WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrying capacity assessment

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  2. Measurement and assessment of carrying capacity of the environment in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R Z; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2011-08-01

    Carrying Capacity of the Environment (CCE) provides a useful measure of the sustainable development of a region. Approaches that use integrated assessment instead of measurement can lead to misinterpretation of sustainable development because of confusion between Environmental Stress (ES) indexes and CCE indexes, and the selection of over-simple linear plus models. The present paper proposes a comprehensive measurement system for CCE which comprises models of natural resources capacity, environmental assimilative capacity, ecosystem services capacity, and society supporting capacity. The corresponding measurable indexes are designed to assess CCE using a carrying capacity surplus ratio model and a vector of surplus ratio of carrying capacity model. The former aims at direct comparison of ES and CCE based on the values of basic indexes, and the latter uses a Euclidean vector to assess CCE states. The measurement and assessment approaches are applicable to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and environmental planning and management. A case study is presented for Ningbo, China, whereby all the basic indexes of ECC are measured and the CCE states assessed for 2005 and 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  4. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  5. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Quality Assessment and Determining the Carrying Capacity of Pollution Load Batang Kuranji River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, I.; Adri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the water quality and carrying capacity of pollution load Batang Kuranji River in the headwaters, middle, and downstream. This research is descriptive quantitative parameters of pH, BOD, COD, TSS, and DOES Depictions of river water quality refer to RegulationNo.82/2001, while determination of carrying capacity of pollution load river refers to the Kep Men LHNo.10/2003.The result is Kuranji Batang River water quality upstream region included in either category who meet the quality standard first class ofPP82/2001. TSS concentrations at head waters of 21 mg/L, BOD1,6 mg/L, COD7,99mg/L and DO 7,845 mg/L. While the carrying capacity of pollution load river in upstream region included in both categories namely BOD of 4,4 kg/sec, COD 273,60 kg/sec, TSS906,00kg/sec, and DO parameters of 49.20 kg/sec. Middle region (point 2, 3, and 4) water quality Batang Kuranji River has exceeded the quality standard of 82/2001 for class II and class III. Meanwhile, carrying capacity of pollution load river in area included in ugly category. The calculation is done with application Qual2Kw show that carrying capacity of pollution load river of BOD -857.3 kg/sec, COD -777.40 kg/sec, TSS +9511.5 kg/sec, and DO +69.30 kg/sec.

  7. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  8. Carrying capacity of coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    The sustainable yield of a commercially exploited fishery is assessed by the biological and environmental factors (including fishing effort). These parameters with a reef are vastly diverse-size, location, species diversity, productivity type...

  9. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  10. Effects of tidal cycles on shorebird distribution and foraging behaviour in a coastal tropical wetland: Insights for carrying capacity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Juanita; Basso, Enzo; Serrano, David; Navedo, Juan G.

    2017-11-01

    Wetland loss has driven negative effects on biodiversity by a reduction in potential available habitats, directly impacting wetland-dependent species such as migratory shorebirds. At coastal areas where tidal cycles can restrict food access, the degree to which density of foraging birds is mediated by conspecific abundance or by the available areas is crucial to understanding patterns of bird distribution and wetland carrying capacity. We used the bathymetry of two sectors modeled with two numerical matrices to determine the availability of intertidal foraging areas in relation to tidal level (spring and neap tides), and this information was used to estimate shorebird density and foraging activity throughout the low-tide cycle in a tropical coastal lagoon in northwestern Mexico. Relative to spring tides, an 80% reduction in available foraging areas occurred during neap tides. Overall shorebird abundance was significantly reduced during neap tide periods, with differences between species. Densities of shorebirds increased during neap tides, particularly in one sector, and remained similar throughout the low-tide period (i.e. 4 h) either during spring or neap tides. Time spent foraging was consistently lower during neap-tides relative to spring-tides, especially for Long-billed curlew (44% reduction), Willet (37% reduction) and Black-necked stilt (29% reduction). These decreases in foraging activity when available habitats became reduced can hamper the opportunities of migratory shorebirds to reach their daily energy requirements to survive during the non-breeding season. This study shows that when intertidal habitats are severely reduced an important fraction of shorebird populations would probably be forced to find alternative areas to forage or increase foraging time during the night. Serving an essential function as top-predators, these results can have important implications on carrying capacity assessment for shorebirds at coastal wetlands.

  11. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  12. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  13. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  14. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  15. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  16. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  17. Problem in application carrying capacity approach for land allocation assessment in Indonesian municipal spatial planning: A case of Kutai Kartanegara Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. N. S.; Rahadi, B.; Lusiana, N.; Maulidina, I.

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization in many countries, such as Indonesia, is commonly appeared as a dynamic population of developed areas. It is followed with reducing rural uses of land for improving urban land uses such as housing, industry, infrastructure, etc. in response to the growth of population. One may not be sufficiently considered by the urban planners and the decision makers, urbanization also means escalation of natural resources consumption that should be supported by the natural capacity of the area. In this situation, balancing approach as carrying capacity calculation in spatial planning is needed for sustainability. Indonesian Spatial Planning Law 26/2007 has already expressed about the balance approach in the system. Moreover, it strictly regulates the assessment and the permission system in controlling land development, especially for the conversion. However, the reductions over the rural uses of land, especially agriculture, are continuously occurred. Concerning the planning approach, this paper aims to disclose common insufficiency of carrying capacity considerations in Indonesian spatial planning practice. This paper describes common calculation weaknesses in projecting area for the urban development by recalculating the actual gap between supply and demand of agriculture land areas. Here, municipal spatial plan of Kutai Kartanegara Regency is utilized as single sample case to discuss. As the result, the recalculation shows that: 1) there are serious deficit status of agriculture land areas in order to fulfil the demanded agriculture production for the existed population, 2) some calculation of agriculture production may be miss-interpreted because of insufficient explanation toward the productivity of each agriculture commodity.

  18. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  19. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  20. The Population Growth and Carrying Capacity in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Buchori, Imam

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and development of city activities take some lands to carry them. As a result, land use competition happens among persons, society or sector. Land necessity for settlement, industry, or sector has taken over farm land, therefore farm land has been converted intensively and massively. Chronologically, population growth will cause land necessity increase. Unproductive land, especially farm land will be converted. Furthermore, farm land conversion will cause carrying capacity change. Carrying capacity has certain bio capacity. With the population growth, it will increase resource consumption; on the other side, farm land conversion will decrease carrying capacity. The objective of the study is to know about the influence of population growth towards carrying capacity (bio capacity) in Semarang city. Land consumption per capita is indeed influenced by city population, the higher the population is, the lower the land consumption per capita. With the population growth, it will influence carrying capacity. Carrying capacity here is the ratio of area to population. Analytical descriptive method is applied in the study with all sub-districts in Semarang city as the analysis unit. Population here is sub-district area and population per sub-district in Semarang city. Population growth data period is from 2000 until 2015. Main variables of the study are area per sub-district, population, population growth, carrying capacity. Result of the study shows significant influence of carrying capacity decrease, especially some outskirts in Semarang city. This condition happens because the outskirts in Semarang city tend to have dense population growth. Range of carrying capacity in Semarang city is from 0,007 to 0,117 of 0 to 1. Almost all sub-districts in Semarang city show miserable condition, except Mijen and Tugu. The conclusion of the study is that population will decrease carrying capacity. Therefore, the government should control population growth by paying

  1. The Assessment of Carrying Capacity – A Crucial T ool for M anaging T ourism E ffects in T ourist D estinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrica Jovicic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is beyond doubt that the theory of tourism lags behind tourism practice. In order to decrease such a gap, theoretical work in tourism has been intensified over the last two decades. The key problems of research include: analysis, interpretation, and management of heterogeneous effects of tourism development, permeating different aspects of human life and work – from the global to the local level. This paper discusses the role, significance, and the ways of estimation and interpretation of the concept of carrying capacity within the conceptual framework of contemporary tourism. The paper also analyses various attitudes and conflicting opinions as to this, still much debated, concept. In the end, some crucial concluding remarks are presented that could alleviate the application of the concept of carrying capacity in practice, assuming its important role in planning tourist destination development and management of various tourism impacts.

  2. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  3. Evaluating total carrying capacity of tourism using impact indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carrying capacity is well identified tool to manage problems due to uncontrolled tourism for any destination. This report highlights the carrying capacity estimation of Kerwa tourism area, Bhopal, India. The methodology used in this report is a new two-tier mechanism of impact analysis using index numbers derived from a survey of 123 stakeholders. From this the individual component impact analysis and the total carrying capacity of the area is computed in order to state the insight of the total carrying capacity left for the tourism activities in Kerwa tourism area. It is calculated from, the results so obtained, that the Kerwa catchment area falls in “very low impact category” and hence in a healthy state of the artwork in terms of total carrying capacity. The study conveys the current need in the destination management and tourism development as a road map for the destination managers for implementing sustainable tourism.

  4. The flexible application of carrying capacity in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity encompasses a broad collection of approaches used to better understand biotic interactions in ecosystems and is often applied with no explicit regard to its historical origin. In this paper, we reviewed the primary literature to examine how carrying capacity is applied in ecology. We focused our review on ecosystem studies—studies that frame their results at the ecosystem level—published after the 1950s and highlight emerging trends of this concept. We found that while carrying capacity offers some underlying commonalities, a wide range of definitions and approaches hinders a unified framework to better understand biotic ecosystem interactions. Not surprisingly, these studies most often use K—the number of individuals that the environment “can support” in a given area—to define carrying capacity, despite considerable ambiguity and uncertainty in this approach. Furthermore, the studies that we reviewed spanned several levels of ecological organization: molecules to communities and up to landscapes. To add further complexity, it is not clear whether carrying capacity was intended as a dynamic concept subject to temporal variability as it was often applied in the reviewed studies. We found that carrying capacity is most often applied to studies in conservation biology, rangeland and wildlife management, aquaculture, and fisheries biology. We explore ecosystem level responses to implications of “carrying capacity” overshoot and discuss proposed mechanisms that govern ecosystem carrying capacity. We discuss the usefulness of the concept and end with suggestions to improve carrying capacity's general application in ecosystem studies. Keywords: Carrying capacity, Conservation biology, Ecosystems, Ecosystem management, Natural resources

  5. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  6. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  7. Carrying capacity of a heterogeneous lake for migrating swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.

    2010-01-01

    One way to express the value of a natural habitat is its capacity to harbour a particular target species. In the case of migratory birds, the cumulative number of birds that can be accommodated at a site for a given period of time (‘bird-days’) became an accepted currency for this carrying capacity.

  8. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  9. [Ecological carrying capacity and Chongming Island's ecological construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyun; Zou, Chunjing; Kong, Zhenghong; Wang, Tianhou; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2005-12-01

    This paper overviewed the goals of Chongming Island's ecological construction and its background, analyzed the current eco-economic status and constraints of the Island, and put forward some scientific issues on its ecological construction. It was suggested that for the resources-saving and sustainable development of the Island, the researches on its ecological construction should be based on its ecological carrying capacity, fully take the regional characteristics into consideration, and refer the successful development modes at home and abroad. The carrying capacity study should ground on systemic and dynamic views, give a thorough evaluation of the Island's present carrying capacity, simulate its possible changes, and forecast its demands and risks. Operable countermeasures to promote the Island's carrying capacity should be worked out, new industry structure, population scale, and optimized distribution projects conforming to regional carrying capacity should be formulated, and effective ecological security alarming and control system should be built, with the aim of providing suggestions and strategic evidences for the decision-making of economic development and sustainable environmental resources use of the region.

  10. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  11. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  12. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  13. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Under this formulation, both carrying capacity and exchange ratios are endogenously determined (Kinyua and Njoka, 2001), making it possible to empirically estimate the population growth models for Grant's gazelle, Thompson's gazelle and Zebra. (1) for i = 1,…,n-1 j = 1,…,2 and i ≠ j. Here Hit+1, measured in animal units, ...

  14. Random noise characterization on the carrying capacities of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of the survival of species dependent on a limited resource in a polluted environment which isnot a new idea can be described by the technique of a mathematical modelling. We have utilised the technique of a numerical simulation to study the impact of environmental random noise on the carrying capacities of ...

  15. Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kula, Alex; Mack, Keenan M L; Zhai, Lu; Ryce, Arrix L; Ni, Wei-Ming; DeAngelis, Donald L; Van Dyken, J David

    2017-09-01

    A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial diffusion increased total equilibrium population abundance in heterogeneous environments, with the effect size depending on the relationship between r and K. Refuting previous theory, however, we discovered that homogeneously distributed resources support higher total carrying capacity than heterogeneously distributed resources, even with species diffusion. Our results provide rigorous experimental tests of new and old theory, demonstrating how the traditional notion of carrying capacity is ambiguous for populations diffusing in spatially heterogeneous environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  17. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  18. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  19. Evaluation of Resources Carrying Capacity in China Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Gan, Y. H.; Zhang, T.; Luo, Z. Y.; Wang, J. J.; Lin, F. N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper accurately extracted the information of arable land, grassland (wetland), forest land, water area and construction land, based on 1 : 250000 basic geographic information data. It made model modification of comprehensive CCRR to achieve carrying capacity calculation taking resource quality into consideration. Ultimately it achieved a comprehensive assessment of CCRR status in China. The top ten cities where the status of carrying capacity of resources was overloaded were Wenzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu, Baoding, Shantou, Jieyang, Dongguan, Fuyang, Zhoukou and Handan. The cities were basically distributed in the central and southern areas with convenient transportation and more economically developed areas. Among the cities in surplus status, resources carrying capacity in Hulun Buir was the most abundant, followed by Heihe, Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Qiqihar, Chifeng and Jiamusi, all of which were located in northeastern China with a small population and plentiful cultivated land.

  20. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    capacity. The DFCR-based nutrient loadings analysis indicates, in trash fish feed culturing areas, that it is more critical and has been proved to be a valuable loading calculation method. The modeling approach for Xiangshan Harbor presented in this paper is a cost-effective method for assessing the environmental impact and determining the capacity. Carrying capacity information can give scientific suggestions for the sustainable management of aquaculture environments. It has been proved that numerical models were convenient tools to predict the environmental carrying capacity. The development of models coupled with dynamic and aquaculture ecology is a requirement of further research. Such models can also be useful in monitoring the ecological impacts caused by mariculture activities.

  1. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  2. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  3. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    carrying capacity-based normalisation references. The purpose of this article is to present a framework for normalisation against carrying capacity-based references and to develop average normalisation references (NR) for Europe and the world for all those midpoint impact categories commonly included....... A literature review was carried out to identify scientifically sound thresholds for each impact category. Carrying capacities were then calculated from these thresholds and expressed in metrics identical to midpoint indicators giving priority to those recommended by ILCD. NR was expressed as the carrying...... ozone formation and soil quality were found to exceed carrying capacities several times.The developed carrying capacity-based normalisation references offer relevant supplementary reference information to the currently applied references based on society’s background interventions by supporting...

  4. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  5. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  6. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  7. Review of evaluation on ecological carrying capacity: The progress and trend of methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Xu, Y.; Liu, T. J.; Ye, J. M.; Pan, B. L.; Chu, C.; Peng, Z. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has been regarded as an important reference to indicate the level of regional sustainable development since the very beginning of twenty-first century. By a brief review of the main progress in ECC evaluation methodologies in recent five years, this paper systematically discusses the features and differences of these methods and expounds the current states and future development trend of ECC methodology. The result shows that further exploration in terms of the dynamic, comprehensive and intelligent assessment technologies needs to be provided in order to form a unified and scientific ECC methodology system and to produce a reliable basis for environmental-economic decision-makings.

  8. Prediction of bird-day carrying capacity on a staging site: a test of depletion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Gyimesi, A.; Klaassen, R.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    1. The carrying capacity of a site for migratory water birds, expressed in bird-days, can be of particular conservation value. Several attempts have been made to model this carrying capacity using ideal free distribution models such as, for instance, depletion models, in which the distribution is

  9. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo; P Priyono

    2016-01-01

    Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the ...

  10. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  11. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  12. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Dí az-Pé rez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2015-01-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We

  13. Carrying Capacity Model Applied to Coastal Ecotourism of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Rosyid, D. M.; Nuzula, N. I.

    2017-07-01

    The resources of Baluran National Park have been used for marine and coastal ecotourism. The increasing number of visitors has led to the increasing of tourists and its related activities. This condition will cause the degradation of resources and the welfare of local communities. This research aims to determine the sustainability of coastal ecotourism management by calculating the effective number of tourists who can be accepted. The study uses the concept of tourism carrying capacity, consists the ecological environment, economic, social and physical carrying capacity. The results of the combined carrying capacity analysis in Baluran National Park ecotourism shows that the number of 3.288 people per day (151.248 tourists per year) is the maximum number of accepted tourists. The current number of tourist arrivals is only 241 people per day (87.990 tourists per year) which is far below the carrying capacity.

  14. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  15. Carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism management in Ujung Kulon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyono, K. H.; Muntasib, E. K. S. H.; Yulianda, F.

    2018-05-01

    Peucang Island is one of island in Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP), appointed as priority area and welcome area for tourism. This research aimed to calculate the carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism development (Study sites of this research are Karang Copong jungle trail and 8 sites of Peucangs beach). This research used observation method (wildlife exploration, measure the lenght of jungle track, and measure 10 parameters of beach), literature study and and interview method to collect data. The data of jungle track analyzed use Cifuentes’s formula. The result showed that Karang Copong jungle trekking had 20,000 visitors/day for Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC), 4 838 visitors/day for Real Carrying Capacity (RCC), and 6 visitors/day for Efective Carrying Capacity (ECC). Observation of biological aspect showed that there were some damages of vegetation along the track, and the changes in animal behavior. The data of beach carrying capacity analyzed use Yulianda’s formula that measured with the suitability map approach. Based on the suitability map, two beaches were classified in suitable category, while six beaches) were classified in highly suitable category for tourism activities. All of the beaches had different number of carrying capacity, specifically there are 70 visitors/day in highly suitable beach and 27 visitors/day in suitable beach. The number of visitor nowadays still not exceed from carrying capacity number of PCC, RCC of jungle trails and carrying capacity of the beach area, but the number has exceeded from the ECC numbers.

  16. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as a departure for the comparison of the protectional conditions for the parks. Many other aspects of the nature and social carrying capacities however also constitute important conditions for the park management. Increasing emphasis on visitor experience is not only a challenge for the nature protection......Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor/nature carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out. All the parks are candidates for recognition...

  17. Analysis of Environmental Carrying Capacity with Emergy Perspective of Jeju Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanhoon Jung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeju Island experienced an approximately 42% increase in energy consumption from 2006 to 2015 and the demand for energy consumption is expected to continue to increase. Thus, Jeju Island is planning a project entitled “Carbon Free Island by 2030” to promote sustainable development and is required to estimate the environmental carrying capacity for future energy demand changes. The purpose of this study was to calculate the emergy inherent in Jeju Island’s energy, materials, and information in 2015 using the emergy analysis method and local characteristics. In addition, this study aimed to estimate the emergy indices to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity for sustainable development in 2005, 2015, and 2030 considering the future energy demand. This study’s outputs provide the environmental carrying capacity with emergy indices, such as the percent renewable (%Renew, emergy yield ratio (EYR, environmental loading ratio (ELR, sustainability index (SI, and carrying capacity of the population (CCP for social and economic activities on Jeju Island, which are expected to be saturated. These findings show regions with heavy tourism require development strategies, including the concept of environmental carrying capacity.

  18. Modelling of carrying capacity in National Park - Fruška Gora (Serbia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of tourism development in a destination are usually the consequence of the high concentration of tourists, accommodation facilities and the activities that are practiced in a relatively restricted area. One of the most important measures to protect the areas is to calculate the maximum number of tourists that can simultaneously reside in a region, i.e. the determination of the carrying capacity. This paper outlines a method for determining carrying capacity based on zoning of environmental resources and zoning within a region. The paper argues for a return to the idea of identifying maximum appropriate number of users. The main hypothesis of the paper is based on the statement that the development of tourism in Fruška Gora (Mountain National Park in Northern Serbia must be in accordance with the basic principles of sustainability, including the determination of carrying capacity. The main research goal was to show the opinion of local residents about the uncontrolled development of tourism, and to determine the carrying capacity in four sports and recreational zones of the mountain. The carrying capacity of the area is calculated by Lavery and Stanev formulas.

  19. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  20. Conceptual Framework of Tourism Carrying Capacity for a Tourism City: Experiences from National Parks in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Nasha; Zheng Xilai

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally-accepted definition of tourism carrying capacity(TCC).Numerical TCC focuses on use level and is considered as"a magic number"of the saturation point for tourism.There are several reasons why numerical tourism capacity is inadequate.Alternatively,tourism capacity can be defined in terms of limits of acceptable change,which shifts the focus from"how much use is too much"to"how much change is acceptable".This article proposes an improved conceptual framework for evaluating carrying capacity for the tourism city based on approaches used in US national parks,which consider the impact of human use on a city's economic,environmental/resource,and socio-cultural conditions.Based on the basic data of indicator values and relevant standards,the framework monitors the current indicators and predicts future indicator values; it can also be used to assess and predict TCC.

  1. The study of environmental carrying capacity for sustainable tourism in Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateu, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melat Aryasa, Alexander; Nur Bambang, Azis; Muhammad, Fuad

    2017-06-01

    The increasing in quantity of the tourists visiting Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateau, Central Java, can cause a potential threat toward the conservation sustainability of the tourist attraction and the surrounding area. The utilization of conservation area for tourist attraction has to be carried out based on the principal of Environmental Carrying Capacity so that it will not affect the ecosystem. This study aims to determine the value of Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park environmental carrying capacity as a conservation area used for tourism activities. The environmental carrying capacities calculated in this study were physical carrying capacity, real carrying capacity, and effective carrying capacity. Results of this research show that the physical carrying capacity of The Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park was 31,302 visitors, the real capacity was 869 visitors/day and the effective carrying capacity was 579 visitors/day. Thus, the sustainable tourism development strategy is needed to manage the everlasting natural resources.

  2. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  3. Multi-scale research of time and space differences about ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahong; Lei, Xiaohui; Fu, Qiang; Li, Tianxiao; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Lei; Liao, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    A multi-scale assessment framework for assessing and comparing the water resource sustainability based on the ecological footprint (EF) is introduced. The study aims to manage the water resource from different views in Heilongjiang Province. First of all, from the scale of each city, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) was calculated from 2000 to 2011, and map the spatial distribution of the recent 3 years which show that, the water ecological carrying capacity (ECC) is uneven and has a downward trend year by year. Then, from the perspective of the five secondary partition basins in Heilongjiang Province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological surplus and deficit (S&D) situation of water resources from 2000 to 2011, which show that the ecological deficit situation is more prominent in Nenjiang and Suifenhe basins which are in an unsustainable development state. Finally, from the perspective of the province, the paper calculated the ecological carrying capacity (ECC), the ecological footprint (EF) and ecological S&D of water resources from 2000 to 2011 in Heilongjiang Province, which show that the ecological footprint (EF) is in the rising trend, and the correlation coefficient between the ecological carrying capacity (ECC) and the precipitation is 0.8. There are 5 years of unsustainable development state in Heilongjiang. The proposed multi-scale assessment of WEF aims to evaluate the complex relationship between water resource supply and consumption in different spatial scales and time series. It also provides more reasonable assessment result which can be used by managers and regulators.

  4. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  5. 基于改进AHP的旅游环境承载力评价研究--以鼓浪屿景区为例%Assessment of Tourist Environment Carrying Capacity Based on Improved AHP:a Case Study of Gulangyu Island Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志涛; 曾繁英

    2017-01-01

    Tourist environment carrying capacity must be confirmed for protecting the ecological environment, realizing a sustainable de-velopment of sightseeing districts, managing tourist activities in scenic spots effectively, and regulating the development and utilization of tourism resources. The environment carrying capacity data of Gulangyu island on weekdays and holidays is analyzed with improved AHP by establishing an index system for assessing the environmental carrying capacity, combining the natural ecology, social psychology and e-conomic environment carrying capacity. The analysis finds out that the scenic spot should enhance the management of long-term over ca-pacity of tourists, the improvement of the atmosphere purifying capacity, pollutant disposal processing capacity, and the restrictive factors of the psychological bearing capacity of tourists. By doing so, the tourist environment carrying capacity could be promoted with tourist number controlled at an acceptable level, facilitating the sustainable development of Gulangyu island.%为了实现旅游地的生态环境保护及可持续发展目标,有效管理景区游客活动和调控旅游资源的开发利用,必须确定景区的旅游资源环境承载力。通过构建兼顾自然生态环境承载力、社会心理承载力和经济环境承载力三个维度的环境承载力评价指标体系,运用改进的层次分析模型,对景区旅游环境承载力进行量化测算和评价,分析鼓浪屿景区在工作日和节假日的旅游环境承载力数据结果,鼓浪屿景区的可持续发展既需要根据景区旅游环境承载力对当前的长期游客过载现象加强治理,也需要重视大气净化能力、污染物处理能力、游客心理承载力限制性要素的改善以提高景区自身的旅游环境承载力,把景区的旅游数量控制在可接受范围内,推动鼓浪屿景区的持续发展。

  6. Estimating social carrying capacity through computer simulation modeling: an application to Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Wang; Robert E. Manning; Steven R. Lawson; William A. Valliere

    2001-01-01

    Recent research and management experience has led to several frameworks for defining and managing carrying capacity of national parks and related areas. These frameworks rely on monitoring indicator variables to ensure that standards of quality are maintained. The objective of this study was to develop a computer simulation model to estimate the relationships between...

  7. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  8. Screening for EIA in India: enhancing effectiveness through ecological carrying capacity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, T; Das, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries across the world have embraced the policy of high economic growth as a means to reduce poverty. This economic growth largely based on industrial output is fast degrading the ecosystems, jeopardizing their long term sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has long been recognized as a tool which can help in protecting the ecosystems and aid sustainable development. The Screening guidelines for EIA reflect the level of commitment the nation displays towards tightening its environmental protection system. The paper analyses the screening process for EIA in India and dissects the rationale behind the exclusions and thresholds set in the screening process. The screening process in India is compared with that of the European Union with the aim of understanding the extent of deviations from a screening approach in the context of better economic development. It is found that the Indian system excludes many activities from the purview of screening itself when compared to the EU. The constraints responsible for these exclusions are discussed and the shortcomings of the current command and control system of environmental management in India are also explained. It is suggested that an ecosystem carrying capacity based management system can provide significant inputs to enhance the effectiveness of EIA process from screening to monitoring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis on economic carrying capacity index of pig breeding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Liu, Jia-Ling; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, factor analysis method was employed to analyze and calculate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the last decade, the proportion of research and experiment development (R&D) expenditure equivalent to GDP, urban and rural residents’ pork consumption and explored the scale of Chinese pig breeding on economic carrying capacity index. The result showed that the growth of GDP had led to better techniques and higher field investment, and stronger support like science and technology from the government provided good conditions for large scale of pig breeding. Besides, the substantial increase of pork consumption between rural and urban residents has contributed to the pig breeding in large scale. As a result, the economic carrying capacity index in Chinese pig farming is on the rise.

  10. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  11. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 11. Surry Mountain Lake Project Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    contributions of practical experience and knowledge , along with their assistance in arranging schedules, have made this carrying capacity research effort...This survey obtained six responses from boaters and water- skiers . 29 A~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~PEEI PAG ... ._DIAN.K+.+.+ 3+ ,.+ -,++ + _-NO FILM...User characteristics Table 17 indicates the characteristics of the boaters and water- skiers surveyed at Surry. The small sample size at

  12. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  13. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture a...

  14. On load carrying capacity of frames taking into account finite displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkoaski, A.; Saran, M.

    1981-01-01

    An approximate method that takes into account the influence of finite displacements upon the load carrying capacity of planar unbraced frames is described. It is the iterative procedure where Quadratic Programming is applied for evaluation of subsequent configurations of the frame, whereas Linear Programming serves to find ultimate load factors for each configuration. Numerical tests show that the procedure gives practically acceptable results being at the same time much cheaper than the exact geometrically and physically non-linear incremental analysis. (orig.)

  15. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... differences in the patterns were identified between stocks located in the upper and lower thermal range. In the latter, strong year-classes occurred mainly during warmer seasons and vice versa. For stocks located in the warmer waters, however, no significant patterns were obtained, suggesting that increased......, to incorporate the influence of ecosystem factors, mainly temperature and habitat size, on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. The pattern of temperature effects on cod productivity at the species level were identified and SR model parameters were estimated...

  16. Evaluation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Shandong Province Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity is the maximum available water resources supporting by the social and economic development. Based on investigating and statisticing on the current situation of water resources in Shandong Province, this paper selects 13 factors including per capita water resources, water resources utilization, water supply modulus, rainfall, per capita GDP, population density, per capita water consumption, water consumption per million yuan, The water consumption of industrial output value, the agricultural output value of farmland, the irrigation rate of cultivated land, the water consumption rate of ecological environment and the forest coverage rate were used as the evaluation factors. Then,the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was used to analyze the water resources carrying capacity Force status evaluation. The results showed : The comprehensive evaluation results of water resources in Shandong Province were lower than 0.6 in 2001-2009 and higher than 0.6 in 2010-2015, which indicating that the water resources carrying capacity of Shandong Province has been improved.; In addition, most of the years a value of less than 0.6, individual years below 0.4, the interannual changes are relatively large, from that we can see the level of water resources is generally weak, the greater the interannual changes in Shandong Province.

  17. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Dugger, Bruce D.; Brasher, Michael G.; Coluccy, John M.; Cramer, Dane M.; Eadie, John M.; Gray, Matthew J.; Hagy, Heath M.; Livolsi, Mark; McWilliams, Scott R.; Petrie, Matthew; Soulliere, Gregory J.; Tirpak, John M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  18. Analysis of Carrying Capacity of Agro-Ecosystem Coconut-Cattle in South Minahasa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHS Salendu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Coconut plantation is very dominating in South Minahasa regency seen from its production of 49,907.33 tons in 2010. The land under coconut trees can be used for food crops or forage. The waste from food crops is the source of animal feed, while the livestock’s manure is used to improve soil fertility under coconut tree. The research objective was to analyse the carrying capacity of the agro-ecosystem of coconut-cattle. Regency and district were determined purposively. A total of 86 farmers as respondents were determined based on the ownership of at least 2 cattle and cattle selling experience. Data were analyzed using effective potential of livestock development and land capability index (IDD. The result showed that the maximum potential of land resources (PMSL was 30,872.94 animal unit (AU. The capacity increase in cattle population based on the soil resources was 18,208.94 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer house holds was 127,023.00 AU. The value of land capability index was 2.14. The conclusion was South Minahasa Regency was still potential for cattle development regarding land resources or workforce potentials. Development of cattle can be integrated with the coconut to maintain and improve agro-ecosystem sustainability of coconut plantation. Keywords: cattle, carrying capacity, agro-ecosystem, coconut Animal Production 14(1:56-62, January 2012

  19. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the sun-drying characteristics of five blends each (w/w; 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3) of wheat offal-carried pineapple waste (WO:PW) and brewers' dried grains-carried pineapple waste (BDG:PW), assessed the blends for their nutrient contents and the feeding value of the optimum blends with Red Sokoto ...

  20. Estimating carrying capacity in a newly colonized sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ferro, Cristina

    2002-02-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck) was mass-reared tinder conditions of varying densities in an effort to improve colony production efficiency. To do this, the experimental carrying capacity of a standard rearing chamber was determined, i.e., the optimum population size in relation to density (individuals per unit of space). Rearing chambers of 100 cm3 were populated with 1-50 L. serrana engorged females and an equal number of males. Laboratory conditions were maintained at 23-26 degrees C and 85-95% RH. The following parameters were recorded for each experimental chamber (three replicates): (1) female mortality without oviposition, (2) number of eggs oviposited and (3) number of adults emerging from the egg cohort. Female mortality began to increase substantially in the 26-female chamber, from 5.7% to 15% and finally reaching 60.2% in the 46-50 female chambers. In the chambers containing 1-20 females, egg number and realized adult progeny increased linearly to reach an asymptote. In the 20-50 female chambers, the number of eggs ranged from 420 to 699, and adult production from 306 to 432. The optimum carrying capacity for the 100-cm3 chambers was 22 +/- 2 females. Beyond this number, auto-regulation was initiated, i.e., female mortality without oviposition increased as the number of females per chamber increased. Total number of eggs and adult production was similar in all chambers containing 20-50 females. In conclusion, for optimizing production of mass reared sand flies, determination of the carrying capacity is essential to optimize use of insectary resources, to avoid loss of valuable potentially ovipositing females, and to increase overall production efficiency.

  1. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the rural area in Progo river basin consists 56 sub districts (34 sub districts part of Jawa Tengah Province, and 22 sub districts part of Yogyakarta Special Region. The whole sub districts are such as unit analysis, and research method is based on secondary data analysis. Several data consist Districts Region in Figure 1997 and 2003 (Temanggung, Magelang, Kulon Progo, Sleman and Bantul such as secondary data analysis. Data analysis employs of frequency and cross tabulation, statistics of regression and test. Result of the research shows that population growth of the rural areas in Progo river basin are about 0.72% annum; or the household growth about 3.15% annum as long as five years (1996-2003. Spatial distribution of the population growth in the upper part of the Progo river basin is higher than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The number proportion of farmer in every sub district area in this river basin have increased from 69.95% in 1997 to 70.81% in the year of 2003. It means that work opportunities broadening are still sluggish. However, the number proportion of farmers in the upper part of the Progo river basin is lower than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The rates of settlement land areas changes (0.32 ha/annum as long as five years (1997-2003 is not as fast as the rates of agricultural land areas changes (0.47 ha/annum. Spatial land settlement areas changes in the lower (6.1 ha/annum and middle parts (2.4 ha/annum faster than

  2. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  3. What is the carrying capacity for fish in the ocean? A meta analysis of population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers, R.A.; MacKenzie, Brian; Bowen, K.G.

    2001-01-01

    used empirical Bayes techniques to estimate the maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity of each stock. In all cases, the empirical Bayes estimates were biologically reasonable, whereas a stock by stock analysis occasionally yielded nonsensical parameter estimates (e.g., infinite values). Our...... analysis showed that the carrying capacity per unit area varied by more than 20-fold among populations and that much of this variation was related to temperature. That is, the carrying capacity per square kilometre declines as temperature increases....

  4. Influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkova Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering is spread technology today. The main advantage of this method is the ability to produce parts which have a very complex geometry and which can be produced only in very complicated way by classical conventional methods. Special category of such components are parts with porous structure, which can give to the product extraordinary combination of properties. The article deals with some aspects that influence the manufacturing of regular porous structures in spite of the fact that input technological parameters at various samples were the same. The main goal of presented research has been to investigate the influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure. Realized tests have indicated that the unit of regular porous structure with lower volume ratio is able to carry a greater load to failure than the unit with higher volume ratio.

  5. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  6. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  7. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  8. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Plogistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  9. One hundred fold increase in current carrying capacity in a carbon nanotube-copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Yamada, Takeo; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    Increased portability, versatility and ubiquity of electronics devices are a result of their progressive miniaturization, requiring current flow through narrow channels. Present-day devices operate close to the maximum current-carrying-capacity (that is, ampacity) of conductors (such as copper and gold), leading to decreased lifetime and performance, creating demand for new conductors with higher ampacity. Ampacity represents the maximum current-carrying capacity of the object that depends both on the structure and material. Here we report a carbon nanotube-copper composite exhibiting similar conductivity (2.3-4.7 × 105Scm-1) as copper (5.8 × 105Scm-1), but with a 100-times higher ampacity (6 × 108Acm-2). Vacuum experiments demonstrate that carbon nanotubes suppress the primary failure pathways in copper as observed by the increased copper diffusion activation energy (~2.0eV) in carbon nanotube-copper composite, explaining its higher ampacity. This is the only material with both high conductivity and high ampacity, making it uniquely suited for applications in microscale electronics and inverters.

  10. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  11. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Land Use Changes in Da'an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Li, B.

    2018-04-01

    Based on GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzed the land use change in Da'an city from 1995 to 2010. land-use ecological evaluation index was constructed to evaluate the land-use ecological risk of Da 'an city dynamically, and the land-use ecological risk level map was made, and then the distribution and change of the land-use ecological carrying capacity pattern of Da'an city were analyzed qualitatively. According to the evaluation results of ecological carrying capacity, the ecological environment of Da'an city has deteriorated in fifteen years. in 1995, the poor ecological environment area is mainly distributed in the northeast area of Da'an city, and the area is small, while the area of the central and southern areas is large; In 2010, the western region also appeared environmental degradation, the northeast environment deterioration is serious, the dominant area is reduced, and a small amount of deterioration in the central and southern regions. According to the study of this paper, in the future, we should strengthen the comprehensive management of this part of the area, strengthen vegetation coverage, reduce soil erosion, ensure the effective improvement of ecological environment.

  12. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  13. A method for prediction of extent of microbial pollution of seawater and carrying capacity of beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1989-07-01

    The increase in the number of tourists visiting a coast is desired by most of the countries for economic reasons. However, this increase in tourism may cause pollution of the sea. This can be only avoided by proper planning and by predicting the “carrying capacity” of the coast in terms of sea pollution. This is especially important for developing countries where part of the wastewater is discharged without any treatment into the sea. In the present study the beaches were classified according to their use — and consequently the amount of waste discharged into the sea — into four groups: (1) coasts that are used only for swimming and recreational purposes; (2) coasts used simultaneously for dwelling, swimming, and recreational purposes; (3) coasts along which only dwellings exist; and (4) natural and man-made harbors, i.e., coasts used as shelters. During the survey,40,320 observations were made between December 1985 and February 1988 to determine the effect of the number of tourists on seawater quality. The results obtained were analyzed by a multilinear regression program to obtain an empirical equation giving the extent of the sea pollution in terms of coliform concentration as a function of population density and some other environmental factors. The equations derived in this study enable the determination of the carrying capacity of a beach in terms of pollution as well as the expected degree of pollution corresponding to a given population density. Furthermore, it allows the prediction of the extra carrying capacity that can be obtained by improving the waste-disposal conditions.

  14. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD. In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1 continuity of existing water utilization, (2 water conservation/saving, and (3 water exploitation. The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors. The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model. Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed. The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  15. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    investigated also across the north Atlantic distribution of haddock. The major motivations were first, to provide an evaluation of potential thermal effects on haddock recruitment productivity across its distribution, since the species is relatively less investigated on this regard compared to cod. In addition......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in order to identify the effects of temperature, habitat size and life-history on their productivity patterns. The first objective was to investigate how production and survival indices of cod recruitment (i.e. the number of new...

  16. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    , to incorporate the influence of ecosystem factors, mainly temperature and habitat size, on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. The pattern of temperature effects on cod productivity at the species level were identified and SR model parameters were estimated...... on the environmental impacts on key population parameters, which is required for an ecosystem approach to cod management, particularly under ocean-warming scenarios. The commonly used SR models, Ricker and Beverton-Holt, were extended by applying hierarchical methods, mixed-effects models and Bayesian inference...... morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in order to identify the effects of temperature, habitat size and life-history on their productivity patterns. The first objective was to investigate how production and survival indices of cod recruitment (i.e. the number of new...

  17. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  18. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC......) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...

  19. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated...... on the comparison of the common conditions related to the international nature protection obligations in the parks, primarily expressed through the management under the EU Natura2000-program. In part 2, a comparison of the 8 parks concerning extent, land use composition, population in and around the park...

  20. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  1. Methods for determining the carrying capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starishko Ivan Nikolaevich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the results of calculations of eccentrically compressed elements in the ultimate limit state of bearing capacity, taking into account all possiblestresses in the longitudinal reinforcement from the R to the R , caused by different values of eccentricity longitudinal force. The method of calculation is based on the simultaneous solution of the equilibrium equations of the longitudinal forces and internal forces with the equilibrium equations of bending moments in the ultimate limit state of the normal sections. Simultaneous solution of these equations, as well as additional equations, reflecting the stress-strain limit state elements, leads to the solution of a cubic equation with respect to height of uncracked concrete, or with respect to the carrying capacity. According to the author it is a significant advantage over the existing methods, in which the equilibrium equations using longitudinal forces obtained one value of the height, and the equilibrium equations of bending moments - another. Theoretical studies of the author, in this article and the reasons to calculate specific examples showed that a decrease in the eccentricity of the longitudinal force in the limiting state of eccentrically compressed concrete elements height uncracked concrete height increases, the tension in the longitudinal reinforcement area gradually (not abruptly goes from a state of tension compression, and load-bearing capacity of elements it increases, which is also confirmed by the experimental results. Designed journalist calculations of eccentrically compressed elements for 4 cases of eccentric compression, instead of 2 - as set out in the regulations, fully cover the entire spectrum of possible cases of the stress-strain limit state elements that comply with the European standards for reinforced concrete, in particular Eurocode 2 (2003.

  2. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  3. 基于物元分析理论的旅游承载力研究%Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method cailed matter element analysis can solve the uncertain a,nd incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination s carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  4. The scaling of population persistence with carrying capacity does not asymptote in populations of a fish experiencing extreme climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard S A; Wintle, Brendan A; McHugh, Peter A; Booker, Douglas J; McIntosh, Angus R

    2017-06-14

    Despite growing concerns regarding increasing frequency of extreme climate events and declining population sizes, the influence of environmental stochasticity on the relationship between population carrying capacity and time-to-extinction has received little empirical attention. While time-to-extinction increases exponentially with carrying capacity in constant environments, theoretical models suggest increasing environmental stochasticity causes asymptotic scaling, thus making minimum viable carrying capacity vastly uncertain in variable environments. Using empirical estimates of environmental stochasticity in fish metapopulations, we showed that increasing environmental stochasticity resulting from extreme droughts was insufficient to create asymptotic scaling of time-to-extinction with carrying capacity in local populations as predicted by theory. Local time-to-extinction increased with carrying capacity due to declining sensitivity to demographic stochasticity, and the slope of this relationship declined significantly as environmental stochasticity increased. However, recent 1 in 25 yr extreme droughts were insufficient to extirpate populations with large carrying capacity. Consequently, large populations may be more resilient to environmental stochasticity than previously thought. The lack of carrying capacity-related asymptotes in persistence under extreme climate variability reveals how small populations affected by habitat loss or overharvesting, may be disproportionately threatened by increases in extreme climate events with global warming. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  6. Measurement of the carrying capacity of benthic habitats using a metabolic-rate based index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, G J

    1993-03-01

    Carrying capacities of grazed habitats are typically expressed as numbers or biomass of animals per unit area; however, such parameters are appropriate only when the body size of animals is constant because consumption and other metabolic-rate based parameters such as respiration and production are proportional to body mass raised by a power of ≈0.75 rather than 0 or 1. Habitat carrying levels are therefore better expressed in the form of an index of total community consumption by summing the body masses of individual animals after they have been scaled using a biomass exponent of ≈0.75. A parameter scaled in this way,P 20 , varied in a predictable manner when calculated for the mobile epifaunal assemblages associated with rope fibre habitats placed at marine and estuarine sites;P 20 showed no significant difference between 17 shallow, clear-water sites worldwide, but declined consistently when photosynthesis was reduced.P 20 also did not vary significantly when calculated for the mobile epifaunal communities associated with fourAmphibolis antarctica seagrass habitats in Australia ([Formula: see text] = 100 µg ·g -1 · day -1 ), and reached but did not significantly exceed a ceiling of ≈280 μg · g -1 · day -1 forSargassum plants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the production of shallow-water epifaunal communities of grazers is constrained by resource ceilings which can be quantified using metabolic-rate based indices. If this "production ceiling" hypothesis is correct then diffuse competition is generally more important than predation or environmental disturbance in restricting the growth of mobile epifaunal populations.

  7. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan

    2015-09-11

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6oC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μat the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 106 cells mL-1 and generally covaried with μbut, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μand K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. © FEMS 2015.

  9. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  11. Estimating a Global Hydrological Carrying Capacity Using GRACE Observed Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global population is expected to reach 9 billion people by the year 2050, causing increased demands for water and potential threats to human security. This study attempts to frame the overpopulation problem through a hydrological resources lens by hypothesizing that observed groundwater trends should be directly attributed to human water consumption. This study analyzes the relationships between available blue water, population, and cropland area on a global scale. Using satellite data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) along with land surface model data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), a global groundwater depletion trend is isolated, the validity of which has been verified in many regional studies. By using the inherent distributions of these relationships, we estimate the regional populations that have exceeded their local hydrological carrying capacity. Globally, these populations sum to ~3.5 billion people that are living in presently water-stressed or potentially water-scarce regions, and we estimate total cropland is exceeding a sustainable threshold by about 80 million km^2. Key study areas such as the North China Plain, northwest India, and Mexico City were qualitatively chosen for further analysis of regional water resources and policies, based on our distributions of water stress. These case studies are used to verify the groundwater level changes seen in the GRACE trend . Tfor the many populous, arid regions of the world that have already begun to experience the strains of high water demand.he many populous, arid regions of the world have already begun to experience the strains of high water demand. It will take a global cooperative effort of improving domestic and agricultural use efficiency, and summoning a political will to prioritize environmental issues to adapt to a thirstier planet. Global Groundwater Depletion Trend (Mar 2003-Dec 2011)

  12. Modelling PM 10 concentrations and carrying capacity associated with woodheater emissions in Launceston, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Galbally, Ian E.; Keywood, Melita

    Launceston is one of the Australian cities most affected by particle pollution due to the use of woodheaters in the winter months, with frequent exceedences of the national standard, the National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality (or Air NEPM in short), of 50 micrograms per cubic metre for daily PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less). The main objective of the present study was to determine the woodheater carrying capacity for Launceston—the number of woodheaters that can operate in the city without exceeding the Air NEPM. For this purpose, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model called TAPM is used, coupled to a gridded woodheater PM 10 emissions inventory. The latter was derived using information on dwelling density, the percentage of dwellings with woodheaters, woodheater emission rates and their diurnal and seasonal variations, and the proportions of compliant/non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces. The model simulations are performed for the year 1998, and the concentrations are scaled for previous and subsequent years using trends in woodheater numbers and types. The modelled number of exceedences of the Air NEPM for the period 1997-2004 is in good agreement with the observations. The modelling indicates that the PM 10 Air NEPM would be met in Launceston when the total number of woodheaters is 20% of the total number of dwellings, of which 76%, 18%, 6% would be compliant woodheaters, non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces, respectively. With the present trends in the regional woodheater profile, this should occur in the year 2007.

  13. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  14. The tourism carrying capacity of underwater trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  15. Water Environmental Carrying Capacity for Activities of Intensive Shrimp Farm in Banyuputih Sub-District, Situbondo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muqsith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine the width area of an intensive shrimp farm which can be supported by water environment of Banyuputih Sub-District, Situbondo Regency according to the water assimilation capacity towards the farm’s organic waste. We used survey method and secondary data collection from other researches or result report of relevant institution. This study was using two approaches of environmental carrying capacities, i.e. (1 quantitative method on available water volume in coast (coastal water and (2 quantitative method on available Dissolved Oxygen (DO in waste receiving water body of coastal water. The result showed that the utilization of coastal area for intensive shrimp farm activities in this study area is not exceeding its carrying capacity of water yet. Based on the analysis, the water environmental carrying capacity for the farm’s organic waste is 375.637 kg TSS. Organic waste (TSS disposed from an intensive shrimp cultivation at the study area is 6.506 kg TSS.ha-1.MT-1. The width of intensive area which can be supported by Banyuputih Situbondo water environment is 58 ha. The width of available intensive pond area at study site is 113 ha, but only 39 ha is active/productive, the remaining 74 ha is inactive/unproductive area. If unproductive area will be re-operated/reactivated again, then we would recommend only 19 ha according to the water environment carrying capacity for the farm’s organic waste (58 ha. Estimation result of water environment carrying capacity for this organic waste of shrimp farm can be used as reference to determine the development or management threshold of sustainable pond area at this study site.   Keywords: environment carrying capacity, organic waste, shrimp farm

  16. Carrying capacity and tourism planning. case study at Praia Brava- Itajai, in face to the settlement of Canto da Brava Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Van de Meene Ruschmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism presumes cultural authenticity, social inclusion, conservation of natural resources and service quality. Those are major issues standing for economical viability in the long run. This article analyzes carrying capacity in Praia Brava, Itajai/SC, evaluating environmental comfort for dwellers as well as for users of the beach building future scenarios as Canto da Brava resort is settled. Tourism carrying capacity is tied to methods of identification and evaluation of environmental indicators. In this case, Cifuentes Method was chosen because it integrates physical, biotical and infra structural factors, through assessment of physical, real and effective carrying capacity. Quantitative results have been considered analyzing impacts and tolerable limits of change taking into account users perception.

  17. Assessing Capacity Value of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.

    2017-04-18

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of assessing capacity value of wind power, including Impacts of multiple-year data sets, impacts of transmission assumptions, and future research needs.

  18. A capacity assessment towards more resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Social capacity building for natural hazards is a topic increasingly gaining relevance not only for so-called developing countries but also for European welfare states which are continuously challenged by the social, economic and ecological impacts of natural hazards. Following an outline of recent governance changes with regard to natural hazards, we develop a heuristic model of social capacity building by taking into account a wide range of existing expertise from different fields of research. Particular attention is paid to social vulnerability and its assessment, as well as to risk communication and risk education as specific strategies of social capacity building. We propose to distinguish between interventionist and participatory approaches, thus enabling for a better understanding of existing practices of social capacity building as well as their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is from this typology the presentation will develop two kinds of operational social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  19. Simple Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Multi-Span Folding Bridges based on Floating Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The papers covers simple evaluation of load-carrying capacity of multi-span folding bridges based on floating supports. Combined bridges built in this approach, could be used as a temporary crossing. The methodology of this evaluation is shown graphically on the basis of designed nomograms for two existing bridge structures i.e. MS-54 and DMS-65, mounted on rigid and floating supports. These nomograms facilitate the simple and fast determination of the impact of changing fixed support into floating support with different bridge length spans on the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper also presents the influence of long-term use (enlarging the mounting backlash in the joints of these structures on the carrying capacity of the bridge.[b]Keywords[/b]: building, folding bridges, nomograms, assembly clearances

  20. The Application of a Phosphorus Budget Model Estimating the Carrying Capacity of Kesikköprü Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    PULATSÜ, Serap

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the carrying capacity of Kesikköprü Dam Lake, Ankara, where cage farms for the intensive culture of rainbow trout are located. For this purpose Dillon and Rigler's phosphorus budget model was applied in a series of steps and the carrying capacity of the lake was found to be 3335 tonnes per year. This estimated value was about 10 times higher than the present production level of the lake. It seems possible to orientate the fish culture in cages in...

  1. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  2. Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing studies still lack consensus not only on the theoretical aspects, but also on the methodological issues for UCC monitoring and evaluation. A knowledge gap exists, which this paper fills. This study aims to develop a practical UCC assessment framework to guide urban development towards achieving sustainability. The quantitative-based assessment framework provides a set of measurable indicators and benchmarks for city managers to conduct routine monitoring on progress toward urban sustainability, and helps identify deficient areas, which urgently need resource allocation to improve UCC. Focusing on a case study of Beijing, this study demonstrates that the framework is useful in promoting urban sustainability. This framework provides rich implications for other city prototypes in China as the nation marches into the next phase of development.

  3. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  4. The study of carrying capacity of timber slabs with use the finite elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeshok Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the study of behavior of timber slab under influence of fire with the standard “time-temperature” curve are presented. The finite element method was used for it. For the calculation we constructed a grid models of timber slabs. As a result of solution of the thermal problem was obtained temperature distribution and the graphs of maximum deflection of timber slabs and its slew rate depending on the time of the test. The obtained graphs allow to obtain data on the occurrence of the limit state of loss of bearing capacity by comparing current values of displacements and velocities with the maximum allowable. Analysis of the graphs shows that the criteria limit state of loss of bearing capacity does not occur. Calculation method of evaluating the fire resistance of timber slabs was developed. For it use database about strain-stress state of this slabs in conditions of influence of the fire.

  5. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  6. Carrying capacity an approaching procedure to the economic value of natural patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandon M, Luis; Ochoa S, German; Ospina N, Efren

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new alternative method for valorizing the natural heritage of various economically and environmentally important ecosystems. It was conducted in the Piedras Blancas, Antioquia watershed and considered the degree of conservation of the area and its capacity for supporting humans, by means of extractive economic activities. In this way the ecosystem itself provides a natural offer of goods and services and therefore a good approximation of its economic value

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON LAND BALANCE FOR EVALUATION PLANNING OF SPATIAL AND REGIONAL IN SOLOK REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Pahuluan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Act No. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning stated that the central and the local government should establish Spatial and Regional Planning (RTRW by considering environmental carrying capacity. The environmental carrying capacity based RTRW will ensure the balance between the use of natural resources and the prevention of negative impacts on the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of RTRW at Solok Regency Year 2012 - 2031 which has been established in 2013. Evaluation was conducted by calculating land carrying capacity method to determine land supply and land demand. The results showed that the land use planned as stated in the RTRW increase the land supply in supporting bio-product production to meet the needs of the population, with surplus conditions amounted to 101,005.79 hectares. The future predictions indicated that the carrying capacity of planned land could met the needs of the population bio-product until the year 2121. The evaluation of the spatial pattern plan showed that there was a need to increase the area of housing and settlements in accordance with the rate of population increase and determine the extents area for the development of the livestock sector to improve its yield.

  8. Student Responses to a Hands-On Kinesthetic Lecture Activity for Learning about the Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckler, Jennifer; Yu, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new hands-on, or "kinesthetic," activity for use in a physiology lecture hall to help students comprehend an important concept in cardiopulmonary physiology known as oxygen carrying capacity. One impetus for designing this activity was to address the needs of students who have a preference for kinesthetic…

  9. Carrying capacity models should not use fixed prey density thresholds : a plea for using more tools of behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, JA; Edelaar, P; Escudero, G; Piersma, T

    Earlier studies have developed models of carrying capacity to predict the number of animals a certain area can support. These models assume that resources are not renewed after consumption ('standing stock' models), and that the initial number of prey and the rate of prey consumption determine the

  10. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  11. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  12. Environment Carrying Capacity in Developing Innovation Center of Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSME in Kabupaten Pandeglang, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine environmental carrying capacity strategies for developing MSMEs Innovation Center. The study research using quantitative descriptive method and instruments questionnaire given to stakeholders and government related to sheep and goats in the Juhut village, Pandeglang. Data collected was processed premises scoring and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method used software of expert choice 11. The results showed that the Carrying Capacity levels of MSME was in the quite category, while aspect of facilitation as the highest proportions and the lowest was access to information. Innovation Center of MSME strategies are through the efforts increased Environment Carrying Capacity’s variables of Innovation Center of MSME are still lacking or not meet the standards through synergy efforts by Ministry of Research of Technology and Higher Education, Provincial Government. Of Banten, district/municipal government, Institute for Agricultural Technology of Banten, and universities.

  13. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  14. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  16. Peculiarities of carrying capacity evaluations of cylindrical CFST columns with new type casing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkovskaya Olena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a cylindrical steel-concrete load-bearing unit. The feature of the unit is a steel mesh casing that is made from the expanded metal mesh. The optimal parameters of the suggested footing are determined taking into account anisotropy, i. e. different strength and rigidity in different directions that coincide and do not coincide with the direction of reinforcement. The optimal cell angle, when a casing deformation brings about maximum compression of a concrete core, is determined. Details for theoretical calculation of the bearing capacity of a cylindrical steel-concrete load-bearing unit are provided taking into consideration a complex three-dimensional structure of the suggested mesh casing. The validity of the calculations is confirmed by comparison them with the results of the Lira software package. The results of the calculations are provided in the form of the table showing the dependence of the adduced thickness of the plate on the longitudinal movement of the strip of the steel mesh casing. The dependencies to determine the adduced thickness of the mesh casing using the graphical method are provided for all the existing types of the mesh using concrete wedges or excluding them.

  17. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  18. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights,…

  19. Spatiotemporal Distribution of β-Amyloid in Alzheimer Disease Is the Result of Heterogeneous Regional Carrying Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Alex; Sharp, David J; Gunn, Roger N

    2018-05-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is 1 of 2 pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), and the spatial distribution of Aβ has been studied extensively ex vivo. Methods: We applied mathematical modeling to Aβ in vivo PET imaging data to investigate competing theories of Aβ spread in AD. Results: Our results provided evidence that Aβ accumulation starts in all brain regions simultaneously and that its spatiotemporal distribution is due to heterogeneous regional carrying capacities (regional maximum possible concentration of Aβ) for the aggregated protein rather than to longer-term spreading from seed regions. Conclusion: The in vivo spatiotemporal distribution of Aβ in AD can be mathematically modeled using a logistic growth model in which the Aβ carrying capacity is heterogeneous across the brain but the exponential growth rate and time of half maximal Aβ concentration are constant. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  1. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  2. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  3. Optimizing the Regional Industrial Structure Based on the Environmental Carrying Capacity: An Inexact Fuzzy Multi-Objective Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An inexact fuzzy multi-objective programming model (IFMOP based on the environmental carrying capacity is provided for industrial structure optimization problems. In the IFMOP model, both fuzzy linear programming (FLP and inexact linear programming (ILP methods are introduced into a multi-objective programming framework. It allows uncertainties to be directly communicated into the problem solving processing, and it can effectively reflect the complexity and uncertainty of an industrial system without impractical simplification. The two objective functions utilized in the optimization study are the maximum total output value and population size, and the constraints include water environmental capacity, water resource supply, atmospheric environmental capacity and energy supply. The model is subsequently employed in a realistic case for industrial development in the Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. The results demonstrate that the model can help to analyze whether the environmental carrying capacity of Tongzhou can meet the needs of the social economic objectives in the new town plan in the two scenarios and can assist decision makers in generating stable and balanced industrial structure patterns with consideration of the resources, energy and environmental constraints to meet the maximum social economic efficiency.

  4. Concept of perceptual carrying capacity and its use in the creation of promotional materials of tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Mokrý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce results of research of perceptual carrying capacity of selected area. Concept of perceptual tourist carrying capacity aims to find the number of visitors of tourist destination that the visitor is willing to accept before deciding to prefer travelling to another tourist destination. In order to determine the perceptual carrying capacity the visual method is used. The photos of destination that depict different level of visitors are presented to respondents when using this method. The primary research method used in this investigation was the questionnaire survey which was conducted via online questionnaires. The questionnaire used computer-generated images that depict different number of visitors of the particular destination – nature trail around the church of St. John of Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou (UNESCO monument. The questionnaire also contained samples of photos taken from photo gallery section of CzechTourism agency (photo.czechtourism.com, which were used to determine the preferred destination for recreation. The survey was conducted within the period from May 2012 to July 2012 on a sample of 736 respondents from The Czech Republic.

  5. Price and prospects for oil: carrying the burden of excess capacity in the 1980s and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, W

    1985-12-01

    The continuing decline in world oil prices will not be halted in the short term, and prospects for the long run are not encouraging. There is a problem of unprecedented gravity in the surplus capacity of the oil industry. A glut of 10 million bbl/day of crude oil remains unsold, the cohesion of the OPEC cartel is becoming more strained, and a sizeable proportion of refinery plant has been taken off-stream. The basic difficulty is that high interest rates have curbed international capital formation and depressed demand. Upward pressures on the US dollar have been created by the deficit on US domestic and external accounts, and have retarded the recovery of the global economy. Today, the cost of money exceeds the factor price of oil, and the market is highly unstable. The devastating costs of carrying surplus capacity are likely to survive through the 1980s. 6 figures.

  6. Study on tourist carrying capacity of sustainable tourism---by taking Qingliang Mountain in the south-eastern china as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shenglang; Liu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzed measurable problems of tourist carrying capacity and then studied the corresponding measures by adopting theories and methods of environment sciences. Tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain was studied by analyzing the system of tourism environment capacity. The results showed that the level of service was 9726, which was smaller than the ecological carrying capacity of 12894. The facilities and spatial capacity were identified as key factors to limit the tourist carrying capacity in Qingliang Mountain. Some advices and measures including newly built and rebuilt basic facilities, construction of management methods for slack and peak tourist season respectively, construction of new sight spot and touring path were discussed to improve the tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain and solve the problems of overloading of tourists in the peak season.

  7. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-02-02

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  8. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    Full Text Available A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  9. Water ecological carrying capacity of urban lakes in the context of rapid urbanization: A case study of East Lake in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Kun-lun; Cheng, Sheng-gao; Wang, Xu

    water sustainable management, we must deeply recognize the reality that water shortages and the limited carrying capacity, and dynamic assessment of WECC provides an early warning approach and control direction of water environment. For the East Lake, it is the primary target to mitigate the carrying capacity of social-economy, especially for prevention of lake area encroachment shrinking and domestic wastewater discharge.

  10. Influence of time-dependent elastic-plastic material behaviour on the load-carrying capacity of shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present report deals with the influence of time-dependent material behavior on the load-carrying capacity of thin-walled shells of revolution. In the first part various creep-hardening hypotheses as well as the spatial and temporal discretization procedures employed are described. The adaptation of a well-tested finite element method based on ring elements to the treatment of creep problems and several time-integration procedures, in particular the iterative treatment of the coupling between creep and elastic-plastic strains as well as the important aspect of time-step-control are discussed in detail. In the second part several typical shell configurations are analyzed and a comparison with available theoretical and experimental results is made. Finally, the time-dependent load-carrying behavior of torispherical pressure vessel ends subjected to internal and external pressure is investigated and design aids for the determination of creep collapse times are proposed. (orig.) [de

  11. Graphene-on-diamond devices with increased current-carrying capacity: carbon sp2-on-sp3 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Liu, Guanxiong; Sumant, Anirudha V; Goyal, Vivek; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-03-14

    Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field-effect transistors and interconnects built on conventional SiO(2)/Si substrates reveal the breakdown current density on the order of 1 μA/nm(2) (i.e., 10(8) A/cm(2)), which is ~100× larger than the fundamental limit for the metals but still smaller than the maximum achieved in carbon nanotubes. We show that by replacing SiO(2) with synthetic diamond, one can substantially increase the current-carrying capacity of graphene to as high as ~18 μA/nm(2) even at ambient conditions. Our results indicate that graphene's current-induced breakdown is thermally activated. We also found that the current carrying capacity of graphene can be improved not only on the single-crystal diamond substrates but also on an inexpensive ultrananocrystalline diamond, which can be produced in a process compatible with a conventional Si technology. The latter was attributed to the decreased thermal resistance of the ultrananocrystalline diamond layer at elevated temperatures. The obtained results are important for graphene's applications in high-frequency transistors, interconnects, and transparent electrodes and can lead to the new planar sp(2)-on-sp(3) carbon-on-carbon technology. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M; Heitzer, M [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  13. Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Incorporate Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    In the United States and elsewhere, renewable energy (RE) generation supplies an increasingly large percentage of annual demand, including nine U.S. states where wind comprised over 10% of in-state generation in 2013. This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating increasing amounts of variable RE, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration, and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—that can provide a framework for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of RE. There is growing recognition that while technical challenges to variable RE integration are real, they can generally be addressed via a variety of solutions that vary in implementation cost. As a result, limits to RE penetration are primarily economic, driven by factors that include transmission and the flexibility of the power grid to balance supply and demand. This limit can be expressed as economic carrying capacity, or the point at which variable RE is no longer economically competitive or desirable to the system or society.

  14. High-burnup/low-cooling-time fuel carrying capacity of the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.; Hopf, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In response to utilities' projected needs to ship higher burnup spent fuel, General Atomics (GA) has performed shielding and thermal analysis for the GA-4 and GA-9 legal weight shipping casks to determine the minimum cooling times for various burnup levels for fully loaded GA-4 and GA-9 casks and reduced payloads for the casks. Tables are provided in the paper which show the minimum cooling time for a given burnup and payload for each of the casks. The analyses show that the GA-4 and GA-9 casks can carry at least as many high-burnup and/or short-cooling-time spent fuel assemblies as present day shipping casks. In addition, the GA casks are able to carry at least twice as many assemblies as the present day shipping casks if the spent fuel burnup levels and/or cooling times are open-quotes coolerclose quotes or open-quotes as coolclose quotes as their design basis fuels. The increased shipping capacity for these more common open-quotes coolerclose quotes assemblies allows fewer shipments and therefore increases the efficiency and lowers predicted risks of the transport system

  15. Assessing testamentary and decision-making capacity: Approaches and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Kelly; Rosenfeld, Tuly

    2015-09-01

    The need for better and more accurate assessments of testamentary and decision-making capacity grows as Australian society ages and incidences of mentally disabling conditions increase. Capacity is a legal determination, but one on which medical opinion is increasingly being sought. The difficulties inherent within capacity assessments are exacerbated by the ad hoc approaches adopted by legal and medical professionals based on individual knowledge and skill, as well as the numerous assessment paradigms that exist. This can negatively affect the quality of assessments, and results in confusion as to the best way to assess capacity. This article begins by assessing the nature of capacity. The most common general assessment models used in Australia are then discussed, as are the practical challenges associated with capacity assessment. The article concludes by suggesting a way forward to satisfactorily assess legal capacity given the significant ramifications of getting it wrong.

  16. Carbon carry capacity and carbon sequestration potential in China based on an integrated analysis of mature forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YingChun; Yu, GuiRui; Wang, QiuFeng; Zhang, YangJian; Xu, ZeHong

    2014-12-01

    Forests play an important role in acting as a carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Although global forests have huge carbon carrying capacity (CCC) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP), there were few quantification reports on Chinese forests. We collected and compiled a forest biomass dataset of China, a total of 5841 sites, based on forest inventory and literature search results. From the dataset we extracted 338 sites with forests aged over 80 years, a threshold for defining mature forest, to establish the mature forest biomass dataset. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the carbon density of Chinese mature forests and its controlling factors, we used carbon density of mature forests as the reference level, and conservatively estimated the CCC of the forests in China by interpolation methods of Regression Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted and Partial Thin Plate Smoothing Spline. Combining with the sixth National Forest Resources Inventory, we also estimated the forest CSP. The results revealed positive relationships between carbon density of mature forests and temperature, precipitation and stand age, and the horizontal and elevational patterns of carbon density of mature forests can be well predicted by temperature and precipitation. The total CCC and CSP of the existing forests are 19.87 and 13.86 Pg C, respectively. Subtropical forests would have more CCC and CSP than other biomes. Consequently, relying on forests to uptake carbon by decreasing disturbance on forests would be an alternative approach for mitigating greenhouse gas concentration effects besides afforestation and reforestation.

  17. Evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on compliance and load carry capacity of shaped composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, A. N.; Tatus’, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this paper is analysis of design methods for composite beams and plates with curvilinear fiber trajectories. The novelty of this approach is determined by the fact that traditional composite materials are typically formed using prepregs with rectilinear fibers only. The results application area is associated with design process for shaped composite structure element by using of biomechanical principles. One of the related problems is the evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on stiffness and load carry capacity of shaped composite element with curvilinear fiber trajectories. Equistrong beam with constant cross-section area is considered as example, and it can be produced by unidirectional fiber bunch forming, impregnated with polymer matrix. Effective elastic modulus evaluation methods for structures with curvilinear fiber trajectories are validated. Misorientation angle range (up to 5o) when material with required accuracy can be considered as homogeneous, neglecting fiber misorientation, is determined. It is shown that for the beams with height-to-width ratio small enough it is possible to consider 2D misorientation only.

  18. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  19. A New Methodology for Solving Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Load-Carrying Capacity of a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a direct method for obtaining the best found trajectory planning and maximum dynamic load-carrying capacity (DLCC is presented for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF hybrid robot manipulator. A nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem is formulated with four objective functions, namely, travel time, total energy involved in the motion, joint jerks, and joint acceleration. The vector of decision variables is defined by the sequence of the time-interval lengths associated with each two consecutive via-points on the desired trajectory of the 5-DOF robot generalized coordinates. Then this vector of decision variables is computed in order to minimize the cost function (which is the weighted sum of these four objective functions subject to constraints on joint positions, velocities, acceleration, jerks, forces/torques, and payload mass. Two separate approaches are proposed to deal with the trajectory planning problem and the maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF robot manipulator using an evolutionary optimization technique. The adopted evolutionary algorithm is the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. A numerical application is performed for obtaining best found solutions of trajectory planning and maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF hybrid robot manipulator.

  20. Work capacity assessment of Nigerian bricklayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S .O. Ismaila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the physical work capacity of bricklayers with focus on the energy expenditure during work. Eighty Nine bricklayers’ working on various sites in Ibadan and Eruwa towns of Oyo State, Nigeria are used for the study. Correlation and regression analysis using SPSS 16.0 Statistical Package was used to determine the relationship between VO2 given the age and weight of the subjects; % RHR(Relative Heart Rate and working heart rate (HRW given weight; VO2 and %RHR given Body Mass Index (BMI. The results showed that the mean energy expenditure of bricklaying was 1.5l/min of oxygen (7.23Kcal/min, using a conversion factor of 4.82 which classified bricklaying as “heavy work”. A rest allowance of 64.45% (38.67 minutes rest for 60 minutes work duration was calculated. It was concluded that there is a need to redesign the work content of the aforementioned occupation in order to reduce excessive strain on the workers, which in turn will increase productivity.

  1. 攀枝花市旅游人口承载容量研究%Research of Tourist Population Carrying Capacity in Panzhihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔博; 邓伟; 刘邵权; 陶和平; 刘颖

    2011-01-01

    选择四川省攀枝花市典型旅游城市5县19个景点作为研究对象,通过分析空间、社会、经济作为三大主要旅游人口容量的影响因子,并改进了社会容量方法,定量分析了攀枝花市旅游人口承载容量。研究表明,空间承载容量成为制约攀枝花市景区发展并限制接待游客容量的主要因素,主要包括旅游线路不发达,景区内可达面积小。本研究有助于丰富和完善旅游人口承载容量的理论和研究体系,可为当地的生态环境保护和旅游开发建设提供科学依据。%Five counties,including 19 scenic spots,which have features of typical tourism city,in Panzhihua city,Sichuan province,were chosen for the study of the tourism carrying capacity.To quantitatively analyze the tourism carrying capacity of the five counties,the three main factors,which were spatial carrying capacity,social carrying capacity,and economic carrying capacity,were studied and the model of the social carrying capacity was improved.The spatial carrying capacity became the main barrier to limit the reception visitor carrying capacity and restrict the development of Panzhihua scenic area,the main reasons included inconvenient tourism route and traffic transportation,the small developed reachable area.It can accelerate the establishment of economic effect and environmental effect of local tourism industry.

  2. Study plan for evaluating carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 2 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one report of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated December 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for the development of a study plan based on the critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. In the evaluation of carrying capacity the authors concluded that defining capacity and listing the determinants of capacity is not a simple exercise. Capacity is a complex variable among the attributes that all together define salmon performance. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, will not lead to the development of a useful study plan. To increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. This report describes the elements of a study plan that could be used to increase the understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors that influence salmon survival under current conditions

  3. Impact of the thermal effect on the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair for an aviation axial-piston pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng TANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A thermal hydraulic model based on the lumped parameter method is presented to analyze the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair in an aviation axial-piston pump under specified operating conditions. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the thermal hydraulic model. The results illustrate that the squeezing force and thermal wedge bearing force are the main factors that affect the film thickness and load-carrying capacity. At high oil temperature and high load pressure, the film thickness decreases with increasing clamping force due to a combined action of the squeezing bearing force and the thermal wedge bearing force, but the load-carrying capacity will increase. An increase of the film thickness is proven to be beneficial under high shaft rotational speed but especially dangerous as it strongly increases the ripple amplitude of the film thickness, which leads to decreasing the load-carrying capacity. The structural parameters of the slipper can be optimized to achieve desired performance, such as the slipper radius ratio and orifice length diameter ratio. To satisfy the requirement of the load-carrying capacity, the slipper radius ratio should be selected from 1.4 to 1.8, and the orifice length diameter ratio should be selected from 4 to 5. Keywords: Aviation axial piston pump, Fluid lubrication, Load-carrying capacity, Slipper pair, Thermal effect

  4. Probabilistic Capacity Assessment of Lattice Transmission Towers under Strong Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serving as one key component of the most important lifeline infrastructure system, transmission towers are vulnerable to multiple nature hazards including strong wind and could pose severe threats to the power system security with possible blackouts under extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, derechoes, or winter storms. For the security and resiliency of the power system, it is important to ensure the structural safety with enough capacity for all possible failure modes, such as structural stability. The study is to develop a probabilistic capacity assessment approach for transmission towers under strong wind loads. Due to the complicated structural details of lattice transmission towers, wind tunnel experiments are carried out to understand the complex interactions of wind and the lattice sections of transmission tower and drag coefficients and the dynamic amplification factor for different panels of the transmission tower are obtained. The wind profile is generated and the wind time histories are simulated as a summation of time-varying mean and fluctuating components. The capacity curve for the transmission towers is obtained from the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA method. To consider the stochastic nature of wind field, probabilistic capacity curves are generated by implementing IDA analysis for different wind yaw angles and different randomly generated wind speed time histories. After building the limit state functions based on the maximum allowable drift to height ratio, the probabilities of failure are obtained based on the meteorological data at a given site. As the transmission tower serves as the key nodes for the power network, the probabilistic capacity curves can be incorporated into the performance based design of the power transmission network.

  5. The anterior-ventrolateral temporal lobe contributes to boosting visual working memory capacity for items carrying semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Rocco; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2018-04-01

    Working memory (WM) is a buffer that temporarily maintains information, be it visual or auditory, in an active state, caching its contents for online rehearsal or manipulation. How the brain enables long-term semantic knowledge to affect the WM buffer is a theoretically significant issue awaiting further investigation. In the present study, we capitalise on the knowledge about famous individuals as a 'test-case' to study how it impinges upon WM capacity for human faces and its neural substrate. Using continuous theta-burst transcranial stimulation combined with a psychophysical task probing WM storage for varying contents, we provide compelling evidence that (1) faces (regardless of familiarity) continued to accrue in the WM buffer with longer encoding time, whereas for meaningless stimuli (colour shades) there was little increment; (2) the rate of WM accrual was significantly more efficient for famous faces, compared to unknown faces; (3) the right anterior-ventrolateral temporal lobe (ATL) causally mediated this superior WM storage for famous faces. Specifically, disrupting the ATL (a region tuned to semantic knowledge including person identity) selectively hinders WM accrual for celebrity faces while leaving the accrual for unfamiliar faces intact. Further, this 'semantically-accelerated' storage is impervious to disruption of the right middle frontal gyrus and vertex, supporting the specific and causative contribution of the right ATL. Our finding advances the understanding of the neural architecture of WM, demonstrating that it depends on interaction with long-term semantic knowledge underpinned by the ATL, which causally expands the WM buffer when visual content carries semantic information. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Management of Carrying Capacity in Mountain Heritage%山岳型遗产地环境容量动态管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 赵建峰; 黄潇婷

    2015-01-01

    and management of heritage carrying capacity involve many disciplines. Traditional static measurements obtain the optimal value and saturation value for a certain space, which is the main technical method of traditional carrying capacity study. However, tourists, the subjects who affect carrying capacity of environment are dynamic. Especially, as to Mountain heritage sites, its environmental capacity are relatively limited for their topography characteristics. Massive and concentrated visits will not only increase the pressure of environmental protection, but also influence the quality of tourist experience, and even sometimes threaten tourist physical security. Traditional researches on tourism environmental capacity mainly depend on static measurement. By introducing time dimension and analyzing the rule of spatiotemporal distribution of tourist flow, this paper proposed a new method of dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage through putting forward the concept of “the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow”, and recognizes it with time geography method. The results of data analysis of Mountain Tai show that there are seven spatial bayonets, which are Red Gate, Stone Valley, Half Way Gate to Heaven, South Gate to Heaven, Tianjie, Jade Emperor Peak and Riguan peak, while the temporal bayonets are decentralization relatively. All those temporal-spatial bayonets of the middle route in Mountain Tai only account for 5. 52% of the whole area, which attract almost 50. 04% tourists. Hence one can see that, recognition and management of Space-Time Bayonet of tourists flow is quite important to dynamic management of carrying capacity in mountain heritage. Besides, this paper discussed the academic contribution of the spatiotemporal bayonet of tourist flow and its potential application practically through regulating tourist ’s behavior, controlling tourism environmental capacity dynamically and building intelligent early-warning system three aspect

  7. 楼观台森林公园旅游环境容量研究%Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity of Louguantai Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓慧; 陈强

    2011-01-01

    综合旅游空间容量、旅游生态容量、旅游设施容量、旅游心理容量4个因素,对楼观台国家森林公园旅游环境容量进行了测算,通过对比发现楼观台森林公园游客接待量远小于理论旅游环境容量,并对造成这种现状的主要原因进行了分析,提出了相关建议.%In this paper, an integrated estimation on the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Louguantai National Forest Park was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. It was found that the number of reception tourists in the park was far less than its theoretical predication tourism environment capacity. Main reasons were analysised and some suggestions were proposed.

  8. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  9. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 1 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity.

  10. Carrying the past to the future: Distinct brain networks underlie individual differences in human spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Poh, Jia-Hou; Koh, Hui Li; Ng, Kwun Kei; Loke, Yng Miin; Lim, Joseph Kai Wei; Chong, Joanna Su Xian; Zhou, Juan

    2018-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels. To a subset of participants (N = 28) that performed the task properly and had artefact-free fMRI and EEG data, we employed a novel temporo-spatial principal component analysis to derive load-dependent negative slow wave (NSW) from retention-related event-related potentials. The associations between NSW responses with SWM capacity were divergent in the higher (N = 14) and lower (N = 14) SWM capacity groups. Specifically, larger load-related increase in NSW amplitude was associated with greater SWM capacity for the higher capacity group but lower SWM capacity for the lower capacity group. Furthermore, for the higher capacity group, larger NSW amplitude was related to greater activation in bilateral parietal areas of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and greater deactivation in medial frontal gyrus and posterior mid-cingulate cortex of the default mode network (DMN) during retention. In contrast, the lower capacity group did not show similar pattern. Instead, greater NSW was linked to higher deactivation in right posterior middle temporal gyrus. Our findings shed light on the possible differential EEG-informed neural network mechanism during memory maintenance underlying individual differences in SWM capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conceptual Models and Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Financial Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine. Accompanying presentation of the models is discussion of conceptual and practical perspectives they represent for clinician assessment. Based on the models, the article concludes by presenting a series of conceptually oriented guidelines for clinical assessment of financial capacity. In summary, sound assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of clinical conceptual models and principles. Awareness of such models, principles and guidelines will strengthen and advance clinical assessment of financial capacity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty. MNCH policy ... search, lack of actionable messages in research reports, and limited ... of research evidence is but one factor influencing all stag- es of what ... However, in order to design an effective capacity en-.

  13. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  14. 承德市旅游环境承载力分析%Analysis of Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity of Chengde City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾紫牧; 曾维华

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of domestic tourism demands,the number of tourists had increased dramatically.Relatively poor facilities and services led to overload of the tourism environment carrying capacity.Eleven most attractive scenic spots in Chengde City were chosen to quantitatively analyze resource carrying capacity,environment carrying capacity and psychological carrying capacity.Then,tourism environment carrying capacity of Chengde City was calculated by use of Buckets effect.The results showed that carrying capacity of the tourism environment of Chengde City was about 29.93 million tourists per year and almost reached to saturation with the increase of tourists year by year.%我国旅游需求快速膨胀,游客数量急剧增加,但配套设施及管理、服务水平相对落后,旅游环境超负荷承栽.选择承德市11个最具吸引力的景区,综合考虑资源、环境和心理3个维度,定量分析各承载力分量,在此基础上根据“木桶原理”确定承德市旅游环境承载力.研究表明:承德市全年的旅游环境承栽力约为2993万人,随着游客人数逐年递增,旅游环境承载力已接近饱和.

  15. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  16. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  17. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  18. Quantitative risk assessment using the capacity-demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, M.; Donnelly, C.R.; Westermann, G.D.; Huang, J.H.S.; Lam, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The hydroelectric industry's recognition of the importance of avoiding unexpected failure, or forced outages, led to the development of probabilistic, or risk-based, methods in order to attempt to quantify exposures. Traditionally, such analysis has been carried out by qualitative assessments, relying on experience and sound engineering judgment to determine the optimum time to maintain, repair or replace a part or system. Depending on the nature of the problem, however, and the level of experience of those included in the decision making process, it is difficult to find a balance between acting proactively and accepting some amount of risk. The development of a practical means for establishing the probability of failure of any part or system, based on the determination of the statistical distribution of engineering properties such as acting stresses, is discussed. The capacity-demand analysis methodology, coupled with probablistic, risk-based analysis, permits all the factors associated with a decision to rehabilitate or replace a part, including the risks associated with the timing of the decision, to be assessed in a transparent and defendable manner. The methodology does not eliminate judgment altogether, but does move it from the level of estimating the risk of failure to the lower level of estimating variability in material properties, uncertainty in loading, and the uncertainties inherent in any engineering analysis. The method was successfully used in 1998 to carry out a comprehensive, economic risk analysis for the entire water conveyance system of a 90 year old hydropower station. The analysis included a number of diverse parts ranging from rock slopes and aging steel and concrete conduits, and the method allowed a rational assessment of the risks associated with reach of these varied parts to be determined, permitting the essential remedial works to be prioritized. 14 refs., 4 figs

  19. Potential for Grey wolf Canis lupus in the Netherlands : effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change on the carrying capacity and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potiek, A.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Jochem, R.; Langevelde, van F.

    2012-01-01

    Recolonization of the Netherlands by wolves is likely to occur within 5 to 10 years, and for management reasons the habitat suitability should be understood. Therefore, I predicted the carrying capacity and population dynamics of the wolf in the Netherlands, and studied the effects of habitat

  20. Overview of the Domestic Research on Tourism Carrying Capacity%国内旅游容量研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇文波; 李德云; 秦愿; 鲁梦

    2017-01-01

    旅游饱和、旅游超载等现象频出,旅游容量及相关研究日益成为学界和业界共同关注的焦点.本文利用文献分析法,检索、梳理并评析国内旅游容量研究的相关文献,围绕旅游容量的概念、内涵、研究成果以及面临的挑战等内容进行分类归纳.研究发现,国内旅游容量研究侧重于概念、内涵解析以及旅游景区管理面临的挑战等方面,未来应侧重于完善概念体系、改进计算方法、融入可持续发展理念以及实际应用方面的研究,以期本文的研究能为今后国内相关研究和旅游地管理实践提供参考和借鉴.%The phenomenon of tourism saturation and tourism overload frequently happens,which increases the attention of academic and tourism destination managers.This paper retrieves and analyzes the relevant literatures on domestic tourism capacity research,and summarizes the contents of tourism capacity,connotation,research results and challenges.It is found that the domestic tourism capacity research should focus on the conceptual system,the connotation analysis and the challenge of tourism scenic spot management.The future should focus on perfecting the conceptual system,improving the calculation method,integrating into the concept of sustainable development and practical research.This research can provide reference for the future domestic research and tourism management practice.

  1. 福清旅游环境承载力研究%Study on the Carrying Capacity of Fuqing Tourism Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玲

    2012-01-01

    The policy of developing the economic zone on the west side of Taiwan strait has created a good opportunity for the development of tourism in Fujian. Due to its favorable geographical location, Fuqing will definitely become the beneficiary of the development. A significant growth in tourism is foreseeable. This paper analyzes the carrying capacity of Fuqing ecological environment, carrying capacity of resources space, residents' psychological carrying capacity as well as economic carrying capacity so as to find out the comprehensive environment carrying capacity. The obstacles to the development of tourism in Fuqing have been identified and countermeasures were provided in the hope of promoting Fuqing tourism industry.%海西建设的提出为福建旅游业发展带来了良好的契机,福清由于其优越的地理位置,势必会成为海西建设的受益者,旅游业必将会得到迅猛的发展,在这种前提下,本文通过对福清市的生态环境承载力、资源空间承载力、居民心理承载力和经济承载力的定量分析,得出了福清市的综合环境承载力,从而找出制约福清旅游业发展的主要因素,在此基础上提出相应的对策建议,以此来促进福清旅游业的发展。

  2. Establishing Self-Assessment Mechanisms and Capacities (INIR Approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The Regional National Nuclear Power Infrastructure Evaluation Workshop on Establishing Self-Assessment Mechanisms and Capacities (INIR Approach) Covers Milestones 1 and 2, which can be carried out at any point to review progress and addresses each of the 19 infrastructure issues. For each condition, identifies the evidence that will show it has been met and Seek to avoid duplication as much as possible. The following elements should be contained in an Evaluation Report, as a minimum: Identification of the “Evaluators' Team” by position/role; Identification of the “Team of Respondents”; A description of the process used to conduct the evaluation; Lists of the evidence reviewed and further actions required; Summary of conclusions giving the status of achievement of each condition; References to any relevant material used for conducting the evaluation and Confidentiality requirements. Main Steps for a Complete Self-Assessment include- Organization and management, Evaluate the status of development of the infrastructure against the basis listed in the Roadmap / White Paper / Milestone Document, Identify synergies between all Organizations involved, Identify areas needing further attention, Preparing an action plan to address these areas and If needed, identify IAEA / Multilateral / Bilateral supports. Evaluation steps include Determine the scope and terms of reference, strongly recommended that all 19 issues are covered, Identify the organizations to be involved, the individuals who will conduct the evaluation; Evaluate the status of the infrastructure against the basis listed

  3. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  4. Motor adaptation capacity as a function of age in carrying out a repetitive assembly task at imposed work paces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Martine Annie; Guélin, Jean-Charles; Desbrosses, Kévin; Wild, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    The working population is getting older. Workers must adapt to changing conditions to respond to the efforts required by the tasks they have to perform. In this laboratory-based study, we investigated the capacities of motor adaptation as a function of age and work pace. Two phases were identified in the task performed: a collection phase, involving dominant use of the lower limbs; and an assembly phase, involving bi-manual motor skills. Results showed that senior workers were mainly limited during the collection phase, whereas they had less difficulty completing the assembly phase. However, senior workers did increase the vertical force applied while assembling parts, whatever the work pace. In younger and middle-aged subjects, vertical force was increased only for the faster pace. Older workers could adapt to perform repetitive tasks under different time constraints, but adaptation required greater effort than for younger workers. These results point towards a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among seniors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Applied Method for Predicting the Load-Carrying Capacity in Compression of Thin-Wall Composite Structures with Impact Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Pavelko, I.; Varickis, S.; Vagele, A.

    2018-03-01

    The necessity for considering both strength criteria and postbuckling effects in calculating the load-carrying capacity in compression of thin-wall composite structures with impact damage is substantiated. An original applied method ensuring solution of these problems with an accuracy sufficient for practical design tasks is developed. The main advantage of the method is its applicability in terms of computing resources and the set of initial data required. The results of application of the method to solution of the problem of compression of fragments of thin-wall honeycomb panel damaged by impacts of various energies are presented. After a comparison of calculation results with experimental data, a working algorithm for calculating the reduction in the load-carrying capacity of a composite object with impact damage is adopted.

  6. Methodology for calculating the tourist carrying capacity as a tool for environmental management and its implementation in five northern Colombian Caribbean beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, Camilo; Yuri, Hurtado; Gonzalez, Jose

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to calculate carrying capacity in tourist beaches, further than merely environmental issues. Moreover, it understands beaches as complex systems towards its sustainable development. Five beaches in the North Caribbean coast of Colombia were chosen and classified in four tourism beach sorts: intensive, conservation, shared and ethnic. The analysis was done with legal framework review, fieldwork and indicators design, within three components: environmental support, urban infrastructure and tourist services. A new model to calculate carrying capacity in tourist beaches was created, and later applied on the study beaches. Current conditions of the five beaches were highlighted, their tourist carrying capacity were calculated and more important actions in each component were recommended. The main conclusion foster to take in consideration natural conditions as a core factor in beach management, but including a holistic approach in making decision process. Also this paper showed the current conditions of Colombian beaches as a warning, giving recommendations in short and medium term. This document is result of the project Determinacion de un sistema de calificacion y certificacion de playas turisticas.

  7. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was coconut and palm oil. Confectionery had the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar services. Overall, real estate gained the highest real benefit, while repair not classified elsewhere had the lowest real benefit for the company. If Thailand uses an indicator of environmental harm, especially within the food manufacturing sector, it could help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in three areas of development, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  8. Increased Chromosomal Radiosensitivity in Women Carrying BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations Assessed With the G2 Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernestos, Beroukas; Nikolaos, Pandis; Koulis, Giannoukakos; Eleni, Rizou; Konstantinos, Beroukas; Alexandra, Giatromanolaki; Michael, Koukourakis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several in vitro studies suggest that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers present increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Different assays for the assessment of deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand break repair capacity have been used, but results are rather inconsistent. Given the concerns about the possible risks of breast screening with mammography in mutation carrier women and the potentially damaging effects of radiotherapy, the purpose of this study was to further investigate the radiosensitivity of this population. Methods and Materials: The G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay was used to assess chromosomal breaks in lymphocyte cultures after exposure to 1 Gy. A group of familiar breast cancer patients carrying a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene (n = 15) and a group of healthy mutation carriers (n = 5) were investigated and compared with a reference group of healthy women carrying no mutation (n = 21). Results: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had a significantly higher number of mean chromatid breaks per cell (p = 0.006) and a higher maximum number of breaks (p = 0.0001) as compared with their matched controls. Both healthy carriers and carriers with a cancer history were more radiosensitive than controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.025, respectively). Age was not associated with increased radiosensitivity (p = 0.868). Conclusions: Our results indicate that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers show enhanced radiosensitivity, presumably because of the involvement of the BRCA genes in deoxyribonucleic acid repair and cell cycle control mechanisms.

  9. Methodological approaches to assessing of country’s financial capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Polchanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to the theoretical basis of country’s financial capacity assessment, its specificities and algorithm. The aim of the investigation is the generalization of methodological approaches to evaluating country’s financial capacity. The author determines that the assessment involves preparatory, analytical, and final stages. The special attention is paid to the information based on the analysis, demands on it, impact of changes in methodology, dynamics of macroeconomic indicators. The establishment of the united analytical center for assessment of financial capacity of the state for post-conflict recovery is proposed. The results of the critical review of the publications in this field have helped to improve the classification of country’s financial capacity assessment methods by providing some new attributes such as the focus of the evaluation and type of intelligence. The problem of using unlicensed software to assess the financial capacity of the state and the associated risk have not been left without attention.

  10. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thompson

    Full Text Available The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  11. Study on quantitative evaluation of environmental carrying capacity of eco-tourism%生态旅游环境承载力评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金梅; 林建

    2012-01-01

    近年来生态旅游迅猛发展,成为国内外旅游的热点,但生态旅游环境压力加大,如何评价环境压力就成了不容忽视的问题。在系统分析法基础上,提出生态旅游环境承载力概念,建立一套包括经济和社会承载力等5个子系统的科学生态旅游环境承载力指标体系及评价模型,并以武夷山自然保护区为例进行实证研究,研究结果表明其环境承载力远远超过实际游客数量,需要采取加强生态监测和科学功能分区等措施。%In recent years,ecological tourism becomes the domestic and foreign tourist hot spot,but the pressure of ecological tourism environment is increased. How to evaluate the environmental stress becomes a problem that cannot ignored. Combined with the former research,based on the system analysis method, the concepts of the ecological carrying capacity of tourism environment is proposed,a set of scientific ecological carrying capacity of tourism environment index system and evaluation model are established, including five sub-systems of economic and social capacity,and taking the nature protection area of Wuyishan as a case study, the results shows that the environmental carrying capacity force is far more than the actual number of tourists. It is needed to take the measures of strengthening the ecological monitoring and scientific zoning.

  12. Tourism Planning and Design Based on the Environmental Carrying Capacity%基于环境承载力的旅游规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀慧萍

    2015-01-01

    旅游的发展必然会对环境造成一定的影响,如何在发展旅游与保护环境之间取得平衡,是旅游规划设计中必须考虑的一个焦点问题. 环境承载能力又称环境容量,基于环境承载力进行旅游规划设计,能很好地确保旅游与环境间的和谐发展. 笔者对环境承载力进行了简要概述,提出了基于环境自洁能力、基于环境再生能力、基于生态足迹的旅游环境承载力的计算方法. 就基于环境承载能力的旅游规划设计进行了探讨,对地区旅游业的可持续发展、旅游资源的开发和调整、旅游环境的保护具有重要意义.%The development of tourism causes certain effect on the environment, and how to achieve a balance between tourism development and environmental protection is a focus problem, which in the tourism planning and design must be considered.Environmental carrying capacity is also called the environment capacity, tourism planning and design based on the environmental carrying capacity can ensure the harmonious development between tourism and environment.In this pa-per, tourism planning and design based on the environmental carrying capacity are discussed, which has positive signifi-cance for the sustainable development of regional tourism experience, the development of tourism resources and the adjust-ment, the protection of tourism environment .

  13. A study on the carrying capacity of the available habitat for the Rhinopithecus bieti population at Mt. Laojun in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yu, Shixiao; Ren, Baoping; Li, Ming; Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng

    2009-06-01

    The Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is one of the most endangered primates in the world. It is experiencing a range of ongoing threats and the persisting effects of past disturbances. The prospects for this species are not very optimistic because habitat corridors are severely damaged by logging, grazing, and mining. Each group of the monkeys in different areas is facing a unique variety of threats. Based on genetic analysis, Rhinopithecus bieti should be separated into three management units for conservation, of which the Mt. Laojun management unit involves the most endangered primates. Despite the fact that the vegetation on Mt. Laojun is in a relatively pristine state, only two groups of monkeys, of a total of fewer than 300, survive in the area. With this paper, we aimed to address the capacity of the monkeys' habitat at the study site and the possible reasons for the small populations. Rapid ecological assessment based on a SPOT 5 image and field survey was used to simulate the vegetation of the whole area based on reference ecological factors of the GIS system. The vegetation map of the site was thus derived from this simulation. Based on the previous studies, the three vegetation types were identified as the suitable habitat of the monkeys. The confusion matrix-based field GPS points were applied to analyze the precision of the habitat map. Based on the map of suitable habitat of the monkeys, the utilization of the habitat and the carrying capacity were analyzed in the GIS. The confusion matrix-based field GPS points were applied to the habitat analysis process, and it was found that the habitat map was 81.3% precise. Then, with the current habitat map, we found that the mixed forest currently used by the monkeys is only a very small fraction (2.65%) of the overall potential habitat of the population, while the dark conifer forest is 4.09%. Poaching is the greatest short-term threat to this species, particularly in the southern range where local residents have a

  14. Development of urbanization in arid and semi arid regions based on the water resource carrying capacity -- a case study of Changji, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Zhang, L.; Chai, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The arid and semiarid region in China where have a relatively weak economic foundation, independent development capacity, and the low-level of urbanization. The new urbanization within these regions is facing severe challenges brought by the constraints of resources. In this paper, we selected the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region as study area. We found that agricultural planting structure is the key water consumption index based on the research about the main water demands of domestic, agriculture and industry. Finally, we suggest that more attentions should be paid to the rational utilization of water resources, population carrying capacity, and adjust and upgrade the industrial structure, with the purpose of coordination with the Silk Road Economic Belt.

  15. Research on Eco-environment Carrying Capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area%南伊沟景区生态环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 杨小林; 王忠斌

    2015-01-01

    Eco-environment carrying capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area in Milin County,Linzhi area,Tibet was studied, the results showed that the recent ecological footprint of the scenic area was 674.70 hm2,effective ecological carrying capacity was 841.13 hm2,and ecological surplus was 166.43 hm2. In terms of current and short-term planning of the scenic area,tourism activities will not bring serious damages to the ecological environment,and ecological footprint of the study area can be further developed. But from the perspective of ecological carrying capacity,the scenic area needs a proper long-term planning,so the paper proposes the sustainable development strategies for the Nanyi Valley Scenic Area. It provides the theoretic basis for the reasonable planning,effective management and sustainable development of the scenic area.%对西藏林芝地区米林县南伊沟景区进行生态环境承载力研究,结果表明,近期南伊沟景区生态足迹量为674.70 hm2,有效生态承载力841.13 hm2,生态盈余166.43 hm2。就景区目前及近期规划来说,开展旅游活动不会对景区生态环境产生大的影响,景区生态足迹还可进一步发展。但从生态承载力方面考虑,景区应特别注意远期规划。提出了南伊沟景区可持续发展对策。

  16. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonov, Anton; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  17. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonov, Anton, E-mail: anton.andonov@mottmac.com; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  18. 长治湿地公园生态旅游环境容量研究%Study on the Ecotourism Carrying Capacity of Changzhi Wetland Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋珂; 樊正球; 信欣; 王新军; 王原

    2011-01-01

    生态旅游环境容量作为衡量旅游环境与旅游发展是否协调的重要尺度,为旅游的可持续发展提供了较为客观的判断依据.从长治湿地公园自身的承受能力出发,综合旅游生态容量(Ce)与旅游空间容量(Cs)两方面因素评估区域的生态旅游环境容量(其中Ce为40 632~52 366(人次/d),Cs为28 872~55 376(人次/d),对长治湿地公园的规划建设和管理提出3个不同的情景方案.%Ecotourism carrying capacity is a standard to measure the coordination between tourism environment and tourism development.It provides a basis judgment for the sustainable development of tourism.Based on the analyses of the ecological environmental carrying capacity(Ce)and the ecological spatial carrying capacity(Cs),an integrated estimation on the carrying capacity of Changzhi Wetland Park was made(In which Ce is 40632—52366 passengers/day,Cs is 28872—55376 passengers/day).Finally,three scenario programs were put forward,which could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of this wetland park.

  19. Research on Forewarning System of Tourism Carrying Capacity in Pingtan Island Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation%基于模糊综合评价的海岛旅游环境承载力预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽芳; 丁丽英

    2012-01-01

    以旅游环境承栽力预警相关理论为指导,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,建立旅游环境承栽力综合评价指标体系,并以平潭海岛为个案进行实证研究.结果表明:平潭旅游环境承栽力总体处于轻度超栽状态,为实现平潭旅游的可持续发展,提出了平潭旅游今后发展的重点方向.%This paper is using the process of qualitative and quantitative combination to build the tourism carrying capacity assessment criteria system under the guidance of the forewarning system of the tourism carrying capacity and based on the empirical research of Pingtan Island. The results show that. the overall tourism carrying capacity in Pingtan is slightly overloaded. In order to achieve the sustainable development of tourism in Pingtan,the paper presents key directions of its furture development.

  20. Assessing fistula and obstetrical surgical capacity in South Kivu, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Morris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo has suffered from decades of conflict and poverty. The Eastern DRC, in particular, continues to be a region dominated by instability, resulting in a fragmented health system. Governments and agencies interested in working towards improving health in the region are often challenged by an absence of knowledge of health metrics, limited capacity for health care delivery and overwhelming needs. The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and Engender Health needs assessment, outlined in this report, demonstrates an effort to better understand the current state of surgical capacity in the region with an emphasis on needs and opportunities related to fistula repair.

  1. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  2. Investigation on the fiber based approach to estimate the axial load carrying capacity of the circular concrete filled steel tube (CFST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscesa, B.; Attard, M. M.; Suprobo, P.; Samani, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    External confining devices are often used to enhance the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns. Among the available external confining devices, steel tube is one of the most widely used in construction. However, steel tube has some drawbacks such as local buckling which needs to be considered when estimating the axial load carrying capacity of the concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column. To tackle this problem in design, Eurocode 4 provided guidelines to estimate the effective yield strength of the steel tube material. To study the behavior of CFST column, in this paper, a non-linear analysis using a fiber-based approach was conducted. The use of the fiber-based approach allows the engineers to predict not only the axial load carrying capacity but also the complete load-deformation curve of the CFST columns for a known confining pressure. In the proposed fiber-based approach, an inverse analysis is used to estimate the constant confining pressure similar to design-oriented models. This paper also presents comparisons between the fiber-based approach model with the experimental results and the 3D non-linear finite element analysis.

  3. Assessing the criminal capacity of children: a challenge to the capacity of mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Anthony L; Willows, Clive

    2015-01-01

    With increasing numbers of juveniles accused of serious crimes international concern is growing around the procedural consequences for affected individuals within the context of the law and criminal justice. Issues of culpability in children and adolescents are often raised, with much deliberation and insufficient agreement among legal and child development experts. Exactly when and to what extent juveniles can be held responsible for their action is a matter requiring careful consideration to avoid substantial erring in either direction. Although some international guiding standards and principles have been established, these are rather broad and unable to provide specific prescriptions. In addition, the assessment of criminal capacity in juveniles is a complex task, and one that is not wholly without reliability and validity problems. As in the case of South Africa and a few other countries, mental health specialists are often tasked with conducting developmental assessments to provide courts with expert evidence regarding criminal capacity. This paper examines the concept of criminal capacity in the context of the theory, controversies and challenges that affect this area of psychological focus.

  4. A Review of Researches on Tourism Carrying Capacity Based on Meta-analysi%基于元分析的旅游承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊霞; 段文军; 赵立禄; 谢靖

    2012-01-01

    随着旅游可持续发展观念的不断深入,旅游承载力研究逐渐成为研究热点,为了了解旅游承载力当前研究现状及存在问题,并寻找其研究的新突破,文章借助元分析研究方法,对1979~2012年之间相关文献进行分类和统计。从文献数量变化、研究内容、研究对象、评价指标体系和旅游承载力评价方法等方面进行中外对比分析,分析相关研究在研究对象、指标选取和研究方法等方面的总体特征及国内外研究差异。%With the further development of the concept of the tourism sustainahle development, tourism carrying capacity is becoming a hot topic. This paper reviews the researches on tourism earrying capacity based on Mcta-analysis and compare the researches hetween China anti foreign countries. Through comparative analysis of relative literature from 1979 to 2012, we compared the umber of the literatures, contents and ohjects, evaluation index system and evaluation methodology. Then, this article analyzed the current research status and the problems in tourism carrying capacity researching. Lastly, some suggestions to deal with the existing problems were proposed.

  5. Developing a Capacity Assessment Framework for Marine Logistics Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Corps, 2015; and 1st Marine Logistics Group, 2015. RAND RR1572-2.3 1st FSSG Headquarters Regiment Security Company CLR-1 CLR-15 7th ESB 1st Medical... Companies . Supply and maintenance battalions form the bulk of CLR-15. The Combat Logistics Companies are small, task-organized companies that support Marine...under- standing logistics capacity as it pertains to informing decisions to improve efficiencies and reduce costs . Most often these assessments of

  6. Research and application advances in ecological carrying capacity%生态承载力研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向芸芸; 蒙吉军

    2012-01-01

    The study of ecological carrying capacity is an important basis for the settlement of resource shortage and environment deterioration and the realization of regional sustainable development, and also, one of the hot spots in geography, ecology, and economics. After reviewing the related research achievements, this paper elucidated the connotation of ecological carrying capacity , i. e. , a representation of the supporting function and compressive stress of complex ecosystem , introduced the universal measuring methods of ecological carrying capacity, e. g. , net primary productivity (NPP) , ecological footprint (EF) , balance of supply and demand, evaluation with comprehensive indices, and systematic modeling, and presented the research progress in the ecological carrying capacity of the regions being more concerned, including watersheds, ecological fragile areas, cities, agricultural areas, and tourism areas. The deficiencies in current studies, such as the shortage of complete scientific research system, the ambiguity of threshold value's ecological meaning, the lack of time series study, and the absence of spatial pattern analysis, were summarized, and accordingly, the development trends in action mechanisms, model construction, and practical application were prospected.%生态承载力研究是解决资源-环境矛盾、实现区域可持续发展的重要基础,也是地理学、生态学和经济学关注的热点与前沿领域.本文在综述国内外相关研究成果的基础上,阐述了生态承载力的概念内涵,即对复合生态系统支持力和压力的表征;评述了常用的研究方法,即净初级生产力估测法、生态足迹法、供需平衡法、综合指标评价法和系统模型法;介绍了目前较为关注的流域、生态脆弱区、城市、农业区和旅游区生态承载力的研究进展;总结了目前生态承载力研究存在的缺乏科学完整的研究体系、阈值的生态学指示意义不明确、动

  7. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  8. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  9. 农业生产与水资源承载力评价%Agricultural production and evaluation in terms of water resources carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞祎; 张晖; 胡浩

    2016-01-01

    AbstractBased on the evaluation of water resources carrying capacity, especially taking into account the impact of agricultural pollution on sustainable use of water resources, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on the strains of water resources due to farming and animal production in different regions of China to provide reference for rational estimation of potential agricultural growth and correct approaches for structural adjustments in agriculture. Excess nitrogen and grey water were calculated as indicators to quantify the impact of agricultural pollution on water resources. Following nutrient balance theory, excess nitrogen was the difference between the sum of nitrogen provided by chemical fertilizer, livestock manure and soil, and total nitrogen needed by farming. Grey water was the amount of water required for diluting excessively high concentration of nitrogen in water to a more environmental-friendly level. Agricultural water footprint was the sum of agricultural water and grey water used. The huge quantity of excess nitrogen produced by farming and livestock consequently led to excessive amount of grey water, which more than doubled the amount of water used in agriculture. There was therefore the need to reserve enough environmental space for diluting pollution when estimating water resources carrying capacity based on water sustainability and healthy development. Water surplus were constructed to reflect the potential of water resources to support agricultural production with detailed environmental consideration. Water surplus was the difference between water resources and agricultural water footprint. Using 2003-2012 nationwide samples, a panel data model was constructed to analyze the impact of change in sown area and livestock head on water surplus. The results suggested that the nationwide water in China could carry a maximum of 168.89 million hm2 or 3.57 billion pigs. The water resources carrying capacity model results also showed that the

  10. Current-carrying capacity dependence of composite Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 superconductors on the liquid coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V R; Watanabe, K; Awaji, S; Nishijima, G

    2006-01-01

    The thermal runaway conditions of the composite Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 superconductor cooled by liquid helium or liquid hydrogen are compared. The study based on the static analysis of thermoelectric modes was made when the volume fraction of the superconductor in a composite was varied. Some specific trends underlying the onset of thermal runaway in superconducting composites cooled by liquid coolants are discussed. It is stated that the operating modes of superconducting composites may be characterized by stable states during which the current-carrying capacity of a superconductor is not effectively used even with a high amount of superconductor in the composite. These states are possible due to the corresponding temperature variation of the resistivities of the matrix and the superconductor in the high operating temperature range. They have to be considered in experiments when the critical current of a superconductor is determined or when the optimal stable operating modes of the current-carrying elements based on the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 superconductor, which is cooled by liquid coolant, are defined

  11. Reserves in load capacity assessment of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitný, Jan; Ryjáček, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    High percentage of all railway bridges in the Czech Republic is made of structural steel. Majority of these bridges is designed according to historical codes and according to the deterioration, they have to be assessed if they satisfy the needs of modern railway traffic. The load capacity assessment of existing bridges according to Eurocodes is however often too conservative and especially, braking and acceleration forces cause huge problems to structural elements of the bridge superstructure. The aim of this paper is to review the different approaches for the determination of braking and acceleration forces. Both, current and historical theoretical models and in-situ measurements are considered. The research of several local European state norms superior to Eurocode for assessment of existing railway bridges shows the big diversity of used local approaches and the conservativeness of Eurocode. This paper should also work as an overview for designers dealing with load capacity assessment, revealing the reserves for existing bridges. Based on these different approaches, theoretical models and data obtained from the measurements, the method for determination of braking and acceleration forces on the basis of real traffic data should be proposed.

  12. 环境承载力视角的浙江东极岛旅游发展研究%Study on the Tourism Development of Zhejiang Dongji Island from the Perspective of Environmental Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫星; 姜和忠; 潘惠红

    2018-01-01

    Based on the evaluation theory of resource carrying capacity,the carrying capacity of tourism resources was evaluated and analyzed from 4 aspects:the carrying capacity of space resources,the carrying capacity of natural environment,the economic carrying capacity and the social psychological bearing capacity.Based on above conclusions,Dongji Island tourism development suggestions were put forward,including the improvement of hardware construction,improving the carrying capacity of infrastructure;riching tourism projects,improving the bearing capacity of space resources;strengthening the off-season tourism development,improving the utilization intensity of tourism resources.%基于资源承载力评价理论,从空间资源承载力、自然环境承载力、经济承载力以及社会心理承载力4个方面对东极岛旅游资源承载力进行评价与分析,并基于以上分析结论提出东极岛旅游发展建议:完善硬件条件建设、提高基础设施承载力;丰富旅游项目,提高空间资源承载力;加强淡季旅游开发,提高旅游资源利用强度.

  13. Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity for Environmental Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable techniques must be developed to predict phosphorus (P storage and release from soils of uplands, ditches, streams, and wetlands in order to better understand the natural, anthropogenic, and legacy sources of P and their impact on water quality at a field/plot as well as larger scales. A concept called the “safe” soil phosphorus storage capacity (SPSC that is based on a threshold phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR has been developed; the PSR is the molar ratio of P to Fe and Al, and SPSC is a PSR-based calculation of the remaining soil P storage capacity that captures risks arising from previous loading as well as inherently low P sorption capacity of a soil. Zero SPSC amounts to a threshold value below which P runoff or leaching risk increases precipitously. In addition to the use of the PSR/SPSC concept for P risk assessment and management, and its ability to predict isotherm parameters such as the Langmuir strength of bonding, KL, and the equilibrium P concentration, EPC0, this simple, cost-effective, and quantitative approach has the potential to be used as an agronomic tool for more precise application of P for plant uptake.

  14. Assessing work disability for social security benefits: international models for the direct assessment of work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Warren, Jon; Bambra, Clare

    2017-08-25

    It has been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess claimants' work capacity, rather than relying on proxies such as on functioning. However, there is little academic discussion of how such assessments could be conducted. The article presents an account of different models of direct disability assessments based on case studies of the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, utilising over 150 documents and 40 expert interviews. Three models of direct work disability assessments can be observed: (i) structured assessment, which measures the functional demands of jobs across the national economy and compares these to claimants' functional capacities; (ii) demonstrated assessment, which looks at claimants' actual experiences in the labour market and infers a lack of work capacity from the failure of a concerned rehabilitation attempt; and (iii) expert assessment, based on the judgement of skilled professionals. Direct disability assessment within social security is not just theoretically desirable, but can be implemented in practice. We have shown that there are three distinct ways that this can be done, each with different strengths and weaknesses. Further research is needed to clarify the costs, validity/legitimacy, and consequences of these different models. Implications for rehabilitation It has recently been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess work capacity rather than simply assessing functioning - but we have no understanding about how this can be done in practice. Based on case studies of nine countries, we show that direct disability assessment can be implemented, and argue that there are three different ways of doing it. These are "demonstrated assessment" (using claimants' experiences in the labour market), "structured assessment" (matching functional requirements to workplace demands), and "expert assessment" (the

  15. Structural capacity assessment of machine-building enterprises and associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prilutskay Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional tendencies of machine-building enterprises integration and disintegration resulted in the emergence of the formal and informal associations. These associations consist of the obviously and/or implicitly affiliated legal entities. Thus, a new element appears in the direct enterprise environment, i.e a management company or a head enterprise. The management company influences the participants even in an informal association. New environment restrictions led to the changes in the management structure. The paper considers the enterprise structures interrelation: organizational, financial, production, resource, and others. The authors draw a conclusion that the structures are hierarchy, and there are the coherence structures assessment criteria. The coordinated structures form the structural capacity of the enterprise. The suggested assessment coherence criteria (for example resource and functional structures allow estimating the structural potential and defining the directions of the enterprise efficiency increase.

  16. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  17. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  18. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  19. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF TOOLS OF CARRYING OUT THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Manzhula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At a stage of preparation for the All-Russian population census of 2020 it is necessary to develop methodical and technological support of processes of carrying out census for increase of reliability of data collection and quality of information processing of population census of the Russian Federation with use of modern information and communication technologies, and also a technique of an assessment of efficiency of application of tools of carrying out census

  20. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Young-Do; Ahn, Bum Jong

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in many countries are moving away from prescriptive approaches for keeping natural gas pipelines safe. As an alternative, risk management based on a quantitative assessment is being considered to improve the level of safety. This paper focuses on the development of a simplified method for the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines and introduces parameters of fatal length and cumulative fatal length. The fatal length is defined as the integrated fatality along the pipeline associated with hypothetical accidents. The cumulative fatal length is defined as the section of pipeline in which an accident leads to N or more fatalities. These parameters can be estimated easily by using the information of pipeline geometry and population density of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). To demonstrate the proposed method, individual and societal risks for a sample pipeline have been estimated from the historical data of European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco. With currently acceptable criteria taken into account for individual risk, the minimum proximity of the pipeline to occupied buildings is approximately proportional to the square root of the operating pressure of the pipeline. The proposed method of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of a buried pipeline

  1. NATIONAL CAPACITY SELF ASSESSMENT FOR NON-ANNEX I NATIONS: THE CASE OF LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid B. Chaaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries, both developed and developing, are called on to identify, through self assessments, their priority environmental issues such as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, combating deforestation, promoting sustainable land and water management, and minimizing their vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change. Root cause analysis is conducted to determine the major barriers and institutional capacities. This papers presents capacity constraints in national priority issues typically encountered in developing or non-annex one nations, with the national capacity self assessment of Lebanon taken as a case study. The analysis of the information has identified a number of achievements and difficulties related to the fulfillment of the commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The common priority issues are national action plan for GHG abatement, vulnerability and adaptation, research and systematic observation, technology transfer, and education and public awareness. Root cause analysis related to priority issues has been carried out during which the causes and impacts of the constraints have been identified. The corresponding assessment matrices are also presented. Lack of financial resources is found to be the constraint facing priority issues.

  2. [Assessment of Functioning when Conducting Occupational Capacity Evaluations--What is "Evidence-Based"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Carlos; Schleifer, Roman; Dube, Anish; Hengartner, Michael P; Ebner, Gerhard; Seifritz, Erich; Liebrenz, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Occupational capacity evaluations have previously been subject to criticism for lacking in quality and consistency. To the authors' knowledge, there is no clear consensus on the best way to formally assess functioning within capacity evaluations. In this review we investigated different instruments that are used to assess functioning in occupational capacity evaluations. Systematic review of the literature. Though several instruments that assess functional capacity were found in our search, a specific validated instrument assessing occupational capacity as part of a larger psychiatric evaluation was not found. The limitations of the existing instruments on assessing functional capacity are discussed. Medical experts relying on instruments to conduct functional capacity evaluations should be cognizant of their limitations. The findings call for the development and use of an instrument specifically designed to assess the functional and occupational capacity of psychiatric patients, which is also likely to improve the quality of these reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Dynamic Model of a Structure Carrying Stationary Humans and Assessment of its Response to Walking Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A flooring-system, e.g. a floor in a building, is excited dynamically when a person walks across the floor, and resonant excitation might bring structural vibrations to unacceptable levels. Stationary (non-moving) crowds of people might be present on the same floor and they will sense the floor...... vibrations, but they will also interact dynamically with the floor in a passive sense, thus altering the dynamic system excited to vibration by the walking person. Consequently, the vibration level of the floor is likely to depend on the presence and size of the stationary crowd. It is also known...... that different techniques (different parameters calculated from structural response time series) are proposed for assessing floor serviceability. The paper looks into the influence of the stationary crowd of people on the floor response to walking excitation and into the influence of the crowd on different...

  4. Expanding the power base. Building capacities for comparative energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Bui, D.T.; Conzelmann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of national energy systems is reaching unprecedented degrees of complexity. In addition to uncertainty of future energy demand, technology performance and costs, planners and decision makers are confronted with issues such as environment protection, sustainable development, deregulation and market liberalization. At the same time, public sector funds for energy investment projects are being progressively reduced. The IAEA offers its Member States a comprehensive programme of technical assistance and cooperation which covers many diverse areas related to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the area of comparative energy assessment, the objective of assistance is to strengthen national capabilities for elaborating sustainable patterns of energy supply and use. Assistance is provided in three ways, namely by: distributing state-of-the-art methodologies and decision-making tools tailored to the special needs of developing countries; providing training in model application, interpretation of results and translation into decision or policy making; and carrying out national studies in co-operation with requesting Member States

  5. Transmission capacity assessment by probabilistic planning. An approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammintausta, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Finnish electricity markets participate in the Scandinavian markets, Nord-Pool. The Finnish market is free for marketers, producers and consumers. All these participants can be seen as customers of the transmission network, which in turn can be considered to be a market place in which electricity can be sold and bought. The Finnish transmission network is owned and operated by an independent company, Fingrid that has the full responsibility of the Finnish transmission system. The available transfer capacity of a transmission route is traditionally limited by deterministic security constraints. More efficient and flexible network utilisation could be achieved with probabilistic planning methods. This report introduces a simple and practical probabilistic approach for transfer limit and risk assessment. The method is based on the economical benefit and risk predictions. It uses also the existing results of deterministic data and it could be used side by side with the deterministic method. The basic concept and necessary equations for expected risks of various market players have been derived for further developments. The outage costs and thereby the risks of the market participants depend on how the system operator reacts to the faults. In the Finnish power system consumers will usually experience no costs due to the faults because of meshed network and counter trade method preferred by the system operator. The costs to the producers and dealers are also low because of the counter trade method. The network company will lose the cost of reparation, additional losses and cost of regulation power because of counter trades. In case power flows will be rearranged drastically because of aggressive strategies used in the electricity markets, the only way to fulfil the needs of free markets is that the network operator buys regulation power for short-term problems and reinforces the network in the long-term situations. The reinforcement is done if the network can not be

  6. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  7. 我国东部沿海地区旅游环境相对承载力研究%THE STUDY ON THE RELATIVE CARRYING CAPACITY OF TOURISM ENVIRONMENT IN EASTERN COASTAL REGIONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广海; 刘佳

    2009-01-01

    Through evaluating on tourism environmental carrying capacity including the relative carrying capacity of tourism resources and the relative carrying capacity of tourism economy, in order to making disscussion on the sustainable development among tourism resources and tourist capacity and tourism economy, which providing a new study idea and study method for tourism environmental carrying capacity.Compared to nationwide, the whole the relative carrying capacity of tourism resources and tourism economy are extremly strong, it is in under the carrying capacitiy of tourism environment and carrying capacity potental is lalent, however, the relative carrying capacities of tourism environment in different provinces are different, regional disparities are so obvious. Therefore, the Coordinated and orderd development of tourism industry should be strengthened,in order to putting comprehensive development level of tourism industry and the whole carrying capacity of tourism envinronment.%选取旅游资源综合丰度和旅游经济指标,对旅游环境系统的承载状况和承载潜力进行定量测算,以探讨区域旅游资源开发与旅游经济发展水平之间的相互关系.研究表明,相对于全国而言,东部沿海地区整体旅游资源环境相对承载能力和旅游经济环境相对承载能力较强,处于弱载状态,具有一定的承载潜力,其中旅游环境相对承载力具有明显的地域差异,应加强各省市旅游业的协调有序发展,以提高东部沿海旅游环境整体承载力,进一步推动沿海发达地区旅游业的综合发展.

  8. Calculation and evaluation of the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an%西安市旅游环境承载力测算与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫博雅; 毕超

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate and evaluate the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an. Methods The Calculation model of the tourism environmental carrying capacity is used. Results The tourism environmental carrying capacity of Xi'an is 282 600 passengers per day and the lower ecological carrying capacity is the primary factor that constrained tourism environmental carrying capacity in Xi'an. Conclusion Urban tourism environmental carrying capacity is about twice of the number of tourists in Xi'an in 2010, it can be improved by enhancing the city's capacity in terms of solid waste and wastewater treatment in the future.%目的 测算西安市旅游环境承栽力并对测算结果进行评价.方法 运用旅游管理学中的旅游环境承栽力测算模型进行测算.结果 计算出西安市旅游环境承载力为每日28.26万人次,并且发现生态承栽力较低是制约其旅游环境承载力的首要因素.结论 西安市旅游环境承载力约是2010年西安市日均游客接待数量的2倍,可通过改善影响旅游生态承载力的固体废弃物、废水处理能力,大幅提升西安市旅游环境承栽力.

  9. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  10. Reconstruction actions carried out in order to achieve nominal design heat capacity of hot water boilers type VKSM 40; A product of TPK-Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica

    2000-01-01

    Hot water boilers with a steep turbines membranous produced by TPK-Zagreb in 1979 are projected for nominal capacity of 46.52 MW. But it was demonstrated in practice, according the performed measurements, that during the exploitation they do not give declared thermal power. In this article the chronological review of all successful performed reconstructive operations by engineering staff from Toplifikacija Joint-Stock Co. for district heating -Skopje (Macedonia) on the hot water boilers type VKSM40 with nominal capacity of 46.52 MW is given. (Authors)

  11. Life cycle assessment of fossil and biomass power generation chains. An analysis carried out for ALSTOM Power Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ch.

    2008-12-15

    This final report issued by the Technology Assessment Department of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results of an analysis carried out on behalf of the Alstom Power Services company. Fossil and biomass chains as well as co-combustion power plants are assessed. The general objective of this analysis is an evaluation of specific as well as overall environmental burdens resulting from these different options for electricity production. The results obtained for fuel chains including hard coal, lignite, wood, natural gas and synthetic natural gas are discussed. An overall comparison is made and the conclusions drawn from the results of the analysis are presented.

  12. Exploring harmonization between integrated assessment and capacity expansion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, G.; Brown, M.; Cohen, S.; Macknick, J.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Horing, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forward-looking quantitative models of the electric sector are extensively used to provide science-based strategic decision support to national, international and private-sector entities. Given that these models are used to inform a wide-range of stakeholders and influence policy decisions, it is vital to examine how the models' underlying data and structure influence their outcomes. We conduct several experiments harmonizing key model characteristics between ReEDS—an electric sector only model, and GCAM—an integrated assessment model—to understand how different degrees of harmonization impact model outcomes. ReEDS has high spatial, temporal, and process detail but lacks electricity demand elasticity and endogenous representations of other economic sectors, while GCAM has internally consistent representations of energy (including the electric sector), agriculture, and land-use systems but relatively aggregate representations of the factors influencing electric sector investments . We vary the degree of harmonization in electricity demand, fuel prices, technology costs and performance, and variable renewable energy resource characteristics. We then identify the prominent sources of divergence in key outputs (electricity capacity, generation, and price) across the models and study how the convergence between models can be improved with permutations of harmonized characteristics. The remaining inconsistencies help to establish how differences in the models' underlying data, construction, perspective, and methodology play into each model's outcome. There are three broad contributions of this work. First, our study provides a framework to link models with similar scope but different resolutions. Second, our work provides insight into how the harmonization of assumptions contributes to a unified and robust portrayal of the US electricity sector under various potential futures. Finally, our study enhances the understanding of the influence of structural uncertainty

  13. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  14. Laboratory Assessment of the Infiltration Capacity Reduction in Clogged Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andrés-Valeri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements have been used widely across the world to manage urban stormwater. The hydrological behaviour of permeable surfaces is a complex process affected by many factors, such as rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, pavement geometrical conditions, and clogging level of the permeable surface, amongst others. This laboratory study was carried out to assess the influence of clogging level and rainfall intensity on the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces used in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS. Porous Concrete (PC and Porous Asphalt (PA mixtures with different air void contents (15%, 20%, and 25% were subject to different clogging scenarios by using varying sediment loads (0, 500, and 1000 g/m2. Permeability experiments were carried out for each clogging scenario through a new rainfall simulator specially developed, tailored, and calibrated for the laboratory simulation of a wide range of rainfall events. Permeability measurements were taken under all different scenarios as a result of the combination of the different rainfall events (50, 100, and 150 mm/h simulated over the specimens of porous mixtures and the sediment loads applied to them. The results showed that the PC mixtures tested perform better than the PA ones in terms of infiltration capacity, showing less potential for clogging and being more easily cleaned by the wash-off produced by the simulated rainfall events.

  15. Rapid high-throughput assay to assess scavenging capacity index using DPPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Arribas, Silvia M; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-11-15

    A new microplate-adapted DPPH rapid assay was developed to assess the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and foods. The assay was carried out in buffered medium (methanol: 10mmol/l Tris buffer pH 7.5, 1:1 v/v) and reaction was completed at 10min. The scavenging capacity index (SCI), a theoretical antioxidant parameter directly related to the antioxidant capacity of samples, was calculated. SCI for pure compounds: gallic acid (6.76±0.08), quercetin (7.89±0.24), catechin (6.05±0.23), trolox (2.32±0.03), ascorbic acid (2.52±0.15) and gluthatione (1.08±0.08) and foods (μmol DPPH scavenged/100ml): tropical juice (655.62±12.18), mediterraneo juice (702.87±11.13), apple juice (212.52±17.22), pomegranate juice (319.83±9.45), red grape nectar (1093.05±18.69), Don Simon orange juice (632.94±17.22) and date syrup (15992.34±250.7) were comparable to those in previous reports using the classic DPPH assay. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the SCI on the same and different days was less than 8.12% in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cofrentes NPP self assessment plan. A self-critical effort carried at improving work processes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the reportable events and incidents that occurred during the last refueling and subsequent startup process in the last week of March 2002, the Cofrentes NPP management decided to carry out a Self-Assessment Plan that would focus on an exhaustive evaluation of the most important events and incidents that occurred during the last two refueling and their respective shutdown and startup processes, as well as on an assessment of those Areas in which weaknesses in the Organization's performance had been identified. This article details the process followed in this self-assessment, which was developed between the months of May and July. The main conclusion reveals that, for Iberdrola, the good operation of its nuclear power plants continues to be essential, with safety taking priority over any other operating condition. (Author)

  17. An assessment of The Capacity Drops at The Bottleneck Segments: A review on the existing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term of capacity is very useful to quantify the ability of transport facilities in terms of carrying traffic. The capacity of the road is an essential ingredient in the planning, design, and operation of roadways. It is desirable for traffic analyst to be able to predict the time and places where congestion will occur and the volumes to be expected. Most of urbanized areas have been experiencing of traffic congestion problems particularly at urban arterial systems. High traffic demand and limited supply of roadways are always the main factors produced traffic congestion. However, there are other sources of local and temporal congestion, such as uncontrolled access point, median opening and on-street parking activities, which are caused a reduction of roadway capacity during peak operations. Those locations could result in reduction of travel speed and road, as known as hidden bottlenecks. This is bottleneck which is without any changes in geometric of the segments. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM, 1997 is used to assess urban arterial systems till current days. IHCM provides a static method for examining the capacityand does not systematically take into account of bottleneck activities. However, bottleneck activities create interruption smooth traffic flow along arterial streets, which in turns stimulate related problems, such as, excessive air pollution, additional energy consumption and driver’s frustration due to traffic jammed. This condition could happen simultaneously; mostly repetitive and predictable in same peak hour demands. Therefore, this paper carefully summarize on the existing methodologies considering required data, handled data processing and expected output of each proposed of analysis. We further notice that dynamic approach could be more appropriated for analyzing temporal congestion segments (median opening, on street parking, etc.. Method of oblique cumulative plot seems to be more applicable in terms of

  18. Assessment of Index Properties and Bearing Capacities of Soils for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Owoyemi

    on the physical properties and foundation bearing capacity of the soil in this area. This research aimed ... While many new structures are springing up daily in the .... plasticity soil. Most soil samples from both locations classify as A-2 -4 under the AASHTO classification system, rating as good subgrade materials. Bulk density ...

  19. Assessment of Stochastic Capacity Consumption in Railway Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    The railway industry continuously strive to reduce cost and utilise resources optimally. Thus, there is a demand for tools that are able to fast and efficiently provide decision-makers with solutions that can help them achieve their goals. In strategic planning of capacity, this translates...

  20. Assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motor vehicle mechanics trainers' are affected by the developments in the modern automobile technology (MAT) that brought about the use of auto scan tools for diagnosis and repair of modern vehicles in Nigeria. This study examined the capacity building needs among motor vehicle mechanics trainers in the use of ...

  1. A Study of Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity in Yalong Bay Tropical Paradise Forest Park%亚龙湾热带天堂森林公园旅游环境容量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王文

    2014-01-01

    选择森林公园类型旅游区---亚龙湾森林公园为研究对象,通过分析旅游容量指标体系,定量研究了该景区的旅游环境容量。研究结果表明:亚龙湾森林公园的旅游生态环境容量为6600人次,旅游空间环境容量为8244人次,旅游功能设施容量为6400人次,旅游社会心理容量为2310人次,综合旅游环境容量为6200人次。生物环境容量、交通环境容量和游客心理环境容量成为制约景区接待规模的限制因子。在三亚旅游旺季,尤其是春节黄金周期间,整个景区呈现超载状态。针对出现的过载问题,提出了新建扩建景点和游步道、扩建停车场面积、合理安排停车组织方式和园区内交通组织及建立淡旺季两套管理等措施,以提高亚龙湾森林公园的整体环境容量并缓解旅游旺季带来的环境容量超载问题。%the article selects the forest park type of tourist area---Yalong Bay T ropical Forest Park as the study object .Through the analysis of the system of tourism environmental capacity ,the article conducts a quantitative research of the tourism area's tourism environmental capacity .T he results show that the park's tourist environmental carrying capacity ,tourism spatial capacity ,tourist facilities carrying capacity ,tourist capacity of social psychology , and comprehensive tourism environment capacity are 6600 ,8244 ,6400 ,2310 and 6200 persons per day respectively . T he biological environmental capacity , traffic environmental capacity and tourists psychological environmental capacity are identified as key factors that limit the tourist carrying capacity in Yalong Bay Forest Park .In Sanya's peak tourist season in ,especially during Spring Festival ,the entire resort is in the situation of overload .To deal with the overload problem ,this article proposes several measures ,such as expanding new resort ,touring path and parking lot ,improving parking system and traffic

  2. Financial and testamentary capacity evaluations: procedures and assessment instruments underneath a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R; Firmino, Horácio; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-02-01

    Mental health professionals are frequently involved in mental capacity determinations. However, there is a lack of specific measures and well-defined procedures for these evaluations. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of financial and testamentary capacity evaluation procedures, including not only the traditional neuropsychological and functional assessment but also the more recently developed forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), which have been developed to provide a specialized answer to legal systems regarding civil competencies. Here the main guidelines, papers, and other references are reviewed in order to achieve a complete and comprehensive selection of instruments used in the assessment of financial and testamentary capacity. Although some specific measures for financial abilities have been developed recently, the same is not true for testamentary capacity. Here are presented several instruments or methodologies for assessing financial and testamentary capacity, including neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment scales, performance based functional assessment instruments, and specific FAIs. FAIs are the only specific instruments intended to provide a specific and direct answer to the assessment of financial capacity based on legal systems. Considering the need to move from a diagnostic to a functional approach in financial and testamentary capacity evaluations, it is essential to consider both general functional examination as well as cognitive functioning.

  3. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  4. A framework for self-assessment of capacity needs in land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; van der Molen, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper is facing the widely stated problem of poor institutional capacity of land administration agencies in many developing and transition countries. Responding to this problem has not been simple. The challenges of building capacity in land administration are immense and not similar to just...... human resource development. Capacity building addresses the broader concept of the ability of organisations and individuals to perform functions effectively, efficiently and sustainable. The guidelines presented in this paper address the ability/capacity of land administration systems at the societal...... processes; to needed human resources and training programs. For each step the capacity of the system can be assessed and possible or needed improvement can be identified. The guidelines aim to function as a basis for in-country self-assessment of the capacity needs in land administration. The government may...

  5. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-06-02

    Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda implemented this co-created tool. The objectives of the institutional assessments were to assess existing capacities for HSR and to develop capacity development plans to address prioritized gaps. A mixed-method approach was employed consisting of document analysis, self-assessment questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and institutional dialogues aimed at capturing individual perceptions of institutional leadership, collective HSR skills, knowledge translation, and faculty incentives to engage in HSR. Implementation strategies for the capacity assessment varied across the SPHs. This paper reports findings from semi-structured interviews with focal persons from each SPH, to reflect on the process used at each SPH to execute the institutional assessments as well as the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the assessment process. The assessment tool was robust enough to be utilized in its entirety across all seven SPHs resulting in a thorough HSR capacity assessment and a capacity development plan for each SPH. Successful implementation of the capacity assessment exercises depended on four factors: (i) support from senior leadership and collaborators, (ii) a common understanding of HSR, (iii) adequate human and financial resources for the exercise, and (iv) availability of data. Methods of extracting information from the results of the assessments, however, were tailored to the unique objectives of each SPH. This institutional HSR capacity assessment tool and the process for its utilization

  6. Social science constructs in ecosystem assessments: revisiting community capacity and community resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Victoria E. Sturtevant

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development of sociological constructs in community assessment components of large-scale ecosystem assessments. We compare the conceptual and operational development of the constructs of community capacity and community resiliency used in three community assessments in the western United States: the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team...

  7. Structural capacity assessment of a generic pre-stressed concrete containment structure under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The studied containment expressed adequate capacity to resist impact loads in the upper range of the studied diapason. The aircraft impact capacity of the containment for impact in the upper part of the cylindrical shell is about 25‐30% higher than the capacity for impact in the middle part of the cylindrical shell. The obtained fragility curves reefed to MoA can be then used for various additional calculations in the safety assessment of nuclear facilities under aircraft impact

  8. 岩溶地区资源环境承载力分析——以贵州省为例%Research on the Resource and Environmental Carrying Capacity of Karst Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 代稳; 马士彬; 王立威

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy, the contradiction between population, resources and environment is becoming more and more serious, and the carrying capacity of resources and environment is under great pressure, especially in karst area. Using the analytic hierarchy process and the state space method, constructing evaluation index system of resources and environment carrying capacity of the karst area from three aspects:resource carrying capacity,environmental carrying capacity and social economic coordination,selecting water resources, land resources, tourism resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, population, economy and society as the evaluation index layer,this paper will evaluate quantitatively the resources and environment carrying capacity in Guizhou Province in 2000, 2004 and 2008 and 2013 four phase. The results showed that resources and environment carrying capacity in Guizhou Province showed a low level state and have to the middle level towards the trend in 2013 because the resources and environment capacity index in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2013 is 0.09364, 0.08957, 0.09230, 0.0113.Zunyi City, in Qiandongnan Prefecture, Guizhou southwest Prefecture three administrative region of resources and environment carrying capacity is in medium state and the rest of the six administrative regions in the lower level in nine administrative regions.%随着社会经济的飞速发展,人口、资源与环境之间的矛盾日趋加剧,资源环境承载力面临着巨大的压力,尤其是岩溶地区.本文利用层次分析与状态空间法,从资源承载力、环境承载力和社会经济协调力三个方面构建岩溶地区资源环境承载力评价体系,选取水资源、土地资源、旅游资源、水环境、大气环境、人口、经济及社会为评价指标层,对贵州省2000、2004、2008和2013年4个时相的资源环境承载力进行了定量评价.结果表明:贵州省2000、2004、2008、2013年的资源环

  9. Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Ghosh

    Full Text Available The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8 CFU gram(-1 of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6% and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%. E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%, ampicillin (96.5%, tetracycline (84.1%, doxycycline (60.2%, erythromycin (53.1%, gentamicin (48.7%, streptomycin (42.5%, and nitrofurantoin (26.5%. In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%, erythromycin (56.4%, doxycycline (53.2%, and enrofloxacin (31.9%. No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs originating from five

  10. Computing System Construction of Water Environment Carrying Capacity in Huaihe River Basin%淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严子奇; 夏军; 左其亭; 张永勇

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍了淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的总体设计、承载力数学模型的建立、软件系统的结构及应用.研究中通过计算在维系"良好水环境状况"目标下流域所能承载的社会经济规模上限来得到流域水环境承载能力.在耦合了社会经济系统模型、水资源转化关系模型、水环境系统模拟模型的基础上利用数据库、地理信息系统、可视化编程技术将"社会经济-水资源-水环境"系统模型、生态需水量计算模型、以及水环境承载能力计量模型中众多的边界条件、控制条件、可变参数及成果分析进行系统集成.所建立的淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统可有效地实现流域现状水环境承裁能力的计算以及对未来不同时刻、不同频率来水条件下的承载力进行情景分析计算,为流域水环境承载能力管理提供决策支持.%In this paper, the overall designs and mathematical model of water environment carrying capacity, as well as the system structure and application of water environment carrying capacity computing system in Huaihe River Basin are presented. The carrying capacity of water environment in river basin is reached by calculating the upper limit of the socio-economic scale that watershed can carry under the "good status of water environment". The system is based on an integrated "socio-economic-water resource-water environment" model which is coupled with the socio-economic system model, the water resource transformation relation model and the simulation model of water environment system. The population size is a key indicator to reflect the water environment carrying capacity of the basin, and iterative algorithm is used to get the maximum population size of different water environment carrying capacities. This system also contains a subroutine for ecological water requirement model. The mean value of the results from the Tennant method, base flow method and

  11. 襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力分析%Eco-tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity of the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳; 张弢; 李柱

    2015-01-01

    Eco-tourism environmental capacity(ETEC) is the important evaluation basis of the harmonious relation between tourism activities and eco-environment resources. Wetland parks construction has been as the effective method for protecting and exploiting the wetland resources. ETEC assessment can effectively promote the sustainable development of wetland ecotourism. Taking the Changshou Island National Wetland Park in Xiangyang City as an example, this paper scientific calculated the Eco-tourism carrying capacity and discussed the features, evaluation indicators selection and potential risks of the ETEC. According to the limitation factors, this paper has put forward the corresponding optimal projects. The results of this study offer a scientific decision-making for the programming and management of wetland tourism and promote realizing the sustainable development of the wetland park.%旅游环境承载力是判断旅游活动与生态环境是否协调的重要指标. 建设湿地公园是湿地保护和开发的重要途径,评估湿地公园生态旅游环境承载力能有效促进其可持续发展. 文章以襄阳市长寿岛国家湿地公园作为研究对象,从旅游环境承载力的特征、指标、潜在问题等,尝试对它的生态旅游综合环境承载力进行了评估. 并依据环境承载力的限制因子,结合湿地实际情况提出了相应的优化策略,以期为湿地旅游资源开发的长期规划提供客观依据,为实现湿地公园的可持续发展提供必要的参考.

  12. Predictors of financial capacity performance in older adults using the Financial Competence Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J; Wilson, Jill; Tilse, Cheryl; Pinsker, Donna M; Massavelli, Bronwyn; Vearncombe, Katharine J; Mitchell, Leander K

    2014-06-01

    Declines in financial capacity in later life may arise from both neurocognitive and/or psychiatric disorders. The influence of socio-demographic, cognitive, health, and psychiatric variables on financial capacity performance was explored. Seventy-six healthy community-dwelling adults and 25 older patients referred for assessment of financial capacity were assessed on pertinent cognitive, psychiatric, and financial capacity measures, including Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R), Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), selected Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) items, Financial Competence Assessment Inventory (FCAI), and Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The internal consistency of the debt management subscale of the FCAI was relatively poor in our sample. Financial capacity performance differed between controls and patients. In our sample, performance on the FCAI was predicted by Mini-Mental State Examination, IQCODE, and GAI, but not by ACE-R, GDS, NPI items, or SVS (adjusted R(2) = 0.7059). Anxiety but not depression predicted financial capacity performance, possibly reflecting relatively low variance of depressive symptoms in this sample. Current cognitive decline as measured by the informant-rated IQCODE was more highly correlated to financial capacity than either educational attainment or ACE-R scores. Lack of significance of ACE-R data may reflect the instrument's decreased sensitivity to domains relevant to financial capacity, compared with more detailed neuropsychological assessment tools. The FCAI displayed fairly robust psychometric properties apart from the debt management subscale.

  13. 基于土地消纳粪便能力的畜禽养殖承载力%Carrying capacity of livestock and poultry breeding based on feces disposal volume of land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜春; 孙超; 刘玉; 唐秀美; 任艳敏

    2015-01-01

    The livestock and poultry breeding industry in Pinggu district of Beijing developed rapidly. Compared with 1992, the slaughter of pigs and chickens increased by 18.95% and 22.29%, and the breeding stock of cattle, sheep, laying hens increased by 35.51%, 40.28% and 10.29%, especially the pig slaughter and egg production, which occupied by 11.81% and 20.21% of Beijing respectively. Gradually, the environmental pressure appears caused by the rapid growth of livestock and poultry manure quantity. And Pinggu district, the ecological conservation district, ecological barrier and water source protection of Beijing, is of a great importance to keep the environment of Beijing sustainable and healthy. As a result, it is important to connect farming and aquaculture, construct the circulation of agriculture economy chain, and determine the scale of farming according to local conditions. Based on the characteristic that orchard land took a large part of agricultural land, this paper set the cultivated land and orchard nitrogen limited standard, through calculation of the environmental capacity of farmland nitrogen, the poultry and animal feces pollution risk index and potential of livestock and poultry, then assessed the livestock carrying potential and potential contamination and analyzed the farmland and orchards’ livestock carrying potential of Pinggu and its town. The results indicated that: 1) During 2012, the total manure of Pinggu was 591 100 tons, containing nitrogen and phosphorus respectively 4 721, 998 t, which meant a huge organic resource, made it available to reduce the fertilizer use, and can effectively improve soil quality and the quality of the crops; 2) For ecological conservation development area, as the orchards occupied a large proportion of agricultural land, the agricultural land of livestock and poultry manure loading status achieved by taking the cultivated land and orchard as disposal site, may be more practical. The average manure load of

  14. Study on carbon carried capacity in coastal city-A case study on Qingdao%沿海城市碳承载力研究——以青岛市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关丽娟; 丁德文; 刘大海; 赵鸣

    2013-01-01

    在构建沿海城市碳承载力评价指标体系的基础上,采用熵权法为指标赋权,构建了沿海城市碳承载力模型,并按照其取值范围将沿海城市碳承载水平划分为严重空载、轻度空载、适载、轻度超载和严重超载五个级别.利用所建模型和2000~ 2009年数据对青岛市碳承载状况进行了分析,研究表明:近几年来青岛市碳承载力状况良好,且2009年青岛市碳承载力为0.9左右,整体处于较为理想的适载状态.影响青岛市碳承载状况的主要因素包括经济增长、环境、能源、产业结构、城市化等方面.青岛市建立低碳发展模式降低碳排放,维持碳承载平衡应从调整产业结构、转变经济发展方式、建立低碳发展的长效机制、保护资源环境、大力开发新能源、发展低碳旅游业和进一步完善区域性碳承载力理论体系等方面努力.%The model of carbon carried capacity in the coastal city was structured on the basis of constructing the evaluation index system of carbon carried capacity in the coastal city. In this model, the weight of each index is determined by adopting the entropy weight method. According to its value scope, carbon carried capacity in the coastal city was divided into five levels: the serious no-load, mild no-load,proper loaded,mild overload and serious overload. The status of carbon carried capacity in Qingdao from 2000 to 2009 was analyzed by the above model. The results show that the carbon carried capacity state of Qingdao was good in resent years and its carbon carried capacity ratio in 2009 is 0.9 or so, which was in the ideal state. The main factors that influence Qingdao' s carbon loaded status including the economic growth, environment, energy, industry structure, urbanization, etc. are described. The low carbon development model for Qingdao should be established, for reducing the carbon emissions and maintaining the carbon loaded balance. It should endeavor to

  15. Qualitative versus quantitative assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuguchi, Taku

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) combined with a acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge have defined a subgroup of patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive diseases who are at an increased risk for stroke. Recent reports suggest that qualitative CBF techniques could also define the same high-risk subgroup. To evaluate the accuracy of the qualitative method, we compared qualitative ratios with quantitative CBF data, obtained using iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We analyzed qualitative and quantitative IMP SPECT images for 50 patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusive diseases. Quantitative CBF data were measured by the autoradiographic technique. One region-of-interest within each hemisphere was within the MCA territory. Relative cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) obtained using qualitative images before and after the intravenous administration of 1 g of ACZ was defined as follows: ( ACZ C occl / ACZ C non )/( baseline C occl / baseline C non ). The threshold for abnormal relative CVRC was defined as less than 1.0. Quantitative CBF was considered abnormal when the response to ACZ (percent change) on the symptomatic side (absolute CVRC) was a decrease of more than 10%. Of 39 patients whose relative CVRC were considered abnormal, 29 (74%) were normal in absolute CVRC (i.e., false positive). Two of 12 (17%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had abnormal absolute CVRC (i.e., false negative). This study demonstrates that this important subgroup cannot be accurately defined with qualitative methodology. (author)

  16. Qualitative versus quantitative assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuguchi, Taku [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Quantitative studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) combined with a acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge have defined a subgroup of patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive diseases who are at an increased risk for stroke. Recent reports suggest that qualitative CBF techniques could also define the same high-risk subgroup. To evaluate the accuracy of the qualitative method, we compared qualitative ratios with quantitative CBF data, obtained using iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We analyzed qualitative and quantitative IMP SPECT images for 50 patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusive diseases. Quantitative CBF data were measured by the autoradiographic technique. One region-of-interest within each hemisphere was within the MCA territory. Relative cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) obtained using qualitative images before and after the intravenous administration of 1 g of ACZ was defined as follows: ({sub ACZ}C{sub occl}/{sub ACZ}C{sub non})/({sub baseline}C{sub occl}/{sub baseline}C{sub n}= {sub on}). The threshold for abnormal relative CVRC was defined as less than 1.0. Quantitative CBF was considered abnormal when the response to ACZ (percent change) on the symptomatic side (absolute CVRC) was a decrease of more than 10%. Of 39 patients whose relative CVRC were considered abnormal, 29 (74%) were normal in absolute CVRC (i.e., false positive). Two of 12 (17%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had abnormal absolute CVRC (i.e., false negative). This study demonstrates that this important subgroup cannot be accurately defined with qualitative methodology. (author)

  17. CAPACITY BUILDING PROCESS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR A THAI COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithui, Suthat; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Hengpraprom, Sarunya

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed at exploring the development of the capacitybuilding process in environmental and health impact assessment, including the consideration of subsequent, capacity-building achievements. Data were gathered through questionnaires, participatory observations, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and capacity building checklist forms. These data were analyzed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. Our study used the components of the final draft for capacity-building processes consisting of ten steps that were formulated by synthesis from each respective process. Additionally, the evaluation of capacity building levels was performed using 10-item evaluation criteria for nine communities. The results indicated that the communities performed well under these criteria. Finally, exploration of the factors influencing capacity building in environmental and health impact assessment indicated that the learning of community members by knowledge exchange via activities and study visits were the most influential factors of the capacity building processes in environmental and health impact assessment. The final revised version of capacitybuilding process in environmental and health impact assessment could serve as a basis for the consideration of interventions in similar areas, so that they increased capacity in environmental and health impact assessments.

  18. The Comprehensive Evaluation on Grassland Eco-tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity:A Case of Hulunbeier%草原生态旅游环境承载力综合评价--以呼伦贝尔为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智勇

    2013-01-01

    生态旅游环境承载力的提出与发展,是协调景区旅游业发展与旅游地生态环境矛盾的一种有效手段和科学管理方法。依据草原生态旅游环境承载力的基本内涵,构建了由生态环境、经济环境、社会环境三个承载子系统构成的草原旅游环境承载力评价指标体系,采用层次分析法对呼伦贝尔草原2005-2012年旅游环境承载力水平进行量化测度与系统分析,指出了制约呼伦贝尔草原生态旅游环境承载力进一步发展的瓶颈因素,在此基础上提出了相关的政策建议。%With the development of the eco-tourism carrying capacity, it has become one of the effective means and scientific management methods with coordination of tourism development and tourism ecological contradiction. the paper constructs the evaluation system of grassland?eco-tourism environmental carrying capacity of three carrying subsystems including ecology, economy and society, and then uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process to quantitatively measure and systematically analyze the carrying capacity of the Grassland?eco-tourism during 2005-2012 in Hulunbeier. Finally, the paper finds out the bottle -neck factor restrained ecotourism development and then puts forward?relevant policy recommendations.

  19. Parenting capacity assessment for the court in a multifamily group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Di Pasquale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting capacity assessment in court evaluations is a particularly complex task, given that it is necessary to consider the vast array of distinct and interrelated aspects and abilities which represent parenting, as well as the elevated number of contextual levels that influence parenting quality. The perspective we want to introduce regards the potentiality of the multifamily group as the elective observational setting in parenting capacity assessment.

  20. Strategic Assessment of Trauma Care Capacity in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Quansah, Robert; Gyedu, Adam; Ankomah, James; Donkor, Peter; Mock, Charles

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess availability of trauma care technology in Ghana. In addition, factors contributing to deficiencies were evaluated. By doing so, potential solutions to inefficient aspects of health systems management and maladapted technology for trauma care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) could be identified. Thirty-two items were selected from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. Direct inspection and structured interviews with administrative, clinical, and biomedical engineering staff were used to assess the challenges and successes of item availability at 40 purposively sampled district, regional, and tertiary hospitals. Hospital assessments demonstrated marked deficiencies. Some of these were low cost, such as basic airway supplies, chest tubes, and cervical collars. Item non-availability resulted from several contributing factors, namely equipment absence, lack of training, frequent stock-outs, and technology breakage. A number of root causes for these factors were identified, including ineffective healthcare financing by way of untimely national insurance reimbursements, procurement and stock-management practices, and critical gaps in local biomedical engineering and trauma care training. Nonetheless, local examples of successfully overcoming deficiencies were identified (e.g., public-private partnering, ensuring company engineers trained technicians on-the-job during technology installation or servicing). While availability of several low-cost items could be better supplied by improvements in stock-management and procurement policies, there is a critical need for redress of the national insurance reimbursement system and trauma care training of district hospital staff. Further, developing local service and technical support capabilities is more and more pressing as technology plays an increasingly important role in LMIC healthcare systems.

  1. An Evolutionary Approach to Adaptive Capacity Assessment: A Case Study of Soufriere, Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ryan Hogarth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the capacity of Soufriere, Saint Lucia to adapt to climate change. A community-based vulnerability assessment was conducted that employed semi-structured interviews with community members. The results were analysed using the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC framework, which characterises adaptive capacity based on five elements: asset base; institutions and entitlements; knowledge and information; innovation; and flexible forward-looking decision-making and governance. Beyond providing an in-depth analysis of Soufriere’s capacity to adapt to climate change, the paper argues that the elements of the LAC framework largely correspond with an evolutionary perspective on adaptive capacity. However, other evolutionary themes—such as structure, history, path-dependency, scale, agency, conservation of diversity, and the perils of specialisation—should also be taken into account.

  2. Performance-based methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibin, Lin; Lili, Xie; Maosheng, Gong; Ming, Li

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a performance-based methodology for the assessment of seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the HAZUS methodology and the improved capacitydemand-diagram method. The spectral displacement ( S d ) of performance points on a capacity curve is used to estimate the damage level of a building. The relationship between S d and peak ground acceleration (PGA) is established, and then a new vulnerability function is expressed in terms of PGA. Furthermore, the expected value of the seismic capacity index (SCev) is provided to estimate the seismic capacity of buildings based on the probability distribution of damage levels and the corresponding seismic capacity index. The results indicate that the proposed vulnerability methodology is able to assess seismic damage of a large number of building stock directly and quickly following an earthquake. The SCev provides an effective index to measure the seismic capacity of buildings and illustrate the relationship between the seismic capacity of buildings and seismic action. The estimated result is compared with damage surveys of the cities of Dujiangyan and Jiangyou in the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, revealing that the methodology is acceptable for seismic risk assessment and decision making. The primary reasons for discrepancies between the estimated results and the damage surveys are discussed.

  3. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis, Acacia nilotica, Acacia mellifera and Acacia seyal were the most dominant shrubs with scattered Caddaba rotundifolia, Caddaba furmisa, Seddera bagshawei, Tamarix nilotica, Dobera glabra and abundant Parthenium hysterophorus, Cissus rotundifolia and C. quadrangularis. The grass biomass estimated in ...

  4. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  5. Assessing the Sodium Exchange Capacity in Rainfed and Irrigated Soils in the Mediterranean Basin Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Loures

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil exchange complex consists of colloidal materials on which ion exchange phenomena occur allowing it to attract, retain, and exchange elements that have opposite electric charges. Since their mineral constituents (clay and organic components (humus are mainly of a negative nature retained or exchanged ion are predominantly cations. Historically, failing to monitor parameters like the exchange sodium percentage (ESP has led to the permanent deterioration of soils which have become completely unproductive, largely reducing the sustainability of the agricultural systems. This study assesses how the sodium exchange capacity in irrigated soils differs from the rainfed ones through a sample survey that was carried out in the 15,031 ha of the Caia Irrigation Perimeter and adjacent areas, located in the municipalities of Elvas and Campo Maior, Portalegre District, Portugal where 14,280 georeferenced samples were collected from the top soil layer (0–20 cm, which were mixed 10 at a time so that each composite sample representing 11.1 ha. Then the samples were analyzed regarding the most relevant parameters for characterizing the soil exchange complex including the concentrations of exchanged bases and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC. The results were arranged in a georeferenced grid with 1451 entries. Using classical statistical analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS software, it was possible to relate the individual soil samples analyzed with the cultural system practiced (irrigated or rainfed and the present soil group which permitted us to analyze the influence of the cultural system in the soil exchange complex. The distribution chart of the exchange sodium and CEC were created. The obtained results confirm a general decrease of CEC values and an increase of the exchangeable sodium content of irrigated explored soils when compared to the rainfed ones, putting forward noteworthy ideas not only regarding the necessary changes towards

  6. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  7. Standards for the Estimation of Tourism Carrying Capacity of Countryside Wetland Parks%郊野湿地公园旅游环境容量测算标准构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桦; 储九志

    2013-01-01

    Based on differences among geographic locations, Wetland Parks were divided into 3 types of city, suburban and countryside. A special function of the countryside wetland parks is tourism support. By reviewing the first batch of National Wetland Parks and taking into account of results from relevant studies, an indicators system for the tourism capacity of countryside wetland parks was developed. Standards for estimating the tourism carrying capacity was developed by integrating other relevant standards through questionnaires. The standards covers carrying capacities in 5 major aspects: ecology, resources, psychological, facilities and management capacity, including a total of 18 elements. The standards provided a good foundation for further studies.%基于地理位置差异将湿地公园分为城市、城郊与郊野3类,探讨郊野湿地公园承担旅游功能所具有的特殊性,通过对首批国家湿地公园的梳理,结合相关研究成果,提出郊野湿地公园旅游环境容量测算的指标体系,在此基础上采用相关标准指标,通过问卷调研等方法构建其测算标准.测算标准包括旅游环境容量中的生态、资源、心理、设施及管理5大容量,共计18项因子,为其测算研究提供良好基础.

  8. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  9. An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13. Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities.

  10. Evaluation of Marine Resource Carrying Capacity in the Construction of Qingdao Blue Economy Zone%青岛市蓝色经济区建设的海洋资源承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京梅; 许玲

    2013-01-01

    From the standpoints of marine resources supply and marine industry demands ,this article built a comprehensive evaluation indicator system and measured marine resource carrying capacity in Qing-dao from 2001 to 2010 by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method .The results showed that the devel-opment of marine industry was beyond the marine resource carrying capacity in 2001 to 2006 and 2008 ,and was within the carrying capacity in the rest three years .The construction of the seaports has increased the supply ability of marine resources to some extent ,but the pollution caused by traditional marine industries is still huge ,and is a major cause for the bad performance of marine resource carrying capacity .It is sug-gested that traditional aquaculture should be reformed ,and environment friendly industries like recreation fishery and tourism should be developed in the process of constructing the blue economy zone .%从胶州湾海域资源环境供给和青岛市海洋产业增长需求的角度,构建了青岛市海洋资源承载力综合评价指标体系,利用模糊综合评价方法,对青岛市2001-2010年间海洋资源承载状况进行测度。结果表明,2001-2006年及2008年青岛市海洋资源承载力处于超载状态,其余年份处于适载状态。海岸带开发的港口建设在一定程度上提高了海洋资源的供给能力,但传统海洋产业的排污需求依然较大,是海洋资源承载力超载的重要原因。建议在蓝色经济区建设中,加快对传统养殖业的改造,大力发展休闲渔业、滨海旅游业等能耗低、排污少的产业。

  11. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  12. Conceptual and Ethical Problems in the Mental Capacity Act 2005: An Interrogation of the Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA is the claim that a conferral of incapacity may not be based on the wisdom of a decision alone. This paper problematizes this position. Values-based medicine is drawn on to explore the process of capacity assessment, highlighting the presence of preconceptions throughout assessment. Two cases before the Court of Protection are examined to bring into focus the complexity of conducting assessment without reference to wisdom. The paper proposes that every stage in the assessment of capacity is undertaken with reference to preconceptions and that an acknowledgement of these, along with transparency about when they are to be employed, would allow for greater clarity about what the MCA demands of practitioners.

  13. The development and implementation of a decision-making capacity assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jasneet; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Charles, Lesley

    2015-03-01

    Decision-making capacity assessment (DMCA) is an issue of increasing importance for older adults. Current challenges need to be explored, and potential processes and strategies considered in order to address issues of DMCA in a more coordinated manner. An iterative process was used to address issues related to DMCA. This began with recognition of challenges associated with capacity assessments (CAs) by staff at Covenant Health (CH). Review of the literature, as well as discussions with and a survey of staff at three CH sites, resulted in determination of issues related to DMCA. Development of a DMCA Model and demonstration of its feasibility followed. A process was proposed with front-end screening/problem- solving, a well-defined standard assessment, and definition of team member roles. A Capacity Assessment Care Map was formulated based on the process. Documentation was developed consisting of a Capacity Assessment Process Worksheet, Capacity Interview Worksheet, and a brochure. Interactive workshops were delivered to familiarize staff with the DMCA Model. A successful demonstration project led to implementation across all sites in the Capital Health region, and eventual provincial endorsement. Concerns identified in the survey and in the literature regarding CA were addressed through the holistic interdisciplinary approach offered by the DMCA Model.

  14. Network Capacity Assessment and Increase in Systems with Intermittent Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems have been facing many challenges in recent decades due to the potential effects of climate change and rapid population growth. Water systems need to expand because of demographic growth. Therefore, evaluating and increasing system capacity is crucial. Specifically, we analyze network capacity as one of the main features of a system. When the network capacity starts to decrease, there is a risk that continuous supply will become intermittent. This paper discusses how network expansion carried out throughout the network life span typically reduces network capacity, thus transforming a system originally designed to work with continuous supply into a system with intermittent supply. A method is proposed to expand the network capacity in an environment of economic scarcity through a greedy algorithm that enables the definition of a schedule for pipe modification stages, and thus efficiently expands the network capacity. This method is, at the same time, an important step in the process of changing a water system from intermittent back to continuous supply—an achievement that remains one of the main challenges related to water and health in developing countries.

  15. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877) - Rodentia, Echimyidae - population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, J H F; Moulton, T P; Raíces, D S L; Bergallo, H G

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i) to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii) propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii) determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  16. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877 – Rodentia, Echimyidae – population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L. abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHF Mello

    Full Text Available We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  17. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  18. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  19. PNW cetacean muscle biochemistry - Muscle Myoglobin Content and Acid Buffering Capacity of Cetaceans from the Pacific Northwest to Assess Dive Capacity and the Development of Diving Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses the development of two important skeletal muscle adaptations for diving (enhanced myoglobin content and acid buffering capacities) in a range...

  20. ONE APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE SIZE AND CAPACITY OF THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical essence and development of methods of calculation of the market’s size and capacity. Described further material is focused on experts on statistics of the market of goods and services, as well as marketers. Evaluation of size and capacity market is an extremely demanded in practice. However, a review of publications, scientific direction of research is the size and capacity of the market is not yet complete. Researchers are working to develop new approaches to the assessment of the market and to develop relevant procedures. Problems arise distinction between the notions of demand and market capacity. Theoretical basis of the research are the provisions of the economic theory, statistics of the market of goods and services, and marketing.

  1. Assessment of the Sustainability Capacity of a Coordinated Approach to Chronic Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Combs, Todd; Polk, LaShaun; Dexter, Sarah

    2017-12-07

    This article outlines some factors that influenced the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease prevention in state and territory health departments. This study involved a cross-sectional design and mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data were collected using the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT), a 40-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses 8 domains of sustainability capacity (environmental support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, program evaluation, program adaptation, communications, and strategic planning). Qualitative data were collected via phone interviews. The PSAT was administered to staff and stakeholders from public health departments in 50 US states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, who were involved in the implementation of coordinated chronic disease programs. Phone interviews were conducted with program coordinators in each state. Sustainability score patterns and state-level categorical results, as well as strengths and opportunities for improvement across the 8 program sustainability domains, were explored. On average, programs reported the strongest sustainability capacity in the domains of program adaptation, environmental support, and organizational capacity, while funding stability, strategic planning, and communications yielded lowest scores, indicating weakest capacity. Scores varied the most by state in environmental support and strategic planning. The PSAT results highlight the process through which states approached the sustainability of coordinated chronic disease initiatives. This process included an initial focus on program evaluation and partnerships with transfer of priority to long-term strategic planning, communications, and funding stability to further establish coordinated chronic disease efforts. Qualitative interviews provided further context to PSAT results, indicating that leadership, communications, partnerships, funding stability, and policy

  2. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  3. Assessing Capacity of Faith-Based Organizations for Health Promotion Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Erin Kelly; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Haider, Muhiuddin; Bowie, Janice; Slade, Jimmie; Whitehead, Tony L; Wang, Min Qi; Holt, Cheryl L

    2017-10-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are important venues for health promotion, particularly in medically underserved communities. These organizations vary considerably in their structural capacities, which may be linked to variability in implementation success for health promotion initiatives. Lacking an existing validated assessment of organizational capacity specific to FBOs, an initial prototype assessment was developed. The Faith-Based Organization Capacity Inventory (FBO-CI) assesses three structural areas of capacity: Staffing and Space, Health Promotion Experience, and External Collaboration. The multidisciplinary team, including FBO leaders, codeveloped the initial instrument. The initial reliability from a convenience sample of 34 African American churches including descriptions of FBOs representing three capacity levels is reported. The FBO-CI demonstrated feasibility of administration using an in-person interview format, and the three subscales had acceptable internal reliability (α ~ .70). Most churches had an established health ministry (n = 23) and had conducted activities across an average of seven health areas in the previous 2 years. This initial FBO-CI prototype is promising, and future work should consider validation with a larger sample of churches and domain expansion based on the conceptual model. The FBO-CI has a number of potential uses for researchers, FBO leaders, and practitioners working with FBOs in health promotion initiatives.

  4. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. Pilot Use of a Novel Tool to Assess Neurosurgical Capacity in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, Brittany; Abdelgadir, Jihad; Smith, Emily R; Fuller, Anthony; Nickenig Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; Muhindo, Alex; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    There is a significant burden of unmet surgical need in many low- and middle-income countries (>80% in parts of Africa). This need is even larger for specialties such as neurosurgery. Surgical capacity tools have been developed and used to assess needs and plan for resource allocation. This study piloted a new tool to assess neurosurgical capacity and describes its use. A surgical capacity tool was adapted to assess neurosurgical capacity. An expert panel of neurosurgeons and researchers reviewed the Surgeons OverSeas PIPES (personnel, infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies) assessment and added additional items essential to perform common neurosurgery procedures. This tool was then piloted at 3 public hospitals in Uganda and each hospital was given a score of neurosurgical capacity. At 1 hospital, 3 respondents were asked to answer the survey to assess reliability. The hospital with the largest neurosurgery caseload and 5 neurosurgeons scored the highest on our survey, followed by a regional hospital with 1 practicing neurosurgeon. The third hospital, without a neurosurgeon, scored the lowest on the scale. At the hospital that completed the reliability assessment, scores were varied between respondents. NeuroPIPES survey scores were in keeping with the number of neurosurgeons and respective caseloads of each hospital. However, the variation in scores between respondents at the same hospital suggests that adaptations could be made to the tool that may improve reliability and validity. The methodology used to create NeuroPIPES may be successfully applied to a variety of other surgical subspecialties for similar assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining the Resilience of Crop Production, Livestock Carrying Capacity, and Woodland Density in a Rural Zimbabwean Socio-Ecological System Using Agent-Based Models Representing Human Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Neves, K.; Veski, A.; Solera, J.; Omoju, O. E.; Mawere Ndlovu, A.; Wilson, K.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change increases the pressures on arid ecosystems by changing timing and amount of rainfall, understanding the ways in which human management choices affect the resilience of these systems becomes key to their sustainability. On marginal farmland in Mazvihwa, Midlands Province, the historical carrying capacity of livestock has been consistently surprisingly high. We explore this phenomenon by building an agent-based model in NetLogo from a wealth of long-term data generated by the community-based participatory research team of The Muonde Trust, a Zimbabwean non-governmental organization. We combine the accumulated results of 35 years of indigenous and local knowledge with national datasets such as rainfall records. What factors keep the carrying capacity high? What management choices can maintain crops, livestock, and woodland at levels necessary for the community's survival? How do these choices affect long-term sustainability, and does increasing resilience at one scale reduce resilience at another scale? We use our agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between crops, livestock, and woodland and the impacts of various human choices as well as temporal and spatial ecological variation. By testing different scenarios, we disentangle the complex interactions between these components. We find that some factors out of the community's control can strongly affect the sustainability of the system through times of drought, and that supplementary feed may maintain livestock potentially at the expense of other resources. The challenges to resilience encountered by the farmers in Mazvihwa are not unique - many indigenous and rural people face drought and the legacies of colonialism, which contribute to lowered resilience to external challenges such as climate change, epidemics, and political instability. Using the agent-based model as a tool for synthesis and exploration initiates discussion about resilience-enhancing management choices for Mazvihwa's farmer-researchers.

  7. Use of satiety peptides in assessing the satiating capacity of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    Foods differ in their satiating capacity. Satiety peptides may help to provide evidence for biological mechanisms behind these differences. The aim of this paper was to discuss the physiological relevance of three individual appetite peptides, i.e. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY, in assessing the satiating

  8. Assessment of the capacity of slow sand filtration to eliminate Cryptosporidium oocysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Dullemont, Y.J.; Bosklopper, K.T.G.J.; Schijven, J.F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2006-01-01

    Decimal Elimination Capacity (DEC) of the slow sand filters of the Dutch drinking water Companies was assessed; first by literature review, followed by evaluation of the removal of environmental spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC) and small-sized centric diatoms (SSCD) as surrogates.

  9. Assessment of Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Using the Missing Scan Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adrienne S.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and validity of a modified version of Buschke's missing scan methodology, the Missing Scan Task (MST), to assess working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive control processes in preschool children 3-6?years in age. Forty typically developing monolingual English-speaking children between…

  10. An Organizational Development Framework for Assessing Readiness and Capacity for Expanding Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a popular model for organizational development is utilized as a framework for assessing the organizational readiness and capacity of educational institutions whose leaders wish to establish or expand their online/distance education programs. Examples of institutionalization factors to consider and alternative models for assessing…

  11. Empowerment impact assessment (EmpIA), a tool for poverty alleviation and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, MR

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available their quality of life. xrhombus Facilitate the upgrading of the social and physical environment. xrhombus Increase employment. xrhombus Reduce poverty. xrhombus Stimulate economic growth. xrhombus Reduce imbalances in access to economic opportunities. 1... IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EmpIA), A TOOL FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING M.R. LOUW CSIR Built Environment: Pretoria, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT Empowerment impact assessment (EmpIA) is a quantitative...

  12. Assessment of capacity-building activities for forest measurement, reporting, and verification, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneva-Reed, Elitsa I.; Romijn, J. Erika

    2018-05-31

    This report was written as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, SilvaCarbon, and Wageningen University with funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the European Space Agency, respectively, to address a pressing need for enhanced result-based monitoring and evaluation of delivered capacity-building activities. For this report, the capacity-building activities delivered by capacity-building providers (referred to as “providers” hereafter) during 2011–15 (the study period) to support countries in building measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) were assessed and evaluated.Summarizing capacity-building activities and outcomes across multiple providers was challenging. Many of the providers did not have information readily available, which precluded them from participating in this study despite the usefulness of their information. This issue led to a key proposed future action: Capacity-building providers could establish a central repository within the Global Forestry Observation Initiative (GFOI; http://www.gfoi.org/) where data from past, current, and future activities of all capacity-building providers could be stored. The repository could be maintained in a manner to continually learn from previous lessons.Although various providers monitored and evaluated the success of their capacity-building activities, such evaluations only assessed the success of immediate outcomes and not the overarching outcomes and impacts of activities implemented by multiple providers. Good monitoring and evaluation should continuously monitor and periodically evaluate all factors affecting the outcomes of a provided capacity-building activity.The absence of a methodology to produce quantitative evidence of a causal link between multiple capacity-building activities delivered and successful outcomes left only a plausible association. A previous

  13. Study on Space Audit Assessment Criteria for Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia: Space Capacity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamdan Wan Samsul Zamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the capacity rate of learning space based on the as-built drawing provided by the institutions or if the as-built drawing is missing, the researcher have to prepare measured drawing as per actual on site. The learning space Capacity Index is developed by analyzing the space design in as-built drawing or measured drawing and the list of learning spaces available at the institution. The Capacity Index is classified according to the level of Usable Floor Area (UFA and Occupancy Load (OL according to learning space design capacity. The classification of Capacity Index is demonstrated through linguistic value and the color-coded key. From the said index, the institution can easily identify whether the existing learning space is currently best used or vice versa and standard space planning compliance in Malaysia Public Higher Education Institutions. The data will assist the management to clarify whether to maximize the use of existing space or to request for new learning space.

  14. Assessment of the possibility of increasing a load - carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIOŁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of increasing the load-carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes by transferring a part of a useful load from the main truss (which transfers directly the load originated from road wheels of the crane carriage on the parallel auxiliary truss by means of increasing rigidity of truss members joining both trusses - was presented in the paper. The verification of a static relief of the main truss by the auxiliary one as a function of rigidity of transverse and skew space trusses was performed. The A. Blum method was used in analytical calculations. The obtained results were verified by means of the ANSYS 12.1 program utilising the finite element method (FEM.

  15. Patient competence and professional incompetence: disagreements in capacity assessments in one Australian jurisdiction, and their educational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2008-08-01

    The determination of capacity to make medical, personal and financial decisions has significant individual and social implications. Medical and other health professionals are traditionally relied on by courts and tribunals to provide clinical and psychometric evidence of the presence or absence of capacity, or competence. Concern has long been expressed over the variability of these assessments. A survey of 285 decisions of the Queensland Guardianship and Assessment Tribunal (GAAT) between 2005 and 2008 was conducted to estimate the incidence of disagreement between health professionals in capacity assessments; to provide examples of conflicting assessments and models of assessment used; and to consider the educational implications of disagreements. While the final capacity determinations by the GAAT appear sound, this case series, and other studies in the capacity literature, strongly suggest the need to improve the education of health professionals, especially doctors, at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, in the practical assessment of capacity as a fundamental clinical skill.

  16. Research on tourism environmental carrying capacity of island tourist destination---A case study of Shanghai Chongming island%岛屿型旅游目的地旅游环境承载力研究--以上海崇明岛为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世栋; 高峻

    2014-01-01

    以上海崇明岛为例,以长江隧桥贯通以及上海世博会为人类活动影响驱动因子,从时空角度选择旅游环境承载力评价模型,研究人类活动对岛屿型旅游目的地的影响以及崇明岛旅游业发展限制因子的变化。研究结果表明:崇明岛内水环境以及宾馆接待能力良好;入岛交通从以轮渡水上交通为主演变为隧桥陆上交通为主,隧桥陆上交通在“井喷式”旅游后逐步减压,但旅游旺季入岛交通限制因子也从轮渡水上交通变为隧桥陆上交通;崇明岛旅游发展的最大限制因子目前是旅游旺季的游客接待能力以及岛屿内部固体废弃物的清运能力。%Based on the spatial and temporal tourism environmental carrying capacity assessment model,taking the Yangtze River tunnel bridge linking and the EXPO as the human activity driv-ing factors,the impacts of human activity on the island-tourist destination and the limiting factors for the tourism industry development of Shanghai Chongming island are studied.The results showed that hotel reception and water carrying capacity can meet the needs of tourists;The out-land traffic had changed from ferry boat to bridge-road traffic,and the carrying capacity of road traffic gradually decompressed after “spurt tourism”,but it still was one of the limited factors in its′peak season.At last,the biggest limited factors of tourism industry were tourist reception carrying capacity in peak season and the removal capacity of solid waste for Chongming island.

  17. A Tool for Assessing Future Capacity Loss Due to Sedimentation in the United States' Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A. O.; Baker, B.; White, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Federal reservoirs are critical components of the United States' water supply, flood risk management, hydropower and navigation infrastructure. These reservoirs included capacity for storage loss due to the deposition of sediment by inflowing streams in their original design. However, the actual rate of capacity loss experienced is controlled in part by climate, topography, soils, and land use/land cover, and may vary from the design. To assess the current and future vulnerability of its reservoirs to sedimentation. USACE has developed an online planning tool to identify USACE reservoirs where sedimentation is currently a problem (e.g., sedimentation rate exceeds design sedimentation rate, or zone losses disproportionately affect authorized purposes), and reservoirs where rates are expected to increase significantly in the future. The goal is to be able to prioritize operation and maintenance actions to minimize the effects of reservoir capacity loss on authorized purposes and help maximize reservoir use life.

  18. The 'Hothaps' programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Gabrysch, Sabine; Lemke, Bruno; Dear, Keith

    2009-11-11

    The 'high occupational temperature health and productivity suppression' programme (Hothaps) is a multi-centre health research and prevention programme aimed at quantifying the extent to which working people are affected by, or adapt to, heat exposure while working, and how global heating during climate change may increase such effects. The programme will produce essential new evidence for local, national and global assessment of negative impacts of climate change that have largely been overlooked. It will also identify and evaluate preventive interventions in different social and economic settings.Hothaps includes studies in any part of the world where hourly heat exposure exceeds physiological stress limits that may affect workers. This usually happens at temperatures above 25 degrees C, depending on humidity, wind movement and heat radiation. Working people in low and middle-income tropical countries are particularly vulnerable, because many of them are involved in heavy physical work, either outdoors in strong sunlight or indoors without effective cooling. If high work intensity is maintained in workplaces with high heat exposure, serious health effects can occur, including heat stroke and death.Depending on the type of occupation, the required work intensity, and the level of heat stress, working people have to slow down their work in order to reduce internal body heat production and the risk of heat stroke. Thus, unless preventive interventions are used to reduce the heat stress on workers, their individual health and productivity will be affected and economic output per work hour will be reduced. Heat also influences other daily physical activities, unrelated to work, in all age groups. Poorer people without access to household or workplace cooling devices are most likely to be affected.The Hothaps programme includes a pilot study, heat monitoring of selected workplaces, qualitative studies of perceived heat impacts and preventative interventions

  19. Building and measuring infrastructure and capacity for community health assessment and health improvement planning in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Christine; Grigg, C Meade; Steele, Jo Ann; Osgood, Laurie; Keating, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    COMPASS (Comprehensive Assessment, Strategic Success) is the Florida Department of Health's community health assessment and health improvement planning initiative. Since 2002, COMPASS built state and county health department infrastructure to support a comprehensive, systematic, and integrated approach to community health assessment and planning. To assess the capacity of Florida's 67 county health departments (CHDs) to conduct community health assessment and planning and to identify training and technical assistance needs, COMPASS surveyed the CHDs using a Web-based instrument annually from 2004 through 2008. Response rate to the survey was 100 percent annually. In 2007, 96 percent of CHDs reported conducting assessment and planning within the past 3 years; 74 percent used the MAPP (Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships) framework. Progress was greater for the organizational and assessment phases of the MAPP-based work; only 10 CHDs had identified strategic priorities in 2007, and even fewer had implemented strategies for improving health. In 2007, the most frequently requested types of training were measuring success, developing goals and action plans, and using qualitative data; technical assistance was most frequently requested for program evaluation and writing community health status reports. Florida's CHDs have increased their capacity to conduct community health assessment and planning. Questions remain about sustaining these gains with limited resources.

  20. The inherent tensions arising from attempting to carry out strategic environmental assessments on all policies, plans and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLauchlan, Anna; João, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the tensions that result from routinely applying SEA to all policies, plans and programmes within Scotland. The European Union SEA Directive, effective in many EU member states from 2004, introduced a requirement for environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes. Scotland, a devolved nation within the EU member state of the United Kingdom, aimed to be a ‘world leader in SEA’ by legislating for SEA to be undertaken of all public sector plans, programmes and strategies, with the word ‘strategies’ being equated with ‘policies’. This paper presents detailed data regarding Scottish SEA activity between 2004 and 2007, including responses to consultations on SEA reports. This empirical research found that, reflecting a general difficulty in determining where and when SEA should be applied, engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended (including the pre-screening and screening stages). Eight tensions evident from Scotland's application of SEA are identified, and their broader relevance is examined. - Highlights: ► We examine detailed data regarding Scottish strategic environmental assessment (SEA) activity. ► There is a general difficulty in determining where SEA should be applied. ► Engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended. ► Eight ‘tensions’ that question the efficacy of applying SEA to all plans, programmes and policies were identified.

  1. The electricity generation adequacy problem: Assessing dynamic effects of capacity remuneration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hary, Nicolas; Rious, Vincent; Saguan, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Following liberalization reforms, the ability of power markets to provide satisfactory incentives for capacity investments has become a major concern. In particular, current energy markets can exhibit a phenomenon of investment cycles, which generate phases of under and over-capacity, and hence additional costs and risks for generation adequacy. To cope with these issues, new mechanisms, called capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRM), have been (or will be) implemented. This paper assesses the dynamic effects of two CRMs, the capacity market and the strategic reserve mechanism, and studies to what extent they can reduce the investment cycles. Generation costs and shortage costs of both mechanisms are also compared to conclude on their effectivity and economic efficiency. A simulation model, based on system dynamics, is developed to study the functioning of both CRMs and the related investment decisions. The results highlight the benefits of deploying CRMs to solve the adequacy issue: shortages are strongly reduced compared to an energy-only market. Besides, the capacity market appears to be more beneficial, since it experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower. These comparisons can be used by policy makers (in particular in Europe, where these two CRMs are mainly debated) to determine which CRM to adopt. - Highlights: •A study of the dynamic effects of CRMs on generation investments is provided. •Capacity market and strategic reserve mechanism are compared. •Both CRMs reduce the cyclical tendencies prone to appear in energy-only market. •The capacity market experiences fewer shortages and generation costs are lower.

  2. Using information theory to assess the communicative capacity of circulating microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Nnenna A; Searles, Charles D

    2013-10-11

    The discovery of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) and their transport modalities (i.e., microparticles, exosomes, proteins and lipoproteins) has sparked theories regarding their role in intercellular communication. Here, we assessed the information transfer capacity of different miRNA transport modalities in human serum by utilizing basic principles of information theory. Zipf Statistics were calculated for each of the miRNA transport modalities identified in human serum. Our analyses revealed that miRNA-mediated information transfer is redundant, as evidenced by negative Zipf's Statistics with magnitudes greater than one. In healthy subjects, the potential communicative capacity of miRNA in complex with circulating proteins was significantly lower than that of miRNA encapsulated in circulating microparticles and exosomes. Moreover, the presence of coronary heart disease significantly lowered the communicative capacity of all circulating miRNA transport modalities. To assess the internal organization of circulating miRNA signals, Shannon's zero- and first-order entropies were calculated. Microparticles (MPs) exhibited the lowest Shannon entropic slope, indicating a relatively high capacity for information transfer. Furthermore, compared to the other miRNA transport modalities, MPs appeared to be the most efficient at transferring miRNA to cultured endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that although all transport modalities have the capacity for miRNA-based information transfer, MPs may be the simplest and most robust way to achieve miRNA-based signal transduction in sera. This study presents a novel method for analyzing the quantitative capacity of miRNA-mediated information transfer while providing insight into the communicative characteristics of distinct circulating miRNA transport modalities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Assessment on the capacity for programs regarding chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and control, in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiang; Zhai, Yi; Shi, Xiaoming

    2014-06-01

    To assess the policies and programs on the capacity of prevention and control regarding non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) at all levels and grass roots health care institutions, in China. On-line questionnaire survey was adopted by 3 352 CDCs at provincial, city and county levels and 1 200 grass roots health care institutions. 1) On policies: 75.0% of the provincial governments provided special funding for chronic disease prevention and control, whereas 19.7% city government and 11.3% county government did so. 2) Infrastructure:only 7.1% county level CDCs reported having a department taking care of NCD prevention and control. 8 263 staff members worked on NCDs prevention and control, accounting for 4.2% of all the CDCs' personnel. 40.2% CDCs had special funding used for NCDs prevention and control. 3)Capacity on training and guidance:among all the CDCs, 96.9% at provincial level, 50.3% at city level and 42.1% at county level had organized training on NCDs prevention and control. Only 48.3% of the CDCs at county level provided technical guidance for grass-roots health care institutions. 4) Capacities regarding cooperation and participation: 20.2% of the CDCs had experience in collaborating with mass media. 5) Surveillance capacity: 64.6% of the CDCs at county level implemented death registration, compare to less than 30.0% of CDCs at county level implemented surveillance programs on major NCDs and related risk factors. In the grass roots health care institutions, 18.6% implemented new stroke case reporting system but only 3.0% implemented program on myocardial infarction case reporting. 6) Intervention and management capacity: 36.1% and 32.2% of the CDCs conducted individualized intervention on hypertension and diabetes, while less than another 20% intervened into other NCDs and risk factors. More than 50% of the grass roots health care institutions carried follow-up survey on hypertension and diabetes. Rates

  4. Beyond Vulnerability Assessment: Impact of Developments toward Local Adaptive Capacity in Kemijen City Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanimitta, M. E.; Puspasari, D. A.; Widyahantari, R.; Kristina, D.; Ratnaningtyas, T.; Setionurjaya, A.; Anindita, Y. A.

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerability Assessment is usually used for assessing the ability of an area on facing disaster. In previous studies, the study of Vulnerability Assessment applied only quantitative method to show the vulnerability level. Therefore, this study attempts to add information reviews using qualitative method. Kemijen City Village is one of the administrative areas in the northern part of Semarang City affected by climate change. The residents have to adapt it by renovating and elevating their houses and other infrastructures to avoid floods. There are some development programs held by government, NGOs, and corporations such as Banger Polder Development, PLPBK, etc. It is interesting to know how big the vulnerability level of Kemijen on facing flood disasters, then how the projects can affect local adaptive capacity. To answer it, this research uses mixed-method approach. Vulnerability Assessment uses quantitative method by scoring indicators of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity, while the development impact uses qualitative method. The data were collected through interviews and FGD conducted in Joint Studio Course between Diponegoro University and University of Hawaii in October 2016. Non-physical programs such as community empowerment have more positive impacts on local adaptive capacity in Kemijen. Community participation is important for environmental sustainability that can not be done in a short time to educate the people.

  5. Assessing the Decision-Making Capacity of Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Saracino, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    Despite the clinical, ethical, and legal magnitude of end-of-life decision-making, the capacity of terminally ill patients to make the medical decisions they often face is largely unknown. In practice, clinicians are responsible for determining when their patients are no longer competent to make treatment decisions, yet the accuracy of these assessments is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore decision-making capacity and its assessment in terminally ill cancer patients. Fifty-five patients with advanced cancer receiving inpatient palliative care and 50 healthy adults were administered the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) to evaluate decision-making capacity with regard to the four most commonly used legal standards: Choice, Understanding, Appreciation, and Reasoning. Participants made a hypothetical treatment decision about whether to accept artificial nutrition and hydration for treatment of cachexia. Participants' physicians independently rated their decision-making capacity. Terminally ill participants were significantly more impaired than healthy adults on all MacCAT-T subscales. Most terminally ill participants were able to express a treatment choice (85.7%), but impairment was common on the Understanding (44.2%), Appreciation (49.0%), and Reasoning (85.4%) subscales. Agreement between physician-rated capacity and performance on the MacCAT-T subscales was poor. The use of the MacCAT-T revealed high rates of decisional impairment in terminally ill participants. Participants' physicians infrequently detected impairment identified by the MacCAT-T. The findings from the present study reinforce the need for engagement in advance care planning for patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 基于水环境承载力评价的产业选择——以扬州市北部沿湖地区为例%Selecting industries based on evaluation of the water environment's carrying capacity: a case study of the Northern Lakeside Region of Yangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姗姗; 张落成; 董雅文; 杨永可

    2017-01-01

    and waterfront areas with " general" carrying capacity levels are appropriate for modem ecological farming.The areas between mid-stream and up-stream of rivers with poor "lower" and "lowest" carrying capacity are ideal to cultivate staple crops (rice,cotton,rape,wheat,soybeans,and corn).This area is the main source of agricultural and domestic pollutants.In addition,the suitability of the industrial system has significant feedback for the water environment's carrying capacity.More measures should be taken to strengthen protection for wetlands along the lakeside due to its high ecological sensitivity.Unlike traditional hydrologic methods (using field hydrological data and model),this study provides a new approach to quickly and conveniently assess water environment carrying capacity.The industrial orientation proposed here serves not only an academic and scientific purpose,but also provides important insights for the government to formulate plans for industrial development.%区域的产业发展与该区域的自然和社会经济因素密切相关,对于水网稠密地区,水环境承载力是影响产业结构和布局优化的重要自然因子之一.选择江苏省境内跨长江与淮河两大流域的典型水网密集区——扬州市北部沿湖(邵伯湖)地区为研究区,选取水网构成指数、水利设施调控指数和水质达标差距指数3个指标,评价研究区水环境承载能力,并探讨水环境承载力与不同产业结构的联系,为该地区产业结构布局和优化提供建议.结果表明研究区水环境承载力“高”、“较高”、“中等”、“较低”和“低”5个等级分别占研究区总面积的0.38%、21.74%、29.67%、13.65%和34.56%.根据研究区水环境承载力空间差异和水环境承载力与不同产业的联系,以选择生态涵养型产业为基本导向,以兼具开发适宜性和环境保护重要性为基本原则,提出应根据研究区水环境承载力水平不均衡的特

  7. Using Information Theory to Assess the Communicative Capacity of Circulating MicroRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Nnenna A.; Searles, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) and their transport modalities (i.e. microparticles, exosomes, proteins and lipoproteins) has sparked theories regarding their role in intercellular communication. Here, we assessed the information transfer capacity of different miRNA transport modalities in human serum by utilizing basic principles of information theory. Zipf Statistics were calculated for each of the miRNA transport modalities identified in human serum. Our analyses revealed...

  8. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel : a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Termeer, Catrien; Klostermann, Judith; Meijerink, Sander; van den Brink, Margo; Jong, Pieter; Nooteboom, Sibout; Bergsma, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  9. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Termeer, C.; Klostermann, J.; Meijerink, S.; van den Brink, M.; de Jong, P.; Nootebooms, S.; Bergsma, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  10. Assessment of children's capacity to consent for research: a descriptive qualitative study of researchers' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Stasiulis, Elaine; Gutfreund, Shawna; McDonald, Maria; Dade, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers and research assistants in Southern Ontario. Transcribed interviews were analysed for common themes. Procedures for assessing capacity varied considerably from the use of age cutoffs to in-depth engagement with each child. Three key issues emerged from the accounts: (1) requirements that consent be provided by a single person thwarted researchers' abilities to support family decision-making; (2) little practical distinction was made between assessing if a child was capable, versus determining if study information had been adequately explained by the researcher; and (3) participants' perceived that review boards' requirements may conflict with what they considered ethical consent practices. The results suggest that researchers' consent and capacity knowledge and skills vary considerably. Perceived discrepancies between ethical practice and ethics boards' requirements suggest the need for dialogue, education and possibly ethics board reforms. Furthermore we propose, where appropriate, a 'family decision-making' model that allows parents and their children to consent together, thereby shifting the focus from separate assent and consent procedures to approaches that appropriately engage the child and family.

  11. Assessment of the Sustainable Development Capacity with the Entropy Weight Coefficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is widely accepted in the world. How to reflect the sustainable development capacity of a region is an important issue for enacting policies and plans. An index system for capacity assessment is established by employing the Entropy Weight Coefficient method. The results indicate that the sustainable development capacity of Shandong Province is improving in terms of its economy subsystem, resource subsystem, and society subsystem whilst degrading in its environment subsystem. Shandong Province has shown the general trend towards sustainable development. However, the sustainable development capacity can be constrained by the resources such as energy, land, water, as well as environmental protection. These issues are induced by the economy development model, the security of energy supply, the level of new energy development, the end-of-pipe control of pollution, and the level of science and technology commercialization. Efforts are required to accelerate the development of the tertiary industry, the commercialization of high technology, the development of new energy and renewable energy, and the structure optimization of energy mix. Long-term measures need to be established for the ecosystem and environment protection.

  12. Use of sinkhole and specific capacity distributions to assess vertical gradients in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K.J.; Kozar, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer in the Great Valley, West Virginia, USA, was evaluated using a database of 687 sinkholes and 350 specific capacity tests to assess structural, lithologic, and topographic influences on the groundwater flow system. The enhanced permeability of the aquifer is characterized in part by the many sinkholes, springs, and solutionally enlarged fractures throughout the valley. Yet, vertical components of subsurface flow in this highly heterogeneous aquifer are currently not well understood. To address this problem, this study examines the apparent relation between geologic features of the aquifer and two spatial indices of enhanced permeability attributed to aquifer karstification: (1) the distribution of sinkholes and (2) the occurrence of wells with relatively high specific capacity. Statistical results indicate that sinkholes (funnel and collapse) occur primarily along cleavage and bedding planes parallel to subparallel to strike where lateral or downward vertical gradients are highest. Conversely, high specific capacity values are common along prominent joints perpendicular or oblique to strike. The similarity of the latter distribution to that of springs suggests these fractures are areas of upward-convergent flow. These differences between sinkhole and high specific capacity distributions suggest vertical flow components are primarily controlled by the orientation of geologic structure and associated subsurface fracturing. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Exploring the Role of Cognitive Factors in a New Instrument for Elders' Financial Capacity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsolaki, Magda

    2018-01-01

    The influence of cognitive factors on financial capacity across the dementia spectrum of cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been little investigated, while it has not been investigated at all in other types of dementia as well as in extended samples of elders in Greece. The aim of this study is to investigate financial capacity, to develop a tool, test its psychometric properties, validate, and then test the tool in groups of healthy controls compared to elders with dementia, while examining other facets of their cognitive performance. 719 elders from Greece including healthy participants and patients with different types of dementia were examined with Legal Capacity for Property Law Transactions Assessment Scale (LCPLTAS) and a battery of neuropsychological tests concerning various cognitive functions. Significantly different profiles in the scores and subscores of LCPLTAS for all the groups of dementia patients were found, with a general incapacity finding for all the dementia groups including the MCI patients. Logistic regression showed that Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale, and Trail Making Part B predicted competence on LCPLTAS for the dementia patients. Persons with MCI and dementia had lower financial knowledge scores than those without cognitive impairment, with MMSE scores below 27 suggestive as an indication of financial incapacity. The LCPLTAS provides information for a strong positive correlation with MMSE, while the use both of MMSE and LCPLTAS as adequate measures of financial (in)capacity is discussed for the Greek legal procedures regarding elder guardianship cases.

  14. Serial Assessment of Trauma Care Capacity in Ghana in 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Quansah, Robert; Gyedu, Adam; Boakye, Godfred; Abantanga, Francis; Ankomah, James; Donkor, Peter; Mock, Charles

    2016-02-01

    Trauma care capacity assessments in developing countries have generated evidence to support advocacy, detailed baseline capabilities, and informed targeted interventions. However, serial assessments to determine the effect of capacity improvements or changes over time have rarely been performed. To compare the availability of trauma care resources in Ghana between 2004 and 2014 to assess the effects of a decade of change in the trauma care landscape and derive recommendations for improvements. Capacity assessments were performed using direct inspection and structured interviews derived from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. In Ghana, 10 hospitals in 2004 and 32 hospitals in 2014 were purposively sampled to represent those most likely to care for injuries. Clinical staff, administrators, logistic/procurement officers, and technicians/biomedical engineers who interacted, directly or indirectly, with trauma care resources were interviewed at each hospital. Availability of items for trauma care was rated from 0 (complete absence) to 3 (fully available). Factors contributing to deficiency in 2014 were determined for items rated lower than 3. Each item rated lower than 3 at a specific hospital was defined as a hospital-item deficiency. Scores for total number of hospital-item deficiencies were derived for each contributing factor. There were significant improvements in mean ratings for trauma care resources: district-level (smaller) hospitals had a mean rating of 0.8 for all items in 2004 vs 1.3 in 2014 (P = .002); regional (larger) hospitals had a mean rating of 1.1 in 2004 vs 1.4 in 2014 (P = .01). However, a number of critical deficiencies remain (eg, chest tubes, diagnostics, and orthopedic and neurosurgical care; mean ratings ≤ 2). Leading contributing factors were item absence (503 hospital-item deficiencies), lack of training (335 hospital-item deficiencies), and stockout of consumables (137 hospital-item deficiencies

  15. Orthopaedic Trauma Care Capacity Assessment and Strategic Planning in Ghana: Mapping a Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Tansley, Gavin; Yeboah, Dominic; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Mock, Charles; Labi-Addo, Wilfred; Quansah, Robert

    2016-12-07

    Orthopaedic conditions incur more than 52 million disability-adjusted life years annually worldwide. This burden disproportionately affects low and middle-income countries, which are least equipped to provide orthopaedic care. We aimed to assess orthopaedic capacity in Ghana, describe spatial access to orthopaedic care, and identify hospitals that would most improve access to care if their capacity was improved. Seventeen perioperative and orthopaedic trauma care-related items were selected from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. Direct inspection and structured interviews with hospital staff were used to assess resource availability and factors contributing to deficiencies at 40 purposively sampled facilities. Cost-distance analyses described population-level spatial access to orthopaedic trauma care. Facilities for targeted capability improvement were identified through location-allocation modeling. Orthopaedic trauma care assessment demonstrated marked deficiencies. Some deficient resources were low cost (e.g., spinal immobilization, closed reduction capabilities, and prosthetics for amputees). Resource nonavailability resulted from several contributing factors (e.g., absence of equipment, technology breakage, lack of training). Implants were commonly prohibitively expensive. Building basic orthopaedic care capacity at 15 hospitals without such capacity would improve spatial access to basic care from 74.9% to 83.0% of the population (uncertainty interval [UI] of 81.2% to 83.6%), providing access for an additional 2,169,714 Ghanaians. The availability of several low-cost resources could be better supplied by improvements in organization and training for orthopaedic trauma care. There is a critical need to advocate and provide funding for orthopaedic resources. These initiatives might be particularly effective if aimed at hospitals that could provide care to a large proportion of the population.

  16. Assessing an Adolescent's Capacity for Autonomous Decision-Making in Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Blum, Robert Wm; Benaroyo, Lazare; Zermatten, Jean; Baltag, Valentina

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide policy guidance on how to assess the capacity of minor adolescents for autonomous decision-making without a third party authorization, in the field of clinical care. In June 2014, a two-day meeting gathered 20 professionals from all continents, working in the field of adolescent medicine, neurosciences, developmental and clinical psychology, sociology, ethics, and law. Formal presentations and discussions were based on a literature search and the participants' experience. The assessment of adolescent decision-making capacity includes the following: (1) a review of the legal context consistent with the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; (2) an empathetic relationship between the adolescent and the health care professional/team; (3) the respect of the adolescent's developmental stage and capacities; (4) the inclusion, if relevant, of relatives, peers, teachers, or social and mental health providers with the adolescent's consent; (5) the control of coercion and other social forces that influence decision-making; and (6) a deliberative stepwise appraisal of the adolescent's decision-making process. This stepwise approach, already used among adults with psychiatric disorders, includes understanding the different facets of the given situation, reasoning on the involved issues, appreciating the outcomes linked with the decision(s), and expressing a choice. Contextual and psychosocial factors play pivotal roles in the assessment of adolescents' decision-making capacity. The evaluation must be guided by a well-established procedure, and health professionals should be trained accordingly. These proposals are the first to have been developed by a multicultural, multidisciplinary expert panel. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph [Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutt, Candace, E-mail: awr8@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, 4770 Buford Highway MS/F-77, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Satariano, William A. [University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Division of Community Health and Human Development, Berkeley, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  18. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Satariano, William A.; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building

  19. Assessment of health facility capacity to provide newborn care in Bangladesh, Haiti, Malawi, Senegal, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rebecca; Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Wang, Wenjuan; Mallick, Lindsay

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of health facility capacity to provide comprehensive care, the most widely used indicators for global monitoring of maternal and child health remain contact measures which assess women's use of services only and not the capacity of health facilities to provide those services; there is a gap in monitoring health facilities' capacity to provide newborn care services in low and middle income countries. In this study we demonstrate a measurable framework for assessing health facility capacity to provide newborn care using open access, nationally-representative Service Provision Assessment (SPA) data from the Demographic Health Surveys Program. In particular, we examine whether key newborn-related services are available at the facility (ie, service availability, measured by the availability of basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) signal functions, newborn signal functions, and routine perinatal services), and whether the facility has the equipment, medications, training and knowledge necessary to provide those services (ie, service readiness, measured by general facility requirements, equipment, medicines and commodities, and guidelines and staffing) in five countries with high levels of neonatal mortality and recent SPA data: Bangladesh, Haiti, Malawi, Senegal, and Tanzania. In each country, we find that key services and commodities needed for comprehensive delivery and newborn care are missing from a large percentage of facilities with delivery services. Of three domains of service availability examined, scores for routine care availability are highest, while scores for newborn signal function availability are lowest. Of four domains of service readiness examined, scores for general requirements and equipment are highest, while scores for guidelines and staffing are lowest. Both service availability and readiness tend to be highest in hospitals and facilities in urban areas, pointing to substantial equity gaps in the availability of essential

  20. Model error assessment of burst capacity models for energy pipelines containing surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zijian; Zhang, Shenwei; Zhou, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops the probabilistic characteristics of the model errors associated with five well-known burst capacity models/methodologies for pipelines containing longitudinally-oriented external surface cracks, namely the Battelle and CorLAS™ models as well as the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodologies recommended in the BS 7910 (2005), API RP579 (2007) and R6 (Rev 4, Amendment 10). A total of 112 full-scale burst test data for cracked pipes subjected internal pressure only were collected from the literature. The model error for a given burst capacity model is evaluated based on the ratios of the test to predicted burst pressures for the collected data. Analysis results suggest that the CorLAS™ model is the most accurate model among the five models considered and the Battelle, BS 7910, API RP579 and R6 models are in general conservative; furthermore, the API RP579 and R6 models are markedly more accurate than the Battelle and BS 7910 models. The results will facilitate the development of reliability-based structural integrity management of pipelines. - Highlights: • Model errors for five burst capacity models for pipelines containing surface cracks are characterized. • Basic statistics of the model errors are obtained based on test-to-predicted ratios. • Results will facilitate reliability-based design and assessment of energy pipelines

  1. Network analysis as a tool for community capacity measurement and assessing partnerships between community-based organizations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The community partnership is a foundation laid by the local community that has been historically and geographically formed to develop itself. This article, an exploratory community network survey for capacity building, assessed collaborations among community-based organizations (CBOs) in the S-district, Republic of Korea, and evaluated methods for the reconstruction of a resident-governing healthy network. Using CBOs' evaluation questionnaire, the author surveyed 83 CBOs that were collected by snowball sampling. The CBOs in the S-district had formed community networks based on vocational associations established in the 1980s and the 1990s. The entire network evidenced a cooperative partnership, in which women's organizations and civic groups carried out essential functions. In the capacity-building process through CBOs, community collaboration can be naturally cultivated, and health promotion programs to improve the residents' health will tend to be more systematic than the current approach and yield higher compliance and practice rates. Thus, it will be necessary to construct an effective partnership of community networks by reorganizing existing exclusive relations.

  2. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  3. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  4. Depression in Schizophrenia: Associations With Cognition, Functional Capacity, Everyday Functioning, and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Pinkham, Amy E; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-05-01

    Depressed mood has a complex relationship with self-evaluation of personal competence in multiple populations. The absence of depression may be associated with overestimation of abilities, while mild depression seems to lead to accurate self-assessment. Significant depression may lead to underestimation of functioning. In this study, we expand on our previous work by directly comparing the association between different levels of depression, everyday functioning, cognitive and functional capacity performance, and self-assessment of everyday functioning in a large (n = 406) sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Participants with very low self-reported depression overestimated their everyday functioning compared with informant reports. Higher levels of depression were associated with more accurate self-assessment, but no subgroup of patients underestimated their functioning. Depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer informant-rated social functioning, but there were no differences in vocational functioning, everyday activities, cognitive performance, and functional capacity associated with the severity of self-reported depression. There was minimal evidence of impact of depression on most aspects of everyday functioning and objective test performance and a substantial relationship between depression and accuracy of self-assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. 旅游者数量与旅游环境承载力耦合关系研究%Coupling Relationships Research of Tourist Number and Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀平; 王立岩; 翁钢民

    2015-01-01

    The realities of rapid development of China′s tourism industry , the rapid expansion of tourism demand , con-centration of tourist holiday travel and the uneven spatial distribution , result in problems that negative impact of tourism activities on the environment has become increasingly prominent .Using the coupling theory , and taking the sustainable carrying of tourism environment as the objective , this paper defines the connotation of coupling relationship about tourist number and tourism environment carrying capacity , and analyzes the characteristics and application mechanism , forma-tion mechanism and the module of coupling relationship , as well as takes Nandaihe International Amusement Centre spot as an example to analyze .The research shows that the development of the tourism environment in the system depends on the matching degree between the elements , so we should refine the interaction between the tourism and the tourism envi-ronment to make the mechanism and process of coupling concrete .%旅游业的快速发展、 旅游需求的激增、 国内假期旅游的集中及旅游资源空间分布的不均,导致旅游环境承载力与旅游者人数之间的矛盾日益突出. 本文借鉴耦合理论, 以旅游环境可持续承载为目标, 界定了旅游者数量与旅游环境承载力耦合关系的内涵, 分析了该耦合关系的特征与适用机制、 形成机理与模块组成, 并以河北省南戴河国际娱乐中心旅游区为例进行了实证分析. 研究表明: 系统内旅游环境发展状况取决于构成要素之间的匹配程度, 需细化旅游者与旅游环境承载力耦合的相互作用, 使耦合的机理和流程具体化.

  6. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente en acero basado en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity studies of a steel bridge based on structural relia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la confiabilidad estructural, para un Puente en Colombia después de su monitoreo. Los resultados de este trabajo son parte de una nueva metodología para evaluar puentes existentes mediante una colaboración entre Universidad-Empresas-Gobierno Nacional. Este estudio ayuda en la toma de decisiones y en la priorización de tareas de rehabilitación. Este estudio incluyó: caracterización dinámica de las vibraciones naturales del puente; adquisición de datos de fuerzas internas debidas al tráfico por medio de tecnología de LVDT's y Strain Gages; evaluación de las fuerzas actuales comparadas contra los esfuerzos máximos permitidos; modelación estática, dinámica y estructural. Adicionalmente se hizo un estudio de amenaza sísmica y respuesta dinámica del área del puente y nueve (9 diferentes espectros de respuesta fueron obtenidos, cada uno con un periodo de retorno diferente. Se encontró que las torres del puente tienen una probabilidad de falla mayor que la permitida por los códigos. Lo anterior condujo a un reforzamiento inmediato del puente.In this document, seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity analyses are presented for a bridge in Colombia after monitoring by means of reliability of structures. Results of this work are part of a new methodology to evaluate existing bridges carried out though a partnership among University - Private Companies - and Goverment. This study helps in decision making on the priority of rehabilitation tasks. This study included: dynamic characterization of natural vibrations of the bridge; data logging of inner forces due to traffic by using LVDT's and strain gages technology; evaluation of actual forces to be compared to allowed stresses, dynamic and static structural modelling. Also, a seismic hazard and dynamic response of the local area of the bridge was developed and nine (9 different response spectra were obtained, each one varying its return period. It was found that the

  7. Health research capacity building in Georgia: a case-based needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A; Chitashvili, T; Djibuti, M; Ridge, L; Chyun, D

    2017-06-01

    Research capacity building in the health sciences in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has typically focused on bench-science capacity, but research examining health service delivery and health workforce is equally necessary to determine the best ways to deliver care. The Republic of Georgia, formerly a part of the Soviet Union, has multiple issues within its healthcare system that would benefit from expended research capacity, but the current research environment needs to be explored prior to examining research-focused activities. The purpose of this project was to conduct a needs assessment focused on developing research capacity in the Republic of Georgia with an emphasis on workforce and network development. A case study approach guided by a needs assessment format. We conducted in-country, informal, semi-structured interviews in English with key informants and focus groups with faculty, students, and representatives of local non-governmental organizations. Purposive and snowball sampling approaches were used to recruit participants, with key informant interviews scheduled prior to arrival in country. Documents relevant to research capacity building were also included. Interview results were coded via content analysis. Final results were organized into a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threat) analysis format, with the report shared with participants. There is widespread interest among students and faculty in Georgia around building research capacity. Lack of funding was identified by many informants as a barrier to research. Many critical research skills, such as proposal development, qualitative research skills, and statistical analysis, were reported as very limited. Participants expressed concerns about the ethics of research, with some suggesting that research is undertaken to punish or 'expose' subjects. However, students and faculty are highly motivated to improve their skills, are open to a variety of learning modalities, and have

  8. Assessment of HIV molecular surveillance capacity in the European Union, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Patrick; Pharris, Anastasia; Leitmeyer, Katrin; De Angelis, Stefania; Wensing, Annemarie; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionExpanding access to HIV antiretroviral treatment is expected to decrease HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. However, this may also result in increased HIV drug resistance (DR). Better monitoring and surveillance of HIV DR is required to inform treatment regimens and maintain the long term effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. As there is currently no formal European Union (EU)-wide collection of HIV DR data, this study aimed to assess the current HIV molecular surveillance capacity in EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in order to inform the planning of HIV DR monitoring at EU level. Methods: Thirty EU/EEA countries were invited to participate in a survey on HIV molecular surveillance capacity, which also included laboratory aspects. Results: Among 21 responding countries, 13 reported using HIV sequence data (subtype and/or DR) for surveillance purposes at national level. Of those, nine stated that clinical, epidemiological and sequence data were routinely linked for analysis. Discussion/conclusion : We identified similarities between existing HIV molecular surveillance systems, but also found important challenges including human resources, data ownership and legal issues that would need to be addressed.Information on capacities should allow better planning of the phased introduction of HIV DR surveillance at EU/EEA level.

  9. An assessment of the effect on Olkiluoto repository capacity achievable with advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juutilainen, P.; Viitanen, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Previously a few scenarios have been simulated for transition from thermal to fast reactor fleet in Finland in order to determine how much the transuranic inventory could be reduced with the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technologies. Those calculations, performed with COSI6 code developed by CEA, are extended in the present study, in which the effect of P-T on the capacity of the planned final disposal repository at Olkiluoto (Finland) is evaluated by taking into account the created fission products and transuranic residuals from the reprocessing operations. The decay heat is assumed to be the most restrictive factor in defining the waste disposal packing density. The repository capacity evaluation of this study is based on the comparison of the decay heats produced by the deposited waste in various scenarios. The reference scenario of this article involves only Light Water Reactors (LWR) in an open fuel cycle. The capacity requirement of the geological repository is estimated in a few closed fuel cycle scenarios, all including actinide transmutation with Fast Reactors (FR). The comparison between the P-T scenarios and reference is based on the decay heat production of the deposited waste. The COSI6 code is used for simulations to provide the repository decay heat curves. Applying the closed fuel cycle would change the disposal concept and schedule, because of which it is not quite straightforward to assess the impact of P-T on the capacity. However, it can be concluded that recycling the transuranic nuclides probably decreases the required volume for the disposal, but thermal dimensioning analysis is needed for more specific conclusions.

  10. Procedural Documentation and Accuracy Assessment of Bathymetric Maps and Area/Capacity Tables for Small Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gary L.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing use and importance of lakes for water supply to communities, a repeatable and reliable procedure to determine lake bathymetry and capacity is needed. A method to determine the accuracy of the procedure will help ensure proper collection and use of the data and resulting products. It is important to clearly define the intended products and desired accuracy before conducting the bathymetric survey to ensure proper data collection. A survey-grade echo sounder and differential global positioning system receivers were used to collect water-depth and position data in December 2003 at Sugar Creek Lake near Moberly, Missouri. Data were collected along planned transects, with an additional set of quality-assurance data collected for use in accuracy computations. All collected data were imported into a geographic information system database. A bathymetric surface model, contour map, and area/capacity tables were created from the geographic information system database. An accuracy assessment was completed on the collected data, bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products. Using established vertical accuracy standards, the accuracy of the collected data, bathymetric surface model, and contour map product was 0.67 foot, 0.91 foot, and 1.51 feet at the 95 percent confidence level. By comparing results from different transect intervals with the quality-assurance transect data, it was determined that a transect interval of 1 percent of the longitudinal length of Sugar Creek Lake produced nearly as good results as 0.5 percent transect interval for the bathymetric surface model, area/capacity table, and contour map products.

  11. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult's financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question.

  12. Assessing research activity and capacity of community-based organizations: development and pilot testing of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Mitchell, Leif; Tian, Terry; Choudhury, Shonali; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    Although awareness of the importance of the research capacity of community-based organizations (CBOs) is growing, a uniform framework of the research capacity domains within CBOs has not yet been developed. To develop a framework and instrument (the Community REsearch Activity assessment Tool [CREAT]) for assessing the research activity and capacity of CBOs that incorporates awareness of the different data collection and analysis priorities of CBOs. We conducted a review of existing tools for assessing research capacity to identify key capacity domains. Instrument items were developed through an iterative process with CBO representatives and community researchers. The CREAT was then pilot tested with 30 CBOs. The four primary domains of the CREAT framework include 1) organizational support for research, 2) generalizable experiences, 3) research specific experiences, and 4) funding. Organizations reported a high prevalence of activities in the research-specific experiences domain, including conducting literature reviews (70%), use of research terminology (83%), and primary data collection (100%). Respondents see research findings as important to improve program and service delivery, and to seek funds for new programs and services. Funders, board members, and policymakers are the most important dissemination audiences. The work reported herein advances the field of CBO research capacity by developing a systematic framework for assessing research activity and capacity relevant to the work of CBOs, and by developing and piloting an instrument to assess activity in these domains.

  13. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high-capacity

  14. The consideration and representation of retention processes in performance assessments carried out by waste management organisations: what has been done and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Schwyn, B.; Zuidema, P.; Umeki, H.; Smith, P.

    2002-01-01

    Waste management organisations generally carry out several performance assessments in the course of the stepwise planning and development of a repository. Performance.assessments are used to test, as far as possible at a given stage, the suitability of a given site and design from the point of view of safety, and to guide future stages. Typically, such assessments involve: - The collation of scientific understanding (which evolves in the course of planning and development). - The identification of the most safety-relevant phenomena and the uncertainties in current scientific understanding to which the evaluated repository performance is most sensitive. - The development of arguments, based on current scientific understanding, that repository performance will be acceptable, from the point of view of safety, provided the spectrum of possibilities for the characteristics and evolution of the repository and its environment lies within certain bounds. Complementary arguments are sought, e.g., from science and engineering studies, to provide evidence that the spectrum of possibilities does, in fact, lie within these bounds. In order to develop convincing arguments for safety, it is important that safety-relevant phenomena and uncertainties are identified and evaluated in a cautious and systematic manner. Waste management organisations need to identify not only the phenomena that are expected to provide safety, which include the class of phenomena known as retention processes, but also events and processes that may adversely affect their operation. This paper reviews the typical treatment of retention processes in performance assessments carried out by waste management organisations, with particular emphasis on the processes of matrix diffusion and sorption. (authors)

  15. Landscapes‘ Capacities to Provide Ecosystem Services – a Concept for Land-Cover Based Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Burkhard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes differ in their capacities to provide ecosystem goods and services, which are the benefits humans obtain from nature. Structures and functions of ecosystems needed to sustain the provision of ecosystem services are altered by various human activities. In this paper, a concept for the assessment of multiple ecosystem services is proposed as a basis for discussion and further development of a respective evaluation instrument. Using quantitative and qualitative assessment data in combination with land cover and land use information originated from remote sensing and GIS, impacts of human activities can be evaluated. The results reveal typical patterns of different ecosystems‘ capacities to provide ecosystem services. The proposed approach thus delivers useful integrative information for environmental management and landscape planning, aiming at a sustainable use of services provided by nature. The research concept and methodological framework presented here for discussion have initially been applied in different case studies and shall be developed further to provide a useful tool for the quantification and spatial modelling of multiple ecosystem services in different landscapes. An exemplary application of the approach dealing with food provision in the Halle-Leipzig region in Germany is presented. It shows typical patterns of ecosystem service distribution around urban areas. As the approach is new and still rather general, there is great potential for improvement, especially with regard to a data-based quantification of the numerous hypotheses, which were formulated as base for the assessment. Moreover, the integration of more detailed landscape information on different scales will be needed in future in order to take the heterogeneous distribution of landscape properties and values into account. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to foster critical discussions on the methodological development presented here.

  16. Assessing Parenting Capacity in Psychiatric Mother and Baby Units: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Julie; Lipsedge, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    This review aimed to improve infant risk assessments in the context of maternal mental illness by identifying key predictors of poor parenting outcomes. Inadequate parenting as a result of severe and persistent mental illness is a common reason for courts terminating parental rights. However, the current practice of parenting capacity assessments in the setting of perinatal psychiatry is fraught with risks and uncertainty. A well-recognised flaw in the assessment process is the lack of valid and reliable tools that have been specifically validated for assessing parenting capacity in mothers with a history of mental illness and the potential risk of harm to their infant. To date, there is only one instrument available. A systematic search of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase via the Ovid interface was conducted between September and December 2014. Citation snowball sampling was also used to identify further relevant studies. An additional search was performed in Google to access grey literature. A total of 38 citations were identified, of which 8 publications focusing on the populations of England, France and Belgium met the eligibility criteria of this review. Evidence from existing research suggests that poor parenting outcomes in maternal psychiatric illness are strongly associated with correlates of socio-economic inequalities. However, evidence regarding the long-term implications of such factors is weak as only one follow up study and no longitudinal studies were identified in this review. Our review suggests that the use of standardised empirically validated risk assessment tools would benefit the current practice of parenting assessments by improving the process by which collected information is analysed. This would enhance the accuracy of decision-making, and improve the safeguarding of the infant. Further research is needed on medium to long-term parenting outcomes, particularly regarding its relations to: the type of maternal psychiatric disorder; the quality

  17. A theoretical assessment of antioxidant capacity of flavonoids by means of local hyper–softness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sandoval-Yañez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical reactivity descriptor to estimate local reactivity on molecules was tested to assess the antioxidant capability of some flavonoids. It was validated by comparison with experimental precedents published already by Firuzi et al. (2005. The aforementioned reactivity index is called local hyper-softness (LHS. This parameter was applied on HO- substituent groups on the same set of flavonoids within each subclassification: flavones (apigenin and baicalein, flavonols (fisetin, galangin, 3–OH flavone, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin, flavanones (hesperetin, naringenin, taxifolin and isoflavones (daidzein and genistein. Experimental values of both techniques, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and anodic oxidation potential (Eap were retrieved from Firuzi et al. (2005 with the purpose of validating the calculated LHS values. Excepting myricetin, the LHS values of all these compounds matched in a similar order relationship experimentally obtained by means of Eap and FRAP from Firuzi et al. (2005. Our results revealed that LHS is a suitable theoretical parameter to get an insight concerning to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds, in particular, LHS allows explaining experimentally obtained values of FRAP along with Eap values in terms of reactivity of HO- substituent groups belonging these molecules theoretically computed without including experimental parametes. Keywords: Flavonoids, Antioxidant capacity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Anodic oxidation potential, Local hypersoftness

  18. Capacities for the Risk Assessment of GMOs: Challenges to Build Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fernández Ríos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations. This document summarizes some capacity building experiences in developing countries and concludes that risk assessors taking ownership and regulatory authorities fully committed to developing and retaining highly qualified bodies are a sine qua non to achieve sustainable systems. To this end, it is essential to implement “in-house” continuing education mechanisms supported by external experts and organizations, and inter-institutional cooperation. It has to be noted that these recommendations could only be realized if policy makers understand and appreciate the value of professional, independent regulatory bodies.

  19. Capacities for the Risk Assessment of GMOs: Challenges to Build Sustainable Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ríos, Danilo; Rubinstein, Clara; Vicién, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations. This document summarizes some capacity building experiences in developing countries and concludes that risk assessors taking ownership and regulatory authorities fully committed to developing and retaining highly qualified bodies are a sine qua non to achieve sustainable systems. To this end, it is essential to implement "in-house" continuing education mechanisms supported by external experts and organizations, and inter-institutional cooperation. It has to be noted that these recommendations could only be realized if policy makers understand and appreciate the value of professional, independent regulatory bodies.

  20. Assessing Clinical Research Capacity in Vietnam: A Framework for Strengthening Capability for Clinical Trials in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan; Giang, Dao Duc; Iademarco, Michael F; Phung, Van Tt; Lau, Chuen-Yen; Quang, Nguyen Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Although improving health systems promises important benefits, most developing nations lack the resources to support nationally driven clinical research. Strengthened clinical research capacity can advance national health goals by supporting greater autonomy in aligning research with national priorities. From March through June 2010, we assessed six elements of clinical research capacity in Vietnam: research agenda; clinical investigators and biostatisticians; donors and sponsors; community involvement; scientific, ethical, safety, and quality oversight; and clinical research institutions. Assessments were drawn from interviews with investigators, Ministry of Health staff members, nongovernment organizations, and U.S. Mission staff members, and document review. Observations and recommendations were shared with collaborators. Reassessment in 2015 found growth in the number of clinical trials, improved regulation in human subjects protection and community engagement, and modest advances in research agenda setting. Training and investment in institutions remain challenging. A framework for assessing clinical research capacity can affirm strengths and weaknesses and guide the coordination of capacity-building efforts.

  1. Assessment of Surgical and Trauma Capacity in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kevin J; Boeck, Marissa A; Gallardo Barrientos, José Luis; Hidalgo López, José Luis; Helenowski, Irene B; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Shapiro, Michael B; Swaroop, Mamta

    Scaling up surgical and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries could prevent nearly 2 million annual deaths. Various survey instruments exist to measure surgical and trauma capacity, including Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) and International Assessment of Capacity for Trauma (INTACT). We sought to evaluate surgical and trauma capacity in the Bolivian department of Potosí using a combined PIPES and INTACT tool, with additional questions to further inform intervention targets. In June and July 2014 a combined PIPES and INTACT survey was administered to 20 government facilities in Potosí with a minimum of 1 operating room: 2 third-level, 10 second-level, and 8 first-level facilities. A surgeon, head physician, director, or obstetrician-gynecologist completed the survey. Additional personnel responded to 4 short-answer questions. Survey items were divided into subsections, and PIPES and INTACT indices calculated. Medians were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Six of 20 facilities were located in the capital city and designated urban. Urban establishments had higher median PIPES (8.5 vs 6.7, P = .11) and INTACT (8.5 vs 6.9, P = .16) indices compared with rural. More than half of surgeons and anesthesiologists worked in urban hospitals. Urban facilities had higher median infrastructure and procedure scores compared with rural. Fifty-three individuals completed short-answer questions. Training was most desired in laparoscopic surgery and trauma management; less than half of establishments reported staff with trauma training. Surgical and trauma capacity in Potosí was most limited in personnel, infrastructure, and procedures at rural facilities, with greater personnel deficiencies than previously reported. Interventions should focus on increasing the number of surgical and anesthesia personnel in rural areas, with a particular focus on the reported desire for trauma management training. Results

  2. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm -3 , reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 , covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of

  3. Quantifying and modelling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows--a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, P I; Baird, M E; Trevathan-Tackett, S M; Larkum, A W D; Ralph, P J

    2014-06-30

    Seagrasses are among the planet's most effective natural ecosystems for sequestering (capturing and storing) carbon (C); but if degraded, they could leak stored C into the atmosphere and accelerate global warming. Quantifying and modelling the C sequestration capacity is therefore critical for successfully managing seagrass ecosystems to maintain their substantial abatement potential. At present, there is no mechanism to support carbon financing linked to seagrass. For seagrasses to be recognised by the IPCC and the voluntary C market, standard stock assessment methodologies and inventories of seagrass C stocks are required. Developing accurate C budgets for seagrass meadows is indeed complex; we discuss these complexities, and, in addition, we review techniques and methodologies that will aid development of C budgets. We also consider a simple process-based data assimilation model for predicting how seagrasses will respond to future change, accompanied by a practical list of research priorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural capacity assessment of WWER-1000 MW reactor containment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the project is to provide assessment of the structural behaviour and safety capacity of the WWER-1000 MW Reactor Building Containment at Kozloduy NPP under critical combination of loads according to the current international requirements. The analysis is focused on a realistic assessment of the Containment taking into account the non-linear shell behaviour of the pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure. Previous assessments of the status of pre stressing cables pointed out that the efficiency of the Containment as a final defence barrier for internal and external events depends on their reliability. Due to this, the experimental data obtained from embedded sensors (gauges) at pre-stressed shell structure is to be compared with the results from analytical investigations. The reliability of the WWER-1000 MW accident prevention system is under evaluation in the project. The Soviet standard design WWER-1000 MW type units installed in Kozloduy NPP were originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.1g. The new site seismicity studies revealed that the seismic hazard for the site significantly exceeds the originally estimated and a Review Level Earthquake (RLE) anchored to PGA=0.20g was proposed for re-assessment of the structures and equipment at Kozloduy NPP. The scope of the study is a re-assessment of the Containment structure under critical combination of loads according to the current safety and reliability requirements, including comparison between the Russian design requirements and the international regulations. Additionally, an investigation of the pre-stressing technology and the annual control of the cables' pre-stressing of the Containment is to be made. The crane influence on the dynamic behaviour of the Containment will be done as well as a study of the integrity of the Containment as a final defence barrier

  5. Assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being in Thailand build and create demand for coproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making

  6. Nuclear safety in France after Fukushima - Critical analysis of complementary safety assessments (CSA) carried out on French nuclear installations after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, Arjun; Marignac, Yves

    2012-02-01

    This report proposes a critical analysis of the approach carried out on the basis of the CSA (complementary safety assessment), from their specifications to the IRSN conclusions. It is notably based on the analysis performed by EDF on three nuclear sites (Gravelines, Civaux and Flamanville) which encompass the different levels of the nuclear power plants in France and the EPR project under construction, and on the analysis performed by Areva for La Hague reprocessing plants. Due to the short delay, only some sites and some problems have been considered. The CSA methodology is described. The EDF approach is discussed as well as the IRSN analysis of reports made by EDF, and then the different case studies. Beyond the conclusions of these reports, the authors highlight several major possible accidents which must be taken into account. They also outline that this CSA approach is a good starting point for the strengthening of nuclear safety

  7. Assessing capacity for sustainability of effective programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Objective Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Design Case study interviews from June-July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Setting Six geographically diverse LHD’s (selected from three high- and three low-capacity) Participants 35 LHD practitioners Main Outcome Measures Thematic reports explored the eight domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. Results High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training compared to low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High

  8. The development and pilot testing of a rapid assessment tool to improve local public health system capacity in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Vivian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To operate effectively the public health system requires infrastructure and the capacity to act. Public health's ability to attract funding for infrastructure and capacity development would be enhanced if it was able to demonstrate what level of capacity was required to ensure a high performing system. Australia's public health activities are undertaken within a complex organizational framework that involves three levels of government and a diverse range of other organizations. The question of appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity is critical at each level. Comparatively little is known about infrastructure and capacity at the local level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers in two Australian states with different frameworks for health administration. They were asked to reflect on the critical components of infrastructure and capacity required at the local level. The interviews were analyzed to identify the major themes. Workshops with public health experts explored this data further. The information generated was used to develop a tool, designed to be used by groups of organizations within discrete geographical locations to assess local public health capacity. Results Local actors in these two different systems pointed to similar areas for inclusion for the development of an instrument to map public health capacity at the local level. The tool asks respondents to consider resources, programs and the cultural environment within their organization. It also asks about the policy environment - recognizing that the broader environment within which organizations operate impacts on their capacity to act. Pilot testing of the tool pointed to some of the challenges involved in such an exercise, particularly if the tool were to be adopted as policy. Conclusion This research indicates that it is possible to develop a tool for the systematic assessment of public health capacity at the local level

  9. The development and pilot testing of a rapid assessment tool to improve local public health system capacity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Prue; Lin, Vivian

    2009-11-15

    To operate effectively the public health system requires infrastructure and the capacity to act. Public health's ability to attract funding for infrastructure and capacity development would be enhanced if it was able to demonstrate what level of capacity was required to ensure a high performing system. Australia's public health activities are undertaken within a complex organizational framework that involves three levels of government and a diverse range of other organizations. The question of appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity is critical at each level. Comparatively little is known about infrastructure and capacity at the local level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers in two Australian states with different frameworks for health administration. They were asked to reflect on the critical components of infrastructure and capacity required at the local level. The interviews were analyzed to identify the major themes. Workshops with public health experts explored this data further. The information generated was used to develop a tool, designed to be used by groups of organizations within discrete geographical locations to assess local public health capacity. Local actors in these two different systems pointed to similar areas for inclusion for the development of an instrument to map public health capacity at the local level. The tool asks respondents to consider resources, programs and the cultural environment within their organization. It also asks about the policy environment - recognizing that the broader environment within which organizations operate impacts on their capacity to act. Pilot testing of the tool pointed to some of the challenges involved in such an exercise, particularly if the tool were to be adopted as policy. This research indicates that it is possible to develop a tool for the systematic assessment of public health capacity at the local level. Piloting the tool revealed some concerns amongst participants

  10. Framework for assessing the capacity of a health ministry to conduct health policy processes--a case study from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib N; Green, Andrew; Van Kalliecharan, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    An adequate capacity of ministries of health (MOH) to develop and implement policies is essential. However, no frameworks were found assessing MOH capacity to conduct health policy processes within developing countries. This paper presents a conceptual framework for assessing MOH capacity to conduct policy processes based on a study from Tajikistan, a former Soviet republic where independence highlighted capacity challenges. The data collection for this qualitative study included in-depth interviews, document reviews and observations of policy events. Framework approach for analysis was used. The conceptual framework was informed by existing literature, guided the data collection and analysis, and was subsequently refined following insights from the study. The Tajik MOH capacity, while gradually improving, remains weak. There is poor recognition of wider contextual influences, ineffective leadership and governance as reflected in centralised decision-making, limited use of evidence, inadequate actors' participation and ineffective use of resources to conduct policy processes. However, the question is whether this is a reflection of lack of MOH ability or evidence of constraining environment or both. The conceptual framework identifies five determinants of robust policy processes, each with specific capacity needs: policy context, MOH leadership and governance, involvement of policy actors, the role of evidence and effective resource use for policy processes. Three underlying considerations are important for applying the capacity to policy processes: the need for clear focus, recognition of capacity levels and elements, and both ability and enabling environment. The proposed framework can be used in assessing and strengthening of the capacity of different policy actors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessment of functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system in the context of work, daily living, and sport: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments.

  12. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity ‘assets’ and ‘needs’, and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations’ resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for

  13. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar

  14. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar.

  15. DISASTER RISK AND CAPACITIES ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTH-WEST PARTS OF RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.ean Baptiste Nsengiyumva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Rwanda is located in the Great lakes region of the central Africa. This landlocked country has historically suffered from periodic natural and manmade disasters, mainly in the form of droughts, floods and landslides impacting the agrarian economy and the country’s efforts towards sustainable development and poverty reduction. Vulnerability to Periodic natural disasters is a long term concern. The study therefore aims at conducting an assessment of disaster risks, vulnerabilities and coping capacities in Burera, Nyabihu and Musanze Districts affected floods and landslides in order to put in place mitigation strategies for disaster risks. Different methods and techniques were used to conduct this study including interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions, field visits and observations, GIS and remote sensing among others. The analysis comprised the disaggregation of the hazards’ characteristics including description of the hazard, Triggering factors, Frequency, seasonality, Duration, sectors affected, impacts, time of recovery, intensity of the hazard and others. In terms of vulnerability. The analysis comprised physical, environmental, social, institutional, economic, profile of the most vulnerable populations, differentiation of impacts, and level of vulnerabilities. The study results showed that the Disaster Risk reduction is very possible through a comprehensive risk management. There is also a big need to expand capacity building in terms of disaster management, risk mapping to reach cell and village levels, put in place and operationalize early warning systems or hydro-meteorological hazards and many others in order to minimize the disaster risks and where possible to transform them into opportunities. All disasters are not preventable but mitigation is always possible.

  16. Assessing the Oldness and Capacity of Radiography and Ultrasound Equipments in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamati, Payman; Ghanaati, Hossein; Ghasemzadeh, Shahram; Jalali, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of imaging equipment is a very important part of the management of all medical imaging centers. To assess the oldness and capacity of radiography and ultrasound equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The study was performed in 16 hospitals, 4 faculties and three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. We evaluated all the X-ray equipment (including the simple plain and dental, panorex, mammography, fluoroscopy and C-arm X-Ray devices) and also simple and Doppler ultrasound machines in terms of the type and usage of the device, production year, quantity of utilization, location, brand and current condition. Among fixed X-ray systems, 15 were currently in use, two were junk, two were damaged, and one was not utilized. The mean (SD) of the usage of these was 2151 (2230) cliché/month, and the mean (SD) of the oldness was 16.9 (13.6) years. The oldness of radiography equipment in our study was more than 20 years in 16, between 11 and 20 in 46, and less than 10 years in 76 devices. The mean (SD) usage (patients/month) of simple and color Doppler devices were 234.1 (365.2) and 597.5 (505.3), respectively. The oldness of ultrasonography equipment in our study was more than 11 years in 12 and less than 10 years in 55 devices. We found that 22 (15.9%) of the radiography systems and two (3%) of the ultrasonography systems had been used for more than 20 years. Radiology equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences have potential capacity, but they need repair, and better maintenance and management and application of standards for the imaging system needs organized supervisory mechanisms

  17. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  18. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  19. The decision on the application to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    European Council Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Council Directive 97/1 I/EC, sets out a framework on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Directive is implemented in Great Britain for decommissioning nuclear reactor projects by the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999. The intention of the Directive and Regulations is to involve the public through consultation in considering the potential environmental impacts of a decommissioning project, and to make the decision-making process on granting consent open and transparent. The Regulations require the licensee to undertake an environmental impact assessment, prepare an environmental statement that summarises the environmental effects of the project, and apply to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for consent to carry out a decommissioning project. There is an optional stage where the licensee may request from HSE an opinion on what the environmental statement should contain (called a pre-application opinion). The licensee of Hinkley Point A Power Station, Magnox Electric pie, requested a pre-application opinion and provided information in a scoping report in December 2000. HSE undertook a public consultation on the scoping report and provided its pre- application opinion in April 2001. The licensee applied to HSE for consent to carry out a decommissioning project and provided an environmental statement in December 2001. Following a public consultation on the environmental statement, HSE requested further information that was subsequently provided by the licensee. A further public consultation was undertaken on the further information that ended in March 2003. All these public consultations involved around 60 organisations. HSE granted consent to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Regulations in July 2003, and attached conditions to the Consent. HSE took relevant

  20. A multi-sector assessment of community organizational capacity for promotion of Chinese immigrant worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny H-C; Thompson, Elaine A

    2017-12-01

    Community-based collaborative approaches have received increased attention as a means for addressing occupational health disparities. Organizational capacity, highly relevant to engaging and sustaining community partnerships, however, is rarely considered in occupational health research. To characterize community organizational capacity specifically relevant to Chinese immigrant worker health, we used a cross-sectional, descriptive design with 36 agencies from six community sectors in King County, Washington. Joint interviews, conducted with two representatives from each agency, addressed three dimensions of organizational capacity: organizational commitment, resources, and flexibility. Descriptive statistics were used to capture the patterning of these dimensions by community sector. Organizational capacity varied widely across and within sectors. Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors indicated higher capacity for Chinese immigrant worker health than did Chinese faith-based, labor union, public, and Pan-ethnic nonprofit sectors. Variation in organizational capacity in community sectors can inform selection of collaborators for community-based, immigrant worker health interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Network Capacity Assessment and Increase in Systems with Intermittent Water Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaya-Ayza, Amilkar Ernesto; Campbell-Gonzalez, Enrique; Pérez García, Rafael; Izquierdo Sebastián, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Water supply systems have been facing many challenges in recent decades due to the potential effects of climate change and rapid population growth. Water systems need to expand because of demographic growth. Therefore, evaluating and increasing system capacity is crucial. Specifically, we analyze network capacity as one of the main features of a system. When the network capacity starts to decrease, there is a risk that continuous supply will become intermittent. This paper discusses how...

  2. Speech-language pathologists' contribution to the assessment of decision-making capacity in aphasia: a survey of common practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Kerryn; Tolmie, Rhiannon; Worrall, Linda; Ferguson, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists' scope of practice is currently unclear in relation to their contribution to the multi-disciplinary assessment of decision-making capacity for clients with aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders. The primary aim of the current research study was to investigate the common practices of speech-language pathologists involved in assessments of decision-making capacity. The study was completed through the use of an online survey. There were 51 of 59 respondents who indicated involvement in evaluations of decision-making. Involvement in this kind of assessment was most commonly reported by speech-language pathologists working in inpatient acute and rehabilitation settings. Respondents reported using a variety of formal and informal assessment methods in their contributions to capacity assessment. Discussion with multidisciplinary team members was reported to have the greatest influence on their recommendations. Speech-language pathologists reported that they were dissatisfied with current protocols for capacity assessments in their workplace and indicated they would benefit from further education and training in this area. The findings of this study are discussed in light of their implications for speech-language pathology practice.

  3. Numerical Activities of Daily Living - Financial (NADL-F): A tool for the assessment of financial capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Toffano, Roberta; Gindri, Patrizia; Tonini, Elisabetta; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2017-09-07

    Financial capacity is the ability to manage one's own finances according to self-interests. Failure in financial decisions and lack of independence when dealing with money can affect people's quality of life and are associated with neuropsychological deficits or clinical conditions such as mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Despite the importance of evaluating financial capacity in the assessment of patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders, only a few tools have been developed. In the present article, the authors introduce the Numerical Activities of Daily Living - Financial (NADL-F) test, a new test to assess financial capacity in clinical populations. The NADL-F is relatively short, yet it encompasses the most common activities involving financial capacities. The NADL-F proved to have satisfactory psychometric properties and overall good validity for measuring financial abilities. Associations with performance on basic neuropsychological tests were investigated, in particular focusing on mathematical abilities as cognitive correlates of financial capacity. Results indicate that the NADL-F could be a useful tool to guide treatments for the enhancement of financial capacities. By sharing all materials and procedures, the authors hope to promote the development of further versions of the NADL-F in different languages, taking into account the necessary adjustments related to different socio-cultural contexts.

  4. Self-Assessment of Physical Activity and Health Capacity of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavina Liana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The compulsory part of the individual life is physical activity. The physical activity is important for maintenance health capacity. Physical activity includes various kinds of components: physical activity during the leisure time (during the week days and weekend days, physical activity at home and in working place and physical activity during the transference from home to other place. Intensity of the physical activity could also be various from low to moderate and till high. Respondent of study groups were partly time students from Riga Medical College (RMC, n = 41, and from Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA, n = 37. Respondents were students of both genders aged from 19 years till 53 years. We have provided the assessment of the principal anthropometric characteristics (height and body mass as well the anthropometric indices (body mass index (BMI and physical activity level questionnaire for students. Analysis of the data of physical activity questionnaire revealed that the average physical activity for students from RMC corresponded to low level of physical activity. The respondents from RRTEMA have moderate level of physical activity.

  5. Assessing cardiorespiratory capacity in older adults with major depression and Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Zanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cardiorespiratory capacity through subjective and objective tests in older adults diagnosed with major depression (MDD, Alzheimer disease (AD and healthy older adults. Methods Fifty seven subjects (72 ± 7.9 years were divided into three groups: MDD (n = 20, AD (n = 17 and Healthy (n = 20. The subjects answered Hamilton Scale (HAM-D, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ and 2-minute Step test. Results MDD and AD showed lower scores than healthy group for Nomogram VSAQ (p < 0.001 and 2-minute Step (p = 0.009; p = 0.008, respectively. Adjusted for age and educational level, no differences among groups were observed for Step (MDD, p = 0.097; AD, p = 0.102. AD group did not present differences to healthy group for Step, when adjusting for MMSE (p = 0.261. Conclusions Despite the lower cardiorespiratory fitness of elderly patients with DM and DA have been found in both evaluations, the results should be viewed with caution, since the tests showed low correlation and different risk classifications of functional loss. In addition, age, level educational and cognitive performance are variables that can influence the performance objective evaluation.

  6. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  7. Exploring pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment through analyses of student answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-05-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on empowering pre-service and in-service science teachers to attend student reasoning and use formative assessments to guide student learning in recent years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment. Sample: This study took place in Turkey. The participants include 53 pre-service science teachers in their final year of schooling. All but two of the participants are female. Design and methods: We used a mixed-methods methodology in pursing this inquiry. Participants analyzed 28 responses to seven two-tiered questions given by four students of different ability levels. We explored their ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses in students' answers. We paid particular attention to the things that the pre-service science teachers noticed in students' explanations, the types of inferences they made about students' conceptual understanding, and the affordances of pedagogical decisions they made. Results: The results show that the majority of participants made an evaluative judgment (i.e. the answer is correct or incorrect) in their analyses of students' answers. Similarly, the majority of the participants recognized the type of mistake that the students made. However, they failed to successfully elaborate on fallacies, limitations, or strengths in student reasoning. We also asked the participants to make pedagogical decisions related to what needs to be done next in order to help the students to achieve academic objectives. Results show that 8% of the recommended instructional strategies were of no affordance, 64% of low-affordance, and 28% were of high affordance in terms of helping students achieve the academic objectives. Conclusion: If our goal is to improve pre-service science teachers' noticing skills, and the affordance of feedback that they provide, engaging them in activities that asks them to attend to students' ideas

  8. Qualitative study to develop processes and tools for the assessment and tracking of African institutions' capacity for operational health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Selina; Cole, Donald C; Gaye, Oumar; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Mwapasa, Victor; Tagbor, Harry; Bates, Imelda

    2017-09-05

    Research is key to achieving global development goals. Our objectives were to develop and test an evidence-informed process for assessing health research management and support systems (RMSS) in four African universities and for tracking interventions to address capacity gaps. Four African universities. 83 university staff and students from 11 cadres. A literature-informed 'benchmark' was developed and used to itemise all components of a university's health RMSS. Data on all components were collected during site visits to four African universities using interview guides, document reviews and facilities observation guides. Gaps in RMSS capacity were identified against the benchmark and institutional action plans developed to remedy gaps. Progress against indicators was tracked over 15 months and common challenges and successes identified. Common gaps in operational health research capacity included no accessible research strategy, a lack of research e-tracking capability and inadequate quality checks for proposal submissions and contracts. Feedback indicated that the capacity assessment was comprehensive and generated practical actions, several of which were no-cost. Regular follow-up helped to maintain focus on activities to strengthen health research capacity in the face of challenges. Identification of each institutions' strengths and weaknesses against an evidence-informed benchmark enabled them to identify gaps in in their operational health research systems, to develop prioritised action plans, to justify resource requests to fulfil the plans and to track progress in strengthening RMSS. Use of a standard benchmark, approach and tools enabled comparisons across institutions which has accelerated production of evidence about the science of research capacity strengthening. The tools could be used by institutions seeking to understand their strengths and to address gaps in research capacity. Research capacity gaps that were common to several institutions could be

  9. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  10. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  11. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Vegter, R.J.K.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15. m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30. s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  12. 基于5A景区最大承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型研究%Study of Mathematical Model Between Tourism Supply and Demand Based on Relationship of the 5A Level Scenic Spots' Maximum Carrying Capacity and the Amount of the Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 刘耀龙; 段锦

    2017-01-01

    旅游承载量是反映旅游供给能力的重要指标,游客接待量是衡量旅游需求状况的常用指标.在分析我国5A级景区最大承载量空间分异特征的基础上,对2014年各省市5A级景区日最大承载量和年游客接待量进行相关性和回归分析,构建基于景区承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型.结果表明:(1)5A级景区最大承载量和游客接待量之间存在显著的正相关关系;(2)旅游供需关系模型可由复合函数定量表征;(3)模型能够预测旅游供需变化,对旅游业发展具有一定的指示意义.%Tourism carrying capacity is an important index to reflect the tourism supply capacity, and the amount of the tourists is a common index to measure tourism demand. On the basis of the analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics of 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity, the paper carries out correlation and regression analysis about the 5A level scenic' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Sample data is calculated or statistical results of 31 provinces in 2014. Tourism supply and demand model is constructed based on the relationship between the 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Results indicate: (1)There is a significant positive correlation between the 5A level scenic spot'maximum carrying capacity and the amount of tourists; (2)The model of tourism supply and demand relations can be quantitatively characterized by complex functions;(3)The model can predict the change of tourism supply and demand, which have referential meaning to the development of tourism.

  13. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...... are obtained efficiently with little input. The case illustrates the model's ability to quantify the capacity gain from infrastructure scenario to infrastructure scenario which can be used to increase the number of trains or improve the robustness of the system....

  14. Assessing employability capacities and career adaptability in a sample of human resource professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employers have come to recognise graduates’ employability capacities and their ability to adapt to new work demands as important human capital resources for sustaining a competitive business advantage. Research purpose: The study sought (1 to ascertain whether a significant relationship exists between a set of graduate employability capacities and a set of career adaptability capacities and (2 to identify the variables that contributed the most to this relationship. Motivation for the study: Global competitive markets and technological advances are increasingly driving the demand for graduate knowledge and skills in a wide variety of jobs. Contemporary career theory further emphasises career adaptability across the lifespan as a critical skill for career management agency. Despite the apparent importance attached to employees’ employability and career adaptability, there seems to be a general lack of research investigating the association between these constructs. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were performed to achieve the objective of the study. The participants (N = 196 were employed in professional positions in the human resource field and were predominantly early career black people and women. Main findings: The results indicated positive multivariate relationships between the variables and showed that lifelong learning capacities and problem solving, decision-making and interactive skills contributed the most to explaining the participants’ career confidence, career curiosity and career control. Practical/managerial implications: The study suggests that developing professional graduates’ employability capacities may strengthen their career adaptability. These capacities were shown to explain graduates’ active engagement in career management

  15. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  16. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  17. Research of the Tourism Destination Carrying Capacity---A Case Study of the Ancient City of Kaifeng Song Du Cultural Industry Park%旅游目的地容量测量研究--以开封宋都古城文化产业园区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧娟

    2016-01-01

    随着旅游市场的快速发展和游客出游的不断增加,过多游客的涌入、景区超载拥堵现象不断出现。旅游容量作为旅游目的地规划开发的科学依据和景区管理的工具,其研究成为一个重要课题。依据木桶原理及限制性因子原理,选取空间容量、设施容量、生态容量和社会心理容量等作为旅游地容量指标,构建综合容量测量模型。以开封宋都古城文化产业园区为例,选取基本空间标准,分析得出产业园区日旅游容量为190484人次,年旅游容量69526660人次,并对产业园区旅游发展提出建议。%With the rapid development of the tourism market and the increasing of tourists ,the influx of too many tourists 、the scenic spots overload and congestions phenomenons appear constantly .Tourism carrying capacity is a scientific basis of tourism destination planning development and a tool of the scenic area management ,soit has become an important subject .Based on buckets effect and the principle of limiting factors , this paper selects space capacity , facilities capacity,ecological capacity and social psychological capacity as the basic indexes of tourism carrying capacity , and constructs comprehensive capacity measurement model.Then,this paper takes the ancient city of Kaifeng Song Du cultural industry park as an example,and selects basic space standards,analyzes and concludes that the tourism carrying capacity of industry park is 190484 person/time every-day,69526660 person/time every year,finally puts forward the proposal on its tourism development .

  18. Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence: a survey of Ontario's HIV/AIDS sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke Sean B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery. To better support CBOs to find and use research evidence, we sought to assess the capacity of CBOs in the HIV/AIDS sector to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence in their work. Methods We invited executive directors of HIV/AIDS CBOs in Ontario, Canada (n = 51 to complete the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" survey. Findings Based on responses from 25 organizations that collectively provide services to approximately 32,000 clients per year with 290 full-time equivalent staff, we found organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence to be low. CBO strengths include supporting a culture that rewards flexibility and quality improvement, exchanging information within their organization, and ensuring that their decision-making processes have a place for research. However, CBO Executive Directors indicated that they lacked the skills, time, resources, incentives, and links with experts to acquire research, assess its quality and reliability, and summarize it in a user-friendly way. Conclusion Given the limited capacity to find and use research evidence, we recommend a capacity-building strategy for HIV/AIDS CBOs that focuses on providing the tools, resources, and skills needed to more consistently acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence. Such a strategy may be appropriate in other sectors and jurisdictions as well given that CBO Executive Directors in the HIV/AIDS sector in Ontario report low capacity despite being in the enviable position of having stable government infrastructure in place to support them, benefiting from long-standing investment in capacity building, and being part of an active provincial network. CBOs in other

  19. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  20. Research on Associated Action between Tourism Industrial Agglomeration Development and Carrying Capacity Ascension in China′s Coastal Regions%我国沿海旅游产业集聚发展与承载力提升关联作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 王娟

    2016-01-01

    在剖析旅游产业集聚与旅游环境承载力关联作用的基础上,对沿海地区旅游产业集聚程度及旅游环境承载力综合指数进行测度,揭示二者的动态变化与空间差异特征;进而对2001-2012年承载能力与集聚程度指数的时间序列数据进行计量检验,构建两个变量的向量自回归模型( VAR),分析沿海地区旅游产业集聚程度与旅游环境承载力水平之间的动态效应关系。研究表明:旅游产业集聚与旅游环境承载力存在长期稳定的相关性;从二者动态关系变化上看,在特定空间和时间范围内的旅游环境承载力对旅游产业集聚发展产生了限制作用和负向影响;随着规模效应、成本效应与竞争优势的发挥,旅游产业集聚会推动区域旅游环境承载水平的提升,承载力对集聚的影响转化为正向影响;同时旅游产业集聚对旅游环境承载力变化的贡献水平远大于旅游环境承载力对集聚变化的贡献水平。%On the basis of analyzing related mechanism of tourism industrial agglomeration and carrying capacity, the pa-per measures tourism industrial concentration degree and tourism environment carrying capacity index in coastal regions to reveal the characteristics of dynamic change and space difference between them;then it tests the time series data of carry-ing capacity and concentration degree index from 2001 to 2012 and builds vector auto-regressive model ( VAR) to ana-lyze the dynamic effect between tourism industrial concentration degree and tourism environment carrying capacity index in coastal regions.The results show that:there is long-term stable relationship between them;carrying capacity has neg-ative impact on tourism industry agglomeration, but it will be transformed into positive influence alongside regional tourism carrying capacity ascension by the scale effect, cost effect and competitive advantage;the industry agglomeration

  1. DNA microarray-based assessment of virulence potential of Shiga toxin gene-carrying Escherichia coli O104:H7 isolated from feedlot cattle feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi B Shridhar

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4, a hybrid pathotype reported in a large 2011 foodborne outbreak in Germany, has not been detected in cattle feces. However, cattle harbor and shed in the feces other O104 serotypes, particularly O104:H7, which has been associated with sporadic cases of diarrhea in humans. The objective of our study was to assess the virulence potential of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O104:H7 isolated from feces of feedlot cattle using DNA microarray. Six strains of STEC O104:H7 isolated from cattle feces were analyzed using FDA-E. coli Identification (ECID DNA microarray to determine their virulence profiles and compare them to the human strains (clinical of O104:H7, STEC O104:H4 (German outbreak strain, and O104:H21 (milk-associated Montana outbreak strain. Scatter plots were generated from the array data to visualize the gene-level differences between bovine and human O104 strains, and Pearson correlation coefficients (r were determined. Splits tree was generated to analyze relatedness between the strains. All O104:H7 strains, both bovine and human, similar to O104:H4 and O104:H21 outbreak strains were negative for intimin (eae. The bovine strains were positive for Shiga toxin 1 subtype c (stx1c, enterohemolysin (ehxA, tellurite resistance gene (terD, IrgA homolog protein (iha, type 1 fimbriae (fimH, and negative for genes that code for effector proteins of type III secretory system. The six cattle O104 strains were closely related (r = 0.86-0.98 to each other, except for a few differences in phage related and non-annotated genes. One of the human clinical O104:H7 strains (2011C-3665 was more closely related to the bovine O104:H7 strains (r = 0.81-0.85 than the other four human clinical O104:H7 strains (r = 0.75-0.79. Montana outbreak strain (O104:H21 was more closely related to four of the human clinical O104:H7 strains than the bovine O104:H7 strains. None of the bovine E. coli O104 strains carried genes characteristic of E

  2. 单相电流对三芯钢带铠装电缆载流量试验结果影响程度的研究%Effect of Single-phase Current on the Current-carrying Capacity of Three-core Steel Armoured Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛海清; 张群峰; 游勇; 赵继光; 张尧

    2014-01-01

    采用剥掉铠装层通以单相电流模拟三芯钢带铠装电缆通以三相电流,将敷设于电缆沟中的完整电缆段和剥掉铠装层电缆段串联加载不同的电流进行载流量试验,对比研究了两者的温度;根据电磁场理论,计算了载流量试验中的铠装损耗。按照IEC载流量计算标准,研究了铠装损耗对载流量影响的程度。研究表明,三芯铠装电缆加载单相电流时的铠装损耗不可忽略,但对载流量的影响不超过4%,且偏保守。%The current-carrying capacity of three-core cable with and without steel armour layed in cable trench was tested through applying different single-phase current, and their temperature was compared. The loss induced by armour of the test cable was calculated according to electromagnetic field theory. The effect of loss induced by armour on the current-carrying capacity was studied according to IEC standard of current-carrying capacity. The results show that the loss induced by armour of the three-core cable can’t be neglected when applying single-phase current, and the current-carrying capacity decreases by about 4%, which is acceptable.

  3. Assessment of hospital surge capacity using the MACSIM simulation system: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennquist Montán, K; Riddez, L; Lennquist, S; Olsberg, A C; Lindberg, H; Gryth, D; Örtenwall, P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use a simulation model developed for the scientific evaluation of methodology in disaster medicine to test surge capacity (SC) in a major hospital responding to a simulated major incident with a scenario copied from a real incident. The tested hospital was illustrated on a system of magnetic boards, where available resources, staff, and patients treated in the hospital at the time of the test were illustrated. Casualties were illustrated with simulation cards supplying all data required to determine procedures for diagnosis and treatment, which all were connected to real consumption of time and resources. The first capacity-limiting factor was the number of resuscitation teams that could work parallel in the emergency department (ED). This made it necessary to refer severely injured to other hospitals. At this time, surgery (OR) and intensive care (ICU) had considerable remaining capacity. Thus, the reception of casualties could be restarted when the ED had been cleared. The next limiting factor was lack of ventilators in the ICU, which permanently set the limit for SC. At this time, there was still residual OR capacity. With access to more ventilators, the full surgical capacity of the hospital could have been utilized. The tested model was evaluated as an accurate tool to determine SC. The results illustrate that SC cannot be determined by testing one single function in the hospital, since all functions interact with each other and different functions can be identified as limiting factors at different times during the response.

  4. An Assessment of Institutional Capacity for Integrated Landscape Management in Eastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Carolyn Peach

    2018-07-01

    Landscape approaches have become prominent in efforts to address issues of conservation and development through bringing together different actors and sectors, to reconcile diverse land uses, and promote synergies. Some have suggested that integrated landscape management approaches are consistent with the goals of REDD+ and offer a strategy to address multiple goals of climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, maintenance of ecosystem services, and socio-economic development. Institutional or governance arrangements have been shown to be a critical component in influencing outcomes in landscapes. Using diverse methodologies, this study investigated the capacity of institutions to support the planning, implementation, and resource mobilization needed to integrate climate change mitigation, conservation, and livelihood goals in a forest mosaic landscape in East Cameroon. Results showed that diverse institutions are present in the landscape, including institutions of relevant government agencies, local government, local non-government, the private sector, and hybrid institutions of conservation, development and research institutions. However, the overall institutional capacity for integrated landscape planning and management in the study area is limited, although some institutions exhibit increased capacity in some areas over others. Multiple strategies can be employed to build the necessary human, financial, and leadership capacity, and facilitate the institutional planning and coordination that is foundational to multi-stakeholder landscape governance. Given the complexity of integrating climate change mitigation, conservation and livelihood goals in a landscape, building such institutional capacity is a long term endeavour that requires sustained effort and ongoing financial, technical and human resource support.

  5. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  6. Assessing the capacity of zero valent iron nanofluids to remediate NAPL-polluted porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakiroglou, Christos, E-mail: ctsakir@iceht.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece); Terzi, Katerina; Sikinioti-Lock, Alexandra [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Hajdu, Kata; Aggelopoulos, Christos [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2016-09-01

    A variety of aqueous suspensions (nanofluids) of zero-valent nano-particles (nZVI) are prepared by wet chemistry techniques, their stability and longevity is evaluated by physic-chemical methods of characterization, and their reactivity toward the dechlorination of per-chloro-ethylene (PCE) is examined with tests in batch reactors. For assessing the mobility, longevity and reactivity of nZVI suspensions (nanofluids), under flow-through conditions, visualization multiphase flow and transport tests are performed on a glass-etched pore network. The nZVI breakthrough curves are constructed by measuring the transient variation of the iron concentration in the effluent with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The capacity of nZVI to remediate the bulk phase of PCE is quantified by detecting the mass loss rate of PCE ganglia trapped in glass-etched pore networks during the continuous injection of nZVI suspension or pure water. The nZVI injection in porous media is simulated as an advection- dispersion process by accounting for the attachment/detachment of nanoparticles on the pore-walls, and describing the kinetics of PCE dissolution and reaction by 1st order equations. Visualization experiments reveal that the gradual elimination of PCE ganglia by the injected nZVI is associated with the preferential “erosion” of the upstream interfacial regions. The step controlling the overall process kinetics might be either (i) the enhanced PCE dissolution or (ii) the direct reaction of bulk PCE with the nZVI deposited upon the ganglia interfaces. Inverse modeling of the experiments under the simplifying assumption of one active mechanism indicates that the estimated kinetic coefficients are increasing functions of the flow rate. - Highlights: • The PCE remediation by nZVI is studied with visualization tests on pore networks. • The remediation of PCE ganglia by nZVI follows a non-uniform “erosion” pattern. • The preferential erosion of the upstream interfacial regions of

  7. Assessing Community Coalition Capacity and its Association with Underage Drinking Prevention Effectiveness in the Context of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Robert L; Hanley, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    Community coalitions are a prominent organizational structure through which community-based substance abuse prevention efforts are implemented. There is little empirical evidence, however, regarding the association between coalition attributes and success in achieving community-level reductions in substance abuse behaviors. In this study, we assessed the relationship between coalition capacity, based on coalition coordinator responses to 16 survey items, and reductions in underage drinking prevalence rates. The coalitions were funded through the federally sponsored Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG). We first examined whether coalition capacity increased over the life of the projects. Mean capacity scores increased for all 16 capacity items examined (N = 318 coalitions), the majority of which were statistically significant. Analysis of the associations between capacity and reductions in underage drinking was limited to coalitions that targeted underage drinking and provided usable outcome measures based on student survey data for either past 30-day alcohol use (N = 129) or binge drinking (N = 100). Bivariate associations between the capacity items and prevalence reductions for each outcome were consistently positive, although many were not statistically significant. Composite measures of correlated items were then created to represent six different capacity constructs, and included in multivariate models to predict reductions in the targeted outcomes. Constructs that significantly predicted reductions in one or both outcome measures included internal organization and structure, community connections and outreach, and funding from multiple sources. The findings provide support for the expectation that high functioning community coalitions can be effective agents for producing desirable community-level changes in targeted substance abuse behaviors.

  8. An assessment of anti-schistosomal treatment on physical work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El Karim, M A; Collins, K J; Sukkar, M Y; Omer, A H; Amin, M A; Doré, C

    1981-04-01

    Acting as their own controls, village subjects from the Gezira are of the Sudan with relatively high levels of schistosomiasis infection were first tested in an exercise laboratory in Khartoum and the tests were then repeated after a period of about 1 yr during which time the subjects were treated with hycanthone and periodically monitored to ensure that they had remained free of the disease. In the meantime they were also given anti-malarial prophylaxis. Laboratory tests showed a significant improvement in physiological work capacity of up to 20% after treatment compared with untreated controls. An overall improvement in pulmonary function, particularly forced vital capacity, was observed as well as a significant increase in mean haemoglobin concentration by 1.1 g/100 ml of blood in the treated group. Apart from these improvements in physical working capacity, the treated subjects subjectively felt better after the exercise tests, as expressed by the disappearance of fatiguability.

  9. Assessment of Maximum Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Threshold of Elite Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Allen, Nick; Cloak, Ross; Beck, Sarah; Davies, Paul; Clarke, Frances

    2016-09-01

    An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e.g., voluntary cessation, respiratory exchange ratio ballet companies are probably due to the different rehearsal and performance demands.

  10. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  11. Longitudinal Assessment of Progress in Reasoning Capacity and Relation with Self-Estimation of Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Anne; Mélot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally…

  12. Longitudinal assessment of maternal parenting capacity variables and child adjustment outcomes in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, David A; Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y

    2011-04-01

    This preliminary investigation aimed to longitudinally examine parenting capacity variables, namely parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress and their relation to child adjustment in mothers of children on treatment for cancer. As part of a larger study, biological mothers (N=22) completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, parenting stress, and child adjustment at Time 1 and a follow-up time point. Analyses were conducted to determine whether (1) levels of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress declined from Time 1 to follow-up and (2) if Time 1 parenting capacity variables were associated with child adjustment at follow-up. Results revealed that parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress declined from Time 1 to follow-up, and levels of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress at Time 1 were significantly related to child adjustment at follow-up. Collectively, the preliminary findings of this study indicate that mothers of children with cancer evidence improved parenting capacity over time. Furthermore, it seems that Time 1 parenting capacity variables are significantly related to later child adjustment.

  13. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  14. Assessment of the 2,4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... V02max. This relationship established, the question of whether or not the 2,4 km run time could be used as a reliable predictor of aerobic capacity in national servicemen was addressed. The objects of this study were thus: (1) to establish a regression equation that expressed the relationship between.

  15. Assessment of the 2,4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 2,4 km run time test is routinely used in military training programmes as an indicator of aerobic capacity and its possible improvement, an attempt was made to: (i) establish a regression equation of V02max V. 2,4 km run time in a group of 20 young military volunteers; and (ii) determine whether this equation could ...

  16. Performance Assessment of Black Box Capacity Forecasting for Multi-Market Trade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela MacDougall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of renewable generated electricity in the energy mix, large energy storage and flexible demand, particularly aggregated demand response is becoming a front runner as a new participant in the wholesale energy markets. One of the biggest barriers for the integration of aggregator services into market participation is knowledge of the current and future flexible capacity. To calculate the available flexibility, the current aggregator pilot and simulation implementations use lower level measurements and device specifications. This type of implementation is not scalable due to computational constraints, as well as it could conflict with end user privacy rights. Black box machine learning approaches have been proven to accurately estimate the available capacity of a cluster of heating devices using only aggregated data. This study will investigate the accuracy of this approach when applied to a heterogeneous virtual power plant (VPP. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis of the machine learning model is performed when varying the underlying device makeup of the VPP. Further, the forecasted flexible capacity of a heterogeneous residential VPP was applied to a trade strategy, which maintains a day ahead schedule, as well as offers flexibility to the imbalance market. This performance is then compared when using the same strategy with no capacity forecasting, as well as perfect knowledge. It was shown that at most, the highest average error, regardless of the VPP makeup, was still less than 9%. Further, when applying the forecasted capacity to a trading strategy, 89% of the optimal performance can be met. This resulted in a reduction of monthly costs by approximately 20%.

  17. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  18. 公共资源类旅游景区水环境承载力研究——以武汉市东湖风景区为例%Carrying capacity of water environment in public tourism resources: A case of East Lake scenic area in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璨; 邓宏兵; 李小帆; 李会琴

    2013-01-01

    The water environment in public tourism resources is affected by the socio-economic system and travel system.This paper builds a multi-target model of water environment carrying capacity by selecting an index system that consists of population,GDP,irrigated area,number of tourists,number of guesthouse day reception,total nitrogen (TP),chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).Shuiguohu Lake,Tanglinghu Lake and Guozhenghu Lake are selected as the sub-lakes of the east lake area to evaluate the water environmental carrying capacity,by adopting the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the weight of indexes on water environmental carrying capacity of the East Lake scenic area.This paper also uses a typical model to calculate water environmental carrying capacity of East Lake scenic area in 2011.The results show that the irrigation area and GDP have exceeded the carrying standards,while population and tourism indicators are within the carrying capacity.All the indicators of water quality have exceeded the carrying standards.The scores for water environmental carrying capacity of Shuiguohu,Tanglinghu and Guozhenghu lake are 4.03,3.86 and 3.95 respectively,which are greatly overloaded.%公共资源类旅游景区水环境受到社会经济系统和旅游系统两方面影响,本文通过选取人口、GDP、灌溉面积、游客量、宾馆日接待人数、TP、COD、BOD等指标,构建水环境承载力多目标模型.同时,选取水果湖、汤菱湖和郭郑湖3个子湖对东湖风景区水环境承载力进行评价,并运用层次分析法(AHP)确定各指标对东湖风景区水环境承载力的权重,采用典型水环境承载力概念模型计算了2011年武汉市东湖风景区水环境承载力.结果表明,东湖风景区水资源承载力表现为灌溉面积和GDP承载度超标,而人口和旅游指标承载度未达到饱和,水质承载力各指标的承载度超标.水果湖、汤菱湖和郭郑湖的水

  19. Assessment of phosphorus fertility by means of isotopically exchangeable phosphorus and the fixing capacity of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachon, L.

    1979-01-01

    Using over 400 soils representative of French pedological types, the absorption kinetics of phosphorus were studied on Italian rye-grass grown in pots until assimilable reserves had been exhausted. At the same time, Russell's E value (isotopically exchangeable P in vitro), Larsen's L value (isotopically exchangeable P in vivo) and the fixing capacity of the soils were measured. The study shows a very close correlation between the phosphorus removed by the first four cuttings and fertility indices combining E or L with the fixing capacity. The agricultural value of the two indices proposed, Isub(E) and Isub(L), is confirmed by the results of about forty one-year and multi-year field experiments. Norms for the interpretation of these indices are deduced; these are independent of the pedological type but need to be modified as a function of the type of crop and the cultural practice. (author)

  20. The algorithm for the assessment of functional work capacity of railway workers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiljević Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of functional work capacity based on the biological function of the body and a specific job demands and job characteristics, determine whether a person is capable to do the job or group of jobs. Evaluation of work capacity (EWC railway workers is conducted according to the program of Regulations for the former and periodic examinations of employees in workplaces with high risk published in the Official Gazette of RS no. 120/ 07 and 655. Regulations on health conditions to be met by railway workers, who are directly involved in railway transport. One of the most common chronic diseases during EWC is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The definition of contraindications for use of railway employees with COPD given by Ordinance 655 is in very general terms, trying to make it easier and improve the quality of assessment of work capacity, we have developed an algorithm for the assessment of work ability among these workers. When doubt the existence of COPD should first prove that the disease exists, according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, and for occupational medicine we considered important to clarify and standardize the assessment criteria for EWC, which resulting in a diagnostic algorithm for EWC. It is also important to know which type of job will worker to do. Application of a diagnostic algorithm in EWC will allow optimal assessment of disease severity in railway and other workers suffering of COPD working at the workplace with an increased risk efficacy treatment evaluation; assess compensation of functional defects and determine schedule of periodical examination.

  1. Evaluation capacity assessment of the transport sector in South Africa: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia D. Bless

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: In this regard, the framework is recommended as an innovative tool to assist evaluation practitioners and scholars to better understand evaluation capacity constraints within a broader context that involves logistical, technical, contextual, social and political dimensions. It also offers an important insight on how these components interfaced to shape the organisational value system that impacts the use of evidence in the transport sector in South Africa.

  2. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  3. Self-Assessment of Physical Activity and Health Capacity of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Plavina Liana; Dulevska Ilva; Karklina Helena

    2017-01-01

    The compulsory part of the individual life is physical activity. The physical activity is important for maintenance health capacity. Physical activity includes various kinds of components: physical activity during the leisure time (during the week days and weekend days), physical activity at home and in working place and physical activity during the transference from home to other place. Intensity of the physical activity could also be various from low to moderate and till high. Respondent of...

  4. Organizational Culture, Absorptive Capacity, Innovation Performace and Competitive Advantage: An Integrated Assessment in Indonesian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Adriansyah; Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP) on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture) affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indir...

  5. Quantification Of 15N Internal Transformation To Assess Nitrogen Supply Capacity In Deforested Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, I.P.; Prawito, P.; Sisworo, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of deforested soil's capacity to supply available N via mineralization and immobilization using 15N pool dilution is crucial to make fertilizer recommendation. The objective of this research was to measure the soil's capacity to minemlize and ilmnobilize N, so that the actual value of available N released by soil can be predicted. The results showed that Imperata grassland released the highest available N (amonium + nitrate) about 33.93 mg/kg/d and can immobilize 11.68 mg/kg/d of N. On the other hand, agriculture lields had the lowest inorganic N by nearly 23.15 mg/kg/d, and no immobilization occurred. The implication is that agriculture fields have a very low labile and stabile pool N (nearly 0), while Imperata grassland have capacity to store more pool N into labile or stabil pool (about 34%). In conclusion, dynamics of N cycling in ecosystem are dependent upon the content of pool C-N utilized by microorganisms and plants

  6. 滨海旅游环境承载力评价与量化测度研究——以山东半岛蓝色经济区为例%Evaluation and Quantitative Measurement on Coastal Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity: A Case Study on the Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 于水仙; 王佳

    2012-01-01

    旅游环境承载力是区域旅游可持续发展的重要评判依据,目前国内外旅游环境承载力研究方法和技术手段仍显不足,多以静态评价分析为主,缺乏动态预测研究,旅游环境承载力定量研究的技术与方法尚需深入探索.本文结合滨海旗游的自身特点,构建由资源、生态、经济、社会四个承载子系统构成的滨海旅游环境承载力评价体系,按照评价体系的层次结构构造判断矩阵,采用层次分析法确定评价指标权重,运用物元评价模型和灰色预测模型,对山东半岛蓝色经济区滨海旅游环境承载力水平进行量化测度与系统分析.结果表明,半岛蓝色经济区滨海旅游环境各个承载子系统存在一定的承载差异,滨海旅游资源和生态环境承载能力较强,滨海旅游经济和社会环境子系统还有较大的承载空间;从时序变化上看,滨海旅游环境综合承载能为不断提高,并呈现可持续的运行态势;从空间差异上着,青岛、烟台、潍坊和威海四个城市滨海旅游环境承载状态处于“良好”等级,而东营、日照和滨州三个城市滨海旅游环境承载状态处于“一般”等级.因此,提高区域整体承载潜力,平衡地区承载差异,对于促进半岛蓝色经济区滨海旅游资源有序开发和滨海旅游产业合理布局具有重要的现实意义.%Tourism environmental carrying capacity is the important evaluation basis of regional tourism sustainable development; however, relative researches on its methods and techniques are still inadequate at home and abroad. Those studies are mostly based on static evaluation analysis and lack of dynamic prediction. So the techniques and methods of quantitative research on tourism environmental carrying capacity still need to be explored in depth timely. In accordance with own characteristics of the coastal tourism, the paper constructs ihe evaluation system of coastal tourism environmental

  7. Comparative Quantitative Assessments of Salivary Ion Activity Product for Hydroxyapatite and Buffering Capacity in Children with Different Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Siddharth; Masih, Updesh; Yeluri, Ramakrishna

    If a relation exists between salivary I PHA , buffer capacity and caries experience, then this relationship could be used as screening chair side test for caries risk assessment. One hundred ninety seven children aged 4 to 6 years were examined. Data was collected by interview and clinical examination. They were divided into low, moderate and high caries experience group of 20 children each. Two ml of each sample was used to measure the pH value with pH meter. Regarding the buffering capacity, freshly prepared hydrochloric acid (HCl) was titrated into saliva and pH was recorded. The collected saliva samples were sent to Laboratory for measurement of calcium and phosphorus. I PHA was calculated and the negative logarithms of I PHA were used to determine the enamel solubility. The correlation between salivary I PHA , buffering capacity and caries experience were evaluated. There was a significant relation between pH, log I PHA and dental caries experience, it could be considered as a predictor of dental caries. pH measurement after HCl titration in saliva could be used as chair side screening test for the assessment of caries risk.

  8. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2014-05-20

    This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

  9. Assessing in vivo fertilizing capacity of liquid-preserved boar semen according to the 'Hanover gilt model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, F; Döhring, A; Le Thi, X; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the Hanover gilt model to assess in vivo fertilizing capacity of preserved sperm and to consider whether any modifications to this model were needed. This model evaluates the fertilizing capacity of semen based on the fertilization rate, the rate of normal embryos and the accessory sperm count of 3-5-day embryos. Its distinguishing characteristics are the use of one-time insemination of sperm in reduced numbers, of spontaneously ovulating gilts and of ovulation detection through ultrasound examination of ovaries. Reduced sperm numbers allow for an accurate evaluation of the fertilizing potential of different semen treatments, thereby avoiding the compensatory effect of doses calibrated to maximize fertility. The model's usefulness was assessed in a trial run designed to compare the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen diluted into two different extenders. The diluent, the boar and the backflow, had no significant effect on any of the parameters studied. Gilts inseminated less than 24 h before ovulation had a significantly higher (p semen), while using relatively few gilts and little time.

  10. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model ... Keywords. Slewing bearing; Hertz theory; load distribution; nonlinear connector elements; tolerance. 1. ..... Ngoi B K A, Lim B H and Ang P S 2000 Nexus method for stack analysis of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing problems.

  11. Optimising the allocation of groundwater carrying capacity in a data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-26

    Aug 26, 2009 ... There are, however, no unified and mature approaches to .... Change process of average annual groundwater level for. Observation Well No. ... Under this circumstance, it is rational to consider only the factors of arable land ...

  12. Saldanha Bay, South Africa III: new production and carrying capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that the total annual production of mussels and oysters, respectively, for a 1 000-ha cultivation area is approximately 40 000–53 000 t y–1 (mainly Mytilus galloprovincialis) and 4 600–6 000 t y–1 (Crassotrea gigas). The combined total production figures constitute only 24–31% of the surplus new production.

  13. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities, maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the derivation of logistic models for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3 ± 159.3mm and an area of 10 117ha. It involves modelling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic ...

  14. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter bearing with tolerance on ball and raceway will lead to safe design. .... The leading manufacturers of bearing SKF (Svenska Kullagerfabriken) and .... of production will affect the various dimensions in the bearing and their housings.

  15. Projecting the visual carrying capacity of recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Nieman; Jane L. Futrell

    1979-01-01

    The aesthetic experience of people utilizing the recreational resources of the national parks and forests of the United States is of primary importance since a large percentage of perception is visual. Undesirable intrusions into this sphere of perception substantially reduce the level of enjoyment or satisfaction derived from the recreation experience. Perceived...

  16. ecological carrying capacity of saanane island proposed national

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoology

    definition developed by Hudak in (1999) which refers ... investment. The population of introduced ... Samples were collected from stratified systematic ... average height were used to estimate the ..... about using optimum numbers of individuals.

  17. 基于智慧旅游视角的旅游景区承载力研究综述与启示∗%Literature Review and Implications on Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity Based on the Perspective of Smart Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁箐; 陈楠; 程川

    2016-01-01

    随着大数据时代的到来和互联网平台技术的广泛应用,旅游信息化建设成为中国旅游产业可持续发展的重要步骤:智慧旅游应时而生。然而,一些基于景区承载力问题发生的公共旅游安全事故凸显出智慧旅游建设的不足。立足于智慧旅游、智慧景区理论,根据旅游景区承载力理论研究进展的智慧性趋势,将旅游景区承载力分为筑基期、发展期与成熟期3个发展时期,回顾了1980-2015年间国内外承载力的相关研究,并分析每个时期中承载力理论与智慧旅游、智慧景区间的关系;接着通过总结三者间的关系框架图、共融性特征描述了承载力与智慧旅游结合的联系与必然性。最后,针对国内景区承载力研究的智慧化发展进行反思,并针对相关问题提出对策,为后续研究提供理论依据。%With the advent of the era of big data and the wide application of the Internet platform technology,building tourism in-formation has become an important step in the sustainable development of our country's tourism industry.However,some of the safety accidents based on the shortages of carrying capacity revealed the building problems of smarter tourism.Based on the theo-ry of smart tourism,tourist attractions and the smart trend of tourism carrying capacity,this paper divided TCC into 3 periods of base,development and mature.This paper reviewed the development of the carrying capacity concept between 1980-2015 in do-mestic and abroad.It also analyzed the relationship between the theory of smart tourism,tourist attractions and tourism carrying capacity in each period;then,through summarizing the framework of relationship between the three blend features,it described the tourism attractions carrying capacity and smart tourism with contact and necessity.Finally,this paper reflected on the smarter trend of the development of the domestic tourism attractions carrying capacity,and put

  18. Assessment of the adsorptive capacity of the Kaolin deposit targeting its use on the removal of colors in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, S.C.; Hildebrando, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonic region has large and valuable kaolin deposits. The state of Para by itself comprises three large industries which process kaolin. It has been noticed that the waste resulting from the processing of kaolin is rich in silico-aluminate, presenting potential in adsorption processes. Thus, this research's objective is to assess the kaolin waste produced during the processing phase, aiming at its application as low cost adsorbent material. For that, the kaolin waste has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis (XRF), and then sieved and calcined at 700 ° C, being then subjected to the adsorption process and observed qualitatively its capacity of retention by methylene blue (AM). Preliminary results show that the kaolin waste has satisfactory adsorption capacity at concentrations of up to 50.0 mg / MP, demonstrating the potential that it be used in the removal of dyes in wastewater treatment. (author)

  19. SIGNAL CONTROLLED JUNCTIONS CALCULATIONS IN TRAFFIC-CAPACITY ASSESSMENT - AIMSUN, OMNITRANS, WEBSTER AND TP 10/2010 RESULTS COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír ČERNICKÝ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every increase in traffic volume on road network in towns can lead to overcrowding of road network. This results in undesirable external costs such as traffic congestions, which cause high loses in time during transportation, increased fuel consumption and thus higher production of greenhouse gases and noise. This all ultimately reduces the attractiveness of the area. The increase of traffic volume and therefrom derived traffic problems are needed to be solved during traffic-capacity assessment of every larger investment. The software can help to assess increased traffic in solved area and thus help authorities to make a right decision during approving of the investment plan. This article is focused on comparison of two software – Aimsun and OmniTrans, and calculations according to Webster and technical regulations for assessing junction capacity in the Slovak Republic. The packages outputs are also compared to the measured data at the assessed junction in this article. The analysis showed that outputs of various tools differ, generally all packages showed higher delays compared to measured data at the main road and lower delays compared to measured data at the side roads.

  20. Disaster risk reduction capacity assessment for precarious settlements in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott B; Green, Rebekah A; Svekla, Walter

    2012-07-01

    This study presents findings of an institutional capacity analysis of urban disaster risk reduction for informal settlements in the Guatemala Metropolitan Region. It uses a resource access perspective of vulnerability, actor-network theory, and qualitative data collection. The analysis reveals that there is interest in disaster risk reduction for the informal settlements; however, there is little in the way of direct financial or oversight relationships between informal settlement residents and all other actors. Respondents observed that informal settlements would probably remain inhabited; thus, there is a need for disaster risk reduction within these settlements. Disaster risk reduction capacity for informal settlements exists and can be further leveraged, as long as steps are taken to ensure appropriate access to and control of resources and oversight. Further, the nascent institutional arrangements should be strengthened through increased communication and coordination between actors, a decentralization of oversight and financial relationships, and mediation of identified resource conflicts. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  1. Can a simple test of functional capacity add to the clinical assessment of diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T; Caffrey, D G; Gilman, R H; Mathai, S C; Lerner, A; Hernandez, A; Pinto, M E; Huaylinos, Y; Cabrera, L; Wise, R A; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2016-08-01

    To identify impairment in functional capacity associated with complicated and non-complicated diabetes using the 6-min walk distance test. We enrolled 111 adults, aged ≥40 years, with Type 2 diabetes from a hospital facility and 150 healthy control subjects of similar age and sex from a community site in Lima, Peru. All participants completed a 6-min walk test. The mean age of the 261 participants was 58.3 years, and 43.3% were male. Among those with diabetes, 67 (60%) had non-complicated diabetes and 44 (40%) had complications such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy. The mean unadjusted 6-min walk distances were 376 m and 394 m in adults with and without diabetes complications, respectively, vs 469 m in control subjects (Pdiabetes complications walked 84 m less far (95% CI -104 to -63 m) and those without complications walked 60 m less far (-77 to -42 m) than did control subjects. When using HbA1c level as a covariate in multivariable regression, participants walked 13 m less far (-16.9 to -9.9 m) for each % increase in HbA1c . The subjects with diabetes had lower functional capacity compared with healthy control subjects with similar characteristics. Differences in 6-min walk distance were even apparent in the subjects without diabetes complications. Potential mechanisms that could explain this finding are early cardiovascular disease or deconditioning. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  2. Environmental research organizations and climate change policy analytical capacity : an assessment of the Canadian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, M.; Oliphant, S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a topic of increasing interest to contemporary decision makers. In order for governments to make informed decisions in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, environmental policy makers require strong research and analytical capabilities to design and implement effective policies to deal with wide-ranging and complex policy issues. This articles presented a 7-criteria model of policy analytical capacity (PAC) and applied it to 3 prominent Canadian environmental policy research organizations. The 2 governmental organizations examined in this study were Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, while the non-government organization was the David Suzuki Foundation. Following the 7 principles that determine the PAC of an organization, each case study examined the education/training of the organization's employees; the types and mix of policy analysis techniques used by the organization; the culture and structure of decision making in the organization; the nature and source of demand for the organization's research; and the organization's access to necessary data and information to conduct work at a high level of competence. Interview data provided information on the status of each organizations' current research capacity and the effect this has on overall government policy-making capability in the face of climate change challenges. 75 refs.

  3. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  4. Consideration of time-evolving capacity distributions and improved degradation models for seismic fragility assessment of aging highway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jayadipta; Sood, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop seismic fragility curves for deteriorating highway bridges by uniquely accounting for realistic pitting corrosion deterioration and time-dependent capacity distributions for reinforced concrete columns under chloride attacks. The proposed framework offers distinct improvements over state-of-the-art procedures for fragility assessment of degrading bridges which typically assume simplified uniform corrosion deterioration model and pristine limit state capacities. Depending on the time in service life and deterioration mechanism, this study finds that capacity limit states for deteriorating bridge columns follow either lognormal distribution or generalized extreme value distributions (particularly for pitting corrosion). Impact of column degradation mechanism on seismic response and fragility of bridge components and system is assessed using nonlinear time history analysis of three-dimensional finite element bridge models reflecting the uncertainties across structural modeling parameters, deterioration parameters and ground motion. Comparisons are drawn between the proposed methodology and traditional approaches to develop aging bridge fragility curves. Results indicate considerable underestimations of system level fragility across different damage states using the traditional approach compared to the proposed realistic pitting model for chloride induced corrosion. Time-dependent predictive functions are provided to interpolate logistic regression coefficients for continuous seismic reliability evaluation along the service life with reasonable accuracy. - Highlights: • Realistic modeling of chloride induced corrosion deterioration in the form of pitting. • Time-evolving capacity distribution for aging bridge columns under chloride attacks. • Time-dependent seismic fragility estimation of highway bridges at component and system level. • Mathematical functions for continuous tracking of seismic fragility along service

  5. Comparative analysis of two different methods of anaerobic capacity assessment in sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Wingate anaerobic test is a valid and reliable method of measuring anaerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether other modified test can be used instead of the Wingate test. Methods. A group of 30 sedentary young men were first tested with a cycle ergometer (classic Wingate test, and then with a dynamometer during 30 s of 'all out' leg extension exercise (modified Wingate test; WAnTe in order to test anaerobic capacity. Subsequent correlations between these tests were made. Results. Peak power, mean power on cycling ergometer in absolute and relative values were 463 ± 105 W, 316.7 ± 63.8 W, 5.68 ± 1.17 W/kg, 3.68 ± 0.78 W/kg, respectively. On a dynamometer absolute and relative values of maximal and mean load in kg and power in Watts were 136.54 ± 21.3 kg, 1.67 ± 0.26; 128.65 ± 19.93 kg, 1.57 ± 0.24 kg, 657 ± 125.87 W, and 8 ± 1.54 W/kg, respectively. There was no correlation between 5 s intervals of the classic Wingate test and WAnTe during the first, fourth and fifth intervals, but in the second (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, third (r = 0.38, p < 0.05 and last 5 s intervals (r = 0.39, p < 0.05, and also in peak power and mean power (r = 0.42, p < 0.05 and r = 0.45, p < 0.05 respectively, a significant positive correlation was detected. Conclusion. A modified Wingate test of leg extension on a dynamometer in sedentary young men shows a correlation with the classic Wingate test only in parameters of peak power, and mean power and the second, the third and the last 5 s intervals. Because of that it should only be used for orientation, whereas for precise measurements of anaerobic capacity the classic Wingate test should be used.

  6. Uranium from Coal Ash: Resource Assessment and Outlook on Production Capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Uranium production from coal-ash is technically feasible: in some situations, it could reach commercial development, in such case, fast lead time will be a plus. Technically accessible resources are significant (1.1 to 4.5 MtU). Yet most of those are low grade. Potential reserves don’t exceed 200 ktU (cut-off grade = 200 ppm). • By-product uranium production => constrained production capacities; • Realistic production potential < 700 tU/year; • ~ 1% of current needs. → Coal ash will not be a significant source of uranium for the 21st century – even if production constrains are released (increase in coal consumption

  7. Organizational Culture, Absorptive Capacity, Innovation Performace and Competitive Advantage: An Integrated Assessment in Indonesian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adriansyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indirectly as well.  Surveyed data (in Indonesian Banking Industry shows that both of organizational culture have a direct impact on ACAP. Only developmental culture has a direct impact on innovation. There is no culture type affects competitive advantage directly. In this research, culture affects competitive advantage through ACAP and innovation.    

  8. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ljevar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7, colon (CaCo-2 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20 % showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells.

  9. Building professional capacity in ITS : an assessment of ITS training and education needs : the CVO perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This report focuses on assessing the training and education needs of transportation professionals involved in Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO). After an introduction to the program, the author defines the pro...

  10. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Workplace assessments and functional capacity evaluations: current beliefs of therapists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Ev; Straker, Leon

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the current beliefs of therapists in Australia, and the strategies they use to address the issues of credibility, reliability, consistency, trustworthiness, validity, generalisability and quality in conducting work-related assessments. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 occupational therapists and physiotherapists from around Australia. Participants expressed the belief that the therapist was the assessment instrument and was central to the credibility of an assessment. Conflict was reported when participants modified standardised assessments in an attempt to focus on context relevant activities and tasks. Participants were aware of the issues of reliability and validity but believed it was not practical to establish these aspects formally in most work-related assessments. The strategies used to achieve credibility, reliability, consistency, trustworthiness, validity, generalisability and quality were similar to those recommended for use in qualitative research. The strategies identified in this study can provide the basis for therapists to examine how they conduct work-related assessments and consider whether they currently use these strategies or have the opportunity to implement others.

  13. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  14. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario Partidario, Maria, E-mail: mrp@civil.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Sheate, William R., E-mail: w.sheate@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning Ltd, London, 1E, The Chandlery, 50 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7QY (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  15. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: ► Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation ► We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making ► Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange ► Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments ► The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.

  16. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  17. Improved acid neutralisation capacity assessment of iron carbonates by titration and theoretical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.A.; Thomas, J.E.; Skinner, W.M.; Smart, R.St.C.

    2004-01-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of a rock sample containing significant amounts of Fe carbonates, as conducted to determine net acid production potential (NAPP), can be a difficult parameter to determine. Various ANC tests are available to determine the ANC of carbonates. This work does not attempt to create another ANC test protocol; rather, it provides a refinement for existing tests. Results showed that a significant lag period may be needed (up to 432 h) after standard Sobek-type ANC tests for the complete hydrolysis of Fe associated with the ANC testing of siderite. This lag occurred even with standard industry modifications that include the addition of 2 drops of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5 during the back-titration. In this work the authors used a modification to the Sobek ANC test (the Modified Sobek ANC test) that included filtering and the addition of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5. This test was further modified by the continuance of this H 2 O 2 addition (the H 2 O 2 ANC test) until there was no subsequent pH drop (which is due to Fe hydrolysis reactions), thereupon the back titration was continued to pH 7.0. Results indicated that the ANC for siderite (after 0 h) using the H 2 O 2 ANC test was similar to the ANC determined after 432 h lag by the Modified Sobek ANC test. This modification reduces the uncertainty related to static-test results for samples containing Fe carbonates. The test is simple to use, has industry application, and provides a better indication of the NAPP. The Modified Sobek ANC results for calcite and dolomite and the H 2 O 2 ANC test for siderite were in good agreement with the mineralogical carbonate ANC (ANC carb ). ANC carb was determined by calculation based on electron probe micro-analysis. Although lower than both the ANC carb and the ANC determined by titration, the chemical ANC calculated from the ions present in the ANC digestion liquor also provided a good indication of the overall acid neutralisation capacity of the sample

  18. Digenic inheritance in autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss cases carrying GJB2 heterozygote mutations: assessment of GJB4, GJA1, and GJC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshavar, Daniz; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farrokhi, Effat; Abolhasani, Marziye; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad-Reza; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza

    2013-02-01

    Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) can be caused by many genes. However, mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes the gap-junction (GJ) protein connexin (Cx) 26, constitute a considerable proportion differing among population. Between 10 and 42 percent of patients with recessive GJB2 mutations carry only one mutant allele. Mutations in GJB4, GJA1, and GJC3 encoding Cx30.3, Cx43, and Cx29, respectively, can lead to HL. Combination of different connexins in heteromeric and heterotypic GJ assemblies is possible. This study aims to determine whether variations in any of the genes GJB4, GJA1 or GJC3 can be the second mutant allele causing the disease in the digenic mode of inheritance in the studied GJB2 heterozygous cases. We examined 34 unrelated GJB2 heterozygous ARNSHL subjects from different geographic and ethnic areas in Iran, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct DNA sequencing to identify any sequence variations in these genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed on 400 normal hearing individuals. Sequence analysis of GJB4 showed five heterozygous variations including c.451C>A, c.219C>T, c.507C>G, c.155_158delTCTG and c.542C>T, with only the latter variation not being detected in any of control samples. There were three heterozygous variations including c.758C>T, c.717G>A and c.3*dupA in GJA1 in four cases. We found no variations in GJC3 gene sequence. Our data suggest that GJB4 c.542C>T variant and less likely some variations of GJB4 and GJA1, but not possibly GJC3, can be assigned to ARNSHL in GJB2 heterozygous mutation carriers providing clues of the digenic pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing and Filing the Gap as a New Mode of Governance, lessons from a Preliminary Study carried out in the Cosenza's Public Prosecutors' Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Piana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries courts and public prosecutor offices have been undergoing a long and comprehensive process of reform, target several different components of their organization and management. This phenomenon can be explained as the outcome of two combined forces: an increase demand of justice and a pressure from the international and supranational institutions. Accordingly, innovation has become a major issue in the judicial sector. Despite the attention devoted to it, much less effort has been made to comprehend the mechanisms that make organizations innovative. To what extent is leadership important? How may different organizational cultures facilitate or create obstacles to innovation? And to what extent can innovation be implemented through a top down approach in a peculiar organization, such as a judicial office? This article tells the story of a case study on a public prosecutors’ office located in the South of Italy. The pilot study has been framed and conducted as both normative and empirical in its own nature. Moreover, it represents a case study with a certain number of policy effects, as it turned into a roadmap which was adopted by the judicial office to improve its own organization and human resource management. This is the first study carried out in Italy using such methods with the objective to:a describe the implementation of organizational innovation (in this respect there had already been a study of the General Registry Office,b map intra-organizational routines and inter-connections between administration and the General Registry Office and between the GRO and the criminal records Office etc;c Identify skills to adapt and learn skills from daily routines and execution of specific tasks, as they are done in all public sectors.- If you really want to understand something, try first to change it - Thomas Eliot

  20. 基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型构建及与传统模式的比较分析%The construction of tourism space carrying capacity calculation model based on production line and the competitive with traditional models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢慧丽

    2011-01-01

    Recently, in several articles, scholar Huang Yangshan analyzed the method of calculating the carry capacity of scenic area, and pointed out the limitation of traditional method based on the turnover. Then he deduced an improved model. But in his studies there is no comparison analysis to the difference of the optimal capacity value of the models in different conditions, and his improved model still has some limitation. Therefore, this paper first presents a new tourism scenic capacity calculation model based on production line, then analyses the balance of the attraction time and the attraction capacity of the scenic depot, which is the important fact influencing the volume of the carry capacity. And then, we compared our new model with the traditional ones in different condition. The results show that the new model based on tourism production line is suitable for wider scope, and is more reasonable.%近期,黄羊山在多篇文章中对风景区旅游空间容量的方法进行了探讨,且指出了传统周转率法的局限性,并说明了模型错误的原因.但其分析偏于定性,且没有指出不同条件下,这些模型求得的容量值的情况.本文首先提出了一种新的基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型,接着分析了景点时间和景点容量均衡与否对景区容量计算的影响,并对新的景区容量计算模型与传统景区容量计算模型进行了量化比较研究.结果表明基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型适用范围更广、更具有一般性.

  1. A novel procedure for the assessment of the antioxidant capacity of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Harashima, Mai; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Sakakibara, Yoichi

    2016-08-15

    Carbonylation, an oxidative modification of the amino group of arginine and lysine residues caused by reactive oxygen species, has emerged as a new type of oxidative damage. Protein carbonylation has been shown to exert adverse effects on various protein functions. Recently, the role of food components in the attenuation of oxidative stress has been the focus of many studies. Most of these studies focused on the chemical properties of food components. However, it is also important to determine their effects on protein functions via post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed a novel procedure for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food components. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells was quantitatively analyzed by using fluorescent dyes (Cy5-hydrazide dye and IC3-OSu dye), followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence determination. Among a panel of food components tested, quinic acid, kaempferol, saponin, squalene, trigonelline, and mangiferin were shown to be capable of suppressing protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells. Our results demonstrated that this fluorescence labeling/SDS-PAGE procedure allows for the detection of oxidative stress-induced protein carbonylation with high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. This method should be useful for the screening of new antioxidant food components as well as the analysis of their suppression mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SUBSTRATES UTILIZATION TO ASSESS ROOTEDNESS CAPACITY AND VIABILITY BUDS AT SOME GRAPE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  3. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  4. Assessment of bone formation capacity using in vivo transplantation assays: procedure and tissue analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Ditzel, Nicholas; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    In vivo assessment of bone formation (osteogenesis) potential by isolated cells is an important method for analysis of cells and factors control ling bone formation. Currently, cell implantation mixed with hydroxyapa-tite/tricalcium phosphate in an open system (subcutaneous implantation) in immun...

  5. A simple method for assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power producing capacities from functional movement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Milena Z; Djuric, Sasa; Cuk, Ivan; Suzovic, Dejan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-07-01

    A range of force (F) and velocity (V) data obtained from functional movement tasks (e.g., running, jumping, throwing, lifting, cycling) performed under variety of external loads have typically revealed strong and approximately linear F-V relationships. The regression model parameters reveal the maximum F (F-intercept), V (V-intercept), and power (P) producing capacities of the tested muscles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of agreement between the routinely used "multiple-load model" and a simple "two-load model" based on direct assessment of the F-V relationship from only 2 external loads applied. Twelve participants were tested on the maximum performance vertical jumps, cycling, bench press throws, and bench pull performed against a variety of different loads. All 4 tested tasks revealed both exceptionally strong relationships between the parameters of the 2 models (median R = 0.98) and a lack of meaningful differences between their magnitudes (fixed bias below 3.4%). Therefore, addition of another load to the standard tests of various functional tasks typically conducted under a single set of mechanical conditions could allow for the assessment of the muscle mechanical properties such as the muscle F, V, and P producing capacities.

  6. Economic assessment of smart grids solutions. Analysis carried out by the distribution network operators. Executive Summary 2017. The new paths of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    The economic viability of the Smart grids solutions is a key concern. This was highlighted in a letter from the ministries for the Environment, Sustainable Development and Energy and for the Economy, Industry and Digital Technology, which requested additional information regarding this question with regard to the distribution and transmission networks. Enedis and ADEeF (Association gathering electricity distributors in France), have realized a study on the economic assessment of smart grids solutions, in order to analyze associated costs and benefits. This study is part of a global approach conducted by the Ministries and in collaboration with ADEME and RTE. The functions featured in this study concern the transmission substation and MV network: Operational planning system, Extension of self-healing capabilities of the distribution network, Centralised dynamic voltage control, Self-adaptive reactive power control by MV producers, Active power curtailment of MV production, Use of flexibility for demand constraints. The results presented in this study are coherent with actual investment decisions and foreshadow future action plans

  7. Assessment of the global intelligence and selective cognitive capacities in preterm 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begega, Azucena; Méndez López, Magdalena; de Iscar, María Jesús; Cuesta-Izquierdo, Marcelino; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Álvarez, Luis; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess various cognitive abilities such as attention, IQ, reasoning, and memory related to academic achievement in 8- and 9-year-old preterm children. A total of 141 children were assessed. The preterm group (=37 weeks) comprised 63 children and was compared to 78 full-term children. Attention was evaluated using the d2 Selective Attention test, and the IQ by the L-M form of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, establishing a profile of abilities: perception, memory, comprehension, reasoning, and verbal fluency. Significant differences in IQ were found between the preterm and full-term children. Of the cognitive abilities assessed, the only significant differences were found in verbal fluency, with preterm boys showing lower verbal fluency scores than full-term children. In conclusion, all preterm groups have attention ability similar to that of full-term children. However, preterm children obtain lower scores in intelligence measures. In addition, preterm boys have verbal fluency difficulties. Taking into account the increase in preterm births, suitable intervention programs must be planned to attend the difficulties found.

  8. Hybrid knowledge expert tool for load capacity assessment of railway plate girders with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻawa, M.; Bień, J.; Gładysz, M.

    2013-10-01

    Importance of the bridge structures as components of the transportation network is increasing and requires regular development of the management methodology. The main activities are focused on the safety of the users of the transportation network and on the safety of structures, based on monitoring and analysis of the bridge condition changes caused by various types of defects. The paper presents application of the hybrid network technology in the expert tool NOBLA supporting condition assessment of bridge plate girders, taking into account defects of the structures.

  9. Assessing Capacity for Providing Culturally Competent Services to LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Retrum, Jessica H.; Wright, Leslie A.; Boggs, Jennifer M.; Wilkins, Shari; Grimm, Cathy; Gilchrist, Kay; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, interview-based study assessed the cultural competence of health and social service providers to meet the needs of LGBT older adults in an urban neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, known to have a large LGBT community. Only 4 of the agencies were categorized as “high competency” while 12 were felt to be “seeking improvement” and 8 were considered “not aware.” These results indicate significant gaps in cultural competency for the majority of service providers. Social workers are well-suited to lead efforts directed at improving service provision and care competencies for the older LGBT community. PMID:24798180

  10. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  11. Assessing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capacity Using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response Methodology: Portsmouth, Virginia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian, Katie M; Winz, Michelle; Yang, Jun; Corvese, Kate; Colón, Ana; Levine, Seth J; Mullen, Jessica; Ruth, Donna; Anson-Dwamena, Rexford; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Chang, David S

    2016-04-01

    For the past decade, emergency preparedness campaigns have encouraged households to meet preparedness metrics, such as having a household evacuation plan and emergency supplies of food, water, and medication. To estimate current household preparedness levels and to enhance disaster response planning, the Virginia Department of Health with remote technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a community health assessment in 2013 in Portsmouth, Virginia. Using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology with 2-stage cluster sampling, we randomly selected 210 households for in-person interviews. Households were questioned about emergency planning and supplies, information sources during emergencies, and chronic health conditions. Interview teams completed 180 interviews (86%). Interviews revealed that 70% of households had an emergency evacuation plan, 67% had a 3-day supply of water for each member, and 77% had a first aid kit. Most households (65%) reported that the television was the primary source of information during an emergency. Heart disease (54%) and obesity (40%) were the most frequently reported chronic conditions. The Virginia Department of Health identified important gaps in local household preparedness. Data from the assessment have been used to inform community health partners, enhance disaster response planning, set community health priorities, and influence Portsmouth's Community Health Improvement Plan.

  12. Tourism environmental carrying capacity of Hebei province based on Theil coefficient and improved ecological footprint method%基于锡尔系数及改进生态足迹的河北省旅游环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚英敏; 李素喜; 刘金平

    2014-01-01

    基于锡尔系数与改进后的生态足迹方法,分析了河北省旅游环境承载力。结果表明:从2001年到2012年,河北省旅游生态足迹与旅游生态承载力均呈现下降趋势,且总体表现出生态赤字状态,河北省旅游发展处于不可持续状态;空间上,在11个地级市中,秦皇岛的人均旅游生态足迹与人均旅游生态赤字均最高,沧州市最低;而张家口人均旅游生态承载力最高,唐山最低,从环渤海、环京津与环省会旅游圈来看,3个旅游圈之间的旅游环境承载力差异较小,但各旅游圈内各市的差异较大,其中以环渤海旅游圈内的差异最大;为了促进河北省旅游发展的可持续性,发展生态旅游、降低旅游生态赤字势在必行。%Based on Theil coefficient and the improved ecological footprint method,the tourism environmental carrying capacity of Hebei province is analyzed.The results showed that,the tourism ecological footprint per person(efT )and tourism ecological carrying capacity per person (ecT)in Hebei province showed a downward trend from 2001 to 2012,and the tourism develop-ment is in an unsustainable state because the tourism ecological deficit per person(ted)is positive in Hebei province.Spatially speaking,the efT and ted of Qinhuangdao are the highest in 11 cit-ies,and those of Cangzhou are lowest.While the tec of Zhangjiakou is highest and Tangshan is lowest.Between the 3 tourism circles,the difference of tourism environmental carrying capacity is small,but it is large in the circle.In order to promote the sustainable development of tourism, promotion of ecological tourism and reduction of tourism ecological deficit are imperative.

  13. An Observational Assessment of Anesthesia Capacity in Madagascar as a Prerequisite to the Development of a National Surgical Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Linden S; Ravelojaona, Vaonandianina A; Rakotoarison, Hasiniaina N; Herbert, Alison; Bruno, Emily; Close, Kristin L; Andean, Vanessa; Andriamanjato, Hery H; Shrime, Mark G; White, Michelle C

    2017-06-01

    The global lack of anesthesia capacity is well described, but country-specific data are needed to provide country-specific solutions. We aimed to assess anesthesia capacity in Madagascar as part of the development of a Ministry of Health national surgical plan. As part of a nationwide surgical safety quality improvement project, we surveyed 19 of 22 regional hospitals, representing surgical facilities caring for 75% of the total population. The assessment was divided into 3 areas: anesthesia workforce density, infrastructure and equipment, and medications. Data were obtained by semistructured interviews with Ministry of Health officials, hospital directors, technical directors, statisticians, pharmacists, and anesthesia providers and through on-site observations. Interview questions were adapted from the World Health Organization Situational Analysis Tool and the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists International Standards for Safe Practice of Anaesthesia. Additional data on workforce density were collected from the 3 remaining regions so that workforce density data are representative of all 22 regions. Anesthesia physician workforce density is 0.26 per 100,000 population and 0.19 per 100,000 outside of the capital region. Less than 50% of hospitals surveyed reported having a reliable electricity and oxygen supply. The majority of anesthesia providers work without pulse oximetry (52%) or a functioning vaporizer (52%). All the hospitals surveyed had very basic pediatric supplies, and none had a pediatric pulse oximetry probe. Ketamine is universally available but more than 50% of hospitals lack access to opioids. None of the 19 regional hospitals surveyed was able to completely meet the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists' standards for monitoring. Improving anesthesia care is complex. Capacity assessment is a first step that would enable progress to be tracked against specific targets. In Madagascar, scale-up of the anesthesia

  14. Heart Rate Variability: New Perspectives on Physiological Mechanisms, Assessment of Self-regulatory Capacity, and Health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Shaffer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operates on different time scales to adapt to environmental and psychological challenges. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart and offers some new perspectives on mechanisms underlying the very low frequency rhythm of heart rate variability. Interpretation of heart rate variability rhythms in the context of health risk and physiological and psychological self-regulatory capacity assessment is discussed. The cardiovascular regulatory centers in the spinal cord and medulla integrate inputs from higher brain centers with afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. We also discuss the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection pathways, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical, frontocortical, and motor cortex areas. In addition, the use of real-time HRV feedback to increase self-regulatory capacity is reviewed. We conclude that the heart's rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales that reflect both physiological and psychological functional status of these internal self-regulatory systems.

  15. Can Structural Adjustment and Carrying Capacity Promotion Promote the Tourism Economic Growth?-Case of the Three Coastal Economic Zones in Eastern China%结构调整、承载力提升能促进旅游经济增长吗?--以东部沿海三大经济区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 周长晓

    2015-01-01

    With China’s Bohai coastal region,Yangtze river delta and Pan-pearl river delta coastal economic zone as the object of research,this paper evaluates and measures the three regions’tourism industry structure level and tourism ecological carrying index respectively from 2003 to 2012,and reveals the spatial difference of the coast-al three regions from the perspectives of structure and bearing capacity,then analyses and tests the effect of industri-al structure and bearing capacity on the tourism economic growth.The results show that three coastal regional tourism industrial structure transformed to rationality,the overall level of development is on the rise,but the Yangtze river delta and the Pearl river delta are instability,the fluctuation trend of tourism industry in Bohai Coastal region become smaller.The tourism ecology capacity of three regions has a slight increase,but tourism ecological demand is greater than the supply,it makes the three regions’tourism ecological in the deficit state,and the tourism ecological deficit is bigger and bigger,the promotion of tourism ecological carrying capacity and the tourism industry structure adjustment can effectively promote the tourism economic growth,but the positive effect of tourism industrial structure is greater than the tourist ecological carrying capacity.%以中国环渤海、长三角、泛珠三角三大沿海经济区为研究对象,分别对2003—2012年三大地区的旅游产业结构水平和旅游生态承载力指数进行测度和评价,并从结构和承载力视角,揭示沿海三大区域空间差异特征,进而分析和检验产业结构、承载力对旅游经济增长的作用。结果表明,2003—2012年中国沿海三大区域的旅游产业结构向合理化和高度化转化,总体发展水平呈上升趋势,但长三角、珠三角波动较大表现出不稳定性,环渤海地区旅游产业结构波动趋势逐渐变小。各地区旅游生态承载力略有提升

  16. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  17. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  18. Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 μm laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 μm laser technology.

  19. TheApplication of Demarketing Theory to Adjusti ng Environmental Carrying Capacity of Tourism Resources---A Case Study of Ancient Water Towns in Southern Yangtze River%反营销理论在旅游资源群环境承载力调控中的应用--以江南水乡古镇旅游资源群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓帆; 谢芳

    2016-01-01

    With the case study of ancient water towns in southern Yangtze River , the uprising number of tourists makes a great pressure on the environmental carrying capacity of the tourism resources .It is suggested to use demarketing theory to adjust this .%文章从江南水乡古镇旅游资源群案例入手,分析不断攀升的客流对江南水乡旅游资源群的环境承载力所带来的影响,并提出运用反营销理论对江南水乡古镇旅游资源群环境承载力进行调控的对策及建议。

  20. Assessing REDD+ performance of countries with low monitoring capacities: the matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M.; Cuypers, D.; Mayaux, P.; Achard, F.; Estreguil, C.; Grassi, G.

    2012-03-01

    Estimating emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests in many developing countries is so uncertain that the effects of changes in forest management could remain within error ranges (i.e. undetectable) for several years. Meanwhile UNFCCC Parties need consistent time series of meaningful performance indicators to set credible benchmarks and allocate REDD+ incentives to the countries, programs and activities that actually reduce emissions, while providing social and environmental benefits. Introducing widespread measuring of carbon in forest land (which would be required to estimate more accurately changes in emissions from degradation and forest management) will take time and considerable resources. To ensure the overall credibility and effectiveness of REDD+, parties must consider the design of cost-effective systems which can provide reliable and comparable data on anthropogenic forest emissions. Remote sensing can provide consistent time series of land cover maps for most non-Annex-I countries, retrospectively. These maps can be analyzed to identify the forests that are intact (i.e. beyond significant human influence), and whose fragmentation could be a proxy for degradation. This binary stratification of forests biomes (intact/non-intact), a transition matrix and the use of default carbon stock change factors can then be used to provide initial estimates of trends in emission changes. A proof-of-concept is provided for one biome of the Democratic Republic of the Congo over a virtual commitment period (2005-2010). This approach could allow assessment of the performance of the five REDD+ activities (deforestation, degradation, conservation, management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) in a spatially explicit, verifiable manner. Incentives could then be tailored to prioritize activities depending on the national context and objectives.

  1. Assessing REDD+ performance of countries with low monitoring capacities: the matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucki, M; Cuypers, D; Mayaux, P; Achard, F; Estreguil, C; Grassi, G

    2012-01-01

    Estimating emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests in many developing countries is so uncertain that the effects of changes in forest management could remain within error ranges (i.e. undetectable) for several years. Meanwhile UNFCCC Parties need consistent time series of meaningful performance indicators to set credible benchmarks and allocate REDD+ incentives to the countries, programs and activities that actually reduce emissions, while providing social and environmental benefits. Introducing widespread measuring of carbon in forest land (which would be required to estimate more accurately changes in emissions from degradation and forest management) will take time and considerable resources. To ensure the overall credibility and effectiveness of REDD+, parties must consider the design of cost-effective systems which can provide reliable and comparable data on anthropogenic forest emissions. Remote sensing can provide consistent time series of land cover maps for most non-Annex-I countries, retrospectively. These maps can be analyzed to identify the forests that are intact (i.e. beyond significant human influence), and whose fragmentation could be a proxy for degradation. This binary stratification of forests biomes (intact/non-intact), a transition matrix and the use of default carbon stock change factors can then be used to provide initial estimates of trends in emission changes. A proof-of-concept is provided for one biome of the Democratic Republic of the Congo over a virtual commitment period (2005–2010). This approach could allow assessment of the performance of the five REDD+ activities (deforestation, degradation, conservation, management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) in a spatially explicit, verifiable manner. Incentives could then be tailored to prioritize activities depending on the national context and objectives. (letter)

  2. Effects of marine cultural elements on coastal tourism:an empirical analysis of Zhoushan Archipelago-based cultural carrying capacity model%海洋文化要素在滨海旅游中的作用——以舟山群岛为例构建文化承载力模型实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤学敏; 胡麦秀

    2012-01-01

    在推进海洋文化建设的背景下对文化要素在滨海旅游中的作用进行量化,基于对滨海旅游文化承载力的分析,以舟山地区为例测量出该地区对文化感知度或是接受容纳程度的数值,结果表明:文化因素在滨海旅游中具有重要作用,并提出了加大滨海旅游中文化建设的建议.%In the background of promoting construction of marine culture the effects of cultural elements on coastal tourism were quantitatively analyzed,and the cultural perceptibility or acceptable capacity in Zhoushan area was calculated by analyzing the cultural carrying capacity of coastal tourism.lt was concluded that cultural elements had an important effect on coastal tourism. Also the suggestions and measures were put forward to enhance the cultural construction in coastal tourism.

  3. The effect of self-assessed fatigue and subjective cognitive impairment on work capacity: The case of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela; Langdon, Dawn; Jönsson, Linus

    2018-04-01

    The impact of physical disability in multiple sclerosis on employment is well documented but the effect of neurological symptoms has been less well studied. We investigated the independent effect of self-reported fatigue and cognitive difficulties on work. In a large European cost of illness survey, self-reported fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and productivity at work were assessed with visual analogue scales (VAS 0-10). The analysis controlled for country, age, age at diagnosis, gender, education, and physical disability. A total of 13,796 patients were of working age and 6,598 were working. Physical disability had a powerful impact on the probability of working, as did education. The probability of working was reduced by 8.7% and 4.4% for each point increase on the VAS for SCI and fatigue, respectively ( p work hours decreased linearly with increasing severity of fatigue and cognitive problems, while sick leave during the 3 months preceding the assessment increased. Finally, the severity of both symptoms was associated with the level at which productivity at work was affected ( p work capacity and highlight the importance of assessment in clinical practice.

  4. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  5. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO2 Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godec, Michael [Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO2 in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO2 storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO2 storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO2 injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO2 injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO2 injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO2 storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints

  6. Beyond exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity: A response based ecological framework to assess species climate change vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Schubert, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    As the impacts of global climate change on species are increasingly evident, there is a clear need to adapt conservation efforts worldwide. Species vulnerability assessments (VAs) are increasingly used to summarize all relevant information to determine a species’ potential vulnerability to climate change and are frequently the first step in informing climate adaptation efforts. VAs commonly integrate multiple sources of information by utilizing a framework that distinguishes factors relevant to species exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. However, this framework was originally developed for human systems, and its use to evaluate species vulnerability has serious practical and theoretical limitations. By instead defining vulnerability as the degree to which a species is unable to exhibit any of the responses necessary for persistence under climate change (i.e., toleration of projected changes, migration to new climate-compatible areas, enduring in microrefugia, and evolutionary adaptation), we can bring VAs into the realm of ecological science without applying borrowed abstract concepts that have consistently challenged species-centric research and management. This response-based framework to assess species vulnerability to climate change allows better integration of relevant ecological data and past research, yielding results with much clearer implications for conservation and research prioritization.

  7. Assessing the adequacy of water storage infrastructure capacity under hydroclimatic variability and water demands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Devineni, N.; Cook, E. R.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    transfers and vulnerable to persistent drought risk. These data sets are used in conjunction with the national inventory of dams to assess the current capacity of dams to meet water demands considering variability in streamflow over the past 555 years. A case study in the North-East US is presented.

  8. Assessment of state- and territorial-level preparedness capacity for serving deaf and hard-of-hearing populations in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Engelman, Alina; Neuhauser, Linda; Huang, Debbie; Gurung, Sidhanta

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that emergency preparedness and response efforts are not effectively reaching populations with functional and access needs, especially barriers related to literacy, language, culture, or disabilities. More than 36 million Americans are Deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH). These groups experienced higher risks of injury, death, and property loss in recent disasters than the general public. We conducted a participatory research study to examine national recommendations on preparedness communication for the Deaf/HH. We assessed whether previous recommendations regarding the Deaf/HH have been incorporated into state- and territorial-level emergency operations plans (EOPs), interviewed state- and territorial-level preparedness directors about capacity to serve the Deaf/HH, and proposed strategies to benefit Deaf/HH populations during emergencies. We analyzed 55 EOPs and 50 key informant (KI) interviews with state directors. Fifty-five percent of EOPs mentioned vulnerable populations; however, only 31% specifically mentioned Deaf/HH populations in their plan. Study findings indicated significant relationships among the following factors: a state-level KI's familiarity with communication issues for the Deaf/HH, making relay calls (i.e., calls to services to relay communication between Deaf and hearing people), and whether the KI's department provides trainings about serving Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. We found significant associations between a state's percentage of Deaf/HH individuals and a KI's familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues and provision by government of any disability services to Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. Further, we found significant relationships between KIs attending training on serving the Deaf/HH and familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues, including how to make relay calls. This study provides new knowledge that can help emergency agencies improve their preparedness training, planning, and capacity

  9. A Simple Measure to Assess Hyperinflation and Air Trapping: 1-Forced Expiratory Volume in Three Second / Forced Vital Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Börekçi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies have suggested that 1 minus-forced expiratory volume expired in 3 seconds / forced vital capacity (1-FEV3/FVC may be an indicator of distal airway obstruction and a promising measure to evaluate small airways dysfunction. Aims: To investigate the associations of 1-FEV3/FVC with the spirometric measures and lung volumes that assess small airways dysfunction and reflects hyperinflation and air trapping. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Retrospective assessment of a total of 1110 cases who underwent body plethysmographic lung volume estimations between a time span from 2005 to 2012. Patients were assigned into two groups: firstly by FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC <70% vs. FEV1/FVC ≥70%; secondly by FEV3/FVC < lower limits of normal (LLN (FEV3/FVC < LLN vs. FEV3/FVC ≥ LLN. Spirometric indices and lung volumes measured by whole-body plethysmography were compared in groups. Also the correlation of spirometric indices with measured lung volumes were assessed in the whole-study population and in subgroups stratified according to FEV1/FVC and FEV3/FVC. Results: Six hundred seven (54.7% were male and 503 (45.3% were female, with a mean age of 52.5±15.6 years. Mean FEV3/FVC and 1-FEV3/FVC were 87.05%, 12.95%, respectively. The mean 1-FEV3/FVC was 4.9% in the FEV1/FVC ≥70% group (n=644 vs. 24.1% in the FEV1/FVC <70% group (n=466. A positive correlation was found between 1-FEV3/FVC and residual volume (r=0.70; p<0.0001, functional residual capacity-pleth (r=0.61; p<0.0001, and total lung capacity (r=0.47; p<0.0001. 1-FEV3/FVC was negatively correlated with forced expiratory flow25-75 (r=−0.84; p<0.0001. The upper limit of 95% confidence interval for 1-FEV3/FVC was 13.7%. 1-FEV3/FVC showed significant correlations with parameters of air trapping and hyperinflation measured by whole-body plethysmography. Importantly, these correlations were higher in study participants with FEV1/FVC <70% or FEV3/FVC

  10. Informant Report of Financial Capacity for Individuals With Chronic Acquired Brain Injury: An