culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemnejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All divine Shray have been exported from a source of truth and life beyond the events and historical changes. The essence of religion lies in the different forms of the same fact in different Shrythay been manifested in the historical periods. Quran says in this field: " He hath ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We inspire in thee (Muhammad (and that which We commended unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion, and be not divided therein. Dreadful for the idolaters is that unto which thou called them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He will, and guides unto Himself him who turned (toward Him" (Al- Shora:13 This fact shows the monotheistic religions have the potential to interact and communicate with each other in various international role, Because if religions do not have the capacity of integration and how they can interact with each other side by side in an international arena and role. The theoretical discussion about culture discovered monotheism monotheistic religions and analysis capacity is sufficient. As was demonstrated this capacity, capacity building should be paid to this important come true. After the Convergence of the capacity of the monotheistic religions convergence step to capacity building in the field of culture of monotheism in the field of international culture. The present research, a qualitative study with study documents, databases, articles and books monotheistic religions, cultures and the culture and civilization of books, with the capacity-building approach and based on content analysis is consistency. The study population consisted of all documents and materials related to the topic of debate. According to this article, the discussion of monotheistic religions capacities in the field of international culture is a practical discussion which discovery of the capacity of the capacity building should be carried out before any action should be capacity

  9. On risk and decisional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched. PMID:11262640

  10. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... of beneficial research capacity in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, this article suggests several recommendations to both donors and governments that have broad application for general health research issues in the region....

  11. The Innovative Capacity of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Andy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is widely accepted as a crucial competitive weapon in today's global market place. Yet the levels of innovation achieved by different firms, even within the same industry, can vary widely. The key question raised by this observation is why. Why are some firms more innovative than others? What are the factors that determine a firm's capacity to innovate and how can these be managed to enhance the firm's innovative potential? This paper sets out to address these and related issues. It reports the results of a study of competitiveness and innovation of firms in the East of England. In the paper it is argued that the innovative capacity of a firm is a function of the firm's culture, resources, competences and networks. Justification for this framework is provided by a review of the relevant literature and a series of case studies examining the capacity to innovate of a sample of firms in the East of England.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  13. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP, and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC. Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constructions for binary addition have been planned over the last decades, covering a wide range of presentation characteristics. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost for ripple carry adder and carry skip adder. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  14. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences...... of the programs which strongly influence the ability of households to adapt to change. Some households possess more adaptive capacity given their better access to capital while others remain vulnerable because they are constrained in accessing resources and engage in nondiversified livelihoods. If shock events...

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  17. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country.

  18. Seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of earthquake forces on ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on sloping ground was studied. A solution to seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope was obtained by utilizing pseudo-static analysis method and taking the effect of intermediate principal stress into consideration. Based on limit equilibrium theory, the formulae for computing static bearing capacity factors, Nq, Nc, Nγ, and dynamic bearing capacity factors, Nqd, Ncd, Nγd, which are associated with surcharge, cohesion and self-weight of soils respectively, were presented. A great number of analysis calculations were carried out to obtain the relationship curves of the static and dynamic bearing capacity factors versus various calculation parameters. The curves can serve as the practical engineering design. The calculation results also show that when the values of horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients are 0.2, the dynamic bearing capacity factors Nqd, Ncd and Nγd, in which the effects of intermediate principal stress are taken into consideration, increase by 4%-42%, 3%-27% and 34%-57%, respectively.

  19. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. PMID:24399032

  20. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  1. Localization capacity of human listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    For some scenarios and situations, successful localization of the sound is vital for the hearing experience. One aspect of this is the natural limits of the human localization capacity, incl. dependence on e.g. direction and distance. When addressed in laboratory experiments, the significance of ...

  2. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  3. Capacity Building in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochyati Wahyuni Triana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the concept of local government capacity building in both theoretical and operational aspects, regarding especially with local authorities in Indonesia, after the enforcement of regional autonomy. This is a basic research (fundamental research of library research type. Data collection technique involves using data sourced from a variety of secondary sources, as it should be; books, journals, and related legislation. To draw a conclusion regarding with the building of regional capacity after the implementation of regional autonomy, the data are analyzed using descriptive analysis technique; that is, examining secondary data based on Indonesian condition. This research concludes that Capacity Building is a huge job for the an autonomous local government, particularly when dealing with the system which is deemed to prioritize self-serving rather than public serving; yet this capacity building mission deserves to fight for. Stakeholders (other than legislatives need to regularly monitor the improved performance of the government so that the high expectation of the society could be fulfilled through the enforcement of regional autonomy.

  4. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.; Evans, Ian N.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Mink, Douglas J.; Rots, Arnold H.

    2011-01-01

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware o

  5. A novel reversible carry-selected adder with low latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Cui; Zhou, Ri-Gui

    2016-07-01

    Reversible logic is getting more and more attention in quantum computing, optical computing, nanotechnology and low-power complementary metal oxide semiconductor designs since reversible circuits do not loose information during computation and have only small energy dissipation. In this paper, a novel carry-selected reversible adder is proposed primarily optimised for low latency. A 4-bit reversible full adder with two kinds of outputs, minimum delay and optimal quantum cost is presented as the building block for ?-bit reversible adder. Three new reversible gates NPG (new Peres gate), TEPG (triple extension of Peres gate) and RMUX21 (reversible 2-to-1 multiplexer) are proposed and utilised to design efficient adder units. The secondary carry propagation chain is carefully designed to reduce the time consumption. The novelty of the proposed design is the consideration of low latency. The comparative study shows that the proposed adder achieves the improvement from 61.46% to 95.29% in delay over the existing designs.

  6. Evaluation of Railway Networks with Single Track Operation Using the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Many capacity analyses using the UIC 406 capacity method for double track lines have been carried out and presented international, but few capacity analyses applying the capacity method to single track lines have been presented. Therefore, the differences between capacity analyses of double track...... lines and single track lines are discussed in this article. The principles of the UIC 406 of double track lines can be applied to single track lines-at least when more than one train follows each other in the same direction. In a presentation of the UIC 406 for single track operations, it is important...... to define where to divide the railway lines into line sections and how the conflicts between trains at crossing stations and junctions have to be analysed. The effects on railway networks with single track lines and their impact on capacity consumption are described to enable a consistent capacity statement....

  7. Possession and carrying of firearms among suburban youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheley, J F; Brewer, V E

    1995-01-01

    Despite a growing body of anecdotal evidence suggesting the spread of firearms to suburban juvenile populations, most studies of firearm activity by juveniles focus either on urban youth or on nationally representative samples that blur urban and nonurban distinctions. This study represents the first systematic empirical investigation specifically of a suburban population of juveniles. The authors examine both ownership and carrying behaviors, distinguish types of handguns involved, and asses...

  8. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother–infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother–infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  9. Lissom, a Source Level Proof Carrying Code Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Joao; de Sousa, Simao Melo; Pinto, Jorge Sousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a proposal for a Proof Carrying Code (PCC) architecture called Lissom. Started as a challenge for final year Computing students, Lissom was thought as a mean to prove to a sceptic community, and in particular to students, that formal verification tools can be put to practice in a realistic environment, and be used to solve complex and concrete problems. The attractiveness of the problems that PCC addresses has already brought students to show interest in this project.

  10. Colliding particles carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2011-01-01

    Photons carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, it was suggested to use Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted parti...

  11. Generalized ray optics and orbital angular momentum carrying beams

    OpenAIRE

    Potocek, Vaclav; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In classical optics the Wolf function is the natural analogue of the quantum Wigner function and like the latter it may be negative in some regions. We discuss the implications this negativity has on the generalized ray interpretation of free-space paraxial wave evolution. Important examples include two classes of beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum—Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) and Bessel beams. We formulate their defining eigenfunction properties as phase–space symmetries of their Wolf...

  12. Optimisation of a Horizontal Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Cylindrical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Kollar, Laszlo; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    Pipelines carrying fluids and slurries are quite common. The third-generation pipelines carrying spherical or cylindrical capsules (hollow containers) filled with minerals or other materials including hazardous liquids are rather a new concept. These pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline results in minimum pressure drop in the pipeline. This corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. This study uses a rigorous approach to predict pumping cost based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and hence optimize the design of the capsule transporting pipelines. Pressure drop relationship developed has been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. Based on the least-cost principle, a methodology has been developed for the determination of the optimal diameter of cylindrical capsule carrying hydraulic pipeline. This procedure can be applied to obtain the optimal size of the capsule pipeline for minimum pumping and capital costs.

  13. Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

    1999-01-01

    The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

  14. A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas;

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and mor...... simultaneously providing efficient justin-time compilation and target-machine independence. In particular, our approach reduces the complexity of the required proofs, resulting in fewer proof obligations that need to be discharged at the target machine.......Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and more...... subtly, the need to provide such verification by the code consumer inhibits the amount of optimization that can be performed by the code producer. This in turn makes justin-time compilation surprisingly expensive. Proof-Carrying Code, on the other hand, has its own set of limitations, among which...

  15. Influence of load capacity on hydrostatic journal support deformation in finite element calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 张艳芹; 李永海; 于晓东; 姜辉

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing in heavy equipments, the deformation of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing was calculated by using the finite element method. The formula of film stiffness, film thickness and carrying capacity were established; the influence of the main parameters, such as load, load area and deformation on the supportability was analyzed; and the capacity of the two kinds of bearings was compared. The result shows that the carrying capacity of typeⅠ is prior to that of type Ⅱ . Calculations provide a theoretical basis for the bearing choosing and structure designing in the actual project.

  16. Heat Capacities of Natural Antlerite and Brochantite at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissengaliyeva, Mira R; Bekturganov, Nuraly S; Gogol, Daniil B; Taimassova, Shynar T; Koketai, Temirgaly A; Bespyatov, Michael A

    2013-11-14

    The investigation of a magnetic component of the heat capacity of natural samples of copper sulfates antlerite Cu3SO4(OH)4 in the temperature range below 40 K and brochantite Cu4SO4(OH)6 below 55 K has been carried out. A regular component of the heat capacity has been calculated from experimental data of adiabatic calorimetry. In the low-temperature area of (0 to 55) K two peaks of magnetic heat capacity for brochantite have been registered. The contributions of anomalous component ΔStr into entropy of the minerals are (11 ± 3) J·mol(-1)·K(-1) for antlerite and (5.3 ± 1.5) J·mol(-1)·K(-1) for brochantite.

  17. Capacity to Vote in Persons with Dementia and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Irastorza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to vote in patients with mental illness is increasingly questioned. The objective of this study is to evaluate this capacity in a group of subjects with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and other elderly subjects without dementia. With a sample of 68 subjects with dementia and 25 controls living in a senior residence, a transversal study was carried out over 4 months. Subjects were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Competence Assessment Tool for voting (CAT-V. The results were more positive for the Doe criteria (as part of the CAT-V, and a correlation was found with the MMSE in subjects with dementia and, to a lesser degree, in the controls. We conclude that the capacity to vote is related to cognitive deterioration and, within that, is more related to understanding and appreciation.

  18. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  19. Elevated NK sensitivity of Raji cells carrying acceptor-bound C3 fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, C; Sármay, G; Ramos, O; Yefenof, E; Klein, E

    1988-05-01

    The majority of cell lines derived from Burkitt lymphomas carry CR2 on their plasma membrane cell lines of haematopoietic origin can activate C3 present in human serum through the alternative pathway. However, only the lines that carry CR2 were shown to bind C3 fragments. This bond can be either fixation to acceptor sites or attachment to the CR. Our studies with Raji cells showed that when the possibility for the covalent acceptor bond was eliminated by using methylamine (MA)- or zymosan-treated serum, considerably lower amounts of C3 were bound. In the zymosan-treated serum C3 fragments are present that can bind to receptors but their capacity for acceptor bond is absent. These results indicate that when Raji cell are incubated in human serum some of the generated C3 fragments are bound to acceptors and a lower proportion through the specific interaction with complement receptors. Pretreatment of the CR2 carrying cell lines with human serum elevated their sensitivity to the lytic effect of human blood lymphocytes. We showed in this work that MA-treated serum did not induce this elevation. Zymosan-treated serum under conditions that excluded activation of the residual native C3 molecules, i.e., in the presence of EDTA, did not have the enhancing effect either. These results suggest that the increased lytic efficiency imposed by human serum was due to cleavage of C3 molecules by Raji and fixation of the C3 fragments by acceptor sites. Natural killer cells carry CR3; therefore it is likely that the attached C3 fragments bind also to the effector cells. The C3 molecules could elevate thereby the avidity between the target and the lytic lymphocytes. The observation that C3 fragments are not bound to the surface of CR2 negative lines in spite of their capacity to activate C3 suggests that the receptor molecule is either involved in the activation and/or serves also as an acceptor. PMID:3359489

  20. Absorptive capacity: Relevancy for large and small enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R. Ndiege; Herselman, Marlien E; Stephen V. Flowerday

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the years, there has been a growing interest in organisational research in the absorptive capacity (AC) construct, but only a few theoretical and empirical studies on this topic have been carried out over the last decade. However, a number of scholars and practitioners have continued to cite AC as a significant factor in determining the success or failure of organisations. With the dramatic changes in business environments, there has been a growing rise in the use of knowledg...

  1. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  2. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoby Iftach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates.

  3. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng

    2003-01-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  5. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods

  6. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  7. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, H

    2003-01-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and capacities of unassisted and enviornment channels is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  8. Discontinuous transitions in a current-carrying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of 'discontinuous' transitions in a current-carrying plasma are analyzed by formulating the problem in terms of the two-fluid (i.e., electrons and ions) equations. The jump conditions, which connect states on either side of a discontinuity, are derived and it is shown that these are similar to the ordinary gas-dynamic Rankine-Hugoniot conditions except that there are extra terms which represent an enhanced mass flux in the momentum equation, and an additional heat flux in the energy equation, both of which arise from the existence of a current flow through the discontinuity. (Auth.)

  9. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  10. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: sasaki@aps.anl.gov; McNulty, Ian; Dejus, Roger [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  11. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  12. Secondary yield enhancement from current-carrying target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Webster, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of relative yield of ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/ and anti p secondaries from cylindrical current-carrying production targets in high energy proton beams are presented. The results show that the expected focusing effect can increase the secondary intensity within the acceptance of a secondary beam by significant factors--in some cases two or more--with currents in the 15 to 25 kA range. These currents are readily obtainable from pulsed power supplies. For dc operation currents of this magnitude appear possible from existing power supplies and for targets of small transverse dimensions such as 2 mm radius Ag.

  13. Thermomagnetic Siphoning on a Bundle of Current-Carrying Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Jensen, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a, thermomagnetic siphoning (TMS) was shown to be a sufficient manner of regulating the temperature of a bundle of current-carrying wires wrapped with a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) jacket. As the bundle heated up, cooler MRF on the outside of the jacket was drawn towards the center due to Curie’s Law and the induced magnetic field. The process convected heat from the bundle as the MRF warmed up and was pushed out towards an isothermal jacket wall. Assuming an o...

  14. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  15. Dyck's surfaces, systoles, and capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Mikhail G

    2012-01-01

    We prove an optimal systolic inequality for nonpositively curved Dyck's surfaces. The extremal surface is flat with eight conical singularities, six of angle theta and two of angle 9?pi - theta, for a suitable theta with cos(theta) Q(sqrt{19}). Relying on capacity estimates, we also show that the extremal surface is not conformally equivalent to the hyperbolic surface with maximal systole, yielding a first example of systolic extremality with this behavior.

  16. Qualitative Capacities as Imprecise Possibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Didier; Prade, Henri; Rico, Agnés

    2013-01-01

    National audience This paper studies the structure of qualitative capacities, that is, monotonic set-functions, when they range on a finite totally ordered scale equipped with an order-reversing map. These set-functions correspond to general representations of uncertainty, as well as importance levels of groups of criteria in multicriteria decision-making. More specifically, we investigate the question whether these qualitative set-functions can be viewed as classes of simpler set-function...

  17. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  19. [Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2010-12-01

    Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment.

  20. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility