WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrying capacity

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  2. Carrying Capacity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Baltazar, João; Lamas, José; Vale, Nuno; Bandeira, Rui; Duarte, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Bivalve culture is an important economic activity in several regions and it should be carefully managed towards its sustainability. In this context, carrying capacity (CC) evaluation of coastal ecosystems for bivalve culture became an important topic. Mathematical modelling is a common approach for CC estimation. The objective of this work is to evaluate the importance of spatial resolution of mathematical models for CC evaluation. Obtained results suggest that low resolution mode...

  3. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  4. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  5. Global carrying capacity: how many people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    During 1980-85 energy consumption in developing countries increased by 22%, of which 50% was used to maintain current levels of use and 50% pertained to real economic growth. Commercial energy consumption during 1970-89 tripled in developing countries. Population growth alone is expected to increase world energy consumption from the current 13.5 terawatts (13.5 trillion watts) to 18 terawatts by 2025 at the same level of use. The increased level of consumption (4.5 terawatts) is the equivalent of total current commercial energy consumption. One terawatt is equal to energy use from 5 billion barrels of oil yearly, 1 billion tons of coal, or 1.6 billion tons of wood. Economic development will require even greater levels of energy use. Since the oil price increases of the 1970s, developed countries increased their energy consumption by about 33%, even while becoming more fuel efficient. During 1990-2025, if developing countries double their per capita energy use and developed countries reduce their use by 50%, world energy consumption will still be almost 21 terawatts. If consumption remains constant at current levels without any population increase, the oil supply will be exhausted in 40 years. Coal consumption will last hundreds of years but air pollution will worsen, and global warming will be accelerated. Developed countries, which are wealthier, are having difficulty switching to non-fossil fuels, and the prospects for developing countries pose even greater challenges. Slowing growth buys time for technological development. World population is expected to reach 8 billion by 2020. Stabilization of growth at 8 billion would occur only if world fertility averages 1.7 children per woman by 2025. One opinion is that the carrying capacity has been reached with the present population of 5.4 billion. Others say that with changes in consumption and technological developments the earth can sustain 8 billion people. The physical limits are 1) the finite capacity of natural

  6. Carrying Capacity of Marine Region in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carrying capacity is one of important studies on coordinating development of population, resources, and environment. At present, the researches on it mainly concentrate on the carrying capacity for population and economy,such as the water resources carrying capacity, the land resources carrying capacity, the environment carrying capacity,etc. Based on the related theories and methods, this paper creatively proposed the concept and meaning of carrying capacity of marine region, and formed the appraisal system. According to the developing situation of marine economy of Liaoning Province in recent years, and by employing the method of the state space, this paper also measured the cartying capacity and carrying state of marine region and discussed the sustainable problems of marine economy of Liaoning. The research results show that the carrying state of marine region of Liaoning is in the state of overloading at present, but taking a favorable turn.

  7. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  8. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  9. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  10. Carrying Capacity of Cultivated Land in Henan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Li; Hong, Lin

    2010-01-01

    According to the 1998-2008 Henan Statistic Yearbook, Grey Forecasting Model and Time Series Model are used to forecast the carrying capacity of cultivated land in Henan Province. According to the contradiction between limited carrying capacity of cultivated land and the growth of population and food safety, we should strictly implement land use planning, enhance the land protection awareness of farmers, establish effective mechanism of cultivated land protection, promote the land ecumenical a...

  11. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  12. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2002-01-01

    A time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population $N(x,t)$ is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, $B$, and of death, $D$, determine the carrying capacity $K$. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position, $x$, and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, $\\Pi (K)$. This distribution has self-similar character owing to the imposed hierarchy. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of $B$ and $D$. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a "towering pillar" biofilm. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature change away from optimal growth co...

  13. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  14. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  15. Bounds on the Information Carrying Capacity of Pn Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B

    2008-12-01

    Upper and lower bounds on the capacity of the Pn wave to transmit information about source identity are developed using models and measurements of Pn spatial signal structure across the ARCES array. The results show a very significant increase in information carrying capacity when contrasting observed propagation conditions with idealized free-space propagation. In essence, scattering greatly increases Pn channel capacity. As shown in a previous contribution, this increase in information can be captured with matched field calibrations and exploited to resolve sources more closely spaced than the Rayleigh resolution limit. These results mirror practices in cellular telephones that use arrays at the transmitter and receiver to exploit scattering for increased channel capacity.

  16. Carrying capacity based regional EIA in Orissa- a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an industrial complex in Orissa for iron and steel sector along with associated infrastructure may lead to all round development in the region with significant impact on the environment. Hence, carrying capacity based regional EIA is conducted to assess whether the environment is able to sustain such development activities. To assess the sustainability, release analysis is needed both from physical and living system. Whenever major industries are located in a region necessary secondary development also result including network of roads, railways with the transport load and all these have combined effect due to the releases and its consequences. The impact evaluation is dependent on the size, type of major industries with secondary developments. In the study region detailed base line data is generated and recommended methodology is followed to estimate supportive capacity and assimilative capacity

  17. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Ruggiero; Giuseppe Verdiani; Stefano Dal Sasso

    2012-01-01

    Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecos...

  18. Evaluation of load-carrying capacities for cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, a number of experiments and numerical analyses had been performed in conjunction with the development of simplified analytical methods to estimate the fracture behavior of cracked piping in nuclear power plant. However, the necessity of further investigation for the analytical methods was issued because of the discrepancies with the experimental data. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimum methods to evaluate the load-carrying capacities for cracked pipes. To do this, numerous analytical and finite element analyses were carried out for various pipe and crack geometries and materials. These results were synthesized for crack shapes and can be used as basic data for leak before break analyses and risk informed inspections

  19. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  20. Prediction of Load Carrying Capacity of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖芳; 周晶; 冯新

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for prediction of the load carrying capacity of a corroded reinforced concrete beam (CRCB) is presented in the paper. Nine reinforced concrete beams, which had been working in an aggressive environment for more than 10 years, were tested in the laboratory. Comprehensive tests, including flexural test, strength test for corroded concrete and rusty rebar, and pullout test for bond strength between concrete and rebar, were conducted. The flexural test results of CRCBs reveal that the distribution of surface cracks on the beams shows a fractal behavior. The relationship between the fractal dimensions and mechanical properties of CRCBs is then studied. A prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) is established by the use of the fractal dimension as the corrosion index, together with the basic information of the beam. The validity of the prediction model is demonstrated through the experimental data, and satisfactory results are achieved.

  1. Carrying capacity of the eastern ecological gradient of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F E; Campbell, D J; Thom, D J

    1989-01-01

    Kenya's rate of natural population increase exceeds 4.0%/year. At this rate, Kenya's population of 23.5 million will expand to 35 million by the year 2000. Rural migrants are being forced out of the highlands into marginal arid and semiarid regions to the east and south in the eastern ecological gradient including Meru, Kitui, Machakos, and Kajiado districts. The people have become victims of marginalization by which the productivity of a unit of land declines relative to the demands of its occupants. The concept of carrying capacity means the number of people a given area can sustain over the long term. In Maasailand, 3.5 standard stock units (450 kg each) are required per adult equivalent for full subsistence, about 7 cows/person. For the Maasai pastoralists, carrying capacities were examined at 2 levels of subsistence: 100% from the herds and 80% from the herds; 2 technological levels; and population-growth rates of 2%, 2.5%, and 3%/annum. Using the median, 3.5%/year, population-growth scenario these districts will have almost 5 million inhabitants in the year 2000. Poverty at technology level I for 40% of them, or for 2 million people, is implausible. Technology level II implies that current rural-development programs will succeed with technological innovations for farm households, access to credit, and markets for their produce. Level II is likely to prevail toward the end of the century for the majority of farmers. Level III necessitates best agricultural and livestock technology as well as the best management. At most, 25% of the households of the eastern ecological gradient could enter this realm by the year 2000. Current strategies of voluntary family planning, rural development emerging from an antiquated extension system, inability to address inequity in land distribution, and laissez-faire resource management are inadequate to deal with the pace of change. PMID:12285902

  2. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be

  3. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks. PMID:18163314

  4. Evaluation of the carrying capacity of molluscan shellfish ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Heral, Maurice

    1985-01-01

    Growth of molluscs raised in coastal zones, where the water exchange rate is low, appears to be limited, once a certain biomass level is attained, by the availability of food, making it necessary to determine as accurately as possible the trophic capacity of an ecosystem. This paper analyses the various sources of food for molluscs. It would appear that dissolved organic substances play a major role, providing up to half the energy necessary for their metabolism. Particulate material is filte...

  5. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ming; Zhu, Tianyu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted, but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity, this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country, to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community, to pr...

  6. The information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Simidzija, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light-signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light-signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter dominated cosmologies.

  7. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major

  8. Methodological Framework for Evaluation of Tourism Carrying Capacity of Eco Sensitive Region

    OpenAIRE

    SHWETA Y. KURHADE

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes relationship between the issues likes present growth of the tourist town which have eco sensitive character and exploration of natural resources along with the economy, environmental impacts with help of the evolution of carrying capacity exercise. Other terminologies regarding carrying capacity and assessment methodology are discussed in brief. There are various techniques for evaluation of carrying capacity as worldwide used and how they are applicable to eco sensitiv...

  9. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province, I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity. By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008, the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed. It is unveiled that inharmonious population, natural resources and economic resources affects the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of H...

  10. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  11. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse;

    A security's expected return can be decomposed into its "carry" and its expected price appreciation, where carry can be measured in advance without an asset pricing model. We find that carry predicts returns both in the cross section and time series for a variety of different asset classes that...... include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here to be a...... robust feature of many assets. We decompose carry returns into static and dynamic components and analyze the economic exposures. Despite unconditionally low correlations across asset classes, we find times when carry strategies across all asset classes do poorly, and show that these episodes coincide...

  12. Risk Analysis on Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Blind Number Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji; YU Sujun

    2007-01-01

    Blind numbers of evaluation indices about groundwater resources carrying capacity are defined from the concomitancy of randomness, fuzziness, grey property and unascertainment of groundwater system.Based on fuzzy theory, a comprehensive evaluation model on groundwaterresources carrying capacity is constructed with blind information. Then arisk assessment model of surcharge about groundwater resources carryingcapacity is established on blind reliability theory. The probable value"*"'matrix of fuzzy membership degree about carrying capacity corresponding to each judgment level can be obtained with the aid of blind algorithm as well as the subjective reliability "×" matrix. And then a graph of"groundwater carrying capacity v.s. accumulative reliability" can be gained.Based on the graph, fuzzy membership degree of groundwater resourcescarrying capacity to each judgment level under different risk probabilitycan be got. Thus, a comparatively reasonable judgment to groundwaterresources carrying capacity might be obtained, with comprehensive analysis to the state of society, economy technology and ecology.

  13. A Novel Evaluation algorithm of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity Index System in Northwest China:Lanzhou city as a example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lei, Song; Ling, Ma

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid growth of the urban population and quick expansion of urban dimensions, the affecting urban development constraints of urban carrying capacity has increasingly been attracting people's attention. However, the effective synthesization of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity hardly acted as an urban comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system. In this paper, the novel comprehensive index system of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity was used for analyzing and evaluating urban comprehensive carrying capacity. Firstly, the standardization of evaluation index was constructed in the urban comprehensive carrying capacity index system. In addition, the past decade data from 2002 to 2011 was analyzed and evaluated in the weighted index system. Finally, the influence mechanism of various carrying capacity factors on urban comprehensive carrying capacity was investigated in Lanzhou. Experimental results can be summarized that the variation tendency of urban comprehensive carrying capacity was the annual increase of levels and the promotion countermeasure was put forward with congenital restricting factors and acquired restricting factors.

  14. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.;

    The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...... km*year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as...

  15. Recreation carrying capacity estimations to support beach management at Praia de Faro, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Zacarias, D. A.; Williams, Allan T.; NEWTON Alice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to outline the theory and practice of tourism carrying capacity assessment and its relevance as a management tool for coastal management. Based on the Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment for Protected Areas Framework and the Image Capture Technique associated with the PAOT (people at one time) approach, this paper explores Praia de Faro as the study area and attempts to assess the optimum number of people that should be allowed without jeopar...

  16. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, I.; Ezquerra, A; Navarra, M; Sendra, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision...

  17. Evaluation of Almus Dam Lake Water Quality for Trout Culture and Estimating of Carrying Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    BUHAN, Ekrem; Koçer, M.A.Turan; Polat, Fatih; Dogan, H.Mete; Dirim, Saliha; Neary, Emine Turgut

    2010-01-01

    Trout culture has showed a rapid increase in Almus Dam Lake which is similar to the other dam lakes of Turkey. The most important components in net the cage culture systems are the water quality parameters and environmental carrying capacity. In this study, water quality of Almus Dam Lake has been observed for one year period, and some evaluations have been done on trout culture, carrying capacity and trophic level of the lake by considering the obtained results. Studied water quality par...

  18. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A.; Leveau, Johan H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term ‘carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many ‘local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contrib...

  19. The Carrying Capacity of Public Wild Land Recreation Areas: Evaluation of Alternative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greist, David A.

    1976-01-01

    Carrying capacity (the use level at which total satisfactions or benefits are mazimized) is not equatable to highest-use levels, since some visitors to recreational areas desire solitude and undisturbed environment--for these, an alternative definition for "capacity" should take into consideration the use level demanded after considering costs.…

  20. Evaluating Beijing's human carrying capacity from the perspective of water resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxuan; Chen, Min; Zhou, Wenhua; Zhuang, Changwei; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2010-01-01

    As the demands on limited water resources intensify, concerns are being raised about the human carrying capacity of these resources. However, few researchers have studied the carrying capacity of regional water resources. Beijing, the second-largest city in China, faces a critical water shortage that will limit the city's future development. We developed a method to quantify the carrying capacity of Beijing's water resources by considering water-use structures based on the proportions of water used for agricultural, industrial, and domestic purposes. We defined a reference structure as 45:22:33 (% of total, respectively), an optimized structure as 40:20:40, and an ideal structure as 50:15:35. We also considered four domestic water quotas: 55, 75, 95, and 115 m3/(person x yr). The urban carrying capacity of 10-12 million was closest to Beijing's actual 2003 population for all three water-use structures with urban domestic water use of 75 m3/(person x yr). However, after accounting for our underlying assumptions, the adjusted carrying capacity is closer to 5-6 million. Thus, Beijing's population in 2003 was almost twice the adjusted carrying capacity. Based on this result, we discussed the ecological and environmental problems created by Beijing's excessive population and propose measures to mitigate these problems. PMID:21179972

  1. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    capacity of a reference region divided by its population and thus describes the annual personal share of the carrying capacity.The developed references can be applied to indicator results obtained using commonly applied characterisation models in LCIA. The European NR are generally lower than the global NR...... ozone formation and soil quality were found to exceed carrying capacities several times.The developed carrying capacity-based normalisation references offer relevant supplementary reference information to the currently applied references based on society’s background interventions by supporting an...... evaluation of the environmental sustainability of product systems on an absolute scale.Challenges remain with respect to spatial variations to increase the relevance of the normalisation references for impact categories that function at the local or regional scale. The sensitivity of NR to different choices...

  2. Spatial patterns of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in China at county level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong; FENG Zhiming; YANG Yanzhao; YOU Zhen

    2011-01-01

    A balanced ecological carrying capacity and its understanding are important to achieve sustainable development for human kind.Here,the concept of ecological carrying capacity has been used for measuring the dependencies between human and nature.China's ecological balance between supply and demand has become a global concern and is widely debated.In this study the 'Ecological Footprint' method was used to analyze the supply-demand balance of China's ecological carrying capacity.Firstly,the ecological supply and demand balance was calculated and evaluated,and secondly,the ecological carrying capacity index (ECCI) was derived for each county of China in 2007,and finally this paper systematically evaluated the ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance of China.The results showed that ecological deficit appeared to be the main characteristic of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in 2007 of China at county scale.In general,more than four-fifths of the Chinese population was concentrated in less than one-third of the land area and more than two-thirds of the land.area was inhabited by less than one-fifth of the population.The spatial distribution of the ecological carrying capacity demand-supply was unbalanced ranging from significant overloading to affluence from southeastern to northwestern part of China.It appeared to be more dominant in regions located at coastal areas which are attracted by migrants and had a generally higher population density.Along with the rapid development and urbanization trends in China,ecological deficits in these regions will become more severe.

  3. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  4. The evolution of carrying capacity in constrained and expanding tumour cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Cancer cells are known to modify their micro-environment such that it can sustain a larger population, or, in ecological terms, they construct a niche which increases the carrying capacity of the population. It has however been argued that niche construction, which benefits all cells in the tumour, would be selected against since cheaters could reap the benefits without paying the cost. We have investigated the impact of niche specificity on tumour evolution using an individual based model of breast tumour growth, in which the carrying capacity of each cell consists of two components: an intrinsic, subclone-specific part and a contribution from all neighbouring cells. Analysis of the model shows that the ability of a mutant to invade a resident population depends strongly on the specificity. When specificity is low selection is mostly on growth rate, while high specificity shifts selection towards increased carrying capacity. Further, we show that the long-term evolution of the system can be predicted using adaptive dynamics. By comparing the results from a spatially structured versus well-mixed population we show that spatial structure restores selection for carrying capacity even at zero specificity, which poses a solution to the niche construction dilemma. Lastly, we show that an expanding population exhibits spatially variable selection pressure, where cells at the leading edge exhibit higher growth rate and lower carrying capacity than those at the centre of the tumour.

  5. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-04-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term 'carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many 'local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contribution of individual immigrants to bacterial population sizes on leaves. Our analysis revealed that plant foliage represents to bacteria an environment where individual fate is determined by the local carrying capacity of the site where an immigrant cell lands. With increasing inoculation densities, the RS of most immigrants declined, suggesting that local carrying capacity under the tested conditions was linked to local nutrient availability. Fitting the observed experimental data to an adapted model of phyllosphere colonization indicated that there might exist three types of sites on leaves, which differ in their frequency of occurrence and local carrying capacity. Specifically, our data were consistent with a leaf environment that is characterized by few sites where individual immigrants can produce high numbers of offspring, whereas the remainder of the leaf offered an equal number of sites with low and medium RS. Our findings contribute to a bottom-up understanding of bacterial colonization of leaf surfaces, which includes a quantifiable role of chance in the experience at the individual level and in the outcome at the population level. PMID:22258099

  6. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province,I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity.By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008,the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed.It is unveiled that inharmonious population,natural resources and economic resources affect the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province;the underdeveloped economy of Henan Province impacts the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province and the overburdened population lead to the insufficiency of ecological carrying capacity.Around protecting the threshold of ecological system,the countermeasures are put forward,which cover forming the idea of ecological economy and circular economy and promoting the transformation of economy growth mode;taking the development road of using resources intensively and performing the strategy of sustainable utilization of resources;strictly control population growth and strengthening people’s crisis awareness of resources and environment.

  7. Self-adjustment of Carrying Capacity of Concrete Embedded with CFRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu YAO

    2006-01-01

    By heating up the embedded carbon fiber reinforced cement based material (CFRC), the carrying capacity and deformation of concrete member could be adjusted. The relationship between temperature difference and expansion strain of CFRC was demonstrated, and the temperature-deformation-load effect of concrete embedded with CFRC was studied. Heating the CFRC up to different temperatures resulted in different degree of inner pre-stress in concrete. Thus, the load capacity of concrete could be regulated owing to counteracting the pre-stress.

  8. Carrying capacity for the electromagnetic suspension low-speed maglev train on the horizontal curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the lateral dislocation between the electromagnets and the rails on a horizontal curve,we investigated a single magnetic bogie of the maglev train in this paper.The magnetic levitation and guidance forces supplied by the suspension modules were deduced by the flux tube method.According to the dynamic equilibrium equations of the maglev train on the curved track with cant,several major factors that influence the carrying capacity were analyzed,and the formula of the carrying capacity was presented.The results provide a theoretical reference for the design of maglev train.

  9. Carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns under concentric vertical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, Kazem; Anaraki, A.R. Gowhari

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns with different boundary conditions and cross sections subjected to concentric vertical loads. The transfer matrix method, combined with fundamental solutions of the intact columns (e.g. columns with no cracks) is used to obtain the ca

  10. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using

  11. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  12. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Lihong; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; ZHAO Ruifeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively, where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity, 0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, where water resources carrying capacity is much higher, and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole, the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus, we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.

  13. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin. PMID:24808757

  14. Research on comprehensive carrying capacity of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on state-space method

    OpenAIRE

    Baojun Tang; Yujie Hu; Huanan Li; Dongwei Yang; Jiangpeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on state-space method and component analysis, this paper builds a comprehensive evaluation system of carrying capacity for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from four aspects, namely economy, environment, ecology and energy. The results show that the comprehensive carrying capacity in this region gradually rises in recent years and the economic carrying capacity plays an important role in this situation. Ecological and environmental carrying capacity are gradually enhanced but still affe...

  15. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB)

  16. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper. PMID:26239650

  17. An innovative method for water resources carrying capacity research--Metabolic theory of regional water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chongfeng; Guo, Ping; Li, Mo; Li, Ruihuan

    2016-02-01

    The shortage and uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has seriously restricted the sustainable development of regional society and economy. In this study, a metabolic theory for regional water resources was proposed by introducing the biological metabolism concept into the carrying capacity of regional water resources. In the organic metabolic process of water resources, the socio-economic system consumes water resources, while products, services and pollutants, etc. are output. Furthermore, an evaluation index system which takes into the characteristics of the regional water resources, the socio-economic system and the sustainable development principle was established based on the proposed theory. The theory was then applied to a case study to prove its availability. Further, suggestions aiming at improving the regional water carrying capacity were given on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the current water resources situation. PMID:26683766

  18. Evaluation of Social Carrying Capacity of Topkapi Palace By Employees and Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurban Ünlüönen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Visitors’ using attraction resources at an optimum level is essential for the sustainable usage of areas. In fact Topkapı Palace arouses a considerable level of interest in terms of resources it has and this interest consequently leads to a concentration of visitors and a high degree of usage. The concentration in the area has utmost importance in terms of visitor carrying capacity. One of the groups who can evaluate the concentration present in this area most efficiently is the employees of the palace who are in continuous interaction with the visitors. One of the main objectives of this study is revealing the opinions of the employees on visitor carrying capacity. In order to gather information from the employees, face-to-face interview technique has been used and the evaluations of the employees have shown that visitor concentration has reached a level which may cause some negative results.

  19. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  20. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture a...

  1. On load carrying capacity of frames taking into account finite displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approximate method that takes into account the influence of finite displacements upon the load carrying capacity of planar unbraced frames is described. It is the iterative procedure where Quadratic Programming is applied for evaluation of subsequent configurations of the frame, whereas Linear Programming serves to find ultimate load factors for each configuration. Numerical tests show that the procedure gives practically acceptable results being at the same time much cheaper than the exact geometrically and physically non-linear incremental analysis. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Social Carrying Capacity of Topkapi Palace By Employees and Visitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kurban Ünlüönen; Cüneyt Tokmak

    2009-01-01

    Visitors’ using attraction resources at an optimum level is essential for the sustainable usage of areas. In fact Topkapı Palace arouses a considerable level of interest in terms of resources it has and this interest consequently leads to a concentration of visitors and a high degree of usage. The concentration in the area has utmost importance in terms of visitor carrying capacity. One of the groups who can evaluate the concentration present in this area most efficiently is the employees of ...

  3. Model of Carrying Capacity - System Dynamics in NetLogo and Stella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olševičová, K.; Cimler, R.; Tomášková, H.; Danielisová, Alžběta

    Hradec Králové: Gaudeamus, 2014, s. 117-123. ISBN 978-80-7435-370-3. [Hradec Economic Days 2014. Hradec Králové (CZ), 04.02.2014-05.02.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/0926 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Carrying capacity model * NetLogo * social simulation * Stella * system dynamics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  5. Benchmarking the Enrolment Structure of an Educational System without Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Virtue Uwabomwen EKHOSUEHI; Augustine Aideyan OSAGIEDE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an enrolment projection method based on the carrying capacity of the educational system. The method is a refinement of the recruitment control strategy proposed in the literature. We implement our proposed method using enrolment data from a university setting. The results obtained by extrapolating the short-term shifts in enrolment structure reflect the normal progression pattern in the system.

  6. A Study on the Thermal Effect of the Current-Carrying Capacity of Embedded Underground Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Dewen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to study embedded underground cable and the effect of temperature that surrounds it. Determining the carrying capacity of the cable is important to predict the temperature changesin the embedded pipe. Simulating the temperature field and the laying environment according to the IEC standard enables the calculation of the carrying capacity of the buried region. According to the theoryof heat transfer, the embedded pipe tube model temperature field should be coupled with a numerical model. The domain and boundary conditions of the temperature field should also be determined using the 8.7/15kV YJV 400 cable. In conducting numerical calculation and analysis using the temperature field model, the two-dimensional temperature distribution of the emission control area should be determined. The experimental results show that the simulation isconsistent with the IEC standard. Furthermore, in identifying the cable ampacity, the different seasons and different cable rows should be taken into account using the finite element method. Finally, theappropriate choice of root and circuit numbers of the cable will improve the cable’s the carrying capacity.

  7. Estimating carrying capacity in a newly colonized sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ferro, Cristina

    2002-02-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck) was mass-reared tinder conditions of varying densities in an effort to improve colony production efficiency. To do this, the experimental carrying capacity of a standard rearing chamber was determined, i.e., the optimum population size in relation to density (individuals per unit of space). Rearing chambers of 100 cm3 were populated with 1-50 L. serrana engorged females and an equal number of males. Laboratory conditions were maintained at 23-26 degrees C and 85-95% RH. The following parameters were recorded for each experimental chamber (three replicates): (1) female mortality without oviposition, (2) number of eggs oviposited and (3) number of adults emerging from the egg cohort. Female mortality began to increase substantially in the 26-female chamber, from 5.7% to 15% and finally reaching 60.2% in the 46-50 female chambers. In the chambers containing 1-20 females, egg number and realized adult progeny increased linearly to reach an asymptote. In the 20-50 female chambers, the number of eggs ranged from 420 to 699, and adult production from 306 to 432. The optimum carrying capacity for the 100-cm3 chambers was 22 +/- 2 females. Beyond this number, auto-regulation was initiated, i.e., female mortality without oviposition increased as the number of females per chamber increased. Total number of eggs and adult production was similar in all chambers containing 20-50 females. In conclusion, for optimizing production of mass reared sand flies, determination of the carrying capacity is essential to optimize use of insectary resources, to avoid loss of valuable potentially ovipositing females, and to increase overall production efficiency. PMID:11942751

  8. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept of...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated on the...

  9. Heat removal effect on current-carrying capacity of composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations of heat removal conditions on current carrying capacity of composite Nb-Ti superconductors in the case, when conductor loading by current in a varying magnetic field is the main perturbing effect, are presented. It is shown, that the regime of external heat removal affects the maximum transport current of the composite, but under conditions, when external perturbations do not cause local transitions of the superconductor into normal state, the effect is not great. The theory agrees well (with the accuracy of not less than 5%) with the experimental data

  10. Evaluation of CO2 carrying capacity of reactivated CaO by hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, I; Grasa, Gemma S.; Murillo, R.; Arias Rozada, Borja; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Steam hydration has been proposed as a suitable technique for improving the performance of CaO as a regenerable sorbent in CO2 capture systems. New hydration experiments conducted in this study, confirm the reported improvements in the capacity of sorbents to carry CO2. An examination of the textural properties of the sorbent after hydration and mild calcination revealed a large increase in the area of reaction surface and the formation of a fraction of pores ≈20 nm diameter that enhance...

  11. IDENTIFYING ACTIONS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE UKRAINIAN RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Muzykina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have touched the problem of high freight traffic of the main railway lines ofUkraine. The analysis of the present condition of these lines is given and their technical equipment is described. The main undertakings directed towards increasing the traffic and carrying capacity of the railways are also considered. The dynamics of the wagon traffic volume and train mass changes related to the mentioned lines over the past years is presented. The possible measures which should secure minimum costs for the wide usage of the trains of increased mass and length are also considered and planed.

  12. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as Charter Parks within the European Charter for sustainable tourism in Protected Areas developed by the EUROPARC Federation. Due to the strong political commitments related to European nature protection goals attached to the Natura2000 program, Natura2000 sites overlapping the nature parks have been taken...... as a departure for the comparison of the protectional conditions for the parks. Many other aspects of the nature and social carrying capacities however also constitute important conditions for the park management. Increasing emphasis on visitor experience is not only a challenge for the nature protection...

  13. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Starvin M S; Manisekar K

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with simplified 3D finite element (FE) analysis on the effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model the rolling elements. This model enables us to evaluate the contact load on the rolling elements with relatively reduced calculation time. FE study has been carried out by allocating tolerance on balls and raceways using Monte Carlo simulation technique. The variation in dimension on balls is taken as per IS 2898-1976. A coding has been developed and employed for Monte Carlo simulation. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulation, tolerance has been assigned to the elements of large diameter bearing. From the results of finite element analysis, it is identified that analysis of large diameter bearing with tolerance on ball and raceway will lead to safe design.

  14. On the logistic equation subject to uncertainties in the environmental carrying capacity and initial population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorini, F. A.; Cecconello, M. S.; Dorini, L. B.

    2016-04-01

    It is recognized that handling uncertainty is essential to obtain more reliable results in modeling and computer simulation. This paper aims to discuss the logistic equation subject to uncertainties in two parameters: the environmental carrying capacity, K, and the initial population density, N0. We first provide the closed-form results for the first probability density function of time-population density, N(t), and its inflection point, t*. We then use the Maximum Entropy Principle to determine both K and N0 density functions, treating such parameters as independent random variables and considering fluctuations of their values for a situation that commonly occurs in practice. Finally, closed-form results for the density functions and statistical moments of N(t), for a fixed t > 0, and of t* are provided, considering the uniform distribution case. We carried out numerical experiments to validate the theoretical results and compared them against that obtained using Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Soil water carrying capacity of vegetation in the northeast of Ulan Buh Desert, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youliang TIAN; Yanhong HE; Liansheng GUO

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic change of soil water as a function of leaf area index and the soil water deficit value, prerequisites for assuring the survival of plants, were simulated. We established a dynamic soil water model based on a theory of water balance, the characteristics of the environment, and the physiological ecology of the plants in the Ulan Buh Desert, northwestern China. We estimated the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation in our study area of the desert. The results showed that the proportion of soil evaporation in the total amount of precipitation was greater than 60% in the wandering and semifixed sands and 44.8% in the fixed sand. When the leaf area index was less than 1.7 m2/m2, the soil water deficit was maintained at a low level, but when the leaf area index continued to increase, the soil water deficit increased rapidly as well. In consequence, we come to the conclusion that the leaf area index of the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation is 1.7 m2/m2 in our study area.

  16. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; Skiles, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  17. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  18. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  19. Extrinsic Influence of Environment-Induced Degradation on Load Carrying Capacity of Steel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sunil; Patnaik, A.; Payer, J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the results of a study aimed at evaluating the strength of wide-flanged beams subjected to corrosion-induced damage, modeled using a standard finite element program (ABAQUS) is presented and discussed. Typical beams in consideration were subjected to different cases of corrosion-induced damage, such as non-uniform and varying degree of material loss that simulates pitting corrosion. Many variables, such as (a) shape of pitting damage, (b) location of pits along the length of the beam, (c) number of pits, and (d) depth of pits, were considered to facilitate a better understanding of the load carrying capacity of steel I-beams having damage quite similar to pitting damage to the web. The results are compared with an "as-new" beam for purpose of evaluation of the reduction in strength due to environment-induced deterioration. A "corrosion strength reduction factor (CSRF)" is introduced to help identify the reduction in load carrying capacity as a consequence of both height and depth of the damage due to corrosion. The results are presented in charts for purpose of practical beam design.

  20. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus...... investigated also across the north Atlantic distribution of haddock. The major motivations were first, to provide an evaluation of potential thermal effects on haddock recruitment productivity across its distribution, since the species is relatively less investigated on this regard compared to cod. In addition...

  1. Beach Carrying Capacity Analysis for Sustainable Tourism Development in the South West Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Rajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of coastal tourism that has been seen in the last 10 years is frequently described as one of the major reasons for the development of these areas and also is responsible for many current coastal problems. The beaches perform, in this context, a fundamental role, where the issues related to planning and management are increasingly more important when it comes to an implementation of a sustainable development philosophy. In Kerala, where coastal tourism plays a major part of the state’s economy, the management of beaches is crucial for maintaining their quality and therefore continuing to attract tourists. Since the 1990s, with the application of Coastal Zone Management Plans to the whole Kerala coast, beach plans are now required. The concept of capacity has received considerable attention as a result of increasing anthropogenic pressure in certain natural environments. Much consideration has recently been given to an increase in coastal population, with the implication that the carrying capacity of the world’s coast is finite, and such consideration forms part of several coastal management initiatives. Tourism is the world’s largest industry, which accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020. The ecosystems, typically stressed by development activity along the Indian coastal areas, are particularly vulnerable to socio-economic driving forces. The planning and management of coastal tourism can be improved through more careful understanding of social and ecological systems and their linkages, with a view to ensure a development that lasts, not only for tourism but also for the host destination. The present study gives a comprehensive idea on both sustainability of coastal areas and a prerequisite for the carrying capacity based development in tourism destinations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2648

  2. Dynamic Response of RPC-Filled Steel Tubular Columns with High Load Carrying Capacity Under Axial Impact Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; WU Ping'an; JIA Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Experimental investigation into impact-resistant behavior of reactive powder concrete (RPC)-filled steel tubular columns was conducted, and dynamic response of the columns under axial impact loading was studied by means of numerical simulation method.Increase coefficient of load carrying capacity and ratio of load carrying capacity between steel tube and RPC core of columns were obtained.

  3. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHENG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD. In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1 continuity of existing water utilization, (2 water conservation/saving, and (3 water exploitation. The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors. The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model. Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed. The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  4. NEW APPROACHES FOR COMPUTING DYNAMIC LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF MULTIPLE COOPERATING ROBOTIC MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A novel unified method for computing the dynamic load-carrying capacity(DLCC) of multiple cooperating robotic manipulators is developed.In this method,the kinematic constraints and the governing dynamic equations of the multiple robot system are formulated in the joint space by using the method of transference of dependence from one set of generalized coordinates to another,and the virtual work principle,which includes the readily available dynamics and joint torques of individual manipulators,and the dynamic of payload.Based on this dynamic model,the upper limit of the DLCC at any points on a given trajectory is obtained by solving a small-size linear programming problem.This method is conceptually straightforward,and it is applicable also to the cases of multi-fingered robot hands and multi-legged walking machines.

  5. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...... the spawner-recruit relationship is examined among populations of the same species. The slopes of these relationships are close to 1 (i.e. proportional). However, mean recruitment per spawner varies greatly among species (range 3 to 10). Some ecosystems allowed cod Gadus morhua, haddock Melanogrammus...... aeglefinus and herring Clupea harengus populations to produce an average of ca. 8-fold more recruits per spawner than other ecosystems. Also, the abundance of at least 1 species (cod) is strongly related to habitat size. Reasons for the differences in recruit production per spawner between ecosystems are...

  6. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias;

    2015-01-01

    ) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC......, demonstrating the potential of tyre equipment in reducing compaction risks. The NTD varied between years and generally decreased with increasing wheel load of the machinery. The WLCC simulations presented here provide a useful and easily interpreted tool to guide the avoidance of soil compaction.......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC...

  7. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Tibet China--Variety of Ecological Footprints from 1978 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bao; GAO Ji-xi; Lori Anna Conzo; GAO Ming-gang; HE Ping

    2005-01-01

    Ecological footprint's theory and method are used to calculate and analysis the ecological carrying capacity in Tibet. The results indicate: Tibet ecological footprint (2.1 hm2) keeps higher than countrywide average level (1.5 hm2), and lower than global average level (2.4 hm2); the result show that Tibet pasture ecological footprint is the most different with other area, and woodland is the second; Tibet ecological footprint grows from 1.25 hm2 in 1978 to 2.09 hm2 in 2002, which states that life level is improving continuously; GDP (per RMB 104 Yuan) ecological footprint reduces from 61.9 hm2 in 1978 to 4.54 hm2 in 2002, which states resources utilized ratio is increasing continuously.

  8. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Pnutritionally stressed condition, which may be limiting population performance. Using the logistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  9. Effects of wetland management on carrying capacity of diving ducks and shorebirds in a coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, L. Arriana; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel; Graham, Tanya; Buffington, Kevin; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Smith, Lacy M.; Spring, Sarah E.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    With global loss of natural wetlands, managed wetlands increasingly support energy requirements for wintering shorebirds and waterfowl. Despite numerous studies of avian bioenergetics in freshwater systems, less is known of the energetic capacity of estuarine systems. In San Francisco Bay, managed saline ponds converted from former commercial salt evaporation ponds form part of the largest wetland restoration project on the Pacific coast of North America. A daily-ration model was applied to assess carrying capacity for diving ducks and shorebirds during four winter seasons (2007–2010) in seasonal and circulation ponds, each in two salinity classes. Diving ducks comprised an estimated 35,450 ± 1,559 (x ± SE) in average years and 45,458 ± 1,653 in peak years with > 95% in circulation ponds. Shorebirds comprised 64,253 ± 14,838 (x ± SE) in average years and 108,171 ± 4,854 in peak years with > 64% in seasonal ponds. Macroinvertebrate energy density was highest in mesohaline (5–30 ppt) circulation ponds and lowest in seasonal ponds for both guilds. Energy requirements for diving ducks in mesohaline followed by low-hyperhaline (30–80 ppt) circulation ponds were mostly met by available prey energy. Available energy for shorebirds was substantially less than they required in seasonal ponds but exceeded their needs in mesohaline circulation ponds. Mesohaline circulation ponds supported 9,443 ± 1,649 (x ± SE) shorebird use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat and 2,297 ± 402 diving duck use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat, twice the capacity of low-hyperhaline circulation ponds and greater than five times that of seasonal ponds for both guilds. Our results indicated that reducing salinity to mesohaline levels and altering water depth to increase accessibility substantially increased energy available for these species in estuarine managed ponds.

  10. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM) in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC) is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector ...

  11. STUDY OF CARRYING CAPACITY OF A CORRUGATED METAL CONSTRUCTION BY CRITERION OF YIELD HINGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research is aimed to: 1 calculation of equivalent forces caused by rolling stock in winter and summer seasons at different parameters of the irregularities of railway track; 2 research of bearing capacity of corrugated metal constructions (CMC in terms of development of plastic hinge in the top of the metal pipe due to irreversible residual deformation of the vertical and horizontal diameters of the pipe. Methodology. The calculation of equivalent forces is carried out according to the method of calculating the railway track on strength and stability. Further a mathematical algorithm was developed in the software environment of Mathcad 14, with which the calculations were made about the formation of a plastic hinge at the top of the pipe for different values of the irregularities of the railway track and the degree of compaction of soil backfill. In these studies, the calculations were carried out at the design value of the compaction degree of soil backfill and magnitude of dynamic loading on railway rolling stock. Findings. Analysis of multivariate calculations of testing the condition of occurrence of plastic hinge at the top of the pipe arch has revealed that the first plastic hinge, which occurs in the set of CMC is revealed only when there is a simultaneous unfavorable influence of two factors (causes. These are the factors: the assumption of the development of the track irregularities out of the allowable values without the implementation of measures to eliminate or limit the speed of trains (the first cause; reduction of compaction of soil backfill below the 90 % (the second cause. In case of absence of one of the causes the origin of the plastic hinge will not happen. Originality. It was the first time, when the bearing capacity of corrugated metal construction with large diameter (more than 6 m with account of factors complex: the degree of compaction of soil backfill, the magnitude of the dynamic loads from rolling stock

  12. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  13. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  14. Synergistic effects of drought and fire on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross

    2014-05-01

    More than half of the global forest carbon stock is held in tropical forests. A relatively large proportion of the tropical forest carbon is stored in plant biomass rather than in the soil, making these stocks particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as droughts, fires and cyclones. The frequencies, duration and intensities of such disturbances may change under future climates with poorly resolved but potentially significant (synergistic) effects on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and thereby on global geochemical cycles. In this study we analyse high-resolution global data sets for tropical forest biomass (Saatchi et al., 2011. PNAS) and fire affected areas (GFED4, Giglio et al.,2013. JGR 118), together with climate data (WorldClim, Hijmans et al., 2005. Int. J. Clim. 25), to quantify the sensitivity of tropical forest carbon stocks in South America, Africa and Asia/Australia to seasonal water deficits and fire. Here, the climatic water deficit (D), calculated as the difference between mean annual potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration, is used as a measure of seasonal water stress (i.e., evaporative demand not met by available water), while the mean annual burned area fraction (1995-2013) of grid cells is used as a measure of average fire activity. Tropical forest carbon stocks are maximal, as expected, where water deficits are negligible. In those densely forested environments fire tends to be extremely rare as fuels are too wet to burn for most of the time. In all three continents, potential tropical forest carbon stocks are well predicted by a non-linear decreasing function of the mean annual climatic water deficit, with a steep drop in carbon stocks at D of 700-800 mm per year. At this threshold in the climatic water deficit we observe a strong increase in fire activity that is indicative of a critical change in vegetation structure (i.e., tree/grass ratio) and associated shift in the dominant climatic constraint on

  15. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. PMID:23728182

  16. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2015-10-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6ºC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μ at the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) and generally covaried with μ but, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μ and K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. PMID:26362925

  17. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  18. (ANTI)PETER Principle - Discrete (INVERSE) Logistic Equation with Imprecisely Estimated and Stimulated Carrying Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, V; Glavatovic, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we consider the Peter principle and anti-Peter principle as the discrete logistic and discrete inverse logistic equation. Especially we discuss imprecisely estimated (by hierarchical control mechanism) carrying capacity, i.e. boundary (in)competence level of a hierarchy member. It implies that Peter principle holds two sub-principles. In the first one objective boundary competence level is increased for estimation error. In the second one objective boundary competence level is decreased for estimation error. Similarly, anti-Peter principle holds two sub-principles too. All this implies that paradoxical situations that follow from Peter and anti-Peter principle can be simply removed by decrease of the error of hierarchical (social) control. Also we discuss cases by Peter principle when error of the boundary competence level by estimation grows up. (Then, in fact, there is no estimation error but stimulation of the boundary level by control mechanism.) By first Peter sub-principle it implies anarch...

  19. Benchmarking the Enrolment Structure of an Educational System without Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtue Uwabomwen EKHOSUEHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an enrolment projection method based on the carrying capacity of the educational system. The method is a refinement of the recruitment control strategy proposed in the literature. We implement our proposed method using enrolment data from a university setting. The results obtained by extrapolating the short-term shifts in enrolment structure reflect the normal progression pattern in the system. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  20. Population ecology and carrying capacity estimates for large ungulates at Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal for a two year project with the University of North Dakota. The end product of this research will be a detailed model of the carrying capacity...

  1. Carrying Capacity In East Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel integrated assessment and a sustainable development approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xercavins, Josep

    1999-01-01

    0.4.1. ORGANIZATIONIn the context of the global human/earth issues (population, poverty, imbalances, environment problematic, global warming, water scarcity, economical globalization, etc.) with the others the Carrying Capacity issue is emerging. It is a "driver" which is not always simply related with sustainable development concepts. It is therefore enormously important to give adequate answers to the majority of the global dilemmas. The definition of carrying capacity is not easy becaus...

  2. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Dugger, Bruce D.; Brasher, Michael G.; Coluccy, John M.; Cramer, Dane M.; Eadie, John M.; Gray, Matthew J.; Hagy, Heath M.; Livolsi, Mark; McWilliams, Scott R.; Petrie, Matthew; Soulliere, Gregory J.; Tirpak, John M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  3. The tourism carrying capacity of underwater trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here. PMID:23661221

  4. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  5. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  6. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  7. Conceptual Framework of Tourism Carrying Capacity for a Tourism City: Experiences from National Parks in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Nasha; Zheng Xilai

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally-accepted definition of tourism carrying capacity(TCC).Numerical TCC focuses on use level and is considered as"a magic number"of the saturation point for tourism.There are several reasons why numerical tourism capacity is inadequate.Alternatively,tourism capacity can be defined in terms of limits of acceptable change,which shifts the focus from"how much use is too much"to"how much change is acceptable".This article proposes an improved conceptual framework for evaluating carrying capacity for the tourism city based on approaches used in US national parks,which consider the impact of human use on a city's economic,environmental/resource,and socio-cultural conditions.Based on the basic data of indicator values and relevant standards,the framework monitors the current indicators and predicts future indicator values; it can also be used to assess and predict TCC.

  8. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors once made a preliminary research on population carrying capacity of the land in the Economic Area of Zhujiang Delta (EAZD for short) in 1995, and reckoned that the ultimate population in this region will be 23 550 thousand by year of 2000. While the population in being in EAZD was 22.62 million in 1999. This accords with the prefigured result in the rough from the point of view of development. According to the data of plow land resources from the 2000 Statistical Yearbook of EAZD and the study on the population-foodstuff-plow land relationship, this paper calculates the productive potential of plow land and the population carrying capacity of land by year of 2010, and puts forward the countermeasures for improving the population carrying capacity of land in this region.

  9. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological

  10. What is the carrying capacity for fish in the ocean? A meta analysis of population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers, R.A.; MacKenzie, Brian; Bowen, K.G.;

    2001-01-01

    Population and community data in one study are usually analyzed in isolation from other data. Here, we introduce statistical methods that allow many data sets to be analyzed simultaneously such that different studies may "borrow strength" from each other. In the simplest case, we simultaneously m...... analysis showed that the carrying capacity per unit area varied by more than 20-fold among populations and that much of this variation was related to temperature. That is, the carrying capacity per square kilometre declines as temperature increases....

  11. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  12. Carrying capacity an approaching procedure to the economic value of natural patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates a new alternative method for valorizing the natural heritage of various economically and environmentally important ecosystems. It was conducted in the Piedras Blancas, Antioquia watershed and considered the degree of conservation of the area and its capacity for supporting humans, by means of extractive economic activities. In this way the ecosystem itself provides a natural offer of goods and services and therefore a good approximation of its economic value

  13. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  14. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  15. Natural Airfield Pavements, Load-Carrying Capacities There Of, Principles Of Construction And Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper has been intended to present analytically derived relationships for aircraft wheels that move through the soil medium. The analyses have been conducted for both the rigid wheel and the pneumatic whell. The most fundamental principles of constructing natural(soil and sod/grass airfield pavements have been diccussed. Characteristic of soils typical of such pavements /surfaces have been defined. Proped are criteria for the evaluation of load-carring capacities of such pavements. The most essential principles that goven the operational use there of follow.

  16. Evaluation on load-carrying capacity for corroded RC box-culvert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses effects of reinforcing steel corrosion structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures based on experimental results. We conducted a series of full-scale cyclic loading tests on RC box-culvert specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. As a result, the initial rigidity and maximum strength were maintained under the condition of slight corrosion. On the other hand, deformation capacity decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. This shows that the locally material deterioration has a minor effect on structural performance of RC box-culverts, which is characterized as a redundant structure. (author)

  17. A Study on the Mechanism of Coupling Coordination Development of Tourism Carrying Capacity and Application Research

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuping Yang; Gangmin Weng

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to keep the sustainable carrying of tourism environment. Using the coupling theory, this study defines the connotation of tourism environment coupling system and analysis the formation mechanism and the module of the tourism environment coupling system. According to the research of the "structural coupling" and "stress coupling", it not only ensures the benign development of the tourism environment system, but also makes the d...

  18. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  19. 刘家峡库区生态承载力研究%Ecological carrying capacity of the Liujiaxia reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何有华; 景凌云; 张晓虹; 刘敏

    2011-01-01

    Due to harsh conditions,the ecological environment of Liujiaxia reservoir is frail and the soil erosion here is serious.It is urgent to improve the ecological environment.Ecological carrying capacity of the Liujiaxia reservoir,the Nianzigou small watershed of the north Liujiaxia reservoir and the Sanpinggou small watershed of south Liujiaxia were calculated in this study to provide theoretical support for improvement of ecological environment construction in the study area.Based on theory of ecological carrying capacity,this study established comprehensive index system,which included ecological resilience,resource carrying capacity and resource carrying-pressing index.The results of this study showed that ecological resilience was unstable,and carrying capacity index of water resource was low,and soil carrying saturation was severe overloading.This study suggested that the Liujiaxia reservoir was currently unsustainable development.It is effort to develop comprehensive management measures of soil erosion to improve ecological carrying capacity of Liujiaxia reservoir in the future.%刘家峡库区自然条件严酷,生态环境脆弱,水土流失严重,亟需加快治理步伐。本研究通过计算分析刘家峡库区、库区南部三坪沟流域、库区北部碾子沟流域的生态承载力状况,为库区水土保持生态环境建设提供理论支撑。研究以生态承载力理论与方法为指导,建立了生态弹性度、资源承载力、资源承压度3级层次的生态承载力综合评价指标体系。分析表明,刘家峡库区目前生态弹性度为不稳定状态,水资源承载指数为低承载,土地承载饱和度为严重超载,库区处于不可持续的发展状态。应以提高库区生态承载力为目标,开展库区水土流失综合治理。

  20. Increasing the load-carrying capacity of screens of magnetic drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article demonstrates how the application of programmed hardening makes it possible to increase the loadcarrying capacity of screens by 20-25%. The mechanism of programmed hardening is based on diffusion and microshear processes which are accompanied by the redistribution of dislocation clusters from the areas with higher density to areas with lower density of dislocations. The screen of the magnetic drive has the form of a thin-wall cylinder which seals the apparatus. Reduction of the thickness of the wall of the screen would be beneficial since the torque on the drive shaft is approximately inversely proportional to the square of the gap between the half clutches. To conduct programmed hardening, it was necessary to construct equipment for force loading, heating systems, and also devices for the automatic maintenance of the appropriate parameters: the rate of increase of load and temperature. It was possible to increase the limit of proportionality from 255 to 369 MPa and also to reduce the wall thickness of the screen to 3.5 mm. Includes a diagram of the magnetic drive

  1. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  2. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nagan; Karthiyaini, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ...

  3. Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Yigang Wei; Cui Huang; Patrick T. I. Lam; Yong Sha; Yong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC) is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing studies still lack consensus not only on the theoretical aspects, but also on the methodological issues for UCC monitoring and evaluation. A knowledge gap exists, which this...

  4. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  5. Approximate Solution of Oil Film Load-carrying Capacity of Turbulent Journal Bearing with Couple Stress Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongfang; WU Peng; GUO Bo; L Yanjun; LIU Fuxi; YU Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  6. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approac...

  7. Optimizing the Regional Industrial Structure Based on the Environmental Carrying Capacity: An Inexact Fuzzy Multi-Objective Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An inexact fuzzy multi-objective programming model (IFMOP based on the environmental carrying capacity is provided for industrial structure optimization problems. In the IFMOP model, both fuzzy linear programming (FLP and inexact linear programming (ILP methods are introduced into a multi-objective programming framework. It allows uncertainties to be directly communicated into the problem solving processing, and it can effectively reflect the complexity and uncertainty of an industrial system without impractical simplification. The two objective functions utilized in the optimization study are the maximum total output value and population size, and the constraints include water environmental capacity, water resource supply, atmospheric environmental capacity and energy supply. The model is subsequently employed in a realistic case for industrial development in the Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. The results demonstrate that the model can help to analyze whether the environmental carrying capacity of Tongzhou can meet the needs of the social economic objectives in the new town plan in the two scenarios and can assist decision makers in generating stable and balanced industrial structure patterns with consideration of the resources, energy and environmental constraints to meet the maximum social economic efficiency.

  8. 深圳水环境容量及其承载力评价%Evaluation of Water Environment Capacity and Carrying Capacity in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬彬; 车秀珍; 陈晓丹; 谢林伸

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen indicators of water resources, water environment and socio-economic systems were selected to construct a carrying capacity evaluation index system of regional water environment, and to evaluate the water environment capacity and carrying capacity in Shenzhen using Channel One-dimensional Model, Multidimensional Model and Pattern Recognition Approach. The results showed that the water environment capacity in Shenzhen of CODCr was 195,405.3 tons per year, while that of NH3-N was 6,570.4 tons per year. Discharge of NH3-N was 57. 2% over the environment capacity in 2008. Although the discharge of CODCr was below the environmental capacity limit (due to the great environment capacity of the coastal waters) , the actual discharge of CODCr into rivers far outweighed the water environment capacity, which resulted in serious river pollution as well as acute water environment problems. The sustainable capacity degree of water environment in Shenzhen in 2008 was 0. 4, which indicated that water environment carrying capacity was in warning status, and close to critical. Therefore, it was on a trajectory of unsustainable development on the whole. Based on the actual situation in Shenzhen, three strategic suggestions for improving water environment carrying capacity were proposed, which are industrial structure adjustment, strengthening pollution control and importing water from the outside territory.%选取水资源、水环境和社会经济三大系统的19个指标,构建了区域水环境承载力评价指标体系,采用河道一维模型和多极关联评价模型分别对深圳水环境容量及其承载力进行评价.结果表明:深圳水环境容量CODcr,为195 405.3 t/a,NH3-N为6 570.4 t/a;2008年NH3-N排放量超过环境容量的57.2%.尽管CODcr排放量低于环境容量上限水平,但由于近岸海域水环境容量大,而实际入河排放量远超河流水环境容量,河流污染较为严重,水环境问题突出.2008年深圳水

  9. The uncertain role of diversity dependence in species diversification and the need to incorporate time-varying carrying capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles R; Quental, Tiago B

    2016-04-01

    There is no agreement among palaeobiologists or biologists as to whether, or to what extent, there are limits on diversification and species numbers. Here, we posit that part of the disagreement stems from: (i) the lack of explicit criteria for defining the relevant species pools, which may be defined phylogenetically, ecologically or geographically; (ii) assumptions that must be made when extrapolating from population-level logistic growth to macro-evolutionary diversification; and (iii) too much emphasis being placed on fixed carrying capacities, rather than taking into account the opportunities for increased species richness on evolutionary timescales, for example, owing to increased biologically available energy, increased habitat complexity and the ability of many clades to better extract resources from the environment, or to broaden their resource base. Thus, we argue that a more effective way of assessing the evidence for and against the ideas of bound versus unbound diversification is through appropriate definition of the relevant species pools, and through explicit modelling of diversity-dependent diversification with time-varying carrying capacities. Here, we show that time-varying carrying capacities, either increases or decreases, can be accommodated through changing intrinsic diversification rates (diversity-independent effects), or changing the effects of crowding (diversity-dependent effects). PMID:26977059

  10. Ecological carrying capacity and suitability of land use - part of the Ziarska kotlina Basin; 1 : 25 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the years 1996 - 1998 the ecological project Assessment of ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of the region of the Ziarska kotlina Basin (EL Ltd Spisska Nova Ves) was prepared pursuing the methodology of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape (Ustav krajinnej ekologie SAV Bratislava, 1997 Bratislava, 1998). In 20 cadaster territories of the Ziarska kotlina Basin with total area of 22,000 ha along with the economically most important activity (industry) also other socio-economic activities are carried out. Loading of the individual environmental components and suitability of location of the individual socio-economic activities were assessed along with identification of the causes of environmental problems and their solutions. About 89 square km (40.45 % of the total area of interest territory) is situated at the first level of ECC. The second and third levels of ECC cover about 63 km2 (28.64 %) and 68 km2 (30.91 %) respectively. Only a fragment of this territory is presented here. (authors)

  11. Proposal of a simplified method for the assessment of carrying capacity of woods in territorial forest planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for carrying capacity estimation are standardised for pastoral resources, but in particular environments it is important to assess the potential utilisation of forests as forage source for grazing animals. Some experimental methods are money and time consuming and they need the accurate evaluation of production from woody species that can be utilised by animals. This work suggests a simplified methodology of vegetation sampling to be used inside forest planning to evaluate the carrying capacity of woods. The proposed technique needs the determination of a maximum animal stocking rate and the assessment of herbaceous and woody vegetation and their palatability to evaluate the eventual occurrence of negative parameters to be taken into account as reductive factors of the maximum stocking rate previously identified. The research was carried out inside the forest planning of the complex “Gallipoli-Cognato” (Basilicata. About 100 sample areas were conducted to assess the woody and the herbaceous layers present in the forest. Based on these findings, three classes of overall forage quality were identified and to them a different and decreasing level of potential stocking rate was attributed, starting from the maximum that for the studied area was considered as 0.3 LU ha-1 year-1. Proposed methodology resulted simple and fast, even if some improvements are necessary concerning the evaluation of the herbaceous vegetation and the assessment of the damages caused by animals grazing to soil and forest.

  12. Effect of aging on the predicted maximum moment-carrying capacity of circumferentially cracked cast stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cast stainless steel used in LWR primary system components such as valve bodies, pump castings, pipe fittings, and piping is susceptible to thermal embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures, 280-320 C (536-608 F). This process of thermal aging causes an increase in the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the steel, and at the same time a decrease in toughness. Work at Argonne National Laboratories (ANL) has shown that such thermal embrittlement due to changes in the microstructure can occur during the reactor lifetime of 40 years. The effect of this thermal degradation on the load- carrying capacity of circumferentially cracked piping is the subject of this work. In this study, both lower-bound and typical values of the J-R curves and the tensile properties for CF8M and CF8A cast stainless steels, which have been artificially aged to simulate 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 years of service at 300 C (572 F), were used to predict the maximum load-carrying capacity of circumferentially cracked pipes. The effect of aging, that is, reduced toughness and increased strength, for different pipe diameters, crack geometries [i.e., through-wall cracks (TWC) and surface cracks (SC)], and crack sizes has been investigated. Since complete stress-strain curve fits as a function of aging were not available at this time, only three analyses methods could be used. The three analyses methods used to estimate the maximum load-carrying capacity of cracked pipes were: (1) a J-estimation scheme for TWC pipes developed by Paris, (2) a Plastic-Zone-Screening Criteria (DPZP) developed at Battelle which is applicable to both TWC and SC pipe, and (3) the R6 Option 1 method developed by CEGB which is also applicable for both TWC and SC pipe

  13. [Assessment of ecosystem energy flow and carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement in the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Qun; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhong-yi; Wu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Stock enhancement is increasingly proved to be an important measure of the fishery resources conservation, and the assessment of carrying capacity is the decisive factor of the effects of stock enhancement. Meanwhile, the variations in the energy flow patterns of releasing species and ecosystem were the basis for assessing carrying capacity of stock enhancement. So, in the present study, based on the survey data collected from the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters during 2012-2013, three Ecopath mass-balance models were established in June, August and October, and the variations in ecosystem energy flow in these months were analyzed, as well as the assessment of carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement. The energy flow mainly concentrated on trophic level I-III in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, and was relatively less on trophic level IV or above. The system flow proportion on the trophic level I was the highest in June, and was the lowest in August. The highest system flow proportion on the trophic level II was found in August, and the lowest in June. The relative and absolute energy flow of swimming crab mainly concentrated on the trophic level III, and the mean trophic level of swimming crab among June, August and October were 3.28. Surplus production was relatively higher in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, the highest value was found in June, and the lowest value in August. The ratios of total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) were 5.49, 2.47 and 3.01 in June, August and October, respectively, and the ratios of total primary production/total biomass (TPP/B) were 47.61, 33.30 and 29.78, respectively. Combined with the low Finn' s cycling index (FCI: 0.03-0.06), these changes indicated that the Yellow River estuary ecosystem was at an early development stage with higher vulnerability. The energy conversion efficiency of system was from 7.3% to 11.5%, the mean trophic levels of the catch were 3.23, 2.97 and 2.82 in

  14. Load-carrying capacity and crack resistance of a cladding by the Sigma-oscillating wire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In postulated flaws in the austenitic cladding in the ferritic base material, the initiating and spreading behaviour of these flaws is also influenced by the load-carrying behaviour of the cladding in the cases of loading to be investigated. Therefore, the toughness of the cladding of the KKS reactor pressure vessel was characterised using ductile fracture mechanics. Miniature tensile and fracture specimens prepared from fragments from notched impact specimens were used for radial and circumferential crack propagation (T-S or T-L). These results were additionally evaluated using Gurson's damage mechanism method. It could be shown that the cladding had sufficient load-carrying capacity at the temperature relevant to the accidents studied with J and CTOD crack resistance curves. (orig.)

  15. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Hui-jun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Guangdong Province Statistics Bureau, 2000. The Statistic Annual of Agricultural Economy of Guangdong[Z] ) Beijing:Chinese Statistic Press, 39-40, 203-222. (in Chinese)[2]Guangdong Province Construction Committee, 1996. The Planning of Zhujiang Delta Cities[Z]. Beijing: Chinese Architecture Technology Press. (in Chinese)[3]WANG Ying-cai, ZHANG Miao-ling, 1994. Research on the Population Carrying Potentiality of the Land Resource in Jiangsu Province [M]. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Technology Press. 288-303. (in Chinese)[4]TANG Hui-jun, 1997. Research on the population carrying capacity of the land resources in the economic area of Zhujiang Delta[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Technology.14(3): 44. (in Chinese)

  16. Assessment of the Load-Carrying Capacities of a Spherical Pressurized Water Reactor Steel Containment Under a Postulated Hydrogen Detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because hydrogen combustion is one of the major containment threats during severe accidents, different hydrogen mitigation measures have been implemented in nuclear power plants throughout the world. In German Konvoi plants passive autocatalytic recombiners have been selected for hydrogen risk reduction. This paper proposes a new further improved option by taking credit from both the recombiners for hydrogen releases on slow timescales and the large load-carrying capacity of the spherical steel containment for rapid releases. Therefore, the capacity of spherical steel containment shells is investigated in some detail. The hydrogen and steam distribution in the containment is simulated for a rather conservative accident scenario with a rapid hydrogen release; a large hydrogen detonation is assumed and the transient containment loads as well as the structural containment response are calculated. For all these analyses advanced methods with high time and space resolutions are applied.Detailed evaluations of the structural results considering recent experimental findings suggest that the spherical steel containment can carry the detonation loads. For the final assessment additional accident scenarios must be considered and more plant specific finite element models for the structural response must be applied. Some very local integrity issues need further investigations

  17. Effect of Shear Resistance on Flexural Debonding Load-Carrying Capacity of RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Debonding failure is the main failure mode in flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams by externally bonded or near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composites. It is believed that FRP debonding will be initiated if the shear stress on the concrete-FRP interface reaches the tensile strength of concrete. However, it was found through experimental and analytical studies that the debonding mechanism of FRP composites has the potential of shear failure in combination with debonding failure. Moreover, the shear failure probably influences the debonding failure. Presently, there are very little experimental and analytical studies to investigate the influence of shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC beam on FRP debonding failure. The current study investigates and analyzes the effect of shear resistance on FRP debonding failure based on test results. The analytical results show that the shear resistance of RC beam has a great effect on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beam. The influence of shear resistance on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity must be fully considered in flexural strengthening design of RC beams.

  18. Competitive capacity of HIV-1 strains carrying M184I or Y181I drug-resistant mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jue; LI Lin; LI Han-ping; ZHUANG Dao-min; LIU Si-yang; LIU Yong-jian; BAO Zuo-yi; WANG Zheng; LI Jing-yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Virus with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcdptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) resistant mutations show different evolution tendencies when the anti-viral therapies are interrupted. Understanding the replication fitness of drug-resistant virus is important for the study of the prevalence of drug-resistance. For this purpose, we characterized the replication capacity of HIV-1 virus carrying lamivudine (3TC) or nevirapine (NVP) resistant mutations.Methods 3TC and NVP resistant variants were induced in vitro by selecting wild type virus in the presence of drugs. For the competitive replication assay, drug-resistant variants were cocultured with wild-type virus in the presence or absence of drugs. The ratios of the viral species were determined over time by using a real-time RT-PCR-based assay. Results 3TC-resistant (M184I mutation) and NVP-resistant (Y181I mutation) virus should be selected in vitro in two different ways. The competitive replication assay showed that the ratio of virus carrying a M184I mutation increased from 98.8%, while the wild type virus decreased to 1.2% after 4 passages in the presence of 3TC; the percentage of virus carrying the Y181I mutation increased to 90.5%, while wild type virus decreased to 9.5% in the presence of NVP. In the absence of drugs, the ratio of virus carrying the M184I mutation decreased to 5.3%, while wild type virus increased to 94.7%; the ratio of virus carrying Y181I increased to 75%, while wild type virus decreased to 25% after 4 passages.Conclusions The NVP-resistant virus is fitter than wild type virus even in the absence of NVP that may be the reason that NNRTIs-resistant virus is spreading quickly.

  19. Load-carrying capacity and crack resistance of a cladding by the Sigma-oscillating wire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If cracks are postulated in the ferritic base material beneath the austenitic cladding, their initiation and propagation under hypothetical loading cases is influenced by the load carrying capacity of the cladding. The toughness of the KKS-RPV cladding was assessed by means of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods. Sub-sized tensile and bend specimens were fabricated by reconstitution technique from broken halves of standard ISO-V Charpy specimens, representing crack extension in radial and circumferential direction. They were tested and evaluated and further analyzed with the Gurson model. For temperatures relevant to the loss of coolant and upset conditions analyzed, a sufficient toughness of the cladding in terms of J and CTOD resistance curves could be shown. (orig.)

  20. Useful load-carrying capacity of yielding supports for mine roadways in the light of stand tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkiewicz, R.

    1992-08-01

    Discusses the effect of applying shackles of a new design to arched support sets on their load-carrying capacity. Basic technical data of the tested supports and test results are provided. Results for bow type shackles are compared with results for double-yoke shackles. It is concluded that the kind of shackle used to connect the support arches is of utmost importance. Shackles with single stirrups were found to be inferior to double-yoke shackles. Use of heavier profiles for supports is considered to be justified only if double-yoke stirrups are applied. Support performance graphs (load versus reduction in support height) for various supports with the two types of shackles are provided. 10 refs.

  1. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range. PMID:26910226

  2. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  3. Per capita resource consumption and resource carrying capacity: A comparison of the sustainability of 17 mainstream countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability involves aspects of society, economy, and environment. Environmental sustainability is one of the most important factors to support global energy consumption and to absorb the pollution generated by human activities. Because emergy can be used to measure both money and energy flows in the same units, it provides a way to measure the real wealth of both natural and economic systems and the impact of human activities on these systems. A comparison of the carrying capacity of natural resources with the consumption of these resources at regional or global scales can provide a clear image of sustainability. To assess sustainability around the world, we used the National Environmental Accounting Database data for 102 nations (2008 data) to evaluate the resource consumption by 17 mainstream countries. Our results revealed that most of the countries consumed too many resources, thereby decreasing the overall global sustainability of the natural resources that sustain human society. Our results confirm previous predictions that to ensure long-term sustainability, it will be necessary to control population increases, reduce emergy consumption, and promote emergy efficiency. - Highlights: ► The values of the per capita emergy consumption can indicate the sustainability of a nation. ► The average ratio of economic to natural emergy for 102 nations was 0.96 in 2008. ► In 2008, the global per capita emergy consumption was 1.96 times the natural carrying capacity. ► Humanity’s average per capita free emergy is 7.12 times the available renewable emergy.

  4. Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Incorporate Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    In the United States and elsewhere, renewable energy (RE) generation supplies an increasingly large percentage of annual demand, including nine U.S. states where wind comprised over 10% of in-state generation in 2013. This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating increasing amounts of variable RE, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration, and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—that can provide a framework for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of RE. There is growing recognition that while technical challenges to variable RE integration are real, they can generally be addressed via a variety of solutions that vary in implementation cost. As a result, limits to RE penetration are primarily economic, driven by factors that include transmission and the flexibility of the power grid to balance supply and demand. This limit can be expressed as economic carrying capacity, or the point at which variable RE is no longer economically competitive or desirable to the system or society.

  5. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of Tourist Resorts: An Application of Tourists' Spatial Behavior Simulator Based on GIS and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of visitors' individual spatial behaviors, a tourists' spatial behavior simulator (TSBS) to assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts was developed, TSBS employs GIS (Geographic Information System) to manage the spatial data, and Multi-Agent system to simulate the actions of individual visitors. By utilizing TSBS, visitors' travel patterns such as location, cost, and state can be analyzed and predicted. Based on this analysis and prediction, the model of assessing the carrying capacity of resorts is built. Our results show that TSBS will be an effective tool to accurately assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts.

  6. EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGES AND RANGE SYSTEMS ON VEGETATION ATTRIBUTES, CARRYING CAPACITY, STOCKING RATE AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY, NORTH KORDOFAN, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Moniem M.A. El hag

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation attributes, carrying capacity, stocking rates and forage productivity were studied in close and open range systems at the flowering and seed setting stages during the September and November 2010, respectively, in El Rosa (El-khuwei locality. Sampling was done by locating 2Km2 in close and open range systems in a radiating manner from the centre of each site. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was used to analyses treatments. Biomass production of plants and plant cover at the flowering stage in the close range system were significantly (P<0.0001 higher than that at the seed setting stage in the open range system. The plant density was significant (P<0.05 higher in the close rang system at the flowering stage and lower at the seed setting stage in the open range system. Bare soil and litter was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the open range system during the seed setting stage and lower in the close range system during the flowering stage. Forage productivity of plants and shrubs browse kg/ha on rangeland was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the close range system during the flowering stage and lower in open range system at the seed setting stage. Carrying capacity was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the close range system at the seed setting stage and lower in the open range at the flowering stage. Stoking rates in open range system during the seed setting stage was significantly higher (P<0.0001 and lower in the close range system during the seed setting stage. The frequencies of Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus, Bano, (Eragrostis tremula, Difra (Echinocloa colonum, leflef Luffa aegyptiaca, Gaw (Aristida sp, Shuleny Zornia glochidiata and Aborakhus Andropogon gayanus were higher in close system during the two stages of growth. Plants such as Abodaib Ceraotheca sesamoid, Bigual Blepharis linarifolia, Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis, Rabaa (Zalea sp, Himeira Hymerocardia, Diresa (Tribulus terrestris and Huntot Merremia pinnata

  7. Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing studies still lack consensus not only on the theoretical aspects, but also on the methodological issues for UCC monitoring and evaluation. A knowledge gap exists, which this paper fills. This study aims to develop a practical UCC assessment framework to guide urban development towards achieving sustainability. The quantitative-based assessment framework provides a set of measurable indicators and benchmarks for city managers to conduct routine monitoring on progress toward urban sustainability, and helps identify deficient areas, which urgently need resource allocation to improve UCC. Focusing on a case study of Beijing, this study demonstrates that the framework is useful in promoting urban sustainability. This framework provides rich implications for other city prototypes in China as the nation marches into the next phase of development.

  8. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  9. Hypoxia effects on gill surface area and blood oxygen-carrying capacity of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-08-01

    Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina, are common residents of shallow-water seagrass habitats that experience natural cycles of severe hypoxia during summer months. We hypothesized that stingrays exposed to hypoxic episodes would improve their hypoxia tolerance by increasing branchial surface area and altering blood oxygen-carrying capacity. To this end, we compared critical oxygen minimum, gill morphology, and hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in a control group of Atlantic stingrays held at continuous oxygen saturations of 80-90% (≥5.5 mg/l), to treatment groups exposed to a 7-h hypoxic interval at 55% (~4.0 mg/l), or 30% oxygen saturation (~2.0 mg/l). Stingrays in hypoxic treatment groups significantly improved their hypoxia tolerance. Critical oxygen minimum values fell from 0.7 ± 0.11 mg/l in control fish to 0.4 ± 0.05 and 0.4 ± 0.06 mg/l in the 55 and 30% saturation treatment groups, respectively. Mass-specific gill surface area between control fish and the 30% saturation treatment group increased by 1.7-fold, from 85 to 142 mm(2)/g. Although stingrays did not show an increase in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels, production of more efficient hemoglobin isoforms could not be ruled out. An increase in hypoxia tolerance allows Atlantic stingrays to forage for longer times and across a wide range of hypoxic habitats that are less accessible to predators and competitors. PMID:24352883

  10. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  11. 基于物元分析理论的旅游承载力研究%Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method cailed matter element analysis can solve the uncertain a,nd incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination s carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  12. Effective carrying capacity and analytical solution of a particular case of the Richards-like two-species population dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Ribeiro, Fabiano; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2011-01-01

    We consider a generalized two-species population dynamic model and analytically solve it for the amensalism and commensalism ecological interactions. These two-species models can be simplified to a one-species model with a time dependent extrinsic growth factor. With a one-species model with an effective carrying capacity one is able to retrieve the steady state solutions of the previous one-species model. The equivalence obtained between the effective carrying capacity and the extrinsic grow...

  13. Study plan for evaluating carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 2 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one report of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated December 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for the development of a study plan based on the critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. In the evaluation of carrying capacity the authors concluded that defining capacity and listing the determinants of capacity is not a simple exercise. Capacity is a complex variable among the attributes that all together define salmon performance. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, will not lead to the development of a useful study plan. To increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. This report describes the elements of a study plan that could be used to increase the understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors that influence salmon survival under current conditions

  14. Research on atmospheric environment carrying capacity of ports%港口大气环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长兵

    2012-01-01

    以秦皇岛煤炭港口为例,筛选煤粉尘(TSP)作为典型大宗散货港口大气环境优先污染物,通过对港口区域现有重点煤尘污染源、烟尘污染源和工业粉尘污染源排放和治理状况以及大气污染物迁移扩散规律的研究,结合社会、经济和环境因素,以满足秦皇岛煤炭作业环境和周边地区大气环境功能区环境质量标准为约束条件,探求了港口大气污染物排放总量及环境承载力控制目标.%In this paper,taking Qinhuangdao coal port for example,TSP was selected as the priority pollutants of atmospheric environment of the typical large-sized bulk cargo port.The emission and treatment of the existing key pollution sources for coal dust smoke and dust, industrial dust and the spreading law of air pollutants in port area were studied.Under the constraint conditions of coal working environment of Qinhuangdao and the atmospheric environment functional regionalization environmental quality standard of its surrounding areas,the control targets of the total air pollutants emission and the environment carrying capacity of port were explored with the combination of the social,economic and environmental factors.These results can provide effective technical support for the general development plan of port,dust pollution treatment and environmental feasibility study of a new port.

  15. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  16. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  17. A model to assess fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island ecosystem: A case study in the southern Miaodao Archipelago of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; LI Fen; WANG Xiaoli; CHI Yuan; GUO Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Research on carrying capacity, aiming at maintaining the limited ability of the Earth's life supporting system to sustain human development, requires a comprehensive and ecosystem-based approach to monitor and assess the localized sustainability of coupled social and ecological systems. A definition termed the ecosystem-based carrying capacity of island (EBCCI) was developed in this paper of which the indices of fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island (FCCI and RCCI) were highlighted to emphasize the inter-dependencies between social systems and ecological systems. In order to avoid the difficulties and uncertainties of direct assessment, the related assessment model was established on the basis of synthetic evaluation of inherent and external factors affecting the EBCCI. The southern Miaodao Archipelago (SMA) located in the intersection of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China, was taken as a typical example to acquire integrated recognition of the island ecosystem and its carrying capacity so as to discuss its sustainable development. The index scores of FCCI and RCCI in the SMA were 0.818 5 and 0.712 9 out of 1.0, respectively, with acceptable uncertainties. The results showed a relatively well capacity to sustain progress and relatively well realization of the carrying capacity of island ecosystem, owing to a well capacity of ecologically regulating, general performance of both ecologically supporting and resource provisioning, and a relatively high level of social supporting system. The study implied that it was critical to optimize the inter-dependencies and to sustain the relative balance between social systems and ecological systems so as to improve the RCCI and further facilitate the sustainability of SMA. The approach proposed in this paper provides a powerful tool which is well applicative to the regional level of an oceanic island or archipelago to study the sustainable development and can be further popularized to the coastal zone.

  18. Effective carrying capacity and analytical solution of a particular case of the Richards-like two-species population dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Ribeiro, Fabiano; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2012-02-01

    We consider a generalized two-species population dynamic model and analytically solve it for the amensalism and commensalism ecological interactions. These two-species models can be simplified to a one-species model with a time dependent extrinsic growth factor. With a one-species model with an effective carrying capacity one is able to retrieve the steady state solutions of the previous one-species model. The equivalence obtained between the effective carrying capacity and the extrinsic growth factor is complete only for a particular case, the Gompertz model. Here we unveil important aspects of sigmoid growth curves, which are relevant to growth processes and population dynamics.

  19. Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) data and anthropology: Use of these data in carrying capacity estimates for sites in Upper Volta and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Repetitively derived multispectral band imagery from ERTS-1 is now available for many parts of the earth's land surface and represents major new data sources for anthropological work in habitat, land use, and settlement patterns. A completed first step test of ERTS-1 data is available in carrying capacity estimates for Mossi, Hausa, and Sonrai sites derived from: (1) field work; (2) aerial photography; and (3) ERTS-1. Data can test more than one carrying capacity formula.

  20. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    and minor ports, other industries such as SPMs, refineries and power plants are making use of GoK. For the computation of carrying capacity (CC) with respect to PHc, operational and accidental discharges at SPMs and pipeline leakages have been considered...

  1. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.(INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy)

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  2. Water ecological carrying capacity of urban lakes in the context of rapid urbanization: A case study of East Lake in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Kun-lun; Cheng, Sheng-gao; Wang, Xu

    With the excessive development of social economy, water scarcity and water environment deterioration become a common phenomenon in metropolis. As a crucial component of urban water environment system, urban lake is mainly influenced by social economic system and tourism system. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability of urban lake was established by a multi-objective model that represented water ecological carrying capacity (WECC). And nine key indicators including population, irrigation area, tourist quantity, the average number of hotel daily reception, TP, TN, CODMn, BOD5 were chosen from urban social-economy system and natural resilience aspects, with their index weight was determined by using the Structure Entropy Weight method. Then, we took Wuhan East Lake, the largest urban lake in China as a case study, and selected five time sections including 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 to synthetically evaluate and comparatively analyze the dynamic change of WECC. The results showed that: firstly, the water ecological carrying capacity values of the East Lake in five time sections were 1.17, 1.07, 1.64, 1.53 and 2.01 respectively, which all exceeded 1 and increased fluctuation. The rapid growth of population and GDP lead to sharply increasing demand for water quantity. However, a large amount of the domestic sewage and industrial waste led by economic development increases pressure on ecological environment of urban lakes. Secondly, the carrying capacity of the East Lake for tourist activities was still low. The value in 2012 was only 0.22, keeping at a slowly increasing phase, which indicates that the East Lake has large opportunity and space for developing the water resource carrying capacity and could make further efforts to attract tourists. Moreover, the WECC of the East Lake was mainly affected by rapid social and economic development and water environment damage caused by organic pollutants. From the view of urban

  3. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    OpenAIRE

    Dinter, van, M.; Kooistra, L.I.; Dütting, M.K.; Rijn, van, P.A.; Cavallo, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D. 40 - 140. The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m³ and kCal) and converted into surfaces needed (in km²). In addition, the acreage of available land in the area was quantified (in km²). A comparison of these various values reveals that the carrying ...

  4. Dynamic Changes of Land Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on the Ecological Footprint——By the Case Study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfu PENG; Xiaolan ZHONG; Qiuyang LI; Qin LI

    2012-01-01

    Chengdu City is in the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, and the disturbance derived from human activities on environment is increasing remarkablely in recent 20 years. The pressure on environment, economy and population is also increasing and land use in Chengdu has changed enormously. As struc- ture and function of land ecological system change obviously, sustainable development of land productivity has been an important goal and strategic task from now on, and it is necessary to systematically research land ecological carrying capacity based on ecological footprint. The ecological footprint of Chengdu City in the past ten years was calculated and analyzed from the spatial and temporal aspects according to statistical data from 1998 to 2008, as per ecological footprint method, ecological carrying capacity and the GIS spatial analysis method, and regression analysis method. The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity values from 2009 to 2019 in Chengdu City were predicted through calculation results in the past ten years. The results show that the ecological footprint and ecological deficit of land use from 1998 to 2008 increased in Chengdu City. The ecological deficit of land use within the city center was in high levels in the past ten years, and the ecological footprint kept raising, especially in areas, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Qingyang among 9 city areas, 4 counties and 6 districts in Chengdu City. There is fanlike distribution of ecological deficit of land use. Analysis shows that the social and natural ecological system is uneven distribution, which is not in sustainable de- velopment situation. The results of the study show that the economic, social and natural ecological system in Chengdu City is not sustainable, and the ecological foot- print is uneven distribution. The analysis of the dynamic change of land ecological carrying capacity in Chengdu City is very important for city government in the pro- cess of the

  5. Methodology for calculating the tourist carrying capacity as a tool for environmental management and its implementation in five northern Colombian Caribbean beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new methodology to calculate carrying capacity in tourist beaches, further than merely environmental issues. Moreover, it understands beaches as complex systems towards its sustainable development. Five beaches in the North Caribbean coast of Colombia were chosen and classified in four tourism beach sorts: intensive, conservation, shared and ethnic. The analysis was done with legal framework review, fieldwork and indicators design, within three components: environmental support, urban infrastructure and tourist services. A new model to calculate carrying capacity in tourist beaches was created, and later applied on the study beaches. Current conditions of the five beaches were highlighted, their tourist carrying capacity were calculated and more important actions in each component were recommended. The main conclusion foster to take in consideration natural conditions as a core factor in beach management, but including a holistic approach in making decision process. Also this paper showed the current conditions of Colombian beaches as a warning, giving recommendations in short and medium term. This document is result of the project Determinacion de un sistema de calificacion y certificacion de playas turisticas.

  6. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M.; Heitzer, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  7. Carrying capacity of coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    The sustainable yield of a commercially exploited fishery is assessed by the biological and environmental factors (including fishing effort). These parameters with a reef are vastly diverse-size, location, species diversity, productivity type...

  8. Dynamic Management of Carrying Capacity in Mountain Heritage%山岳型遗产地环境容量动态管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 赵建峰; 黄潇婷

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of heritage carrying capacity involve many disciplines. Traditional static measurements obtain the optimal value and saturation value for a certain space, which is the main technical method of traditional carrying capacity study. However, tourists, the subjects who affect carrying capacity of environment are dynamic. Especially, as to Mountain heritage sites, its environmental capacity are relatively limited for their topography characteristics. Massive and concentrated visits will not only increase the pressure of environmental protection, but also influence the quality of tourist experience, and even sometimes threaten tourist physical security. Traditional researches on tourism environmental capacity mainly depend on static measurement. By introducing time dimension and analyzing the rule of spatiotemporal distribution of tourist flow, this paper proposed a new method of dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage through putting forward the concept of “the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow”, and recognizes it with time geography method. The results of data analysis of Mountain Tai show that there are seven spatial bayonets, which are Red Gate, Stone Valley, Half Way Gate to Heaven, South Gate to Heaven, Tianjie, Jade Emperor Peak and Riguan peak, while the temporal bayonets are decentralization relatively. All those temporal-spatial bayonets of the middle route in Mountain Tai only account for 5. 52% of the whole area, which attract almost 50. 04% tourists. Hence one can see that, recognition and management of Space-Time Bayonet of tourists flow is quite important to dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage. Besides, this paper discussed the academic contribution of the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow and its potential application practically through regulating tourist ’s behavior, controlling tourism environmental capacity dynamically and building intelligent early-warning system

  9. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  10. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Sustainable Development and Eco-Environmental Carrying Capacity in Water-Deficient Regions:A Case Study in the Haihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-gen; LUO Yu-zhou; ZHANG Ming-hua; XIA Jun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of development sustainability could be a challenge to regional management and planning, especially for areas facing great risks of water shortage. Surface-water decline and groundwater over-pumping have caused serious environmental problems and limited economic development in many regions all around the world. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability was established with water-related eco-environmental carrying capacity (EECC) as the core measure. As a case study, the developed approach was applied to data of the Haihe River Basin, China, during 1998 through 2007. The overall sustainable development degree (SDD) is determined to be 0.39, suggesting that this rate of development is not sustainable. Results of scenario analysis revealed that overshoot, or resource over-exploitation, of the Basin’s EECC is about 20% for both population and economy. Based on conditions in the study area in 2007, in order to achieve sustainable development, i.e., SDD>0.70 in this study, the EECC could support a population of 108 million and gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.72 trillion CNY. The newly developed approach in quantifying eco-environmental carrying capacity is anticipated to facilitate sustainable development oriented resource management in water-deifcient areas.

  12. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  13. Research and application advances in ecological carrying capacity%生态承载力研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向芸芸; 蒙吉军

    2012-01-01

    The study of ecological carrying capacity is an important basis for the settlement of resource shortage and environment deterioration and the realization of regional sustainable development, and also, one of the hot spots in geography, ecology, and economics. After reviewing the related research achievements, this paper elucidated the connotation of ecological carrying capacity , i. e. , a representation of the supporting function and compressive stress of complex ecosystem , introduced the universal measuring methods of ecological carrying capacity, e. g. , net primary productivity (NPP) , ecological footprint (EF) , balance of supply and demand, evaluation with comprehensive indices, and systematic modeling, and presented the research progress in the ecological carrying capacity of the regions being more concerned, including watersheds, ecological fragile areas, cities, agricultural areas, and tourism areas. The deficiencies in current studies, such as the shortage of complete scientific research system, the ambiguity of threshold value's ecological meaning, the lack of time series study, and the absence of spatial pattern analysis, were summarized, and accordingly, the development trends in action mechanisms, model construction, and practical application were prospected.%生态承载力研究是解决资源-环境矛盾、实现区域可持续发展的重要基础,也是地理学、生态学和经济学关注的热点与前沿领域.本文在综述国内外相关研究成果的基础上,阐述了生态承载力的概念内涵,即对复合生态系统支持力和压力的表征;评述了常用的研究方法,即净初级生产力估测法、生态足迹法、供需平衡法、综合指标评价法和系统模型法;介绍了目前较为关注的流域、生态脆弱区、城市、农业区和旅游区生态承载力的研究进展;总结了目前生态承载力研究存在的缺乏科学完整的研究体系、阈值的生态学指示意义不明确、动

  14. Spatial partitioning between species of the phytoplankton-feeding guild on an estuarine intertidal sand flat and its implication on habitat carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Akio; Nakaoka, Ayumi; Maekawa, Hideki; Yamada, Fumihiko

    2008-07-01

    The fishery yield of Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, increased considerably in the 1970s but has decreased rapidly since the middle 1980s on extensive intertidal sand flats in Ariake Sound (Kyushu, Japan). A survey conducted in 2004 on a 3.4-km 2 sand flat located in the central part of the Sound (Shirakawa sand flat) revealed four dominant species: two thalassinidean shrimps ( Upogebia major and Nihonotrypaea japonica), which are deep-reaching burrow dwellers with strong bioturbation activities, and two bivalves ( Mactra veneriformis and R. philippinarum). All four species belong to a phytoplankton (diatom)-feeding guild. In the late 1970s, the Manila clam population prevailed in high densities over the entire sand flat, whereas its distribution was restricted to the lowest quarter of the shore in 2004. In contrast, the population sizes and zones of occurrence of the other phytoplankton feeders have expanded in the absence of R. philippinarum, perhaps an indication of competitive release. After establishment, effects of the thalassinidean shrimps on sediment stability appear to have further reduced clam abundances. Across the sand flat in 2004, wet weight population biomass estimates for N. japonica, U. major, M. veneriformis, and R. philippinarum (whole body for shrimps and soft tissue for bivalves) were 304, 111, 378, and 234 tonnes, respectively. Based on Manila clam fishery yield records from Shirakawa, the carrying capacity of the Shirakawa sand flat in the late 1970s was estimated to be two times greater than the sum value for the whole phytoplankton-feeding guild in 2004. It is hypothesized that (1) the amount of phytoplankton determines the carrying capacity for the benthic community on the Shirakawa sand flat, with both phytoplankton and benthic biomass at maxima in the late 1970s, and (2) the subsequent increases in competition for space have caused further declines in the Manila clam population biomass to approximately one-eighth of its past

  15. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 3. Evaluation on load carrying capacity for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to assess damage mechanism for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars and to evaluate effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on load carrying capacity based on experimental results. We conducted a series of full-scale cyclic loading tests on RC box-culvert specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. In experimental results, maximum strength of the box-culverts with corroded reinforcing bars shows slight decrease under the condition of maximum corrosion ratio 15%, and the locally material deterioration has minor effect on ultimate strength of RC box-culverts. It was because that plastic hinges were developed if steel yielding or shear cracks occurred around the corner parts and the loads were redistributed from the damage parts to the other parts. Then, as an application of experimental results, we developed relationships between the structural performance of RC box-culverts and chloride induced deterioration progress as is widely accepted in maintenance practice for civil engineering reinforced concrete structures. As a result, the degradation ratio of deformation capacity became larger than that of maximum strength with the increase of corrosion degree. Moreover, stayed as that of in sound condition except deterioration stage, while the minimum degradation ratio of shear strength in acceleration stage to that in initiation stage was approximately 85%. (author)

  16. Study on Macao's Comprehensive Land Carrying Capacity%澳门土地综合承载状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相

    2012-01-01

    作为亚太有名的微型经济体,澳门有限的土地资源是备受关注以及重视的生产要素,它的规模以及承载上限直接制约着澳门经济与社会的可持续发展。通过对澳门土地综合承载状况进行实证研究发现,澳门目前显示处于超载的状态,经济与社会的发展给澳门土地所赋予的压力已超过澳门的承载上限。为了促进澳门的可持续发展,需要从完善规划和增加土地等多方面不断提高土地的承载上限。%As one of the micro economies in Asia-pacific, Macao has a limited land resource, which constitutes a major factor of production. The fact is its scale and maximum limit of carrying is impeding the development of its economy and society at large. The empirical analysis on Macao's comprehensive land carrying capacity finds Macao already surcharged. To seek for sustainable developments, Macao must raise the limit of land carrying by means of promoting city planning and adding land.

  17. Analysis on the Environmental Capacity and Ecological Carrying Capacity of Genghis Khan Mausoleum Scenic Spot%成吉思汗陵景区环境容量与生态承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智颖飙; 红鸽; 张文杰; 张荷亮; 崔艳; 姚一萍; 王再岚; 旺扎拉; 李红丽; 郭海

    2014-01-01

    用30 m分辨率的 Landsat TM卫星影像数据,并进行几何纠正、融合和变化信息提取技术对研究区用地进行监测和实地勘查.应用生态足迹和生态承载力模型,对内蒙古鄂尔多斯市成吉思汗陵旅游景区进行了环境容量分析.结果表明,2012年成吉思汗陵景区人均生态承载力为0.064 hm2,其中旺季的人均生态承载力为0.0988 hm2,人均生态足迹为0.0676 hm2,目前的生态盈余为0.0311 hm2/人,生态压力指数为0.684 hm2,处于相对安全状态.但景区旅游生态扩充率显示出景区片面追求规模而忽视软实力的提升.可为我国西北地区干旱草原旅游景区规划、设计、建设和保护研究提供参考.%Based on the 30 m resolution Landsat TM satellite data and the geometrical rectification and fusion, change information extraction technology, the research area was monitored and practically surveyed.The Genghis Khan mausoleum tourist scenic spot of Ordos City in Inner Mongolia was analyzed on the level of the environmental capacity with the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity model.The result shows that the per capita ecological carrying capacity of Genghis Khan mausoleum scenic spot is 0.064 hm2 in 2012,and 0.098 8 hm2 in the peak period.The per capita ecological footprint is 0.067 6 hm2 .The current ecological surplus is 0.031 1 hm2/person. The ecological pressure is 0.684 hm2 ,which is in comparatively safe.But tourism ecological expansion rate shows that the scenic spot’s one-sided pursuit of scale of the scenic area while paying no attention to the promotion of soft strength.The article can provide the northwest region’s drought grassland tourism scenic spot with reference in programming,designing,constructing and protecting.

  18. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  19. Calculation and evaluation of the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an%西安市旅游环境承载力测算与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫博雅; 毕超

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate and evaluate the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an. Methods The Calculation model of the tourism environmental carrying capacity is used. Results The tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an is 282 600 passengers per day and the lower ecological carrying capacity is the primary factor that constrained tourism environmental carrying capacity in Xi'an. Conclusion Urban tourism environmental carrying capacity is about twice of the number of tourists in Xi'an in 2010, it can be improved by enhancing the city's capacity in terms of solid waste and wastewater treatment in the future.%目的 测算西安市旅游环境承栽力并对测算结果进行评价.方法 运用旅游管理学中的旅游环境承栽力测算模型进行测算.结果 计算出西安市旅游环境承载力为每日28.26万人次,并且发现生态承栽力较低是制约其旅游环境承载力的首要因素.结论 西安市旅游环境承载力约是2010年西安市日均游客接待数量的2倍,可通过改善影响旅游生态承载力的固体废弃物、废水处理能力,大幅提升西安市旅游环境承栽力.

  20. Study on the Method of Zoning by Urban Carrying Capacity%城市承载力分区方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 陈爽

    2011-01-01

    As the scientific groundwork for the urban general planning and sustainable development, urban carrying capacity (UCC) regionalization can provide spatial directions based on the regional disparities of the natural,social, economic and environmental characteristics. Because thetheoretical basis of regionalization comes from geographical features spatial difference, the definition of UCC cannot reflect the inner city spatial difference,and hence cannot accommodate the demand of UCC zoning scale. After looking back and comparing the related concepts of UCC, we defme UCC as the population and social economic activities that the natural resource, environment, urban infrastructure and commonality service can sustain within a fixed urban area, in a particular period and according to pertinent criteria of living quality.This paper aims at developing an integrated method of zoning by UCC which can guide planning of resource utility, environment protection and infrastructure construction in the city. Firstly we presented the structure of UCC. The UCC is inherently a kind of complex ability consisting of support, pressure and regulation which are respectively associated with resource and environment foundation, population growth and human self-regulation. Secondly we discussed the relationship between traditional geographical regionalization and zoning by UCC. Based on a review about the development of regionalization we further concluded the characteristics of zoning by UCC, which are comprehensiveness, relativity and improvement. Thirdly we divided the process of zoning by UCC into 5 steps: index system and spatial cell for UCC evaluation, spatial database, UCC evaluation, divisions of improvement zones and non-improvement zones and making suggestions. Based on the index system for UCC evaluation, it focuses the discussion on the "state-pressure-response" model of UCC evaluation to get UCC indicator. Furthermore, non-improvement zone and several kinds of improvement zones

  1. Reconstruction actions carried out in order to achieve nominal design heat capacity of hot water boilers type VKSM 40; A product of TPK-Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot water boilers with a steep turbines membranous produced by TPK-Zagreb in 1979 are projected for nominal capacity of 46.52 MW. But it was demonstrated in practice, according the performed measurements, that during the exploitation they do not give declared thermal power. In this article the chronological review of all successful performed reconstructive operations by engineering staff from Toplifikacija Joint-Stock Co. for district heating -Skopje (Macedonia) on the hot water boilers type VKSM40 with nominal capacity of 46.52 MW is given. (Authors)

  2. Study on carrying capacity in Liaoning Province marine region by Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation%基于模糊综合评判的辽宁省海域承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹可; 吴佳璐; 狄乾斌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research results of carrying capacity,the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province marine was assessed by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater is moderate between 1999 and 2009 except the year 2000. However, the figures always were between 0.34 and 0.40, which meant that the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater was moderate by weak. The factors such as overfishing, large quantities of pollutants into the sea, ecological improvement and marine science and technology all contribute to the state of Liaoning Province seawater. Based on the analysis, the suggestions of improving the carrying capacity in Liaoning Province seawater were brought forward.%借鉴有关承载力的研究成果,利用模糊综合评判方法对辽宁省海域承载力进行了评价分析.结果表明:1999至2009年间,除2000年,辽宁省的海域承载力数值均处于适载范围,但是由于其数值绝大多数都在0.34 ~0.40之间浮动,因此辽宁省的海域承载能力为中等偏弱.过度捕捞、环境污染、环境治理能力和科技发展水平等因素的影响是辽宁省海域承载力中等偏弱的主要因素,基于此提出了改善辽宁省海域承载力的对策建议.

  3. Load carrying capacity of the reactor pressure vessel head in case of a molten fuel slug impact caused by a steam explosion. Discussion of different solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive research work is being carried out at KfK on slug impact on the reactor pressure vessel head. Important considerations on and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. In order to separate the work from the parallel investigations of steam explosions, the tasks were modified. The speeds of impinging slug are determined, which the reactor pressure vessel head can reliably withstand. (orig./HP)

  4. Developing a Mathematical Model to Dampen the Effect of Chromatic Dispersion in Optic Fibre Carrying-Capacity Due To External Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Ezeagwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunications requires a medium to propagate the signals from source to destination without signal impairment .The optical fibre has been rated the best medium ,but for long haulage ,wavelength multiplex (WDM has to be installed which introduces dispersion The information carving capacity of a fibre is then limited by the phenomenon called dispersion .This introduces small change in the transmit time for signals travelling through the fibre The arrival of different wavelength at different time and the interspersing of the signal bits causes signal broadening at the destination ,resulting degradation of blurred images for data and noisy audio output, A mathematical model is developed to counter the effect of external pressure in aiding the fast spreading of these signals, known as -p compensation method.

  5. Marine Carrying Capacity Assessment and Spatio-temporal Analysis in the Bohai Sea Ring Area, China%环渤海地区海域承载力测度与时空分异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙才志; 于广华; 王泽宇; 刘锴; 刘桂春

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is an important strategic resource in coastal countries and regions. The coastal area has the largest population, the biggest population density, and is the most developed area in China as in other coastal countries. Bohai Sea Ring Area and the Changjiang River Delta, Zhujiang River Delta are the three economic growth poles in China coastal area. With the great growth of economy and society, the contradiction between supply and demand of land resources has become increasingly prominent, marine resources have been predato-ry exploited, marine environment has been seriously polluted. Carrying capacity is an important study on coor-dinating development of resources, environment, and economy. Marine carrying capacity is generally be de-fined as the capacity or limit of the harmonious development of population, environment, and socio-economic that the ocean can carry in a certain period without damaging the sustainable development of marine resource and environment, and ensuring a certain living standard. Marine carrying capacity assessment is of great signif-icance for the sustainable exploitation of marine resources, the environment protection and the coordinated de-velopment of regional economy and society in coastal areas. In this context, evaluation on carrying capacity of Bohai Sea Ring Area is of great significance to the sustainable development of the Bohai Sea economic circle. Since marine resources system has mobility, renewability and other characteristics, marine carrying capacity has openness, dynamics and complexity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the population, environment and socio-economic development or limits that marine carrying capacity can support. But by constructing indicator system, we can measure the dynamic change trend and relative marine carrying capacity then guide the devel-opment of marine economic activities. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is based on the fuzzy math-ematics principle, to analyze and evaluate

  6. 基于数学模型的物流港口资源承载能力预测%Forecasting of Resource Carrying Capacity of Logistics Terminals Based on Mathematical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝坚

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we built the mathematical model of the resource carrying capacity of logistics terminals, then comprehensively forecast the transportation resource carrying capacity of the Qinhuangdao logistics terminal to verify the correctness of the mathematical model and presented the scientific planning for the future construction of the terminal.%建立了物流港口资源承载能力的数学模型,对港口交通资源承载力进行了综合预测预警,以河北省秦皇岛物流港口为例,验证了数学模型的正确性,并对秦皇岛港口未来的港口建设提出了科学的规划。

  7. 基于主成分分析的湛江市地下水承载力研究%A Study of Groundwater Carrying Capacity of Zhanjiang Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春玲

    2014-01-01

    为了评价湛江市地下水资源承载力,防止地下水过度开采所造成的生态环境问题,基于主成分分析方法建立湛江市地下水资源承载力评价指标体系,对湛江市地下水资源承载力进行评价。综合评价结果表明湛江市各行政区综合评价值各不相同:市区>徐闻县>遂溪县>吴川市>雷州市>廉江市。市区的综合评价值最高,分值达53.817,说明相对于其他行政区,市区的地下水资源开发潜力较小,承载力已趋于饱和,继续开发利用的潜力甚小。%In order to evaluate groundwater resources carrying capacity of Zhanjiang and prevent ecological and environmental issues caused by over-exploitation of groundwater , evaluation index system of Zhanjiang groundwater resources carrying capacity is estab -lished based on principal component analysis ( PCA) method, and the groundwater resources carrying capacity of Zhanjiang is evalu-ated.The general evaluation shows that the comprehensive values of boroughs are different :Downtown>Xuwen>Shuixi>Wuchuan>Leizhou>Lianjiang.The comprehensive value of Downtown is highest and the score is 53.817.Compared with other boroughs , the exploring and utilizing potential of groundwater resources is smaller and the carrying capacity has become saturated .

  8. 基于人粮关系的承德市土地资源承载力%Land Carrying Capacity of Chengde City Based on Man-Grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月丛; 成福伟; 孟宪峰; 苏国安

    2012-01-01

    以人粮关系为基础,用土地资源承载指数(Land Carrying Ca-pacity Index,LCCI)模型,定量评价1949—2009年承德市土地资源承载力。结果表明:1949—2009年承德市土地资源承载能力在波动中略有增长趋势,随着人口的持续稳定增长,到2009年承德土地资源承载力仍未达到人粮平衡状态。除了1996年和1998年以外的所有年份处于人口超载状态。34.42%的年份严重超载,其中有7年人口超载率Rg〉100%,这7年降水量均小于485.20 mm,承德市粮食产量与其降水量密切相关,应该增加旱作农业科技含量,以保证粮食产量的不断增加。%This paper quantitatively evaluates the land carrying capacity of Chengde between 1949 and 2009 using the land carrying capacity(LCC) and the land carrying capacity index(LCCI) models based on man-grain relationship.The results show that the land carrying capacity of Chengde tends to increase since 1949,and the land carrying capacity of Chengde City is slightly increasing in the volatility trend from 1949 to 2009 because of the population continued to grow steadily.It is in the state of population overload every year except 1996 and 1998.34.42% of the years are seriously overloaded.There are seven years population overload rate Rg〉100%.These seven annual precipitation is less than 485.20mm.Grain yield and its precipitation is closely related in Chengde.Dry farming should be scientific to ensure that food production is increasing.

  9. Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Dowd, Scot E; Zurek, Ludek

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five

  10. 生态承载力调控下洞庭湖区域协调发展策略研究%The Strategy of Regional Coordinating Development in Dongting Lake Area:A Perspective of Ecological Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建新; 陈端吕; 彭保发

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a temporal and spatial analysis of the ecological carrying capacity in the Dongting Lake area from 2001 to 2010 by using ecological carrying capacity evaluation model and ecological carrying capacity response model. The results show that: As a whole, the ecological carrying capacity of the Dongting lake area presents shape–U change trend in recent 10 years. The spatial pattern of ecological carrying capacity presents shape -W pattern state from the southwest to the northeast. The response status of ecological carrying capacity in 17 counties was divided into four categories of strong overload, overload, weak low-load and low-load, which reflects that coordination of economic development, social progress, resource use and environmental quality were poor at the level of regional development. Based on the above analysis results, we should take corresponding developmental strategy: The first is the innovation of system mechanism, which can resolve the contradiction between economic and social development and ecological system bearing; the second is to strengthen the ecological system regulation and the programming of landscape ecology, to maintain the elastic force of ecological system; the third is to change pattern of industrial devel-opment, to improve the ecosystem service value; the fourth is the people-oriented, meanwhile we should set up the e-cological oriented development; at last, we seize the opportunity of regional development strategy and policy, and in-crease the ecological carrying capacity.%运用生态承载力评价模型、响应模型和空间频数分异测度模型对洞庭湖区生态承载力进行时空分析,结果表明:近10年来洞庭湖区生态承载力整体上呈现“U”型变化趋势;空间格局上,从西南向东北依次呈现“较高—低—高—低—较高”的“W”字型格局;区域响应上,4种不同响应状态反映出县域经济发展、社会进步、资源利用和环境质量

  11. Study on ecological carrying capacity in Shanghai based on sustainable development%基于可持续发展的上海市生态承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation system of ecological carrying capacity has been constructed from four aspects which include economic development,social progress,energy and resource utilization,en-vironmental quality. Index weights are determined by Coefficient of Variation,the ecological carrying capacity of shanghai from 2003 to 2010 has been calculated by Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation. The research shows that:The development of Shanghai shows a good momentum,the sustainable develop-ment capacity is constantly growing,and the ecological carrying capacity is constantly improving,how-ever,the coordination of social declines. We need adjust industrial structure for further,solve urban management issues posed by overpopulation. and improve the degree of social coordination.%从经济发展、社会进步、能源和资源利用、环境质量方面,构建上海市生态承载力评价指标体系,采用变异系数法确定指标权重,运用模糊综合评价法,研究上海市2003~2013年生态承载力.研究表明:上海市经济发展呈现良好态势,可持续发展能力不断增强,生态承载力不断提高,但社会协调度下降,需要进一步调整产业结构,解决人口过多所带来的城市管理问题,提高社会协调度.

  12. 台州地区地下水环境承载力评价研究%Study on the evaluation of groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李垚奎; 张征; 娄华君; 梅兴新

    2012-01-01

    The present article intends to introduce a case study result of groundwater environmental carrying capacity by taking Taizhou, Zhejiang, as an example. It is known that there is no uniform concept of groundwater environmental carrying capacity. On the base of conceptual studies proposed by former researchers, we define groundwater environmental carrying capacity as the maximum sustainable-development level of human society that a regional water environment can support under a certain period of time and technical level. In order to evaluate the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city, we have adopted a well-known method of analytic hierarchy process to build up three-grade-evaluation index system, which consists of die target layer, the rule layer and the index layer. The rule layer includes natural index and social index. The index layer is made of 10 indexes, which are aquifer thickness of groundwater, groundwater level, net groundwater charge, nature of unsaturated zone, topographic slope, treatment efficiency of discharged water, population density, per capita GDP, per capita groundwater extraction and water consumption per 10000 industrial production. The judgment matrix of AHP is used to get the weights of all indexes in the system. The geographic information system (GIS) is used to obtain the digital distributions of every index. The results of our study show that the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city ranges from 0.380 4 to 0.743 2. The average capacity is 0.548 1, which belongs to the medium level. The maximum constraint to groundwater environmental carrying capacity changes in different areas, which is natural index in west but social in east. In all areas of Taizhou City, it is necessary to accelerate industrial restructuring and strengthen the planning and management of groundwater. It is an effective way to develop water-saving industry, which can promote the sustainable development of economy, population and

  13. CARRYING CAPACITY OF PINCTADA MARTENSII IN LIUSHA BAY AND YINGPAN PEARL-CULTURED ZONES%流沙湾、营盘珍珠养殖区马氏珠母贝养殖容量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹占旺; 王大鹏; 何安尤; 张益峰; 雷建军; 甘西

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of nutrition dynamics in marine ecological system, the investi-gation and research were carried out on primary production, the existence biomass of wild filtering animals, organic carbon content in Pinctada martensii, the filtering ratio of the shellfish and etc. , in Liusha Bay and Yingpan pearl-cultured zones. Nutrition motive model and coast energy flowing model were used to estimate shellfish maximum production. The carrying capacity of shellfish was estimated by excluding the existence biomass of wild filte-ring animals, and inspected by the methods of food limited indexes. Results are as follows that the above-mentioned two areas have approximate capacity, the capacities were 2142. 6kg (with shell weight) per hectare, 10. 3 104ind and 2310.0kg (with shell weight) per hectare, 11.1 104ind. Analyzed by the methods of food limited indexes to Yingpan pearl-cultured are-a, the number of breeding under carrying capacity wouldn't constitute a significant pressure onto ecosystem, and that is suitable to do as a reference of carrying capacity.%本文通过对流沙湾和营盘珍珠养殖区初级生产力和野生滤食性动物现存量等的调查、马氏珠母贝的有机碳含量和滤水效率等的测定,应用营养动态模型和沿岸能流模型计算贝类生产量,并扣除野生滤食性动物现存量来计算贝类养殖容量,再通过食物限制性指标法进行检验.测定的结果如下:流沙湾和营盘珍珠养殖医马氏珠母贝的养殖容量较为接近,每公顷的容量分别为2142.6kg(含壳重)、10.3×104 ind和2310.0kg(含壳重)、11.1×104 ind.对营盘珍珠养殖区进行食物限制性指标分析的结果看,由以上2种模型得出的养殖容量不会对生态系统构成显著性压力,适合作为养殖容量的参照标准.

  14. Calculation method of livestock carrying capacity of irrigation forage grassland in arid area%干旱区灌溉饲草料地载畜量计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖梓龙; 魏永富; 郭中小; 徐晓民; 龙胤慧; 宋一凡

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key factor to in management of grassland and livestock balance in arid area. The effective way of management is to achieve a balance of supply and demand for water forage grass and livestock. This balance consists of three parts:forecasting the forage grass yield by the water balance theory, planning the livestock carrying capacity related to the forage grass intake and drinking water consume, and estimating the optimal number of livestock husbandry under the coupled limitation of the available forage grass intake carrying capacity and the available water resources quantity. There are some inaccuracy problem in applying traditional carrying capacity calculation method, such as the yield forecasting of forage grass and livestock intake feeding. The objective of this paper was to build a new livestock carrying capacity calculation model based on water-grass-livestock balance. Using Damao county in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as research area, we analyzed the curve of water productivity under the different rainfall and irrigation conditions, and forecasted the yield of silage corn by water productivity curve. The irrigation experiment of silage corn under different water condition and different precipitation revealed that there was a non-linear relationship between the water productivity and the sum of precipitation and irrigation. Increasing the sum of precipitation and irrigation can promote the water productivity, but excessive supplying from precipitation and irrigation may lead to a reduction of crop water use efficiency. Based on analyzing the curve of water productivity, the experiment result suggested that the highest water productivity was 12.42 kg/m3 water which achieved with 550 mm water from both precipitation and irrigation. Precipitation was the vital limited factor for silage corn yield. The calculated silage corn yield of humid, medium and arid scenario was 6.83 kg/m2, 5.25 kg/m2, 3.47 kg/m2 respectively. For livestock intake feeding

  15. Advances in Study on Eco-environmental Carrying Capacity in the Drainage Basins with Shortage of Water Resources%缺水流域生态承载力研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永华; 任立良; 夏军; 吕海深; 余钟波; 方秀琴

    2011-01-01

    In the drainage basins with shortage of water resources,water resources is the main factor affecting eco-environmental quality and social and economic development.Therefore,it is necessary to study the eco-environmental carrying capacity related to water resources in these basins so as to provide the references for realizing sustainable development.Shortage of water resources in the drainage basins is caused by low mean annual precipitation.Eco-environmental carrying capacity is defined as the largest population and economic scale(usually expressed as gross domestic product,GDP) that can be sustained in a particular region or drainage basin over a specified time and under a certain environmental protection standard and social welfare level,when the eco-environment,society and economy of the region are reached a critical acceptable level by using local(or diverted) water and other resources available.After analyzing the documental data since the 1980s,firstly,the significance of study on eco-environmental carrying capacity and the current status of the study are described,on which the future challenges are proposed as follows: ① The theory needs to be improved from developing a measuring system so as to apply it in drainage basins.The measuring system includes the concept of eco-environmental carrying capacity is given based on the concept,a measuring index system and a measuring model is developed,and an application case of the abovementioned measuring model is given.② In the measuring system,social and economic sustainable development in the drainage basins with shortage of water resources needs to be considered so as to serve national needs.In this respect,the serving value and dynamic change of eco-environmental carrying capacity is emphasized.Because the carrying capacity is the threshold of social and economic sustainable development in the drainage basins,the development of the drainage basins will be reasonable and feasible under the limitation

  16. 河北省武安市生态人口承载力动态变化及其驱动力%Dynamic Change of Population Carrying Capacity and Its Driving Forces in Wuan City of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元利; 孙桂平; 闫妍; 李珊; 陈利东

    2012-01-01

    基于生态足迹理论,设计出了河北省武安市生态环境人口承载力评价指标体系。应用生态足迹模型对2000—2010年武安市生态环境人口承载力进行了研究,并通过SPSS软件对结果数据采用相关分析法和回归分析法,进行了可持续状态分析和驱动因素分析。研究表明,武安市2000—2007年生态足迹与生态承载力矛盾较为突出。2007年以后武安市加强转变经济增长方式,提高了对自然资源的利用率,使生态足迹和生态承载力之间的矛盾逐步缓和,开始向可持续的方向发展。该市人均化石燃料足迹强烈影响着可承载人口数量,是影响武安市生态承载人口动态变化的主要因素。%An evaluation index system for the eco-environment population carrying capacity of Wuan City is designed based on ecological footprint theory.Ecological footprint model is applied to analyze the eco-environment population carrying capacity in 2000—2010.The sustainable development stature and driving factors are analyzed with the help of SPSS.Results show that the contradiction between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was more prominent in 2000—2007.After 2007,the contradiction was alleviated towards a sustainable development through the transformation of economic growth and the improved utilization of natural resources.The population carrying capacity was strongly influenced by the per capita fossil fuel footprint that is the main factor for the dynamic change of ecological carrying population in Wuan City.

  17. Human Carrying Capacity and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Colin D

    2004-01-01

    The issue of overpopulation has fallen out of favor among most contemporary demographers, economists, and epidemiologists. Discussing population control has become taboo. This taboo could be hazardous to public health

  18. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity of the delta using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    OpenAIRE

    Kooistra, L.I.; Dinter, M.; Dütting, M.K.; Van Rijn, P.; Cavallo, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D.  – . The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m and kCal) and converted into surfaces needed (in km ). In addition, the acreage of available land in the area was quantified (in km ). A comparison of these various values reveals that the carryin...

  19. Assessment of Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity in Xi'an City Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的西安市地下水资源承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢旭光; 史文娟; 张译丹; 谢金宇

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater resources carrying capacity is full of great significance for maintaining the local ecological environment security and promoting sustainable socio-economic development.This paper evaluated the groundwater resources carrying capacity in Xi'an City using seven evaluation indexes, such as rate of groundwater development, modulus of groundwater supply, groundwater recharge modulus, groundwater discharge modulus, per capita consumption of groundwater, water consumption per unit of GDP and water resources recycling, based on principal component analysis.The results show that the groundwater resources in Xi'an City has a certain carrying capacity, but its rate of exploitation is too high in total and the potential of further development is small.The evaluated value of urban in Xi'an City is 70.816, and its groundwater resources carrying capacity nearly saturates and the potential of further development is the smallest.The evaluated value of Zhouzhi County is -240.998 and the potential of further development is the largest.The results provide reference for rational use of groundwater resources.%区域地下水资源承载力评价对于维护区域生态环境安全和促进社会经济可持续发展具有重要意义.运用主成分分析法,根据地下水开发率、地下水供水模数、地下水补给模数、地下水排泄模数、人均地下水占有量、单位GDP用水量和水资源重复利用率等7项评价指标,对西安市地下水资源承载力进行评价.综合评价结果表明:西安市地下水资源有一定的承载力,但整体上地下水开发率过高,继续开发利用的潜力甚小.其中城六区综合评价值为70.816,地下水承载力趋于饱和且继续开发潜力最小,周至县综合评价值为-240.998,地下水开发潜力最大.评价结果为地下水资源的合理开发利用提供参考.

  20. Multi Scale Spatial -Temporal Variation Analysis on Land Carrying Capacity in Shanxi Province%山西省土地资源人口承载力多尺度时空差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林筱; 任志远; 赵胜男; 魏倩倩

    2015-01-01

    以人粮关系为基础,利用土地资源人口承载力(LCC)和土地资源人口承载力指数模型(LCCI),从全省、分区、分县3个空间尺度定量评价山西省2003~2012年土地资源人口承载力的时空变化。结果表明:(1)2003~2012年全省人口承载力呈增加趋势,其中2009年以后 LCCI 逐年降低,但人粮关系仍处于超载状态。(2)分区格局:人口承载力晋南>晋北>晋中,晋南人粮关系处于平衡有余状态,发展潜力较大,而晋中地区一直处于严重超载状态,人粮关系紧张;十年间各区 LCC 均呈增加趋势,但增加幅度晋南>晋中>晋北。(3)分县格局:人口超载区主要分布在晋中大部分县域,粮食盈余区主要分布在晋东南地区及晋北部分县域,但2008~2012年比2003~2007年盈余的县域增加了18个,人粮关系有所改善。%On the basis of man -grain relationship,using the land carrying capacity (LCC)and land carrying capacity index (LCCI)models,from 3 spatial scales,province,region and county,the spatial -tem-poral variation of land carrying capacity was quantitatively evaluated in Shanxi from 2003 to 2012.The results showed that:(1)The provincial land carrying capacity showed an increasing trend from 2003 to 2012.Since 2009,the LCCI decreased.However,the increasing population resulted in lacking of grain.(2)The land car-rying capacity was in the order of Jinnan >Jinbei >Jinzhong.Jinnan kept balance between population and grain,and had great development potential.But Jinzhong had been seriously overloaded.The LCC improved in these regions in 10 years,and the increase range was Jinnan >Jinzhong >Jinbei.(3)The overloading coun-ties mainly located in Jinzhong.The food surplus counties mainly distributed in the north and southeast of Shanxi.The number of man -grain balancing county increased by 18 from 2003 ~2007 to 2008 ~2012, which indicated that the man -grain relationship was

  1. Study on unified calculation method for the ultimate load carrying capacity of concrete filled steel tubular columns%钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧智菁; 陈宝春

    2012-01-01

    介绍国内外各设计规程关于钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的计算方法并进行比较分析。钢管混凝土单肢柱、哑铃形柱、格构柱的受力性能具有共性,即长细比和偏心率对柱面内整体极限承载力的影响基本上是独立的。基于上述规律,在分析评价国内外各规程计算方法的基础上,对钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法开展研究。分别进行钢管混凝土单肢柱、哑铃形柱、格构柱的算例分析,研究结果表明,计算值与试验值吻合良好。最后提出适合工程应用的钢管混凝土柱极限承载力的统一算法,为钢管混凝土计算理论的进一步完善和规程修订提供参考。%Calculation methods for the ultimate load carrying capacity of CFST (concrete filled steel tube column) columns from foreign and domestic design criteria are introduced. For CFST single tube columns, dumbbell shaped columns and laced columns, the influence of slenderness ratio and eccentricity on the ultimate load carrying capability are all basically independent. Following this rule, a unified calculation method for the load carrying capacity of CFST columns is studied from an analysis of the calculation methods of design criteria. Test verifications of the new calculation method on CFST single tube columns, dumbbell shaped columns and laced columns are conducted, respectively, and the results indicated that the calculated values agree well with the test values. Finally, the unified method for calculating the load carrying capacity of CFST columns is provided.

  2. Modified Model of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Cropland Based on Heavy Metal Pollution%基于重金属污染的耕地生态承载力改进模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利群; 陈长青; 卞新民

    2009-01-01

    将耕地重金属污染引入耕地生态足迹研究中,对传统耕地生态承载力模型进行了改进,并以江苏省为例进行实证研究.结果表明,运用改进的生态承载力模型计算所得2005年江苏省人均耕地生态承载力为0.127 hm2,比传统模型计算结果0.134 hm2小;人均耕地生态赤字为0.067 hm2,比传统模型计算结果0.060 hm2大;耕地生态可持续指数为0.39,比传统模型计算结果0.41小,但2种模型计算方式下耕地利用均属于弱不可持续状态.与传统模型计算结果相比,改进模型所得结果能够反映江苏省耕地利用的实际情况,以及重金属污染对江苏耕地可持续利用所产生的负面影响.%Modification is made of the traditional model of ecological carrying capacity of cropland through introducing the factor of cropland heavy metal pollution into the study of the ecological footprint theory,with Jiangsu Province set as an example in case study.Results show that by using the modified model the ecological carrying capacity of cropland in Jiangsu in 2005 was calculated to be 0.127 hm2 per capita,5.2% lower than 0.134 hm2 per capita calculated by using the traditional model;the cropland ecological deficit 0.067 hm2 per capita,11.7% higher than 0.060 hm2 per capita calculated by using traditional model;and the cropland ecological sustainability index 0.39,lower than 0.41 calculated by using traditional model.Although the results of the calculation using both models put the cropland of Jiangsu under the category of "weak unsustainability",the modified model more truly reflected the practical situation of the land use,and the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on ecological carrying capacity of the cropland in Jiangsu Province as well.

  3. 基于生态足迹法的疏勒河流域水资源承载力评价%A study on water resource carrying capacity in the Shule river basin based on ecological footprints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 张仁陟; 周冬梅

    2012-01-01

    利用生态足迹法研究了疏勒河流域水资源承载力与生态赤字,结果表明,疏勒河流域水资源承载力从2003年的1 696.35 hm2增加至2007年的1 925.26 hm2,增长幅度为13.5%;总生态足迹从2003年的19 714.23 hm2增加至2007年的32 236.35 hm2,增长幅度为63.5%;而生态赤字从2003年的18 017.88 hm2增加至2007年的30 311.08 hm2,增长幅度为68.2%.水资源负载指数结果表明,疏勒河流域水资源开发潜力不大.未来在水资源管理方面采取适度移民、加强民众的节水意识教育,以及调整产业结构,特别是不适宜再扩大种植业面积.%Water resource carrying capacity and ecology deficit in the Shule river basin were studied using ecological footprints. The capacity gradually increased from 1 696. 35 ha to 1 925. 26 ha, the total ecological footprint from 19 714. 23 ha to 32 236. 35 ha, and ecological deficit from 18 017. 88 ha to 30 311. 08 ha from 2003 to 2007. The water resource ecological carrying capacity is presently overloaded in the Shule river basin. Because of increasing population growth and farmland expansion, there are more pressures on the regional water resources. In the future, measures such as taking an appropriate immigration policy, increasing public awareness of water conservation education, adjusting the industrial structure, and controlling the planting area should be carried out.

  4. 基于水环境承载力的沁河流域系统优化调控%Optimal regulation of Qinghe River watershed system based on water carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶龙浩; 周丰; 郭怀成; 高伟; 何成杰; 王翠榆

    2013-01-01

    Optimal watershed system regulation approach is proposed based on water carrying capacity model,and it is applied in the Qinhe River Watershed,one of tributaries of Yellow River.The proposed approach consists of three parts:(i) to calculate watershed-scale water carrying capacity for 2015 and 2020 subject to aquatic,water resources and the others constraints; (ii) to compare the computed water carrying capacity with the economic sizes of 2015 and 2020 predicted by system dynamics; (iii) to analyze the sensitivity of industrial emission standard,collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater,utilization efficiency of water resources,reuse rate of recycled water,leading to determine optimal economic development mode.The results indicate that:(i) it is essential to give priority to adjust collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater; (ii) for 2015,industrial emission standard and collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater would be set as the second level and more than 71.4%,respectively,the corresponding the threshold of economic size of Qinhe River Watershed is 47.6 billion; (iii) for 2020,industrial emission standard should be enhanced to the first level,while the collection rate of municipal sewage wastewater is also increased to 78.4%,leading to the threshold of economic size of 81.6 billion; (iv) For more specific suggestions,By 2015,daily capacity of urban domestic sewage treatment should reach 8.71 t for COD and 1.08t for NH4+-N; By 2020,daily capacity of urban domestic sewage treatment should reach ll.13t for COD and 1.38 t for NH4+-N.%基于水环境承载力核算模型,提出流域系统优化调控方法,并应用于沁河流域.通过承载力核算模型计算出2015年和2020年流域水环境承载力,当系统动力学预测的2015年和2020年经济发展规模高于承载力时,通过约束条件中工业企业排放浓度、城镇生活污水收集率、水资源利用率、尾水回用率等4项调控指标进行敏感度分析,最终

  5. Incorporación de la cobertura de escape en un modelo de capacidad de carga para venado de cola blanca Incorporation of escape cover in a model to estimate carrying capacity for white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar la incorporación de la cobertura de escape en un modelo de capacidad de carga (K de venado cola banca, evaluar el modelo por análisis de sensibilidad y comparar la estimación de la K con el modelo versus un modelo basado en disponibilidad de nutrientes. El trabajo se desarrolló en la localidad de Santa Cruz Nuevo, Puebla, México, en un área de 50 km², donde se establecieron 13 transectos de 800 m de longitud por 6 de ancho y se colectó información para establecer la relación entre la cobertura de escape y la presencia de indicios de venado mediante regresión lineal. Dicha relación se incorporó en un modelo de estimación de K, después de lo cual se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad del mismo. Los indicios animales se observaron principalmente en las áreas con una cobertura de escape mayor al 59% y se distribuyeron en una forma cuadrática hasta llegar al 100%. El análisis de sensibilidad mostró que la cobertura de escape y la vegetación arbustiva fueron los principales componentes para aumentar la capacidad de carga, mientras que el peso vivo del venado para disminuirla.The objective of this study was to establish the incorporation of escape cover in a carrying capacity (K model for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. The study was carried out in Santa Cruz Nuevo, Puebla, Mexico in an area of 50 Km². The information was gathered through 13 transects of 800 by six m. The information served to establish the relationship between the escape cover and the faecal pellets of deer using a linear regression analysis. The relationship was included in a model for estimation of K, then a sensibility analysis was conducted. Faecal pellets were found in areas with an escape cover bigger than 59% and they were distributed in a cubic arrangement until reaching the 100%. The sensibility analysis showed that the escape cover and the brush vegetation were the main components to increase the

  6. 浙江嵊泗人工鱼礁区渔业资源生态容纳量变动的研究%Preliminary study on the variation of the carrying capacity of fishery resources in Shengsi artificial reef area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹增强; 章守宇

    2011-01-01

    fishery re-source is analyzed, and the variation tendency of the fishery resource density is simulated by u-sing improved Logistic model. The parameters of the model are calculated via Genetic Algorithm method. The result indicates that the original ecological carrying capacity is approximately 6. 00~ 8. 03 ind/km · kW, and the enlarged carrying capacity is approximately 4. 4~5. 89 ind/km · kW of type Ⅱ fish and macro-invertebrates in the artificial reef area. The carrying capacity has periodically fluctuated along with the change of seasons.

  7. Development of Grain Production and Spatial Pattern of Land Carrying Capacity in Chongqing City%重庆市粮食生产发展特征及土地资源承载力空间格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施开放; 刁承泰

    2012-01-01

    首先分析了1985—2010年重庆市粮食生产发展过程的特点,随后以人粮关系为基础,构建了土地资源承载力(LCC)模型和土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型,从区县尺度对重庆市土地资源承载力空间格局现状进行了分析。结果表明:1985—2010年重庆市粮食生产呈周期性波动特征,具有明显的不稳定性;人均粮食占有量起伏较小,基本维持在356.5kg/人左右,人口增幅略小于粮食产量增幅。2009年重庆市区县土地资源承载力主要以人口超载、粮食短缺为主要特征。都市发达经济圈的8个区县以及渝东北翼的大部分区县表现为粮食亏缺、人口超载,渝东南翼的大部分区县以及渝西的大部分区县表现为人粮均衡,只有合川区、南川区、黔江区、石柱县和秀山县5个区县处于粮食盈余状态。因此必须加强重庆各区县以及重庆市与其他省市之间的粮食贸易和调配来满足人口超载区的粮食需求。%With the growth of population,land carrying capacity and food safety have attracted great attention worldwide.In this study,the characteristics of development of grain production in Chongqing City were analyzed and summarized firstly,and then,land carrying capacity(LCC) and land carrying capacity index(LCCI) models were developed from the point of man-grain relationship.Finally,the LCCI was calculated for each county of Chongqing in 2009,and the current situation of land carrying capacity and its spatial pattern were systematically evaluated.The results showed that: from 1985 to 2010,the grain production of Chongqing City presented an upward tendency and the population growth rate was less than that of grain yield,and the grain yield per capita kept stable;food deficits and population overloading remained the primary characteristics of LCC of Chongqing City at a county scale in 2009.The 8 counties of Metropolitan Developed Circle and the counties of Northeast of

  8. 下套拱加固石拱桥复合拱圈极限承载力研究%Research on ultimate load -carrying capacity of composite arch ring ofstone arch bridge reinforced by concrete arch -lifted method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙潮; 刘明; 陈宝春; 吴庆雄

    2012-01-01

    The composite arch ring formed by soffitting method for stone arch consists four materials, i.e. , stone, mortar, concrete and steel bars. It is a secondary loaded structure, so its behavior is complicated. A finite element method (FEM) to calculate the ultimate load -carrying capacity of the composite arch ring is proposed by using both smeared model and discrete model. The computing results from FEM agrees well with the test results, which indicates that the behavior of the composite arch ring can be depicted well by the proposed FEM. Analysis of a real engineering have been done by using this FEM. Analysis results shows that under the half span distributed load and quarter point load, the failure mode of the composite arch ring is a four - hinges mechanism. The load reaches 77.9% of the ultimate load when the second hinge appears. Ultimate load - carrying capacity decreases with the increase of the ratio of concentrated live load to the total live load, also increases with the increase of the thickness of reinforcement layer and reinforcement ratio. The concrete strength has a little influence on the ultimate load - carrying capacity of composite arch ring, so high strength concrete is not necessary to be adopted in this method.%下套拱加固石拱桥形成的复合拱圈由石块、砂浆、混凝土和钢筋四种材料组成,而且属于二次受力结构,受力复杂.采用分离模型和整体连续体模型相结合的方法,提出复合拱圈的极限承载力有限元计算方法.有限元计算结果与试验结果吻合良好,表明有限元计算方法能够反映复合拱圈的受力性能.应用该方法,对某实桥进行了分析,结果表明,复合拱圈在半跨均布活载和L/4集中活载联合作用下的破坏模式为四铰破坏,第二个铰出现时荷载已达极限荷载的77.9%.复合拱圈的极限承载力随着集中活载占总活载的比例的增大而减小,随加固层厚度和配筋率的增大而增大.

  9. 倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆副承载能力研究%Research on the load carrying capacity of inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳在鑫; 王进戈; 张均富; 向中凡

    2013-01-01

    为了评价倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆传动的承载能力,提出了求解该传动齿间载荷分配和接触线上载荷分布的解析算法.根据倾斜式双滚子包络环面蜗杆传动的特点,在一定假设基础上建立了蜗杆副承载计算模型,以此为基础,确立了齿对载荷分配系数计算公式,并由布希涅斯克公式和有限差分法建立了该传动的接触线上载荷分布计算模型,在数值分析基础上,分析了滚柱偏距、滚柱半径、倾斜角等啮合参数对该传动齿间载荷分配与接触线上载荷分布的影响.研究表明:从啮入端到啮出端其齿间载荷分配呈抛物线变化规律;接触线上载荷分布从齿根到齿顶呈递减趋势.要使该传动保持良好的承载能力,滚柱偏距宜在5cm ~ 8cm之间,滚柱半径在7cm ~ 9cm之间,倾斜角在8°~12°之间.%To evaluate the load carrying capacity of inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears,analytical models for solving the load sharing among teeth and the load distribution along the contact line were presented.According to the characteristic of the inclined double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gears,a load calculation model was established based on some reasonable assumptions.Based on the work mentioned above,the calculation formula for load sharing among the meshing pairs was given.The calculation model for load distribution of the contact line was established based on the Boussinesq' s formula and the finite-difference method.The influencing factors such as installed offset of roller,roller radius and inclined angle of load carrying capacity were analyzed based on the numerical simulation.The results show that the curve of the load sharing among the meshing pairs is a parabola from the starting point to the end point,and the load distribution along the contact line shows the tendency to decrease from root to top of the tooth.Finally,the installed offset of roller,the roller radius and the

  10. 甘肃省土地资源承载力格局的时空演变分析%Spatio-temporal Variation Characteristics of Land Resources Carrying Capacity in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小娟; 刘普幸; 赵敏丽; 卓玛兰草

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of population,land carrying capacity and food safety have attracted great attention all over the world.From the point of man-grain relationship,on the basis of the theory of sustainable development and by using the land resources carrying capacity (LCCI) mode,the paper selected Gansu as the example that is the main dry land farming agricultural region in north western China.The results showed that:1) General tendency of land resources carrying capacity improved in GanSu from 1985 to 2010,and grain possession increased gradually.However,the increasing population resulted in lacking of grain and overload.2) The grain possession of Hexi Corridor was surplus and it was first in capacity in Gansu; Longdong Plateau kept balancing between population and grains in recent years,while the others such as Longzhong Plateau,Longnan Mountain and Gannan Plateau were overloaded.3) Over the last 26 years (1985-2010),the number of overloading county in Hexi Corridor and Longdong Plateau decreased and the overloading counties mainly concentrated in agriculture developed regions,which indicated that the man-grain relationship was improved obviously during the past 26 years locally.4) Based on the results,the man-grain contradiction in Gansu generally would keep stem for years although the carrying capacities of in some regions were improved.%以人粮关系为基础,构建了土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型,从时间和空间2个尺度定量评价了1985-2010年甘肃省土地资源承载力的时空格局,并以1985、1990、2000、2010年为代表年份,讨论了全省14地州(市)、86县(区)近26年来土地资源承载力的发展趋势.研究结果表明:①1985-2010年全省粮食产量稳中有升,土地资源承载力指数逐年降低,土地资源承载力略有增强,但全省人粮关系总体形势依然严峻.②河西走廊绿洲农业区是全省主要粮食盈余区,土地资源承载力稳居全省之首;陇东高原区以低水平的人粮

  11. 中国粮食生产发展特征及土地资源承载力空间格局现状%Characteristics of grain production and spatial pattern of land carrying capacity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 封志明; 杨艳昭; 游珍

    2011-01-01

    China has made great achievements in grain production during the recent 60 years. However, still considered one of the largest developing countries with a fast population growth in the world, China's food security has always been a global concern and an important topic in the world, in which land carry capacity based on grain and population is one of the important fields. In this study the characteristics of China's grain production was analyzed and summarized firstly, and then, land carrying capacity (LCC) and land carrying capacity index (LCCI) models were developed from the point of man-grain relationship. Finally, the LCCI was calculated for each county of China in 2007 and systematically evaluated towards the land carrying capacity and its spatial pattern. The results showed that: from 1949 to 2008, with a periodic fluctuation, the grain production of China showed an upward tendency from 200 million to 500 million tons. The population growth rate (an increase of 145%) was less than that of grain yield (an increase of 367%), and the grain yield per capita rose steadily from 209 kg in 1949 to 400 kg in the early 21st century; food deficits and population overloading remained the primary characteristics of China's LCC at a county scale in 2007. The grain surplus counties located in the major grain-producing areas so that the population was less than the regional LCC, such as Northeast Plain, North China Plain, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Hexi Corridor, Hetao Plain and Sichuan Basin. While, those counties located in southeast coastal regions of China with a high population density, and regions with critical natural environment and low grain production, such as the arid region of Northwest China, the Tibetan Plateau, the Loess Plateau, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Mountain of North China, had a man-grain conflict and appeared to be population overloading. China had a large net grain surplus at a national scale in 2007, thus for counties with a

  12. Carrying capacity of livestock and poultry breeding based on feces disposal volume of land%基于土地消纳粪便能力的畜禽养殖承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜春; 孙超; 刘玉; 唐秀美; 任艳敏

    2015-01-01

    environmental capacity of farmland nitrogen, the poultry and animal feces pollution risk index and potential of livestock and poultry, then assessed the livestock carrying potential and potential contamination and analyzed the farmland and orchards’ livestock carrying potential of Pinggu and its town. The results indicated that: 1) During 2012, the total manure of Pinggu was 591 100 tons, containing nitrogen and phosphorus respectively 4 721, 998 t, which meant a huge organic resource, made it available to reduce the fertilizer use, and can effectively improve soil quality and the quality of the crops; 2) For ecological conservation development area, as the orchards occupied a large proportion of agricultural land, the agricultural land of livestock and poultry manure loading status achieved by taking the cultivated land and orchard as disposal site, may be more practical. The average manure load of agricultural land was 16.7 t/hm2, lower than the national standard of 30 t/hm2, and the orchard manure load accounted by 66.42%; If only taking the cultivated land as the consumptive manure carrier, the amount of agricultural land manure load was 49.74 t/hm2, far higher than the national standard; 3) The potential of livestock and poultry in Pinggu district, which were 62.5 and 94.8 thousands pigs’ equivalent for nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. Totally speaking, the district was available for bearing livestock and poultry, but the difference was significant among each town’s agricultural land: Xinggu, Yukou and Daxingzhuang, etc, were carrying excess, however, Dahuashan, Zhenluoying and Xiongerzhai, etc, still had great potential consumptions of livestock and poultry manure. Among them, Xingu region has greatly exceeded the carrying capacity of agricultural land, so it’s urgent to control the overall amount and take measures to make resources of animal manure harmless and ecological. According to that, taking the town as the basic research unit, can effectively reflect

  13. 基于人粮关系的咸宁市土地承载力研究%Study on Carrying Capacity of Land Resources in Xianning City Based on Population-Grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝汉舟; 汪华

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the grey model GM(1,1) and the Logistic model were used to predict the changes in the future popu-lation, farmland and grain yield per unit area of Xianning city , Hubei province .The piecewise-revised model by using environ-mental factors was adopted to calculate the production potential of arable land in Xianning city .The results showed that:(1) the av-erage grain yield per unit area of arable land in Xianning city in 2011 was 6575.4 kg/hm2 , the theoretical production potential of ar-able land was 23760.2 kg/hm2, and the former accounted for 27.7% of the latter; (2) in 2011, the carrying capacity of arable land for food in Xianning city was great , and the population carrying index LCCI of every county ( except for Jiayu county ) was grea-ter than 1;(3) it was predicted that the grain yield per unit area of Xianning city in 2015 and 2025 was 8473.1 kg/hm2 and 9441. 7 kg/hm2 respectively;the predicted population of this city in 2015 and 2025 was 3.019 million and 3.243 million respectively;(4) as for the well-off-type population carrying capacity , LCCI in Xianning city was 0.79 in 2015 and 0.59 in 2025, and the population saturability revealed a downward trend .%以湖北省咸宁市为例,采用灰色模型GM(1,1)及逻辑斯蒂模型分别预测咸宁市未来人口、耕地及粮食单产的变化。采用环境因子逐段订正模型计算咸宁市土地耕地生产潜力,研究结果表明:咸宁市2011年耕地单产平均水平为6575.4 kg/hm2,理论计算的耕地生产潜力为23760.2 kg/hm2,实际单产为潜在耕地生产潜力的27.7%。2011年咸宁市耕地粮食承载力压力很大,除嘉鱼县外,人口承载指数LCCI均大于1。2015年和2025年咸宁市粮食单产预测为8473.1 kg/hm2和9441.7 kg/hm2。2015年和2025年人口预测为301.9万和324.3万。对于小康型人口承载力来讲,人口承载指数LCCI,在2015年为0.79,在2025年为0.59,人口饱和度呈现下降的趋势。

  14. Eco-tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity of the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City%襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳; 张弢; 李柱

    2015-01-01

    旅游环境承载力是判断旅游活动与生态环境是否协调的重要指标. 建设湿地公园是湿地保护和开发的重要途径,评估湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力能有效促进其可持续发展. 文章以襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园作为研究对象,从旅游环境承载力的特征、指标、潜在问题等,尝试对它的生态旅游综合环境承载力进行了评估. 并依据环境承载力的限制因子,结合湿地实际情况提出了相应的优化策略,以期为湿地旅游资源开发的长期规划提供客观依据,为实现湿地公园的可持续发展提供必要的参考.%Eco-tourism environmental capacity(ETEC) is the important evaluation basis of the harmonious relation between tourism activities and eco-environment resources. Wetland parks construction has been as the effective method for protecting and exploiting the wetland resources. ETEC assessment can effectively promote the sustainable development of wetland ecotourism. Taking the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City as an example, this paper scientific calculated the Eco-tourism carrying capacity and discussed the features, evaluation indicators selection and potential risks of the ETEC. According to the limitation factors, this paper has put forward the corresponding optimal projects. The results of this study offer a scientific decision-making for the programming and management of wetland tourism and promote realizing the sustainable development of the wetland park.

  15. Psychological Carrying Capacity of Non-motorized Traffic Environment in Historical Districts%历史街区非机动车交通环境心理承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋平; 韩霞

    2015-01-01

    Travel by non-motor vehicles accounts for a big proportion in historical districts, but because of the limitation of the space scale and road network pattern of historical districts, non-motor vehicles drive chaotically with pedestrians and motor vehicles, which results in a poor travel environment. Through the practical survey in Shuyuan historical district in Zhengzhou, Gulou historical district in Kaifeng and Dongxinanyu historical district in Luoyang , the influence factors and evaluation index of psychological carrying capacity of non-motorized traffic environment in historical districts is studied, and its evaluation models of negative binomial distribution is established by introducing tolerance thresholds. According to the data of Shuyuan historical district in Zhengzhou and Gulou historical district in Kaifeng, which show that the study method is feasible, also suitable for accurately evaluating the non-motor vehicle lane capacity and optimizing the road cross-section, to improve the environment of non-motorized traffic for a sustainable development in historical districts.%历史街区非机动车交通所占出行比例较大,但由于街区空间尺度和路网格局的限制,人、机、非混行严重,非机动车出行环境较差.通过对郑州书院街、开封鼓楼、洛阳东西南隅3个历史街区的实地调研,研究了历史街区非机动车交通环境心理承载力的影响因素和评价指标,以郑州书院街和开封鼓楼2个历史街区的观测数据建立了非机动车流量的负二项评估模型,引入骑行速度容忍阈值,得到非机动车交通环境心理承载力评估模型,最后以洛阳东西南隅历史街区的观测数据进行验证,结果表明该研究方法是可行的,可以为更准确的评估历史街区非机动车道通行能力,优化历史街区道路横断面,改善街区非机动车交通环境,实现街区交通的可持续发展提供理论依据.

  16. Regulating of current harmonics in the neutral conductor to a suitable value taking into account the specific current carrying capacity; Regelung des Netzstroms im Neutralleiter auf einen geeigneten Sollwert unter Beachtung der speziellen Strombelastbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakra, I.; Ellinger, T.; Raedel, U. [TU Ilmenau (Germany). Leistungselektronik und Steuerungen in der Elektroenergietechnik

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a practical application of DSP-based current controller for 3-Phase 4-Wire shunt active filter with a new Control Strategy of current harmonics in the Neutral conductor in an unbalanced nonlinear load. The current harmonics in Neutral conductor will be compensated to a suitable set point (given value) considering the special capacity. (orig.)

  17. Tissue-Specific Replicating Capacity of a Chimeric Poliovirus That Carries the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Hepatitis C Virus in a New Mouse Model Transgenic for the Human Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagiya, Akiko; Ohka, Seii; Hashida, Noriyasu; Okamura, Masahito; Taya, Choji; Kamoshita, Nobuhiko; Iwasaki, Kuniko; Sasaki, Yukari; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nomoto, Akio

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotides (nt) 108 to 742 of an infectious cDNA clone of poliovirus (PV) Mahoney strain, including the corresponding region of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), was replaced by nt 28 to 710 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA corresponding to the whole HCV IRES. A chimeric PV (2A-369) was generated by transfecting mammalian cells with an RNA transcribed in vitro from the cDNA. To examine replicating capacity of virus 2A-369 in the brain and liver of a mouse model for poliomyelitis, a new...

  18. 昆明新机场航站区下伏溶洞地基承载力分析%The Carrying Capacity Analysis of Kunming New Airport Terminal Area Underlying Cave Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰文; 彭大雷; 刘宏

    2012-01-01

    溶洞地基承载力的影响因素众多.溶洞埋深、溶洞直径(跨度)、水平相邻溶洞的间距,竖向相邻溶洞的间距及溶洞断面形态等对地基的承载力影响很大.应用工程地质分析和数值模拟相结合的方法,对昆明新机场下伏溶洞地基承载力进行了分析,得出当单个溶洞埋深大于2倍直径后,上部荷载与下部溶蚀空间的关系较小.当水平相邻溶洞的间距大于1倍跨度以及当竖向相邻溶洞间距大于0.5倍跨度后,可以忽略溶洞对上部荷载的影响.溶蚀率每增加5%,上部最大荷载qmax降低幅度约6 %~10%.当跨度大于3倍洞高时,上部最大荷载的降低幅度相对较小,竖向型溶洞所能承受的荷载相对较大.%There are many factors that affect bearing capacity of Cave foundation, such as Cave depth, the caves diameter (span) , spacing vertically adjacent caves and caverns section form the foundation bearing capacity. The way, combined engineering geology analysis with numerical simulation, was applied to analyze the underlying bearing capacity of Cave foundation, According to this way, it concludes that the relationship between the diameter of the upper load and the lower part of the dissolution is smaller when a single cave depth is greater than 2 times, and the impaction of the cave to the top load can be ignored when the spacing of the level of the adjacent cave is greater than one times and the vertical distance is greater than 0. 5 times of the span- Besides, the upper part of the maximum load qmax decrease about 6% to 10% from each additional 5% of dissolution rate. When the span is greater than three times of the hole high, the decrease range of the maximum load on the top of foundation is relatively small; on the contrary, the load that vertical type caves can withstand is relatively large,

  19. 钢管混凝土格构柱极限承载力实用计算公式%Practical calculation formula of ultimate load carrying capacity about concrete filled steel tubular laced columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旺保; 蒋丽忠

    2011-01-01

    在理论分析基础上,提出钢管混凝土格构柱长细比折减系数计算模型及等效长细比计算公式,并改进等效长细比计算公式.同时,利用数值计算方法对不同混凝土强度、钢材强度、缀条横截面积、缀条布置形式、偏心率、长细比的钢管混凝土格构柱构件的承载力进行仿真计算,并在改进的等效长细比基础上,分析它们对长细比折减系数的影响.结合数值计算结果及长细比折减系数计算模型,提出长细比折减系数计算公式.利用本文提出的长细比折减系数计算公式及规程CECS28:90中双系数乘积公式对构件极限承载力进行计算,并与数值计算结果及试验结果进行比较.研究结果表明:在改进的等效长细比基础上,混凝土强度、钢材强度、缀条横截面积、缀条布置形式对长细比折减系数的影响很小,可以忽略;3种计算方法计算结果吻合良好,验证了本文提出的长细比折减系数计算公式的正确性.%The slender ratio reduced coefficient model and the equivalent slenderness ratio calculation formula of the concrete filled steel tubular laced columns were proposed on the basis of theory analysis, and the equivalent slenderness ratio calculation formula was improved. A lot of ultimate bearing capacities of concrete filled steel tubular laced columns with different concrete strengths, steel strengths, lace bar areas, layout forms of lace bar, eccentricity ratio and slender ratio were computed using the numerical method, and the influence of them was analysised on the basis of improved equivalent slenderness ratio. The calculation formula on the slender ratio reduced coefficient of slender ratio reduced coefficient was proposed by combining numerical calculation results and the slender ratio reduced coefficient model. Finally, a lot of ultimate bearing capacities of components were computed using the calculation formula of slender ratio reduced coefficient and

  20. 基于人粮关系的汉江流域湖北段土地资源承载力评价%Evaluation of Land Carrying Capacity of the Han River(in Hubei Province) Based on Man-grain Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢菲; 孙小舟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the man-grain relationship, it established a LCCI(Land Carrying Capacity Index) model, quantitativly evaluated the present population carrying capacity of the land resources in the Han River( in Hubei Province) from three aspects: counties, prefecture-level cities, and drainage basins.The result revealed the geographical features and spatio-temporal evolution pattern of land carrying capacity in different areas of Hubei Province, discussed the coupling relationship between land resources, grain and the population.%土地资源承载力是研究区域人口消费与食物生产、人类需求与资源供给间的平衡关系问题,研究土地资源承载力能为区域发展和生态建设提供科学依据和决策支持。文章以人粮关系为基础,建立土地资源承载指数(Land Carrying Capacity Index,LCCI)模型,从县、地级市、流域三个尺度定量评价了汉江流域湖北段的土地资源现实人口承载力。土地资源承载力的研究结果揭示了汉江流域湖北段不同地区土地资源承载力的地域特征与时空演变格局,反映出土地资源、粮食、人口的耦合关系,为湖北省粮食安全和区域可持续发展提供参考。

  1. Carrying Backpacks: Physical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 40 million U.S. youth carry school materials in backs, routinely carrying books, laptop computers, personal and other items used on a daily basis. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates that 7,277 emergency visits each year result from injuries related to backpacks. Injury can occur when a child…

  2. Destabilizing Carry Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Plantin, Guillaume; Shin, Hyun Song

    2014-01-01

    We offer a model of currency carry trades in which carry traders generate self-sustained excess returns if they coordinate on supplying excessive capital to a target economy. The interest-rate differential between their funding currency and the target currency is their coordination device. Such self-fulfilling pro table currency trades arise when the central bank of the target economy ignores the impact of carry-trade in flows on domestic asset prices, and responds only to their effect on inf...

  3. Destabilizing carry trades

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Plantin; Hyun Song Shin

    2015-01-01

    We offer a model of currency carry trades in which carry traders generate self-sustained excess returns if they coordinate on supplying excessive capital to a target economy. The interest-rate differential between their funding currency and the target currency is their coordination device. Such self-fulfilling pro table currency trades arise when the central bank of the target economy ignores the impact of carry-trade in flows on domestic asset prices, and responds only to their effect on inf...

  4. 资源型城市土地人口承载力研究——以河南省平顶山市为例%Resource industrial city land population carrying capacity research——take pingdingshan of henan province as an instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄倩; 杨锋

    2015-01-01

    Study on the carrying capacity of land resources for the reasonable agricultural policy and population policy, guide the agricultural production and economic development, the rational use of land, which provides scientific basis for the sustainable use of land resources. In this paper, using the land carrying capacity index (LCCI) model of population carrying capacity of land resources in Pingdingshan city,the results showed that: Pingdingshan land population carrying capacity index from 0.951 in 2006 to 1.107 to 1.034 in 2014 and 2014,stage of development by the balance for overload to the critical phase, various counties city land population carrying condition difference is obvious. This paper suggestes that Pingdingshan city should integrate and cultivated land resources in mining, enlarge the center city space development, reduce the pressure of heavy industry on the environment.%土地资源承载力研究为合理的农业政策和人口政策,指导农业生产和经济建设,合理利用土地,保证土地资源的可持续利用提供科学依据.本文采用土地资源承载指数(LCCI)模型对资源型城市平顶山市进行土地人口承载力研究,结果表明:平顶山市土地人口承载力指数从2006年的0.951发展到2014年的1.034和2020的1.107,发展阶段由平衡有余阶段到临界超载阶段,各县市的土地人口承载状况差异明显.建议平顶山市要整合和挖掘耕地资源,扩大中心城市空间,实行跨市县一体化发展,减小重工业对环境的压力.

  5. The curves not carried

    OpenAIRE

    Gadre, Vaibhav; Schleimer, Saul

    2014-01-01

    Suppose $\\tau$ is a train track on a surface $S$. Let $C(\\tau)$ be the set of isotopy classes of simple closed curves carried by $\\tau$. Masur and Minsky [2004] prove $C(\\tau)$ is quasi-convex inside the curve complex $C(S)$. We prove the complement, $C(S) - C(\\tau)$, is quasi-convex.

  6. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  7. 基于人粮关系的土地资源承载力空间格局研究——以河西走廊绿洲为例%Evaluation of land carrying capacity based on man-grain relationship——A case study of oasis in Hexi corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏丽; 刘普幸; 朱小娟; 侯成成

    2013-01-01

    河西走廊绿洲区的粮食生产在干旱区的粮食生产、供求和粮食安全中一直处于重要的位置,本文基于人粮关系,运用土地资源承载力(LCC)模型,从分市和分县两个空间尺度上对河西走廊绿洲1985-2009年的土地资源承载力的时空格局进行了分析.结果表明:1985-2009年河西走廊绿洲的土地资源承载力指数(LCCI)介于0.690 ~ 0.894之间,其中,只有2000年和2001年处在0.875 ~l,其他年份的土地资源承载力指数总体上处在富裕和盈余状态;从分市格局来看,1985-2009年河西走廊绿洲的土地资源承载力与总体水平的变化趋势相一致,粮食盈余和人粮平衡的市多于严重超载的市;从分县尺度上来看,河西走廊绿洲土地资源承载力以粮食盈余为主,55%的县域处于不同程度的盈余状态,这些县域主要分布在河西走廊中部和东部;人粮关系处于平衡的县域占全区的5%;40%的县域处于不同程度的粮食亏缺状态,需要大量区外调配.%The production of grain in the oasis of Hexi corridor plays an important role in the grain supply and food security for the arid areas. From the viewpoint of man-grain relationship, the land carrying capacity ( LCC) models were used to analyze the spatial-temporal dynamic patterns of land carrying capacity in the oasis of Hexi corridor from 1985 to 2009 at city and county level. The results showed that the overall land carrying capacity index ( LCCI) in the oasis of Hexi corridor was 0.690 ~0.894 from 1985 to 2009. Except for the year of 2000 and 2001 when the land carrying capacity index was 0.8751, it was at rich and surplus level in other years. At the city level, the change tendency of the land carrying capacity index was identical to that of the overall level from 1985 to 2009. The number of cities at grain surplus and balance level was more than that at severe overload level. At the county level, the land carrying capacity index in the

  8. Load carrying capacity analysis of materials for aluminium rims

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Matija; Čižman, Jure

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we present an experimental simulation of the fatique strength of clamped aluminium rims. This is supported by numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method (FEM), which was used for stress-strain analysis of a model representing a clamped detail during bendings. The design and analysis of the model are made simultaneously on an integrated computer controlled test rig for testing the fatique strength of clamped parts subjected to bending. The simulation is evaluated ...

  9. 基于生态足迹的沿海地区生态承载力评价--以汕头市为例%Ecological Carrying Capacity of Costal Cities Based on Ecological Footprint Model--A Case Study of Shantou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨木壮; 吴涛; 谢鸿宇

    2013-01-01

      利用生态足迹模型的理论与方法,研究2004~2008年汕头市生态承载力变化情况。结果表明,5年来汕头市人均生态足迹呈现下降趋势,人均生态承载力略有下降但变化不大,人均生态赤字也呈下降趋势。与同期其他城市对比表明,汕头市生态足迹相对较低。从生态供需结构看,化石能源用地对生态足迹贡献较大。应通过提高资源利用效率,减少废弃物排放,科学合理地进行国土规划,转变经济增长方式,优化产业结构,从而提高汕头市的生态承载力,促进该区域可持续发展。%The objectives of this study were thus to use the Ecological Footprint Model explore the ecological carrying capacity of Shantou from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the ecolog-ical footprint, ecological carrying capacity, ecological deficit of Shantou were at the trend of downward, and by compared other cities, the ecological footprint of Shantou was lower than others;The structure of ecological footprint supply and demand, the land of fossil fuel with the greater contribution to the ecological footprint. Finally, we should improve the efficiency of resource use and reduce waste emissions, make land use planning scientifically, transform the economic growth mode, optimize the industrial struc-ture, thereby the ecological carrying capacity of Shantou City can be improved, the sustainable development of the region can be promoted.

  10. 资源型城市土地利用变化对区域环境承载力的影响--以平顶山市为例%Land Use Change Influence on the Regional Carrying Capacity in Rse ource City:Taking Pingdingshan as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世界; 吴楠楠; 岳伟明; 高磊

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the resource-based city Pingdingshan as the research object, and researches the relationship between re-gional carrying capacity and land use changes in Pingdingshan.The result shows that land use changes′increase is as same as the re-gional carrying capacity generally and the former is more than the latter obviously.In the spatial distribution, the land use change of e-valuation unit improves continuously, and the regional carrying capacity indicates growth trend except Shilong district.In the time dis-tribution, the structure of land use changes enormously among evaluation unit, and most lands rise using hierarchy, and the regional carrying capacity indicates growth trend on most sub districts.%选取资源型城市平顶山市为研究对象,以Landsat影像及统计资料为基础数据,对平顶山市2000~2011年各子区环境承载力与土地利用程度变化之间的关系进行研究,结果显示平顶山各辖区间土地利用变化与区域环境承载力呈正相关关系,且前者的变化幅度明显大于后者。在空间分布上,各评价单元的土地利用变化程度在不断提高,区域环境承载力除石龙区外均呈增加趋势;在时间分布上,评价单元内土地利用结构变化较大,大部分土地利用层级有所提升,区域环境承载力在主要子区上均有所增加。

  11. 基于人粮关系的重庆市土地资源承载力水平时空差异研究%Spatial-Temporal Difference Analysis of Land Carrying Capacity Based on Man-Grain Relationship in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀锋; 秦建; 刁承泰; 左太安

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of population ,land carrying capacity and regional food security have attracted great attention worldwide .Evaluating regional land carrying capacity and analyzing its spatial‐temporal difference are important for regional grain security and land resource sustainable utilization .Based on the relationship between population and grain ,land carrying capacity (LCC) and land carrying capacity index (LCCI) models are built in this study to analyze the temporal and spatial disparities of land carrying capaci‐ty of each county/district in Chongqing so as to provide a scientific basis for decision‐making and overall planning of land use and sustainable development .In the period from 2004 to 2010 ,the gap in land carry‐ing capacity level between various counties/districts of Chongqing city became increasingly larger and the overloading of land resources was serious .In the 7 years ,the quantitative distribution of various levels of land carrying capacity of the 40 counties/districts exhibited an M‐shaped model .The counties showing the critical overload and over‐balanced situations stood on the peaks of “M” ,seriously overloaded counties/dis‐tricts lay in the middle of “M”and overload and surplus counties/districts were at the bottom ends of “M”. In the same period ,the number of the counties/districts of Chongqing with coordinated levels of land car‐rying capacity and social and economic development remained unchanged ,the number of the counties/dis‐tricts w hose social and economic development lagged behind their land carrying capacity diminished ,and the number of the counties/districts whose social and economic development surpassed their land carrying capacity increased from 13 in 2004 to 15 in 2010 .%定量评价区域土地资源承载力水平以及时空差异对于区域粮食安全和土地资源可持续利用起着至关重要的意义.论文以人口和粮食关系,建立土地资源承载力模型和土

  12. Analysis of the Effect on the Carrying Capacity when Train Trace Interval Shortened from 8 to 7 on Line Hu Ning%沪宁线追踪间隔“8改7”对通过能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙焰; 董志国; 季令; 张国宝

    2001-01-01

    通过大量实例计算,研究沪宁线列车追踪间隔时间由8 min改为7min后对客车扣除系数和区段通过能力的影响,分析了客货列车速度、追踪间隔、旅客列车对数等因素对通过能力的影响关系,得到了一系列结论.%Through a substantial calculation, the effect is studied on the deducting coefficient of the passenger train and on the carrying capacity of the railway division when train trace interval shortened from 8 minutes to 7 minutes on Line Hu Ning. The relation of the variations is analyzed about the factors affecting the carrying capacity-the speed of the passenger train, the trace interval and the number of the passenger trains. A series of significant conclusions is reached in this paper.

  13. An Investigation of Load-carrying and Speed-resistant Capacities of Bonded MoS2 Solid Lubricating Films%粘结MoS2基钼固体润滑膜的抗承载能力和耐速度性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶银平; 陈建敏; 周惠娣

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜在干摩擦条件下的抗承载能力和耐速度性能,使用国产的环一块摩擦磨损试验机在干摩擦下对粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜在不同载荷和不同速度试验条件下的摩擦磨损性能进行了研究.试验结果表明:粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜的承载能力有高达2100N,在0.512~3.84m/s的滑动速度范围内具有良好的抗磨减摩性能.对转移膜的研究结果表明高载高速试验条件有利于促进对偶表面生成高质量的转移膜.粘结MoS2基固体润滑膜具有良好的抗承载能力和耐速度性能的机理应归结于在摩擦过程中对偶表面高质量转移膜的生成.%In order to inquire into the load-carrying and speed-resistant capacities of bonded MoS2 solid lubricating films under dry friction conditions,the friction and wear behaviors of the MoS2 lubricating films were investigated under different speed and load testing conditions.Results show that the MoS2 lubricating films have a high load-carrying capacity up to 2100 N,and a wide speed-resistant capacity of 0.512-3.84m/s.The higher load and higher speed can promote the counterpart surface to form the transfer film with a fine quality.The predominant mechanism of the MoS2 lubricating films with excellent load-carrying and speed-resistant capacities can be attributed to the formation of the transfer film with a fine quality.

  14. Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the issues around monitoring of the capacity of public sector infrastructure to absorb land development.This paper first introduces Montgomery County¹s growth management system. It then offers two theories to justify monitoring infrastructure utilization for the purposes of establishing development capacity. The first, drawn from ecology is based on the notion of environmental carrying capacity. The second, from economics, employs the notion of externalities. However, neit...

  15. Appropriate urban scale in arid inland river basin based on water resource carrying capacity:A case of Liangzhou District in Shiyang River Basin%基于水资源承载力的干旱内陆河流域城市适度规模研究——以石羊河流域凉州区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石培基; 杨雪梅; 宫继萍; 张光永; 魏伟

    2012-01-01

    以典型的干旱内陆河流域城市武威市凉州区为研究对象,对水资源承载力、城市适度规模的内涵进行阐述;基于可利用水量、水权及水质三要素建立水资源承载能力及城市适度规模计算模型,构建了城市适度规模与实际人口的距离协调度评价模型,并给出评价区间标准;对未来可利用水量、未来可能配水量、未来城市适度规模、水资源超载度进行预测并分析.结果表明:近10 a凉州区的地表径流量变化幅度不大,相比20世纪50年代下降程度显著,凉州区水资源超载度逐年增长,城市适度规模与实际人口的距离协调度处于初级协调发展绿灯区向濒临失调衰退黄灯区过渡阶段.未来20 a水资源超载度增长率降低,基于水资源承载力的城市适度规模远小于预测的城市人口规模,城市适度规模与实际人口距离协调度进入轻度失调双黄灯警区.%Most of the cities in the arid inland river basin of northwest China are being perplexed by the pioblems of water shortage and inefficient water utilization. Thus the process of urbanization and the city development scale in this region have been restricted by the water shortage and irrational water utilization structure. It is significant and in urgent need to research the urban appropriate scale based upon its water resource carrying capacity as water shortage and fragile ecological environment has been the key factor which restricts the eco-social development of this region. Taking the Liangzhou District of the Wiiwei city located in the Shiyang River basin as the case study, based on available water quantity, water rights and water quality, computing models for urban water resource carrying capacity and for the urban appropriate population scale were established. Then, a model named after the coordination degree evaluation was set up for researching on the relationship between urban appropriate population scale and its actual

  16. Investigation Influence on Carrying Capacity of Hydraulic Cylinder with Residual Stress of Cold-Rolling Seamless Steel Tube%冷轧无缝钢管残余应力对液压缸筒承载能力影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍岩; 叶金铎; 马叙; 张春秋

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the carrying capacity of the hydraulic cylinder with the residual stress of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube was conducted by nonlinear finite element method ( FEM) , which was aimed at quantitative analysis of influence on carrying capacity of hydraulic cylinder with residual stress of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube. The forming process of seamless steel tube was in⁃vestigated, and the residual stress after cold⁃rolling and pulling off of the mould was obtained. Based on the work, the inner surface of seamless steel tube after pulling off of the mould was imposed by pressure in order to simulate the real operating state of hydraulic cylin⁃der, and stress field acted both with residual stress and working stress was acquired. The stress distribution of hydraulic cylinder acted by inner pressure without residual stress was calculated, and carrying capacity of hydraulic cylinder without residual stress was com⁃pared. The results show that the initial stress in presence changes the amount and distribution mode of equivalent stress of hydraulic cyl⁃inder and the maximum equivalent stress of hydraulic cylinder is three times as large as that of which without initial stress. The initial stress reduces the carrying capacity of the hydraulic cylinder, and the hydraulic cylinder made of cold⁃rolling seamless steel tube must be experienced with heat treatment first to eliminate the initial stress.%采用非线性有限元法对经冷轧成型无缝钢管的液压缸筒承载能力进行了研究,目的在于定量分析冷轧钢管残余应力对液压缸承载能力的影响。对冷轧钢管成型过程进行了研究,获得了冷轧钢管脱模后的残余应力,在此基础上,在脱模后钢管的内表面施加内压模拟工作时的液压缸,获得残余应力和工作应力共同作用的应力场。计算了无残余应力缸筒在内压作用下的应力分布,并对有无残余应力液压缸筒的承载能力进

  17. 阿尔金山自然保护区基于野牦牛、藏野驴、藏羚羊适宜栖息地的生态容量估测%Estimation of ecological carrying capacity for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope based on habitat suitability in the Aerjin Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世魁; 翁晋; 武晓宇; 刘世梁; 苏旭坤; 吴娱; 石建斌; 李晓文; 张翔; 许东华

    2015-01-01

    National Nature Reserve ( AMNNR) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, is a major refuge for three wild ungulates;wild yak ( Bos mutus) , kiang ( Equus kiang) , and Tibetan antelope ( Pantholops hodgsoni) . This nature reserve is important for conserving these three wild endemic ungulates and their habitats. Over decades of conservation, the populations of these three ungulates have increased rapidly. However, the administrators of AMNNR considered that the kiang might have become overpopulated, which would result in habitat degradation. Thus, it is vital implement wildlife management planning based on the quantification of ecological carrying capacity for sustainable nature reserve management. In this study, vehicular transects were conducted to survey the distribution data and record the populations of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope from May to June, 2012, and June to July, 2013, in the AMNNR. We integrated remote sensing data analysis with on-the-ground plot surveys to identify suitable habitats ( alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow) for all three ungulates, and we estimated habitat production. A dietary analysis of wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope was completed to estimate the amount of edible grasses required for the three wild ungulates in suitable habitats. Using the empirical formula ( calculation of the proper carrying capacity of rangelands) provided by the PRC Ministry of Agriculture, we quantified the carrying capacity for all three species in suitable habitats and in the whole natural reserve. The results showed that areas of suitable habitat for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope were 31866. 07 km2 , 24035. 51 km2 , and 24035. 51 km2 , respectively. There were big overlaps in the suitable habitats for all three wild ungulates, which shared almost the same suitable habitats. Within the suitable habitats, alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe, alpine desert, and alpine meadow could potentially provide 3944.91

  18. 基于生态足迹的半干旱草原区生态承载力与可持续发展研究——以内蒙古锡林郭勒盟为例%Ecological footprint analysis of a semi-arid grassland region facilitates assessment of its ecological carrying capacity: a case study of Xilinguole League

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 牛建明; 张庆; 张艳楠

    2011-01-01

    The development and testing of regional sustainable development indicators is an active research area. This study uses quantitative indicators to determine whether nature's ecological carrying capacity can satisfy the needs of humans. There are many quantitative measuring methods for sustainable development, but the ecological footprint analysis has a more widespread application. This method is used to calculate ecological footprints by looking at need and the ecological carrying capacity in terms of support, and study the use degree of humanity to natural. Using these results, the circumstances of an area or country's sustainable development may be .established.Xilinguole League is located 111°59'-120°00'E and 42°32'-6°41'N. The total area is 201442 km2, with agrassland area of 192000 km2, and covers one-quarter grassland area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.In this study we conducted an ecological footprint analysis of the Xilinguole League, using statistical data from 1981 to 2008. The computed ecological carrying capacity and its 30-year dynamics revealed the major development trends of this semi-arid grassland region. Our findings showed the following. (1) Rapid industrialization and urbanization altered the area's per capita ecological footprint dramatically. The area increased from 1.0868 hm2 in 1981 to 24.2176 hm2 in 2008, surpassing China's national average and that of other domestic grassland areas. The main driver of this increase was the rapid expansion of areas involved in the extraction of fossil fuels and other grassland uses. (2) Rapid population growth resulted in the decline of per capita ecological carrying capacity for this region, with grassland-cropland capacities being most affected. The total per capita ecological carrying capacity decreased from 3.1565 hm2 in 1981 to 2.3915 hm2 in 2008. (3) Development has been accompanied by a shift from a regional ecological surplus to an ecological deficit.Two factors are responsible for

  19. Comparación de métodos basados en los requerimientos nutricionales y disponibilidad de biomasa para estimar la capacidad de carga para venado cola blanca Comparison of methods based on the nutritional requirements and availability of biomass to estimate carrying capacity for white tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que tiene la metodología en la estimación de la capacidad de carga (K animales/ha en venado cola blanca, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1 Comparar la estimación de la K por cinco métodos; tres basados en disponibilidad de compuestos nutritivos (materia seca (MS, energía digestible (ED y nitrógeno (N, otro basado en la presión de pastoreo y un último en el requerimiento de energía metabolizable (EM estimado con base al metabolismo ecológico del venado, y 2 Comparar la K estimada al usar la biomasa total o por los grupos de vegetales consumidos por el venado (gramíneas, herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas. Se utilizó la información de composición de la dieta y de biomasa de un rancho cinegético localizado en Aguascalientes, México. Los resultados fueron analizados de acuerdo a un modelo con arreglo factorial (5 x 5, donde los factores fueron el método de estimación y el grupo vegetal. Los valores de K estimados con biomasa total fueron los mayores (1,449, seguidos por los pastos (0,707, luego por las herbáceas (0,325, mientras que los estimados con arbóreas y arbustivas dieron los menores valores (0,228 y 0,03. La estimación de K por medio de plantas arbustivas (0,033 venados/ha proporciona un valor más similar al de la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha que el estimado con otros grupos vegetativos, independientemente del método seleccionado (disponibilidad de MS, ED, N, metabolismo ecológico y la presión de pastoreo. Considerando la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha como el indicador apropiado para evaluar la capacidad de carga, se concluye que debe estimarse con base a la disponibilidad de arbustivas.Due to the importance of the estimation of carrying capacity (K animals/ha in white tailed deer, the objectives of this study were: 1 To compare the estimation of K with five methods, three of them based on nutrient availability (dry matter (DM, digestible energy (DE and

  20. Valuation of ecological carrying capacity and ecological restoration research of resource-based city--Case Study in Hunan Lengshuijiang%资源型城市生态承载力评价和生态修复研究--以湖南省冷水江市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘艳平

    2013-01-01

      资源型城市的过度开发以及开发初期环境保护意识的淡薄,导致资源型城市面临地形地貌破坏、地表塌陷、裂缝、尾矿废石污染、地下水污染等各种生态问题。本文以湖南省冷水江市为例,对其城市的生态承载力进行综合评价,提出了相应的生态修复措施,为资源枯竭型城市可持续发展提供参考。%The over-exploitation of resource-based cities and the weak awareness of environmental protection in the early development stage that have resulted in destruction topography, surface subsidence, cracks, tailings waste pollution, groundwater pollution and other ecological problems in resource-based cities. In this paper, Lengshuijiang City as an ex-ample, the city's ecological carrying capacity have been comprehensively evaluated and the corresponding ecological restoration measures have put forward.The article have been provided some references for the sustainable development of resource-exhausted cities also.

  1. Application Practice of Ultrasonic Flow Meter in the Calibration of Pumping Unit Power Water Carrying Capacity%超声波流量计在泵站单位电量提水量率定中的应用实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘忠良; 顾晓蕾; 王维汉; 王茜; 赵晓波

    2015-01-01

    为了准确测算平原河网提水灌区的毛灌溉用水量和灌溉水有效利用系数,需要对灌溉泵站常水位下的单位电量提水量进行率定。采用超声波流量计测定水泵流量,同时观测水泵在同一时段内的用电量,通过计算水泵实际功率获得泵站单位电量的提水量。结果表明,水泵实测流量均小于额定流量,超声波流量计与断面流速法观测到的水泵流量接近,可以用于水泵流量的率定。超声波流量计快捷方便,具有一定精度,是泵站单位电量提水量率定的一种可行方法。%In order to accurately measure the irrigation water efficient utilization coefficient and gross irrigation water consumption in plain river network water pumping irrigation area , we need to calibrate the unit electricity water carrying capacity under normal water level of the irrigation pumping station . We used ultrasonic flow meter to measure the pump flow , while observing the electricity consumption of the pump station in the same period , obtaining pumping water capacity of per unit of electricity by calculating the actual pump power . The results show that pump flow measured is less than the rated flow , and pump flow observed by using ultrasonic flow meter is close to that of section velocity method , suggesting that ultrasonic flow meter can be used for the calibration of pump flow . Ultrasonic flow meter is quick and convenient with a certain degree of accuracy . It is a feasible method to calibrate pumping unit power flow rate .

  2. 艾司洛尔与急性心肌梗死患者红细胞携氧能力的关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between Esmolol and Erythrocyte Oxygen Carrying Capacity in Pa-tients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向华; 韩莲花; 李红霞; 惠杰

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨艾司洛尔是否影响急性心肌梗死患者红细胞血红蛋白的携氧能力。【方法】采集急性心肌梗死患者红细胞,悬浮于不同pH值(pH7.4、pH5.0)等渗PBS缓冲液,分别用肾上腺素、艾司洛尔、艾司洛尔+肾上腺素预处理红细胞,在拉曼光谱点扫描检测单个活态红细胞内血红蛋白特征光谱变化。【结果】在pH5.0时,氧化血红蛋白特征峰峰强在PBS、艾司洛尔的作用下明显降低;在肾上腺素的作用下显著升高(P<0.05);而经艾司洛尔+肾上腺索预处理后,肾上腺素的这一作用不明显。【结论】艾司洛尔能减轻肾上腺素在酸性环境中增加红细胞血红蛋白的氧合力的作用,增加氧从血红蛋白的解离,有利于缺氧组织的供氧。%[Obj ective]To explore whether esmolol affects erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity in patients with acute myocardial infarction.[Methods]Erythrocytes from patients with acute myocardial infarction were collected and suspended in isotonic PBS buffer solution with different pH value(pH7.4 and pH5.0).Erythro-cytes were pretreated with adrenaline,esmolol and adrenaline plus esmolol,respectively.The characteristic spectral changes of hemoglobin in single living erythrocytes were detected by using Raman spectroscopy analy-sis.[Results]Characteristic peak of oxyhemoglobin treated with PBS and esmolol at pH5.0 was decreased obvi-ously,but that treated with adrenaline was increased significantly. After pretreatment with esmolol plus adrenaline,the effect of adrenaline was not obvious.[Conclusion]Esmolol can reduce the effect of adrenaline for enhancing erythrocyte oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in acid environment,and increase the disso-ciation of oxygen from hemoglobin,and is helpful for oxygen supply of anoxia tissue.

  3. 无加劲冷成型方钢管-H形钢梁翼缘板焊接节点受拉性能试验研究%Experimental study on load carrying capacity of welded joint assemblage between no-diaphragm cold-formed rectangular tube column and flange plate of H-shaped beam under statically tensile load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以一; 张梁; 王拓

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of the no-diaphragm joint connecting the cold-formed tube column and the H-shaped beam, 11 specimens consisting of flange plate of H-shaped beams that were welded to rectangular columns at flange plates were tested under statically tensile load considering the effect of molding types, location of seams of tube column, the restriction of flange plates in the orthogonal direction and the dimension parameters of tubes and flange plates.After the test some conclusions can be drawn that the load carrying capacity and stiffness of cold formed section specimens are higher than the welded section one.The location of tube seams has almost no effect on the capacity and initial stiffness of the connection.The restraints in the orthogonal direction makes the initial stiffness of specimens a little higher.When the end of flange plate is hunched, the average stress of the flange plate will be higher.The most important parameters which affect the capacity of joints are the ratio of width to thickness of tube section, the ratio of width of flange plate to that of tube and the ratio of flange plate thickness to the tube thickness.%为研究无加劲方钢管柱-H形钢梁节点的特性,对粱翼缘板与柱段焊接组成的节点进行试验研究,分析截面形成方式、钢管成型焊缝位置、与平面受力正交方向上的梁翼缘板约束作用、梁翼缘板端部构造形式以及钢管与梁翼缘板几何参数对连接的力学性能的影响.试验设了3组11个试件,得到单调拉伸荷载作用下各试件的开裂荷载、极限荷载与各部分变形等力学指标.试验研究表明:冷成型钢管承载力和初始刚度较焊接组合截面试件有所提高;钢管成型焊缝的位置对节点受拉承载力及初始刚度没有影响;正交方向梁翼缘板的约束对节点初始刚度略有提高作用;梁翼缘板加宽的连接方式可以提高梁翼缘板的平均应力;影响节点受力性能的主要

  4. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  5. 基于生态服务价值和生态承载力的"两型社会"城市可持续发展能力分析%Sustainable Development Ability Analysis of ‘Two-Oriented Society' City Based on Ecosystem Service Value and Ecological Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲霞; 黄朝禧; 赵微

    2011-01-01

    Taking the‘two-oriented society', Wuhan City, as an example, this paper computes and analyzes its ecosystem service value and ecological carrying capacity during 2000-2008 using its land-use change data. On this basis, based on industrial stage of development theory, it synthetically judges and forecasts sustainable development of Wuhan City combing with relevant data. The results shows that: ①Ecosystem services value of 2000-2008 in Wuhan shows slowly increasing trend, from 47.965 billion Yuan in 2000 to 48.771 billion Yuan in 2008, increasing by 1.68%; and over the same period, ecological capacity declines from 3,955,300 hm2 in 2000 to 3,770,200 hm2 in 2008, decreasing by 4.68%.The key causes of which are due to weight difference of the same land types. The ecosystem service value per unit area in use currently is not considered the human factors are also an important factor. ②Economic development in Wuhan is still extensive, economic development is still in an unsustainable status. ③Wuhan should grasps good situation of both international and domestic, especially grasps opportunities of constructing Wuhan urban cluster to ‘Two-Oriented Society' by nation and the‘Strategy of Emerging Central China' to optimize and upgrade industrial structure, tries to realize the goal of a coordinated and sustained development of economy, society, resources and environment.%以"两型社会"城市-武汉市为例,利用其土地利用变化数据,对其2000-2008年生态服务价值和生态承载力进行计算和对比分析.并在此基础上运用工业化发展阶段等理论判断和预测武汉市社会经济发展的可持续性.结果表明:①武汉市2000-2008年生态服务价值缓慢递增,由2000年的479.65亿元增至2008年的487.71亿元,增加了1.68%;而同期生态承载力逐年下降,由2000年的395.53万hm降为2008年的377.02万hm,下降了4.68%.二者变化产生差异的主要原因是指标侧重点不同而对相同地类赋予权

  6. Application of space entity the unit model calculations in the testing of the carrying capacity of the stone arch bridge%空间实体单元模型计算在石拱桥承载能力检测试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴安杰

    2012-01-01

      Currently, domestic and international bridge design software is mostly beam element modeling. In recent years, the space grillage method is the more common.Beam elements for most of the beam bridge analysis relatively simple to apply, but the stone arch bridge analysis is not so ap-ply. Bridge calculation and analysis of the most concern is the the transverse stiffness size and load lateral distribution unit of space entity model can be used to solve this kind of problem. Testing of the carrying capacity of the stone arch bridge engineering background, space solid element modeling in detector design and application of static and dynamic load test calculations, analysis and comparison of the solid element modeling cal-culations,beam element modeling calculations as well as the results of the tests measured.%  目前,国内外桥梁计算设计软件大部分采用梁单元建模。近年来,空间梁格法应用较普遍。梁单元对于大部分梁桥分析比较简单适用,但对于石拱桥分析就不那么适用了。桥梁计算分析中最关注的是结构横向刚度大小和荷载横向分布的问题,空间实体单元模型能很好地解决这类问题。以石拱桥承载能力检测试验为工程背景,介绍了空间实体单元建模在检测方案设计和静、动载试验计算中的应用,并分析对比了实体单元建模计算结果、梁单元建模计算结果以及试验实测结果。

  7. 基于熵模型的城市水资源承载力研究——以开封市为例%Study on Water Resources Carrying Capacity of Urbanized Area Based on Entropy Model-A Case Study in Kaifeng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军凯; 李九发; 戴志军; 闫虹; 赵秉栋

    2009-01-01

    Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is an index, which reflects the supporting ability of the water resources system for sustainable socio-economic development. And it is the foundational measurement of water resources security, also it is a complex system which involves socio-economic system, water resources system and eco-environmental system. Therefore, through studying WRCC of urbanized area, not only the supporting functions for social development, resources, environment and harmonized developmental relationship among the population will be understood, but also the socio-economic sustainable development can be comprehended well. WRCC of Kaifeng city in the future years was analyzed by using the entropy model, which was combined by the grey system theory, the fuzzy theory and the theory of maximum entropy. Notablely, the water of the Yellow River was considered and the index of the ratio of using exterior reach water was selected in this essay. The results were shown as follows: Developing economy of Kaifeng under any scenario of forecasting projects in the year of 2010 and 2020 will have the WRCC level laid between grade 2 and 3, and it is more close to grade 2. And the serious problem of water shortage must be resolved by relevant authorities.%城市水资源承载力是水资源对城市社会经济发展规模支撑能力的表征,是城市水安全的基本度量,它是涉及社会经济系统、水资源系统和生态环境系统的一个衡量指标.论文利用灰色系统理论、模糊集理论和最大熵原理相结合的熵模型对开封市未来预测年份水资源承载力进行评价,特别考虑了半湿润地区开封城市主要利用黄河客水资源的特点,选取了客水利用率这一评价指标.研究结果表明,2010年和2020年开封市城市发展无论在哪种预测情景方案下的水资源承载力综合评价都处于2级与3级之间,并且距离2级很近,说明水资源的开发强度很高,继续开发利用的

  8. 九寨沟旅游陆地交通环境承载力及其调控模式研究初论%Preliminary study on carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 冯山; 刘延国

    2013-01-01

    carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou has a high theoretical and practical significance.

  9. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  10. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  11. Future Armoured Troop Carrying Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Balos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Present-day reliance on wheeled and tracked armour personnel carriers (APCs and infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs, may be changed in the future. Shaped charge grenades and impovised explosive devices (IEDsrepresent a considerable threat, even to well protected main battle tanks (MBTs. Paradoxically, the crew of wheeled and tracked troop-carrying vehicles is numerically three to four times larger than that of MBTs, however, their protection in all aspects is significantly lower. Therefore, heavier vehicles may get more attention in the future, where sharing the chassis and a number of components with MBTs could provide significant reductions in procurement costs and maintenance, as well as a simplified logistics in relation to the latest tracked. Obviously, the IFVs mobility of heavy vehicles would be lower than that of lighter vehicles. However, by applying various degrees of modular armour protection, a significant rise in strategic, operational, and tactical mobility could be achieved. Such heavy tracked vehicles, built on a common chassis as MBTs, may equip the future heavy brigades, which will be in contrast to the lighter wheeled vehicles included in rapid deployment brigades. As a result, tracked personnel carrying vehicles may extinct in the future.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.483-490, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.550

  12. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  13. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mann

    Full Text Available Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1 help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2 indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation between ecological and social factors and, (3 constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  14. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity Land-Based Layout to Mitigate Flood Risk (Case Study in Tempuran Floodplain, Ponorogo Regency) Novia Lusiana1 Bambang Rahadi2 Tunggul Sutanhaji3 1Environmental and Natural Resources Management Graduate Program University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia 23Laboratory of Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia Email : novialusiana@rocketmail.com, jbrahadi@ub.ac.id, tunggulsutanhaji@yahoo.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Floods haves frequently hit Indonesia and have had greater negative impacts. In Javaboth the area affected by flooding and the amount of damage caused by floods have increased. At least, five factors, affect the flooding in Indonesia, including rainfall, reduced retention capacity of the watershed, erroneous design of river channel development, silting-up of the river, and erroneous regional layout. The level of the disastrous risks can be evaluated based on the extent of the threat and susceptibility of a region. One methode for risk assessment is Geographical Information System (GIS)-based mapping. Objectives of this research are: 1) evaluating current flood risk in susceptible areas, 2) applying supported land-based layout as effort to mitigate floodrisk, and 3) evaluating floodrisk for the period 2031 in the Tempuran floodplain of Ponorogo Regency. Result show that the area categorized as high risk covers 104. 6 ha (1. 2%), moderate risk covers 2512. 9 ha (28. 4%), low risk covers 3140. 8 ha (35. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 3096. 1 (34. 9%). Using Regional Layout Design for the years 2011 - 2031, the high risk area covers 67. 9 ha (0.8%), moderate risk covers 3033 ha (34. 3%), low risk covers 2770. 8 ha (31, 3%), and the lowest risk covers 2982. 6 ha (34%). Based on supported land suitability, the high-risk areais only 2. 9 ha (0.1%), moderate risk covers of 426. 1 ha (4. 8%), low risk covers 4207. 4 ha (47. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 4218 ha (47. 6%). Flood risk can be mitigated by applying supported land-based layout as shown by the reduced high-risk area, and the fact that > 90% of the areas are categorized as low or lowest risk of disaster. Keywords : Carrying Capacity, Land Capacity, Flood Risk

  15. Specific Heat Capacity of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Radmanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

  16. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...... batch, along with inventory carrying costs. The production per period is limited by a capacity restriction. The underlying capacity must be purchased up front for the upcoming season and remains constant over the entire season. We assume that the capacity acquisition cost is smooth and convex. For this...

  17. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  18. Predicting the ecological carrying capacity of the Lidao artificial reef zone of Shandong Province for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, (Selenck) and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, using a linear food web model%基于线性食物网模型估算荣成俚岛人工鱼礁区刺参和皱纹盘鲍的生态容纳量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠鑫; 张秀梅; 张磊; 佟飞; 刘洪军

    2013-01-01

    The Lidao reef zone is a typical artificial reef ecosystem for rare marine animal stock enhancement in the coastal sea of North China. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck), and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, are the main enhancement species in the system. Based on the data of biological resources obtained from an investigation of the Lidao artificial reef zone in 2009, a balanced trophic model of the area was con-structed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software package. The effects of uncertainty of input parameters and Ecopath analysis sensitivity were explored. Trophic flow and system attributes of the Lidao artificial reef system were analyzed. The ecological carrying capacity for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were also predicted. The model consisted of 19 functional groups, which covered the main trophic flow in the Lidao artificial reef ecosys-tem. The results showed that the pedigree index of the model was 0.51, and the input parameters having the great-est effects on the output parameters were the production/biomass ratios (P/B) of small demersal fish groups. A–50% change in the production/biomass ratios in small demersal fish groups gave a sensitivity of the biomass (B) of the same group from 100% to 136%. The total system throughput was estimated to be 10 786.680 t/(km2·a), 27% of which flowed to detritus and 17% of which is tranferred out of the ecosystem in the forms of fishing and sediment. Total net primary production was 4131.966 t/(km2·a) and the total energy transfer efficiency was 10.5%. The proportion of the total flow originating from detritus was 39%, and that from primary producers was 61%, indicating that the energy flow was dominated by grazing food chain. The ecological carrying capacity was de-fined as the level of enhancement that could be introduced without significantly changing the major trophic fluxes or structure of the food web. The ecological carrying capacities for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were

  19. The carryng capacity of ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Del Monte Luna, Pablo; Brooks, Barry W.; Zetina Rejón, Manuel Jesús; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the concept of carrying capacity (CC), from populations to the biosphere, and offer a definition suitable for any level. For communities and ecosystems, the CC evokes density-dependence assumptions analogous to those of population dynamics. At the biosphere level, human CC is uncertain and dynamic, leading to apprehensive rather than practical conclusions. The term CC is widely used among ecological disciplines but remains vague and elusive. We propose the following definition: the...

  20. Influence of local carrying capacity restrictions on stochastic predator-prey models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenberger, Mark J [Department of Physics and Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States); Mobilia, Mauro [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for NanoScience, Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Taeuber, Uwe C [Department of Physics and Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-02-14

    We study a stochastic lattice predator-prey system by means of Monte Carlo simulations that do not impose any restrictions on the number of particles per site, and discuss the similarities and differences of our results with those obtained for site-restricted model variants. In accord with the classic Lotka-Volterra mean-field description, both species always coexist in two dimensions. Yet competing activity fronts generate complex, correlated spatio-temporal structures. As a consequence, finite systems display transient erratic population oscillations with characteristic frequencies that are renormalized by fluctuations. For large reaction rates, when the processes are rendered more local, these oscillations are suppressed. In contrast with the site-restricted predator-prey model, we also observe species coexistence in one dimension. In addition, we report results on the steady-state prey age distribution.

  1. The Experimental Study of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Different Types of Bars Carrying Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Benin Andrey; Semenov Sergey; Ekaterina Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study on concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) bars are presented and compared with steel reinforced concrete beams and beams reinforced with steel and GFRP bars together. Three series of reinforced beams were tested in the flexure. The experimental data are showed that possible area in which GFRP bar possesses potential to employ is secondary reinforcement in concrete structures.

  2. The carrying capacity of a tourist destination. The case of a coastal Italian city

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, Elena; Fredella, Franco Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades the world tourist flows rapidly grew and travel and tourism has become one of the world’s highest priority industries and employers. According to UNWTO world tourism barometer, in 2008 international tourist arrivals reached 919 million (880 million in 2009, a cause of the international recession), with a growth of 72% since 1995. Italy, which accounts in 2009 43 millions of tourist arrivals, is one of the most preferred destinations. Tourism gives an important contribu...

  3. Rationing Preferences and Spending Behavior of Visitors to a Scarce Recreational Resource with Limited Carrying Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Efthalia Dimara; Dimitris Skuras

    1998-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the factors influencing the preference of a visitor over three rationing systems. The First-Come-First-Served system is preferred by young, short-distance visitors. A Variable Admission Fee system is preferred by visitors of a high household disposable income, small-sized family, and a lower educational level. An Advanced Reservation system is a risk averse strategy preferred by long-distance visitors, of high educational level, planning to visit many place...

  4. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment of the...

  5. A reduced genome decreases the host carrying capacity for foreign DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Akeno, Yuya; Ying, Bei-Wen; Tsuru, Saburo; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Background Host-plasmid interactions have been discussed largely in terms of the influences of plasmids, whereas the contributions of variations in host genomes to host interactions with foreign DNA remain unclear. A strain with a so-called “clean genome” (i.e., MDS42) of reduced genome size has recently been generated from the wild-type strain MG1655, a commonly used host strain. A quantitative evaluation of the influence of plasmid burdens in these two Escherichia coli strains can not only ...

  6. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la velocidad de propagación de ultrasonidos con un límite de 4.900 m/s. En este caso la clase resistente alcanzada sería FI6/E10/D380

  7. Beach Carrying Capacity Analysis for Sustainable Tourism Development in the South West Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Rajan; Vincy Mary Varghese; Anakkathil Purushothaman Pradeepkumar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of coastal tourism that has been seen in the last 10 years is frequently described as one of the major reasons for the development of these areas and also is responsible for many current coastal problems. The beaches perform, in this context, a fundamental role, where the issues related to planning and management are increasingly more important when it comes to an implementation of a sustainable development philosophy. In Kerala, where coastal tourism plays a major part of th...

  8. Nautical Tourism, Carrying Capacity and Environmental Externality in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, Francesco; Ghinoi, Stefano; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Tourism and environmental preservation are often conflicting activities, mainly in areas such as coastal lagoons, where seaside mass-tourism comes into contact with a very sensitive ecological system. In this paper we deal with a classical problem of both environmental and tourism economics, the internalization of environmental costs of tourism, focusing on the nautical fruition of the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (North-Eastern Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia Region). Using different instruments,...

  9. Load carrying capacity of large mortise and tenon joints in wooden mitre gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Otterloo, J.; Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; De Vries, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wooden mitre gates are used for centuries in waterways and canals. For newly built as well as the renewal of such gates, a number of wood species is used, ranging from oak to dense tropical hardwoods. As mitre gates have high loads to withstand, their strength verification has become more and more i

  10. Regional food security in south-central Appalachia: Connecting diet, land requirement, and agricultural carrying capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Margaret Blair

    2014-01-01

    Local communities and regional networks are currently exploring the strategy of developing local and regional food systems in order to enhance food security. The relationship between food consumption and production must be tested at various scales and across geographies in order to describe how place-based diets influence agricultural land use and the degree to which a discrete agricultural land base can feed a population. This thesis used two models to integrate data from across the agricu...

  11. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Rule On December 4, 2007 (72 FR 68442) (Docket No. NHTSA-2007-0040), NHTSA published a final rule that... problems can be found in the August 31, 2005 notice of proposed rulemaking (70 FR 51707, 51708) (Docket No.... The preamble to the final rule (at 72 FR 68456) stated: * * * we are requiring that the stated...

  12. Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.

  13. Sister Carrie:A Material Pursuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春花

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie dramatized by Dreiser is totally a material pursuer. She is selfish and accumulates money in a crazy way. What she does inevitably centers on materials. Living with Drouet and later Hurstwood, Carrie gets what she wants and enjoys the luxurious life in an easy way. However, with the satisfaction of some of her desires, Carrie ’s desires grow and expand. With enough food and clothes, she needs luxury. Hurstwood’s failure in business leads Carrie to the stage and finally she makes a suc⁃cess and becomes a famous actress in Broadway. She gets more money, but her desires grow even higher. Nothing can satisfy her. In this essay, the author tries to analyze Carrie according to Freud’s and Guo Weilu’s theories and prove that Carrie is totally a material pursuer.

  14. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  15. Comments on the image of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2016-01-01

    Thedore Oreiser was one of America's greatest writers and one of his famous masterpieces is Sister Carrie. the heroin of the novel was a country girl who struggled for success and finally became a movie star. Analysis on the image of Carrie is of practical significance to the country girls swarming into the city nowdays in our country.

  16. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian; Branner, Kim

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively....... For a single skin design, buckling is critical compared to other design criterions. By introducing sandwich, a significant weight reduction and increased buckling capacity is obtained. Tower clearance now becomes critical. Proper choice of core material and thickness is important to prevent face...

  17. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  18. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  19. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  20. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  1. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  2. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  3. Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden Stress, finances may boost cardiovascular risks for U.S. mothers, study ... the June 16 online edition of the American Journal of Public Health . SOURCES: Frank van Lenthe, Ph. ...

  4. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2015-01-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  5. Carry Trades, Monetary Policy and Speculative Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Plantin, Guillaume; Shin, Hyun Song

    2011-01-01

    We ask when currency carry trades are associated with destabilizing dynamics in the foreign exchange market, and investigate the role of monetary policy rules in setting of such dynamics. In a model where the exchange rate has a long-term fundamental anchor, we find that carry trades can be stabilizing or destabilizing at shorter horizons, depending on the propensity of capital inflows to overheat the recipient economy. In the destabilizing case, we solve for a unique equilibrium that exhibit...

  6. A Naturalistic Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈月

    2016-01-01

    Sister Carrie is well known as the works in which naturalism attained maturity in America. Up until now, the relevant research on Dreiser and his Sister Carrie abroad and at home is primarily concerned with the frustration of American dream, the naturalistic thoughts and pessimism. The paper attempts to study it from naturalistic point of view and explain how environmental, hereditary factors and the idea of“survival of the fittest”influence Carrie’s fate.

  7. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  8. Optical information capacity of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...

  9. Slot spray cooler of great capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information concerning the design of slot spray cooler of great capacity is presented. The essence of their design is the refusal from traditional slot devices used for liquid spraying. In the given case the spraying is carried out through special slot orifices made up on the surface of distributing pipelines. This permits to decrease the metal capacity and cost of spray cooler, to facilitate its servicing and also to increase the effectiveness of water cooling

  10. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply. Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city. She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  11. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures of...

  12. Managing the market risk in pipeline capacity positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing the risk involved in adding new pipeline capacity was explored in this presentation. Topics discussed included: (1) pipeline capacity positions as basis swaps, (2) physical capacity versus basis transactions, (3) managing the market price risk in a capacity position, and (4) sharing of pipeline market risk. Pipeline owners were advised to recognize that pipeline capacity carries significant market price risk, that basis markets can sometimes be more volatile than outright markets, and to treat physical capacity market risk the same way as one would treat a financial basis position. 2 figs

  13. Post-earthquake Traffic Capacity of Modern Bridges in California

    OpenAIRE

    Terzic, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the post-earthquake capacity of a bridge to carry self-weight and traffic loads is essential for a safe and timely re-opening of the bridge after an earthquake. Although modern highway bridges in California designed using the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria are expected to maintain at minimum a gravity load-carrying capacity during both frequent and extreme seismic events, as of now, there are no validated, quantitative guidelines for estimating the remaining load carrying capa...

  14. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....

  15. Nuclear Capacity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose nuclear capacity auctions as a means to improve the incentives for investing in nuclear power. A properly designed auction would (i) allocate the license to the most efficient bidder; (ii) sell the license if and only if new nuclear power was socially optimal. In particular, capacity auctions open the market for large-scale entry by outside firms. Requiring licensees to sell a share of capacity as virtual power plant contracts increases auction efficiency by softening incumbent pro...

  16. Column buckling of magnetically affected stocky nanowires carrying electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-08-01

    Axial load-bearing capacity of current carrying nanowires (CCNWs) acted upon by a longitudinal magnetic field is of high interest. By adopting Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity theory, the governing equations of the nanostructure are constructed based on the Timoshenko and higher-order beam models. To solve these equations for critical compressive load, a meshfree approach is exploited and the weak formulations for the proposed models are obtained. The predicted buckling loads are compared with those of assume mode method and a remarkable confirmation is reported. The role of influential factors on buckling load of the nanostructure is carefully addressed and discussed. The obtained results reveal that the surface energy effect becomes important in buckling behavior of slender CCNWs, particularly for high electric currents and magnetic field strengths. For higher electric currents, relative discrepancies between the results of Timoshenko and higher-order beam models increase with a higher rate as the slenderness ratio magnifies. A magnetically affected current-carrying nanowire acted upon by an axial force. Axial buckling of stocky current-carrying nanowires in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field is of particular interest. Using Timoshenko and higher-order beam theories accounting for surface energy effect, the governing equations are derived and a meshfree methodology is applied to evaluate the buckling load.

  17. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  18. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  19. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  20. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  1. A decimal carry-free adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  2. Biofouling control using microparticles carrying a biocide

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, C.; Rosmaninho, R; Simoes, M.; Pereira, MC; Bastos, MMSM; Nunes, OC; Coelho, M; Melo, LF

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new technological approach to minimize the use of antimicrobial (AMB) agents and their deleterious effects, based on the principle of drug-delivery systems whereby the AMB chemicals are transported on microparticles. The efficacy of microparticles carrying the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC), was assessed against Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and the biofilm state. The microparticles were prepared usin...

  3. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  4. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growt...

  5. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  6. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  7. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  8. Nickel hydrogen capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goualard, Jacques; Paugam, D.; Borthomieu, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of tests to assess capacity loss in nickel hydrogen cells are presented in outline form. The effects of long storage (greater than 1 month), high hydrogen pressure storage, high cobalt content, and recovery actions are addressed.

  9. Capacities in function theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since the famous thesis of Frostman, capacities have been important in many areas of function theory. In this talk I shall be concerned only with one–variable function theory on arbitrary open subsets of the complex plane, C. It is important to stress that the open sets need not be connected. I will discuss the use of analytic capacities in connection with problems of removable singularities, holomorphic approximation, and boundary smoothness. A brief reference to the applications ...

  10. Polymer microspheres carrying fluorescent DNA probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Xu, Shichao; Wu, Chunrong; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    A polymer microspheres carried DNA probe, which was based on resonance energy transfer, was presented in this paper when CdTe quantum dots(QDs) were as energy donors, Au nanoparticles were as energy accepters and poly(4- vinylpyrindine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) microspheres were as carriers. Polymer microspheres with functional group on surfaces were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization when ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was as crosslinker in acetonitrile. CdTe QDs were prepared when 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA) was as the stabilizer in aqueous solution. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the carboxyl groups of MPA on QDs and the pyrindine groups on the microspheres, the QDs were self-assembled onto the surfaces of microspheres. Then, the other parts of DNA probe were finished according to the classic method. The DNA detection results indicated that this novel fluorescent DNA probe system could recognize the existence of complementary target DNA or not.

  11. Colliding particles carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, using Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies was suggested. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted particles in the initial and/or final state. In order to avoid additional complications arising from nontrivial polarization states, we focus here on scalar fields only. We show that processes involving twisted particles allow one to perform a Fourier analysis of the plane-wave cross section with respect to the azimuthal angles of the initial particles. In addition, using twisted states, one can probe the autocorrelation function of the amplitude, which is inaccessible in the plane-wave collisions. Finally, we discuss prospects for experimental study of these effects.

  12. Colliding particles carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2011-05-01

    Photons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, using Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies was suggested. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted particles in the initial and/or final state. In order to avoid additional complications arising from nontrivial polarization states, we focus here on scalar fields only. We show that processes involving twisted particles allow one to perform a Fourier analysis of the plane-wave cross section with respect to the azimuthal angles of the initial particles. In addition, using twisted states, one can probe the autocorrelation function of the amplitude, which is inaccessible in the plane-wave collisions. Finally, we discuss prospects for experimental study of these effects.

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  14. Adaptive Capacity and Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Brock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources to solve problems. In the model, too little control impedes the focus needed for adaptation. Fluctuations of internal demand or external shocks generate pulses of adaptive capacity, which may gain traction and pull the system out of the poverty trap. The model suggests some general properties of traps in social–ecological systems. It is general and flexible, so it can be used as a building block in more specific and detailed models of adaptive capacity for a particular region.

  15. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  16. On the design of reconfigurable ripple carry adders and carry save multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yi-Feng

    1992-01-01

    The fault location and reconfigurable designs of Ripple Carry (RC) adders and Carry Save (CS) multipliers are studied in this thesis. The proposed designs can locate a faulty cell and reconfigure the faulty array to tolerate the faulty cell. Laser programming technique is used for fault location and reconfiguration. The key idea employed in the proposed methods is to perform diagnosis and reconfiguration at the same time. Appropriate fuses are programmed to locate a faulty cell...

  17. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Testability Synthesis for Jumping Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-In Henry Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis for testability ensures that the synthesized circuit is testable by exploring the fundamental relationship between don't care and redundancy. With the exploration of the relationship, redundancy removal can be applied to improve the testability, reduce the area and improve the speed of a synthesized circuit. The test generation problems have been adequately solved, therefore an innovative testability synthesis strategy is necessary for achieving the maximum fault coverage and area reduction for maximum speed. This paper presents a testability synthesis methodology applicable to a top–down design method based on the identification and removal of redundant faults. Emphasis has been placed on the testability synthesis of a high-speed binary jumping carry adder. A synthesized 32-bit testable adder implemented by a 1.2 μm CMOS technology performs addition in 4.09 ns. Comparing with the original synthesized circuit, redundancy removal yields a 100% testable design with a 15% improvement in speed and a 25% reduction in area.

  19. Naturalism in Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪四祥

    2009-01-01

    "A woman should some day write the complete philosophy of clothes.No matter how young,it is one of the things she wholly comprehends.There is an indescribably faint line in the matter of man's apparel which somehow divides for her those who arc worth glancing at and those who are not.Once an individual has passed this faint line on the way downward he will get no glance from her.There is another line at which the dress of a man will cause her to study her own."-from Sister Carrie(900-film 1952,dir.by William Wyler,starring Laurence Olivier-Jennifer Jones."A famous satirical novel is softened into an unwieldy narrative with scarcely enough dramatic power to sustain interest despite splendid production values.Heavy pre-release cuts remain obvious,and the general effect is depressing;but it it very good tO look at."(Halliwell's Film Guide,1987)

  20. Damping Capacity of Hypo-Eutectic Zn-Al Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kurosawa; Otani, T.; Hoshino, K

    1996-01-01

    Damping capacity of hypo-eutectic Zn-Al alloys as a function of rolling ratio is investigated. Effect of heat treatment after cold rolling on the damping capacity is discussed. Damping tests were carried out using the method of the free decay of vibrations in bending oscillation. With an increase in rolling reduction, the damping capacity was increased. As the results of tensile and hardness testing show, the elongation was increased and hardness was decreased with an increase in rolling redu...

  1. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  2. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  3. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  4. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  5. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...... processes, with emphasis on exploitative learning. Before concluding, the paper addresses implications for theory and practice and limitations of this study....

  6. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  7. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Zehmisch, Kai; Ziltener, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Comment: We include generalizations to higher dimensions due to the unknown referee and Janko Latschev. We add examples of open sets with connected boundary on which the shell capacity is not continuous. 3rd and 4th version: minor changes, to appear in J. Fixed Point Theory Appl

  8. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity, and...

  9. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  10. Efficient Approaches for Designing Fault Tolerant Reversible Carry Look-Ahead and Carry-Skip Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Combinational or Classical logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit implements only the functions having one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors and therefore naturally takes care of heating. Reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing fault tolerant reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed high speed reversible adders include MIG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The MIG gate is universal and parity preserving. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs...

  11. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...

  12. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Function, Impairment, and Disability are words in which many physicians have little interest. Most physicians are trained to deal with structure and physiology and not function and disability. The purpose of this article is to address some of the common questions that many physicians have with the use of functional capacity evaluation and disability and also to provide a unifying model that can explain the medical and societal variables in predicting disability. We will first define the funct...

  13. Firefighters' physical work capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to identify valid, simple, and inexpensive physical tests that can be used for evaluation of firefighters’ physical work capacity. Paper I included fulltime- and part-time firefighters (n = 193), aged 20-60 years. Perceived physical demands of firefighting work tasks were ranked, and comparisons between subject groups rating were done with the Mann Whitney U-test and Binominal test. Papers II and III included male firefighters and civilian men and women (n =...

  14. Assimilative Capacity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2008-01-01

    Assimilative capacity is the ability of natural systems to assimilate humankind's wastes. Wastes (output) of some species in natural systems are the resources (input) of other species. Before the Industrial Revolution, this concept of input and output held true for human activity, but industrialization created wastes that were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of natural systems. The unique nature of some persistent wastes that accumulate in organisms over long periods of ...

  15. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  16. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  17. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch

  18. Capacity Utilization and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fagnart, J.F.; Licandro, O.; Sneessens, Henri

    1997-01-01

    In a monopolistic competition framework, we propose a dynamic model in which capacity underutilization is a macroeconomic equilibrium feature relying on a diversity of microeconomic situations. Capacity underutilization follows from microeconomic uncertainty at the time firms must decide on their productive capacity. We settle a relationship between capacity utilization and markups via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power. We show that such a relationship inf...

  19. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  20. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  1. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  2. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  3. Capacities of Grassmann channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bradler, Kamil; Jauregui, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A new class of quantum channels called Grassmann channels is introduced and their classical and quantum capacity is calculated. The channel class appears in a study of the two-mode squeezing operator constructed from operators satisfying the fermionic algebra. We compare Grassmann channels with the channels induced by the bosonic two-mode squeezing operator. Among other results, we challenge the relevance of calculating entanglement measures to assess or compare the ability of bosonic and fermionic states to send quantum information to uniformly accelerated frames.

  4. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is...... changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  5. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  6. Airport Capacity Forecast : Short-term forecasting of runway capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Henk; Nibourg, Joyce; D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience Airports expect major benefits from increasing predictability of the operation. This paper will investigate the use of forecast information to determine forecast airport capacity, which will allow airport stakeholders to optimize the use of their resources. The focus will be on forecasting runway capacity, at most airports the major factor for the overall airport capacity. The possibility to model forecast runway capacity, based on probabilistic inputs, will be inves...

  7. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  8. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  9. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...

  10. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within a...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  11. Capacities on a finite lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Motoya

    2011-01-01

    In his influential work Choquet systematically studied capacities on Boolean algebras in a topological space, and gave a probabilistic interpretation for completely monotone (and completely alternating) capacities. Beyond complete monotonicity we can view a capacity as a marginal condition for probability distribution over the distributive lattice of dual order ideals. In this paper we discuss a combinatorial approach when capacities are defined over a finite lattice, and investigate Fr\\'{e}c...

  12. Estuarine chinook capacity - Estimating changes in juvenile Chinook rearing area and carrying capacity in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project has two objectives: 1. Estimate the amount of rearing habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon currently and historically (i.e., ~1850s) throughout...

  13. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  14. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can eith

  15. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... certification label specified in 49 CFR part 567. Additionally, each trailer must on its placard contain a cargo... safety standards. (d) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the rim by name, trademark,...

  16. Investigations on the current-carrying capacity and the current distribution of superconducting coplanar waveguides with different strip widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowing about the breakdown characteristics of superconducting waveguides it would be possible to predict the critical current with sufficient accuracy. This is of eminent importance for the calculation of the maximum possible quality factor and output power of resonators, oscillators and other passive devices. Therefore, the critical current of superconducting coplanar waveguides, structured by wet etching of YBCO thin films on LAlO3, has been measured for different center strip widths. Based on these measured data, different models for the current distribution and the breakdown mechanisms of the striplines have been examined. (orig.)

  17. 赣州市土地承载力研究%Research on Land Carrying Capacity in Ganzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月娥; 郭志忠

    2012-01-01

    The land use structure of 2020 Rongchang County was optimized by using the linear programming model, with the consideration of social, economic and ecological three comprehensive benefits and all database was based on the second national land survey database of Rongchang County of Chongqing. The optimal results showed that: the cultivated land area reasonably reduced and met the demand for food and social economic development needs of Rongchang County; The land area of agricultural facilities, ecology and infrastructure increased, which is conducive to the development of special industries and promotes social economic development and ecological environment construction ; The internal structure of rural and urban construction land use reasonably increased or decreased, and the land use intensive degrees significantly improved; The area of unused land reduced 29.70 hm2, and the efficiency level of land use obviously improved.%根据赣州市社会发展情况、土地利用现状,确定赣州市主要食品消费量,然后将各类食品根据其所合营养成份转化为蛋白质、脂肪和热量.采用灰色GM(1,1)模型、线性回归模型,对赣州市蛋白质、脂肪、热量需求以及人口进行预测,根据预测结果分析得出土地承载力研究结论.

  18. Evaluation of the load-carrying capacity of hard coatings deposited onto a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the effect of the thickness of an electroless NiP load-support interlayer coating, on the initiation and development of plastic deformation in a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy substrate coated with a duplex coatings has been investigated. The duplex system has been obtained by means of the deposition of an electroless Ni-11 wt.% P (EN) onto the aluminium alloy substrate, followed by the deposition of a ZrN film (PVD) on top of the EN coating. The duplex systems that were investigated involved two different EN deposits, with thicknesses of 30 and 60 mm, respectively. The coatings were characterized regarding their morphology, thickness and absolute hardness. Indentation tests with spherical ind enters were performed employing 6 mm diameter WC-6Co balls and normal loads of 10,15, 25,50 and 75 N. All the indentations were modeled by means of the Elastic 2.1. code, in order to determine the through-thickness von Misses effective stress profile of the samples and the critical load for the initiation of the plastic deformation of the aluminium alloy substrate. the experimental results have been validate by means of such a theoretical analysis. it has been determined that the duplex system with an EN interlayer of 30 mm does not constitute a satisfactory load-support interlayer, for the load values employed in the tests. However, for the coated system with an EN interlayer of 60 mm, the critical load for the initiation of plastic deformation in the aluminium alloy substrate was found to be∼16N, which indicates that such a load-support interlayer avoids the plastic deformation of the substrate at normal loads less than ∼ 15 N. (Author) 21 refs

  19. Development of a Web-based land evaluation system and its application to population carrying capacity assessment using .Net technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Liming; Van Ranst, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The multi-disciplinary approach used in this study combines the state-of-the-art IT technology with an elaborated land evaluation methodology and results in a Web-based land evaluation system (WLES). The WLES is designed in such a way that the system operates both as a Web Application and as a Web Service. Implemented on top of the .NET platform, the WLES has a loosely coupled multi-layer structure which seamlessly integrates the domain knowledge of land evaluation and the soil database. The ...

  20. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was coconut and palm oil. Confectionery had the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar services. Overall, real estate gained the highest real benefit, while repair not classified elsewhere had the lowest real benefit for the company. If Thailand uses an indicator of environmental harm, especially within the food manufacturing sector, it could help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in three areas of development, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  1. Predicting Endurance Time in a Repetitive Lift and Carry Task Using Linear Mixed Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Beck

    Full Text Available Repetitive manual handling tasks account for a substantial portion of work-related injuries. However, few studies report endurance time in repetitive manual handling tasks. Consequently, there is little guidance to inform expected work time for repetitive manual handling tasks. We aimed to investigate endurance time and oxygen consumption of a repetitive lift and carry task using linear mixed models.Fourteen male soldiers (age 22.4 ± 4.5 yrs, height 1.78 ± 0.04 m, body mass 76.3 ± 10.1 kg conducted four assessment sessions that consisted of one maximal box lifting session and three lift and carry sessions. The relationships between carry mass (range 17.5-37.5 kg and the duration of carry, and carry mass and oxygen consumption, were assessed using linear mixed models with random effects to account for between-subject variation.Results demonstrated that endurance time was inversely associated with carry mass (R2 = 0.24, with significant individual-level variation (R2 = 0.85. Normalising carry mass to performance in a maximal box lifting test improved the prediction of endurance time (R2 = 0.40. Oxygen consumption presented relative to total mass (body mass, external load and carried mass was not significantly related to lift and carry mass (β1 = 0.16, SE = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.04, 0.36, p = 0.12, indicating that there was no change in oxygen consumption relative to total mass with increasing lift and carry mass.Practically, these data can be used to guide work-rest schedules and provide insight into methods assessing the physical capacity of workers conducting repetitive manual handling tasks.

  2. Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important components of river mechanics,sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many researchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow,an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional,steady,uniform,fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data,which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium,in combination with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hyperconcentrated flow,the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated,and a new formula of sediment transport capacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River,Wuding River,and Yangtze River,etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for management of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.

  3. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  4. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel and...... unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  5. Heat Capacity and Thermodynamic Properties of Myclobutanil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓红; 刘源发; 谭志诚; 贾婴琦; 王美涵; 邸友莹

    2005-01-01

    The low-temperature heat capacities of myclobutanil (C15H17CIN4) were precisely measured with an automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 368 K. The sample was observed to melt at (348.800+0.06) K. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the melting as well as the chemical purity of the substance were determined to be △fusHm=(30931±11) J·mol-1, △fusSm=(88.47±0.02) J·mol-1·K-1 and 99.41%, respectively. Further research of the melting process for this compound was carried out by means of DSC technique. The result was in agreement with that obtained from the measurements of heat capacities.

  6. [Study on RBC Oxygen-Carrying Function with the Incubation Time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Huang, Yuan-yuan; Su, Bao-chang; Shi, Yun-feng; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Xun-da

    2015-12-01

    The cycle of Hemoglobin oxygenation and deoxidation plays an important role in driving structure and regulating function of red blood cell in vivo, has attracted wide attention. But it has not yet been reported about any studies on the oxygen-carrying function of individual living RBC in vitro with the incubation time. This study involved that using confocal Raman scanning microscopic technique, collecting the Raman spectra of living erythrocyte cultured in vitro at different time, analysing the peaks (1636, 1562 cm⁻¹) with characterization of hemoglobin oxygen carrying capacity and the amide III band (1240-1300 cm⁻¹) with sensitivity to conformation for understanding those changes both of hemoglobin oxygen carrying capacity and protein conformation over time. Meanwhile, its corresponding surface micromorphology was observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the during 24 h hemoglobin with stable structure and normal allosteric collaborative function occurred alternately with the oxygen uptake of increase and decrease and conformation K state and T state, while double concave disk red blood cells observed under SEM also alternately between stretch and shrink. The conclusion not only provides a multi-level characteristic parameter from a single living cell for the study of RBC oxygen-carrying function in vitro, but also the potential research ideas for the screening of the active component, the evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity for RBC in vitro. PMID:26964208

  7. Predicting stretcher carriage: Investigating variations in bilateral carry tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N

    2016-07-01

    Carrying a casualty on a stretcher is a critical task within military and emergency service occupations. This study evaluated the impact of manipulating carry speed and the object type in bilateral carries on the ability to predict performance and reflect the physical and physiological requirements of a unilateral stretcher carry. We demonstrated that three task-related predictive tests; a jerry can carry performed at 4.5 km h(-1)or 5.0 km h(-1) and a kettle-bell carry performed at 5.0 km h(-1) were strongly predictive of the physical and physiological demands of an individual participating as part of a four-person stretcher carry team. Therefore, bilateral predictive assessments have the utility for predicting the suitability of employees to effectively and safely conduct a four-person unilateral stretcher carry. PMID:26995042

  8. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each...

  11. Interpretations of the Image of Caroline in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱绘

    2014-01-01

    In the history of American naturalistic literature, Sister Carrie is a representative work of this literary genre. And the protagonist of this novel Caroline has always been a controversial character. Based on Sister Carrie and the social background of that period in America, this paper discussed the various interpretations of the image of Carrie from different aspects.

  12. Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common believe, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires to take various actions, ranging from a daily basis to a multi-annual prospective standpoint. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary. The coordination systems implemented by EDF aim to control these parameters for the benefit of electricity consumers. (author)

  13. Theory Analysis and Experiment Research of the Leg Mechanism for the Human-Carrying Walking Chair Robot

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    For the high carrying capacity of the human-carrying walking chair robot, in this paper, 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is selected as the leg mechanism; then kinematics, workspace, control, and experiment of the leg mechanism are researched in detail. Firstly, design of the whole mechanism is described and degrees of freedom of the leg mechanism are analyzed. Second, the forward position, inverse position, and velocity of leg mechanism are studied. Third, based on the kinematics analysis and th...

  14. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  15. Institutional capacity and climate actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the concept and substance of country-level institutional capacity in the context of future climate-related actions. The main thrust of the paper is that an institutional approach, based on capacity assessments, could provide useful insights, both at national and international levels, on the appropriate next steps for climate actions. Thus, the paper proposes a generic assessment of institutional capacity, with the aim to help develop a common understanding across countries of what institutional capacity actually is and what institutional capacity would be required for various forms of future actions. However, the paper fully acknowledges that country-level institutional capacity assessments are essentially country-specific and need to be undertaken in a national context. Some national case studies have been prepared together with this paper to emphasise the country-specific aspect of this debate. To be sure, current capacities are not the only factor in deciding on future policy options. First, governments need not have all the capacity in place before taking steps to combat climate change. It may well be that, within the next decades, countries will be able to increase their capacity, either through their own means or with assistance from the international community. Second, to some degree, and in some instances, the adoption of a commitment - either domestic or international - may act as a driver for capacity building. This was the case for some industrialized and transitioning countries, whose commitments in Kyoto have provided an impetus for the development of the capacity needed to implement and adhere to them. Finally, institutional capacity needs are only one key consideration when assessing future climate policy options. Other considerations when evaluating different forms of future actions include environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, the need to deal with economic and scientific uncertainties, and other domestic policy

  16. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xishu; Zuidwijk, Rob; Koster, René; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can either choose to plan its investments proactively, taking into account possible responses from the other firm, or decide to respond reactively to the competition. In both cases, the optimal decision at...

  17. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  18. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  19. Information capacity of quantum observable

    CERN Document Server

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  20. Information capacity of quantum observable

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give simple examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C

  1. The Disillusion of American Dream in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    Dreiser is a generally acknowledged writer as one of American's literary naturalists. In Sister Carrie, the author skillfully used the naturalistic writing style which incisively and vividly showed the society environment at that time. The paper states the process that how the American dream in Sister Carrie disillusioned gradually.

  2. Synthesis of oligonucleotide conjugates carrying viologen and fluorescent compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira, Margarita; Quinn, Susan J.; Aviñó, Anna; Fitzmaurice, Donald; Eritja Casadellà, Ramón

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of oligonucleotide conjugates carrying viologen and fluorescein is described. Reaction of the appropriate carboxyl derivatives with oligonucleotides carrying aliphatic amino groups gave the desired compounds. A simple method for the introduction of the amino group at the 5'-end of the oligonucleotides is reported.

  3. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying among Cocktail Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Megan D.; Wilder, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received…

  4. 14 CFR 91.869 - Carry-forward compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carry-forward compliance. 91.869 Section 91.869 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED....869 Carry-forward compliance. (a) Any operator that exceeds the requirements of paragraph (b) of §...

  5. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This report presents the results of work carried out by Aalborg Univesity for NGI related to the effects of ageing on the axial capacity of piles in clay and sand. The document is the fourth of four notes regarding the subject and it includes a recommended approach to account for ageing effects f...

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of hemoglobin and gold nanoparticles for enhancing the ability of oxygen carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Sun, Qiaoling; Cai, Meng; Zhou, Jiajing; Dong, Zenglin; Bao, Ning; Gu, Haiying; He, Hong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports layer-by-layer films fabricated with hemoglobin (Hb) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as well as their applications in carrying oxygen. The characterization of {Hb/AuNPs}n multilayer films at different layers revealed that the formation of films was step-by-step. Meanwhile, the study showed that the {Hb/AuNPs}n modified glass carbon electrode can maintain the biological activity of Hb. The capacity of carrying oxygen was associated with the number of assembled layers. The {Hb/AuNPs}3 multilayer films displayed a good storing and releasing ability of oxygen. The study can provide an alternative method for construction of hemoglobin function interface with high-efficiency oxygen carrying capacity.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  8. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  9. Affine transformations and analytic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Thomas; O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic capacities are set functions defined on the plane which may be used in the study of removable singularities, boundary smoothness and approximation of analytic functions belonging to some function space. The symmetric concrete Banach spaces form a class of function spaces that include most spaces usually studied. The Beurling transform is a certain singular integral operator that has proved useful in analytic function theory. It is shown that the analytic capacity associated to ...

  10. Carrying Network Accessing Architecture and Strategy Based on Business Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abilities of real-time sensing and information sharing, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has been applied in more and more fields. Basing on the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT, the issue about heterogeneous network integration is becoming more important. We first analyze the new businesses that arise recently for cell phone users as well as the potential effect on carrying network. After that we mainly discuss the influence on traditional carrying network for WSN accessing and taking concurrent businesses as the study case, common access architecture from WSN to carrying network is constructed, which makes use of business differentiation. Furthermore, we propose the idea of tortuous access from WSN to the gateway in the carrying network to avoid congested paths with simulation and verification. Finally, we conclude the possible impacts for the integration of these two networks and present possible solutions.

  11. 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160740.html 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida A first for continental U.S.; 95 other tested mosquitoes Zika-free, officials say To use the sharing features ...

  12. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products come with claims that they can prevent MRSA infections. Don't believe them. These statements are ...

  13. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O' Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  14. Do waves carrying orbital angular momentum possess azimuthal linear momentum?

    OpenAIRE

    Speirits, Fiona C.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    All beams are a superposition of plane waves, which carry linear momentum in the direction of propagation with no net azimuthal component. However, plane waves incident on a hologram can produce a vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum that seems to require an azimuthal linear momentum, which presents a paradox. We resolve this by showing that the azimuthal momentum is not a true linear momentum but the azimuthal momentum density is a true component of the linear momentum density.

  15. Getting Started With Research "Carrying Out Your Research Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the considerations and practical aspects of carrying out a research project which may be of use to those beginning their research career or simply carrying out a research project for the first time as part of an academic qualification. It outlines practical steps for consideration in the day to day management of a research project and highlights areas which require particular consideration for a project to be completed successfully.

  16. Parallel Optimization of a Reversible (Quantum) Ripple-Carry Adder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2008-01-01

    ) ripple-carry adder. We optimize this design with a novel parallelization scheme wherein m parallel k-bit CDKM-adders are combined to form a reversible mk-bit ripple-block carry adder with logic depth O(m+k) for a minimal logic depth O(\\sqrt{mk}), thus improving on the mk-bit CDKM-adder logic depth O...

  17. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  18. Pharmaceutical care to pregnant women carrying human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Geysa Aguiar Romeu; Larissa Varela de Paiva; Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to know the pharmacoepidemiological profile of pregnant women carrying HIV, the prevention actions against vertical transmission, and evaluate the service respecting the patients' level of satisfaction. It was developed a quali-quantitative longitudinal study, with the sample being composed by pregnant women carrying HIV attended at the Pharmaceutical Care Service of a public hospital of Fortaleza - state of Ceará, during the period between January and Se...

  19. SEDIMENT-REMOVING CAPACITY AND RIVER MOTION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Yin WANG; Yongsheng WU

    2001-01-01

    Unsteady flow in fluvial rivers scours or deposits sediment, and exhibits sediment-removing capaciiy,which is defined as the capacity of the flow to remove sediment from per unit length of a river channel to other places per time. Differing from the well-defined sediment-carrying capacity, which is the feature of the mean flow and explains how much sediment load the flow can transport through the channel, the sediment-removing capacity is the feature of unsteady, non-equilibrium flow and represents the capability of the flow to change the channel shape and location. Measurement of the sediment-removing capacity was performed at 12 cross sections of the wandering lower Yellow River. Analysis demonstrates that the removing capacity depends mainly on the fluctuation intensity of the flow discharge. The power spectrum of discharge is presented with Fourier transformation and it revealed the mechanism of high measurement frequency-high sediment removing capacity. The movement of a river channel within the fluvial plain is defined as the river motion. The patterns of river motion are aggradation, degradation, widening,translation, rotation, wandering, bifurcation, and migration from one channel to another channel. The speed of the river motion is given as a function of the sediment-removing capacity.

  20. A classical to quantum optical network link for orbital angular momentum carrying light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potentials in both classical and quantum optical communications such as enhancing the transmission capacity of a single communication channel because of its unlimited dimensions. Based on OAM conservation in second order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in OAM degree of freedoms of light via sum frequency generation (SFG) following by a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). A coherent OAM-carrying beams at telecom wavelength 1550nm is up-converted to 525.5nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, then up-converted OAM-carrying beam is used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795nm and 1550nm. By switching the OAM carries by the classical party, the OAM correlation in the quantum party is shifted. High OAM entanglements in two dimensional subspaces are verified. This primary study enables to build a hybrid optical communication network contains both ...

  1. The Broken American Dream Based on Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenjuan

    2012-01-01

      Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, It tells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway. In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as its distinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue American dream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society%  Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, Ittells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway.In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as itsdistinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue Americandream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society

  2. Quantitative Appraisement on Ecological Cawing Capacity in Coastal Rapid Developing Region of Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fugang; Liu Yansui

    2008-01-01

    The ecological carrying capacity, an important indica-tor to evaluate the sustainable development of the ecosystem, means the potential ability of the natural ecosystem to carry so-cioeconomic development while the ecosystem is healthy. It is limited by the carrying capacity of natural resources and environ-merit and the elasticity of the ecosystem. It will be greatly signifi-cant to study the ecological carrying capacity of Hainan Province, the first ecological province admitted by the State Environmental Protection Administration in China. Not only is the natural eco-system reflected, but also the effects of human activities are em-phasized by integrating the ecosystem health analysis into the ecological carrying capacity research. The research results, using the Factor Analysis tools of software SPSS, indicate that the eco-logical carrying capacity of Hainan Province fluctuated obviously from 1996 to 2005. The level of the ecological carrying capacity of Hainan Province was relatively high in 1996, and reached into trough from 1997 to 1999. It has steadily ascended to be above the middle level since the 21st century. The results also show that policy factors, especially the implementation of the 'Ecological Province' strategy, were important driving forces to influence the ecological carrying capacity. With the population rapidly increas-ing, the land and water resources per capita have decreased quickly. The amount of the ecological carrying capacity was pro-rooted remarkably by socioeconomic development especially economic growth and technology applications. All of these will provide useful suggestions to establish and enact regional devel-opment policies, especially for protecting and reconstructing the ecology and environment of Hainan Province.

  3. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  4. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  5. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...... beneficial research capacity in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, this article suggests several recommendations to both donors and governments that have broad application for general health research issues in the region.......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass of...

  6. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  7. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  8. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments. PMID:9025816

  9. The Influence of Lung Function on Exercise Capacity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2010-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise capacity. While numerous factors are known to contribute to impaired exercise capacity, the role of lung function remains unclear. We conducted the present study to investigate the influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 31 male patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications or cardiopulmonary diseases. Patients with abnormal spir...

  10. Uncertainty Analysis of Power Grid Investment Capacity Based on Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junsong; Liu, Bingyi; Niu, Dongxiao

    By analyzing the influence factors of the investment capacity of power grid, to depreciation cost, sales price and sales quantity, net profit, financing and GDP of the second industry as the dependent variable to build the investment capacity analysis model. After carrying out Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, get the probability distribution of each influence factor. Finally, obtained the grid investment capacity uncertainty of analysis results by Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Child Access Prevention Laws, Youth Gun Carrying, and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; SABIA, JOSEPH J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite intense public interest in keeping guns out of schools, next to nothing is known about the effects of gun control policies on youth gun carrying or school violence. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) for the period 1993-2013, this study is the first to examine the relationship between child access prevention (CAP) gun controls laws and gun carrying among high school students. Our results suggest that CAP laws are associated with a 13 percent decrease in the rate of...

  12. Description of Model Tests Carried Out by Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Schlütter, F.; Andersen, H.

    1996-01-01

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects.......As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  13. Ecology Sports Studies Carried Out in School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyu, Xia

    In the 1970 s, people began to care for the environment and concern about the ecology thinking in sports, to study the modern sports facing the ecology problems, to explore "people, sports, environment" the harmonious development of the way. In the paper from the actual conditions of the school briefly discuss the advantages of carrying out 3.3 no complete teaching schemas and the main difficulties it faces, and then propose appropriate measures to provide a theoretical basis for the ecology sports better carried out in school sports.

  14. Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns.

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, John R, Jr; Mustard, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Using cross-sectional time-series data for U.S. counties from 1977 to 1992, We find that allowing citizens to carry concealed weapons deters violent crimes, without increasing accidental deaths. If those states without right-to-carry concealed gun provisions had adopted them in 1992, county- and state-level data indicate that approximately 1,500 murders would have been avoided yearly. Similarly, we predict that rapes would have declined by over 4,000, robbery by over 11,000, and aggravated as...

  15. Simulation Applied to the Storage Capacity and Stockpiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alejandra Giubergia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is focused on process based simulations. The simulation is carried out (using the FlexSim 7.3.0 software to a mining process including storage hoppers and haulage equipment in order to estimate the desirable truck fleet size and the capacity of the trucks and the hoppers as well as assessing whether the design of the access roads is acceptable for the success of the operations. It is concluded that the dimensions of the loading system has been overestimated compared to the existing equipment fleet size. Therefore, it is required to increase the number of trucks or the truck haulage capacity to improve the mine productivity.

  16. On risk and decisional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched. PMID:11262640

  17. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  18. The Innovative Capacity of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Andy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is widely accepted as a crucial competitive weapon in today's global market place. Yet the levels of innovation achieved by different firms, even within the same industry, can vary widely. The key question raised by this observation is why. Why are some firms more innovative than others? What are the factors that determine a firm's capacity to innovate and how can these be managed to enhance the firm's innovative potential? This paper sets out to address these and related issues. It reports the results of a study of competitiveness and innovation of firms in the East of England. In the paper it is argued that the innovative capacity of a firm is a function of the firm's culture, resources, competences and networks. Justification for this framework is provided by a review of the relevant literature and a series of case studies examining the capacity to innovate of a sample of firms in the East of England.

  19. Monotheistic religions capacities in the field of international culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemnejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All divine Shray have been exported from a source of truth and life beyond the events and historical changes. The essence of religion lies in the different forms of the same fact in different Shrythay been manifested in the historical periods. Quran says in this field: " He hath ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We inspire in thee (Muhammad (and that which We commended unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion, and be not divided therein. Dreadful for the idolaters is that unto which thou called them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He will, and guides unto Himself him who turned (toward Him" (Al- Shora:13 This fact shows the monotheistic religions have the potential to interact and communicate with each other in various international role, Because if religions do not have the capacity of integration and how they can interact with each other side by side in an international arena and role. The theoretical discussion about culture discovered monotheism monotheistic religions and analysis capacity is sufficient. As was demonstrated this capacity, capacity building should be paid to this important come true. After the Convergence of the capacity of the monotheistic religions convergence step to capacity building in the field of culture of monotheism in the field of international culture. The present research, a qualitative study with study documents, databases, articles and books monotheistic religions, cultures and the culture and civilization of books, with the capacity-building approach and based on content analysis is consistency. The study population consisted of all documents and materials related to the topic of debate. According to this article, the discussion of monotheistic religions capacities in the field of international culture is a practical discussion which discovery of the capacity of the capacity building should be carried out before any action should be capacity

  20. Evaluation of the quasi-isothermal method of modulated DSC for heat capacity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat capacity measurements were carried out on ThO2 by Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) using quasi-isothermal method in the temperature range 323-723 K. The highest accuracy of the heat capacity data obtained by this method was ± 2-3% which is much lower than that reported in the literature. (author)

  1. RESEARCHING OIL CAPACITY OF MOSS FUSCUM PEAT TO THE COMMERCIAL OIL AND STABLE GAS CONDENSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles talks about influence of fractional composition of moss fuscum peat on its oil capacity. The technique for determining oil capacity of peat are discribed. The experiments were carried out for hydrocarbons with different density ( ρ =880 kg/m3 and ρ =770 kg/m3.

  2. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  3. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  4. Superadditivity of classical capacity revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Karpov, Evgueni A.; Schäfer, Joachim [QuIC, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 165, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce new type of superadditivity for classical capacity of quantum channels, which involves the properties of channels’ environment. By imposing different restrictions on the total energy contained in channels’ environment we can consider different types of superadditivity. Using lossy bosonic and additive noise quantum channels as examples, we demonstrate that their capacities can be either additive or superadditive depending on the values of channels parameters. The parameters corresponding to transition between the additive and superadditive cases are related with recently found critical and supercritical parameters for Gaussian channels.

  5. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  6. Program's method of VB to carry out nuclear data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors expatiate Program's methods of VB to carry out nuclear data collection in the case of that VB can not directly call on hardware, and had to using C or assemble language to compile DLL function of call on hardware, and then, using by VB main routine to realize to call on and control I/O port in VB environment

  7. Must-carry regulation: a must or a burden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk; B. van der Sloot

    2012-01-01

    The first must-carry rules date back to 1990, the time when space on analogue broadcasting networks was limited and when supply grew quickly due to the introduction of private broadcasters. To ensure that channels of general interest would still be transmitted, countries introduced rules to regulate

  8. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…

  9. Nanoparticles carry chemotherapy drug deeper into solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS researchers have developed a new drug delivery method using nano-sized molecules to carry the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin to tumors, improving the effectiveness of the drug in mice and increasing their survival time. Their work has been reported online June 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  10. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian;

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...... wrinkling and large tip deflection. Geometric non-linear analysis showed sensitivity to imperfections....

  11. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  12. Carrying Out Collaborative Action Research in a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    To help in-service English teachers improve their teaching practices and pupils' learning opportunities through an enquiry-oriented and cooperative approach, the author carried out collaborative action research during a practicum in a teacher education course at a university in Hong Kong. This article describes how the collaborative research…

  13. Sex-Linked Carrying Styles and the Attribution of Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R.; Dillon, Nina E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the attribution of homosexuality as a consequence of behavioral displays that are either sex typical or sex atypical, by using pairs of slides showing three women and three men displaying sex-linked carrying styles. Presents the results in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

  14. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. 177.870 Section 177.870 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND...

  15. Stress Carry-Over and College Student Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a stress carry-over perspective, this study examines the relationship between stress stemming from school and family domains and physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: The study sample included 268 undergraduate men and women from a Midwestern university. Participants completed an anonymous online questionnaire. OLS…

  16. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  17. A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas;

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and more...

  18. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. PMID:24399032

  19. Seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of earthquake forces on ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on sloping ground was studied. A solution to seismic ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings on slope was obtained by utilizing pseudo-static analysis method and taking the effect of intermediate principal stress into consideration. Based on limit equilibrium theory, the formulae for computing static bearing capacity factors, Nq, Nc, Nγ, and dynamic bearing capacity factors, Nqd, Ncd, Nγd, which are associated with surcharge, cohesion and self-weight of soils respectively, were presented. A great number of analysis calculations were carried out to obtain the relationship curves of the static and dynamic bearing capacity factors versus various calculation parameters. The curves can serve as the practical engineering design. The calculation results also show that when the values of horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients are 0.2, the dynamic bearing capacity factors Nqd, Ncd and Nγd, in which the effects of intermediate principal stress are taken into consideration, increase by 4%-42%, 3%-27% and 34%-57%, respectively.

  20. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP, and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC. Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constructions for binary addition have been planned over the last decades, covering a wide range of presentation characteristics. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost for ripple carry adder and carry skip adder. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  1. Capacity Building in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochyati Wahyuni Triana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the concept of local government capacity building in both theoretical and operational aspects, regarding especially with local authorities in Indonesia, after the enforcement of regional autonomy. This is a basic research (fundamental research of library research type. Data collection technique involves using data sourced from a variety of secondary sources, as it should be; books, journals, and related legislation. To draw a conclusion regarding with the building of regional capacity after the implementation of regional autonomy, the data are analyzed using descriptive analysis technique; that is, examining secondary data based on Indonesian condition. This research concludes that Capacity Building is a huge job for the an autonomous local government, particularly when dealing with the system which is deemed to prioritize self-serving rather than public serving; yet this capacity building mission deserves to fight for. Stakeholders (other than legislatives need to regularly monitor the improved performance of the government so that the high expectation of the society could be fulfilled through the enforcement of regional autonomy.

  2. Quantum channel capacities: Multiparty communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Paweł

    2006-10-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of the key results known from bipartite channels to the multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of subspace and entanglement transmission fidelities. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. An equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of fidelities is proven. In analogy to the bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with k senders and m receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of a multiple access channel [M. Horodecki , Nature 436, 673 (2005); J. Yard , e-print quant-ph/0501045], is optimal also in a scenario of an additional support of forward classical communication.

  3. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  4. Communication Capacity of Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, S; Rallan, L.; Vedral, V.

    2000-01-01

    By considering quantum computation as a communication process, we relate its efficiency to a communication capacity. This formalism allows us to rederive lower bounds on the complexity of search algorithms. It also enables us to link the mixedness of a quantum computer to its efficiency. We discuss the implications of our results for quantum measurement.

  5. Localization capacity of human listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    For some scenarios and situations, successful localization of the sound is vital for the hearing experience. One aspect of this is the natural limits of the human localization capacity, incl. dependence on e.g. direction and distance. When addressed in laboratory experiments, the significance of ...

  6. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...

  7. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...

  8. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  9. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  10. Analysis of india and Pakistan's nuclear capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and capacity of both India and Pakistan's nuclear weapons are described in production of weapon-grade materials, nuclear testing, weaponization engineering and delivery systems. India is capable of designing and manufacturing both small yield tactic nuclear weapons and big yield strategic ones and also possesses the technique to design and manufacture H-bombs. Weapon-grade plutonium constitutes the primary fission material for India's nuclear weapon and it has plutonium enough to make 70 to 100 nuclear weapons. India can also produce some tritium. India has already possessed delivery systems but it has not yet mounted nuclear warheads on its ballistic missiles even though its missiles, which India has already owned or is under development, have the ability to carry nuclear warheads. Pakistan also has the ability to make both tactic nuclear weapons and strategic ones. With its weapon-grade uranium, 20 to 30 nuclear weapons can be made. Besides the uranium production facility. Pakistan also has the facility to produce tritium. It is supposed that Pakistan has the ability to carry nuclear weapons with airplane, but it has a long way to go if it wants to mount nuclear weapon, especially bit yield ones, on its own missile. As a whole, India's nuclear force is stronger than Pakistan's, and its development far more advanced than Pakistan's

  11. The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building (GIPB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demands on crop production are increasing, particularly in the developing countries. Plant breeding and improved agronomy have largely met previous increases in demand. The challenge for the future will be to meet increased demands from a growing population through employing improved agricultural production methods that are sustainable in the long term, with minimal negative consequences for the environment. FAO is carrying out, in collaboration with the CGIAR centres, a global plant breeding and associated biotechnology assessment. The results of this survey singled out lack of capacity building as the most relevant gap to strengthen national capacity to use plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA). The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building (GIPB) was launched to address challenges in training and supporting plant breeders in a concerted and systematic manner, complementing existing efforts whenever possible. The GIPB is proposed as a partnership of public, private and civil society sectors working in consort through a lightweight facilitation mechanism. The goal of the initiative is to strengthen capacities of the developing countries to improve their productivity through sustainable use of PGRFA using better breeding and delivery systems. The main objectives are: 1) support for policy development on plant breeding and associated scientific capacity building strategy, to help allocate resources to strengthen and sustain developing countries' capacity to use PGRFA; 2) provision of education and training in plant breeding and related scientific capacities relevant to utilization of PGRFA; 3) facilitate access to technologies in the form of tools, methodologies, know-how; 4) facilitate exchange of PGRFA that can enhance the genetic and adaptability base of improved cultivars in developing countries; and 5) sharing of information focused on plant breeding capacity building to deliver newly available knowledge to

  12. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  13. Variable Block Carry Skip Logic using Reversible Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rafiqul; Karim, Muhammad Rezaul; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; Babu, Hafiz Md Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Reversible circuits have applications in digital signal processing, computer graphics, quantum computation and cryptography. In this paper, a generalized k*k reversible gate family is proposed and a 3*3 gate of the family is discussed. Inverter, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates can be realized by this gate. Implementation of a full-adder circuit using two such 3*3 gates is given. This full-adder circuit contains only two reversible gates and produces no extra garbage outputs. The proposed full-adder circuit is efficient in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and quantum cost. A 4-bit carry skip adder is designed using this full-adder circuit and a variable block carry skip adder is discussed. Necessary equations required to evaluate these adder are presented.

  14. Do all BPS black hole microstates carry zero angular momentum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Garavuso, Richard S.; Mondal, Swapnamay; Sen, Ashoke

    2016-04-01

    From the analysis of the near horizon geometry and supersymmetry algebra it has been argued that all the microstates of single centered BPS black holes with four unbroken supersymmetries carry zero angular momentum in the region of the moduli space where the black hole description is valid. A stronger form of the conjecture would be that the result holds for any sufficiently generic point in the moduli space. In this paper we set out to test this conjecture for a class of black hole microstates in type II string theory on T 6, represented by four stacks of D-branes wrapped on various cycles of T 6. For this system the above conjecture translates to the statement that the moduli space of classical vacua must be a collection of points. Explicit analysis of systems carrying a low number of D-branes supports this conjecture.

  15. Pipelike current-carrying vortices in two-component condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study straight vortices with global longitudinal currents in the Bogomolny limit of the Abelian Higgs model with two charged scalar fields. The model possesses global SU(2) and local electromagnetic U(1) symmetries spontaneously broken to a global U(1) group, and corresponds to a semilocal limit of the standard electroweak model. We show that the contribution of the global SU(2) current to the vortex energy is proportional to the total current squared. Locally, these vortices carry also longitudinal electromagnetic currents, while the total electromagnetic current flowing through a transverse section of the vortex is always zero. The vortices with high winding numbers have, in general, a nested pipelike structure. The magnetic field of the vortex is concentrated at a certain distance from the geometric center of the vortex, thus resembling a 'pipe'. This magnetic pipe is layered between two electrically charged pipes that carry longitudinal electric currents in opposite directions.

  16. Possession and carrying of firearms among suburban youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheley, J F; Brewer, V E

    1995-01-01

    Despite a growing body of anecdotal evidence suggesting the spread of firearms to suburban juvenile populations, most studies of firearm activity by juveniles focus either on urban youth or on nationally representative samples that blur urban and nonurban distinctions. This study represents the first systematic empirical investigation specifically of a suburban population of juveniles. The authors examine both ownership and carrying behaviors, distinguish types of handguns involved, and asses...

  17. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  18. Colliding particles carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2011-01-01

    Photons carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, it was suggested to use Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted parti...

  19. Generalized ray optics and orbital angular momentum carrying beams

    OpenAIRE

    Potocek, Vaclav; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In classical optics the Wolf function is the natural analogue of the quantum Wigner function and like the latter it may be negative in some regions. We discuss the implications this negativity has on the generalized ray interpretation of free-space paraxial wave evolution. Important examples include two classes of beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum—Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) and Bessel beams. We formulate their defining eigenfunction properties as phase–space symmetries of their Wolf...

  20. Lissom, a Source Level Proof Carrying Code Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Joao; de Sousa, Simao Melo; Pinto, Jorge Sousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a proposal for a Proof Carrying Code (PCC) architecture called Lissom. Started as a challenge for final year Computing students, Lissom was thought as a mean to prove to a sceptic community, and in particular to students, that formal verification tools can be put to practice in a realistic environment, and be used to solve complex and concrete problems. The attractiveness of the problems that PCC addresses has already brought students to show interest in this project.

  1. The Response of a Footbridge to Pedestrians Carrying Additional Mass

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Darragh; Caprani, Colin C.; Keogh, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Footbridges with low natural frequency are susceptible to excessive vibration serviceability problems if the pedestrian pacing frequency matches the bridge natural frequency. Much research has been done into describing the response of a footbridge to single pedestrian loading. However, many pedestrians carry additional mass such as shopping bags and backpacks, and this has generally not been accounted for in previous research. This work examines this problem using an experimental bridge excit...

  2. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother–infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother–infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  3. Digitization Projects Carried out by the Mathematical Institute Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjanovič, Zoran; Mijajlovič, Žarco

    2004-01-01

    In this paper some current digitization projects carried out by the Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts Belgrade and the Faculty of Mathematics Belgrade are described. The projects concern developing of a virtual library of retro-digitized books and an Internet data base and presentation of electronic editions of some leading Serbian journals in science and arts, and the work on the South-Eastern European Digitization Initiative (SEEDI).

  4. Topical and working papers on nuclear power capacity projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the overall work programme of WG. 1, Sub-Group 1A/2A was formed jointly with WG. 2 and given the responsibility for estimating the growth of nuclear power up to the year 2025 and the associated demands for nuclear fuels, heavy water, enrichment and other fuel cycle services. In carrying out the first part of its task, the estimation of nuclear power capacity growth, sub-Group 1A/2A prepared 6 working papers which contain the following information: A critique of recent world energy demand forecasts; world energy demand and installed capacity to the year 2025; nuclear power growth projections 1977-2000 for developing countries; long range world nuclear power growth projections; INFCE forecasts of nuclear generating capacity 1985-2025

  5. Capacity to Vote in Persons with Dementia and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Irastorza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to vote in patients with mental illness is increasingly questioned. The objective of this study is to evaluate this capacity in a group of subjects with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and other elderly subjects without dementia. With a sample of 68 subjects with dementia and 25 controls living in a senior residence, a transversal study was carried out over 4 months. Subjects were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Competence Assessment Tool for voting (CAT-V. The results were more positive for the Doe criteria (as part of the CAT-V, and a correlation was found with the MMSE in subjects with dementia and, to a lesser degree, in the controls. We conclude that the capacity to vote is related to cognitive deterioration and, within that, is more related to understanding and appreciation.

  6. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  7. Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

    1999-01-01

    The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

  8. Absorptive capacity: Relevancy for large and small enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R. Ndiege; Herselman, Marlien E; Stephen V. Flowerday

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the years, there has been a growing interest in organisational research in the absorptive capacity (AC) construct, but only a few theoretical and empirical studies on this topic have been carried out over the last decade. However, a number of scholars and practitioners have continued to cite AC as a significant factor in determining the success or failure of organisations. With the dramatic changes in business environments, there has been a growing rise in the use of knowledg...

  9. Shear Force Capacity of Various Doweled Frame Type Furniture Joints

    OpenAIRE

    KASAL, Ali; ERDİL, Yusuf Ziya; DEMİRCİ, Selçuk; ECKELMAN, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    Tests were carried out to determine the ultimate shear force capacity of numerous of doweled frame type furniture joints under controlled laboratory conditions. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), soft maple (Acer negund), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and black walnut (Juglans nigra)were utilized in constructing the joint specimens, but all dowels were cut from yellow birch (Betula papyrifera) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Two types of specimens we...

  10. Kyrgyz Republic - Education Sector Fiduciary Capacity : Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic (GOK), the World Bank, and international and bilateral partners agreed on the need for a fiduciary assessment of the education sector. The assessment is being carried out in two stages. In the first stage, fiduciary conditions in the education sector were assessed. Based on the findings of this review, short-term and medium-term fiduciary capacity buil...

  11. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer eff...

  12. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, H

    2003-01-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and capacities of unassisted and enviornment channels is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  13. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods

  14. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng

    2003-01-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  15. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  16. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  17. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Moro González; Fernando E. Garcia Muiña

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outsta...

  18. Qualitative Capacities as Imprecise Possibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Didier; Prade, Henri; Rico, Agnés

    2013-01-01

    National audience This paper studies the structure of qualitative capacities, that is, monotonic set-functions, when they range on a finite totally ordered scale equipped with an order-reversing map. These set-functions correspond to general representations of uncertainty, as well as importance levels of groups of criteria in multicriteria decision-making. More specifically, we investigate the question whether these qualitative set-functions can be viewed as classes of simpler set-function...

  19. Capacity glut grows despite cancellations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the US electricity sector have created a challenging business environment for many players. The factors contributing to the current crisis include excess capacity in many regions amidst a sluggish economy, resulting in low wholesale prices. The situation has been aggravated by lack of investor confidence in the sector following the fall of Enron and subsequent disclosures about accounting and reporting irregularities in major trading companies. (Author)

  20. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  1. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Dyck's surfaces, systoles, and capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Mikhail G

    2012-01-01

    We prove an optimal systolic inequality for nonpositively curved Dyck's surfaces. The extremal surface is flat with eight conical singularities, six of angle theta and two of angle 9?pi - theta, for a suitable theta with cos(theta) Q(sqrt{19}). Relying on capacity estimates, we also show that the extremal surface is not conformally equivalent to the hyperbolic surface with maximal systole, yielding a first example of systolic extremality with this behavior.

  3. Information capacity of specific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Miriam H; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-24

    Specific interactions are a hallmark feature of self-assembly and signal-processing systems in both synthetic and biological settings. Specificity between components may arise from a wide variety of physical and chemical mechanisms in diverse contexts, from DNA hybridization to shape-sensitive depletion interactions. Despite this diversity, all systems that rely on interaction specificity operate under the constraint that increasing the number of distinct components inevitably increases off-target binding. Here we introduce "capacity," the maximal information encodable using specific interactions, to compare specificity across diverse experimental systems and to compute how specificity changes with physical parameters. Using this framework, we find that "shape" coding of interactions has higher capacity than chemical ("color") coding because the strength of off-target binding is strongly sublinear in binding-site size for shapes while being linear for colors. We also find that different specificity mechanisms, such as shape and color, can be combined in a synergistic manner, giving a capacity greater than the sum of the parts. PMID:27155013

  4. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  5. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  6. LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  7. Generalized neo-additive capacities and updating

    OpenAIRE

    Eichberger, Jürgen; Grant, Simon; Lefort, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that, for CEU preferences, the axioms consquentialism, state independence and conditional certainty equivalent consistency under updating characterise a family of capacities, called Genralised Neo-Additive Capacities (GNAC). This family contains as special cases among others neo-additive capacities as introduced by Chateauneuf, Eichberger, and Grant(2007), Hurwicz capacities, and ε-contaminations. Moreover, we will show that the convex version of a GNAC is the only capacity f...

  8. Secondary yield enhancement from current-carrying target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Webster, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of relative yield of ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/ and anti p secondaries from cylindrical current-carrying production targets in high energy proton beams are presented. The results show that the expected focusing effect can increase the secondary intensity within the acceptance of a secondary beam by significant factors--in some cases two or more--with currents in the 15 to 25 kA range. These currents are readily obtainable from pulsed power supplies. For dc operation currents of this magnitude appear possible from existing power supplies and for targets of small transverse dimensions such as 2 mm radius Ag.

  9. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: sasaki@aps.anl.gov; McNulty, Ian; Dejus, Roger [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  10. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  11. Discontinuous transitions in a current-carrying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of 'discontinuous' transitions in a current-carrying plasma are analyzed by formulating the problem in terms of the two-fluid (i.e., electrons and ions) equations. The jump conditions, which connect states on either side of a discontinuity, are derived and it is shown that these are similar to the ordinary gas-dynamic Rankine-Hugoniot conditions except that there are extra terms which represent an enhanced mass flux in the momentum equation, and an additional heat flux in the energy equation, both of which arise from the existence of a current flow through the discontinuity. (Auth.)

  12. Calculating tax shields from financial expenses with losses carried forward

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Velez Pareja

    2010-01-01

    When calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), the well-known textbook formula includes tax shields with the (1-T) factor affecting the contribution of debt to WACC. In this work we develop a procedure for properly calculating tax shields including the case when Losses Carried Forward are allowed and there is Other Income. The proper calculation of tax shields is relevant because the value of tax shields might be a substantial part of firm value. We show that tax shields depend...

  13. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors)

  14. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  15. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.

  16. Lead adsorption capacities of different components in natural surface coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; HUA Xiu-yi; LI Yu; JI Liang; ZHANG Jing-jing

    2004-01-01

    Pb adsorption capacities of Fe oxide, Mn oxide and organic materials in natural surface coatings( biofilms and associated minerals) collected in three lakes, two ponds and a river in Jilin Province, China and Cayuga Lake in US were studied. A novel extraction technique was employed to remove one or more component(s) from the surface coatings. Pb adsorption to surface coatings before and after extraction was performed to determine the adsorptive properties of the extracted component(s). The statistical analysis of observed Pb adsorption was carried out using nonlinear least squares fitting(NLSF) to estimate the Pb adsorption capacity of each component of surface coatings. For each body of water, the estimated Pb adsorption capacity of Mn oxide(mol Pb/mol Mn) was significantly higher than that of Fe oxide( mol Pb/ mol Fe). The value of estimated adsorption capacities of organic materials with the unit mol Pb per kg COD was similar to or less than that of Fe oxides with the unit mol Pb per mol Fe. Comparison of components of surface coatings in different waters showed that the estimated Pb adsorption capacities of components in surface coatings developed in different natural waters were different,especially for Mn oxides.

  17. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  18. Study of the Electric Charge Carried by Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the contribution of electrical forces to filtration phenomena, and to calibrate electrostatic aerosol precipitators, the authors investigated the charge state and studied neutralization and charge by diffusion of the particles of varying diameters which are used as test aerosols. The aerosol used consisted of pulverized monodispersed spheres of latex. The method by which these particles are produced is first described. Monodispersion of the aerosol is checked by an aerosol spectrometer and by electron microscopy. Parasite particles resulting either from residual impurities in the double-distilled water or from the dispersant present in the suspension are retained by a diffusion filter. The electric charge carried by these particles in the conditions of production and use reported was determined by two different diameters: 0.365 μm mean charge: 8 elementary charges; 0.557 μm mean charge 10 elementary charges. The percentage of neutral particles is from 6 to 7%, and practically no particles carrying more than 25 charges have been found. Neutralization by bipolar ions was then studied. The results obtained show good agreement with Boltzmann's law. (author)

  19. Particle beams carrying orbital angular momentum, charge, mass and spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Teuntje; Hayrapetyan, Armen; Goette, Joerg; Dennis, Mark

    Electron beams carrying vortices and angular momentum have been of much experimental and theoretical interest in recent years. In addition, optical vortex beams are a well-established field in optics and photonics. In both cases, the orbital angular momentum associated with the beam's axial vortex has effects on the overall spin of the beam, due to spin-orbit interactions. A simple model of these systems are Bessel beam solutions (of either the Dirac equation or Maxwell equations) with a nonzero azimuthal quantum number, which are found by separation in cylindrical coordinates. Here, we generalize this approach, considering the classical field theory of Bessel beams for particles which are either massive or massless, uncharged or charged and of a variety of different spins (0, 1/2, 1, ⋯). We regard the spin and helicity states and different forms of spin-orbit terms that arise. Moreover, we analyse the induced electromagnetic field when the particles carry charge. Most importantly, this unified field theory approach leads to the prediction of effects for vortex beams of neutrons, mesons and neutrinos.

  20. Kinematic analysis of males with transtibial amputation carrying military loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barri L. Schnall, MPT

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical responses to load carriage, a common task for dismounted troops, have been well studied in nondisabled individuals. However, with recent shifts in the rehabilitation and retention process of injured servicemembers, there remains a substantial need for understanding these responses in persons with lower-limb amputations. Temporal-spatial and kinematic gait parameters were analyzed among 10 male servicemembers with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA and 10 uninjured male controls. Participants completed six treadmill walking trials in all combinations of two speeds (1.34 and 1.52 m/s and three loads (none, 21.8, and 32.7 kg. Persons with TTA exhibited biomechanical compensations to carried loads that are comparable to those observed in uninjured individuals. However, several distinct gait changes appear to be unique to those with TTA, notably, increased dorsiflexion (deformation of the prosthetic foot/ankle, less stance knee flexion on the prosthetic limb, and altered trunk forward lean/excursion. Such evidence supports the need for future work to assess the risk for overuse injuries with carried loads in this population in addition to guiding the development of adaptive prosthetic feet/components to meet the needs of redeployed servicemembers or veterans/civilians in physically demanding occupations.