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  1. CHO cell line specific prediction and control of recombinant monoclonal antibody N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Rhian K; James, David C

    2013-11-01

    Here we demonstrate that it is possible to predict and control N-glycan processing of a secreted recombinant monoclonal antibody during manufacturing process development using a combination of statistical modelling and comparative measurement of cell surface glycans using fluorescent lectins. Using design of experiments--response surface modelling (DoE-RSM) methodology to adjust the relative media concentrations of known metabolic effectors of galactosylation (manganese, galactose, and uridine) we have shown that β1,4-galactosylation of the same recombinant IgG4 monoclonal antibody produced by different CHO cell lines can be precisely controlled in a cell line specific manner. For two cell lines, monoclonal antibody galactosylation could be increased by over 100% compared to control, non-supplemented cultures without a reduction in product titre and with minimal effect on cell growth. Analysis of galactosylation effector interactions by DoE-RSM indicated that Mn²⁺ alone was necessary but not sufficient to improve galactosylation, and that synergistic combinations of Gal and Urd were necessary to maximize galactosylation, whilst minimizing the deleterious effect of Urd on cell growth. To facilitate rapid cell culture process development we also tested the hypothesis that substrate-level control of cellular galactosylation would similarly affect both cell surface and secreted monoclonal antibody glycans, enabling facile indirect prediction of product glycan processing. To support this hypothesis, comparative quantitation of CHO cell surface β1,4-galactosylation by flow cytometry using fluorescent derivatives of RCA and ConA lectins revealed that substrate-controlled variation in monoclonal antibody galactosylation and cell surface galactosylation were significantly correlated. Taken together, these data show that precision control of a complex, dynamic cellular process essential for the definition of protein product molecular heterogeneity and bioactivity is

  2. Cell line-specific accumulation of the baculovirus non-hr origin of DNA replication in infected insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Successive Viral passage of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in the S. exigua cell line Se301 leads to the rapid accumulation of the non-hr origin of DNA replication (ori) as large concatemers. Passage of SeMNPV in two other S. exigua cell lines, SeUCR1 and SeIZD2109, did

  3. Cell line-specific accumulation of the baculovirus non-hr origin of DNA replication in infected insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Successive Viral passage of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in the S. exigua cell line Se301 leads to the rapid accumulation of the non-hr origin of DNA replication (ori) as large concatemers. Passage of SeMNPV in two other S. exigua cell lines, SeUCR1 and SeIZD2109, did

  4. The LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is regulated by cell-line specific accessibility in the LTR U3 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, J. M.; Hergersberg, M.; Banville, D.;

    2006-01-01

    By germline insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an intracisternal A-particle type IAP retrovirus has overtaken the transcriptional control of the rat oncomodulin (OM) gene, which codes for a high affinity Ca2+-binding protein with modulatory capacity. In order to get insights into regulatory...... to the one of the OM gene. Genomic sequencing showed a good correlation between CpG hypomethylation in the OM LTR and OM transcription among various cell lines and tissues. DNase I mapping of a 18 kb fragment containing the OM gene and 5' flanking sequences revealed cell-line specific hypersensitivity sites...... located within the U3 region of the LTR element. Several cis-elements in the OM LTR promoter exhibiting cell-line specific occupancy were identified by in vivo DMS-footprinting. Detailed analysis of protein interactions with two such sequence elements in vitro revealed binding of ubiquitously expressed...

  5. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse;

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  6. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoby Iftach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates.

  7. Human embryonic stem cells carrying mutations for severe genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Tsvia; Malcov, Mira; Telias, Michael; Gold, Veronica; Schwartz, Tamar; Azem, Foad; Amit, Ami; Yaron, Yuval; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) carrying specific mutations potentially provide a valuable tool for studying genetic disorders in humans. One preferable approach for obtaining these cell lines is by deriving them from affected preimplantation genetically diagnosed embryos. These unique cells are especially important for modeling human genetic disorders for which there are no adequate research models. They can be further used to gain new insights into developmentally regulated events that occur during human embryo development and that are responsible for the manifestation of genetically inherited disorders. They also have great value for the exploration of new therapeutic protocols, including gene-therapy-based treatments and disease-oriented drug screening and discovery. Here, we report the establishment of 15 different mutant human embryonic stem cell lines derived from genetically affected embryos, all donated by couples undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis in our in vitro fertilization unit. For further information regarding access to HESC lines from our repository, for research purposes, please email dalitb@tasmc.health.gov.il.

  8. Tumor and endothelial cell-derived microvesicles carry distinct CEACAMs and influence T-cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison T Muturi

    Full Text Available Normal and malignant cells release a variety of different vesicles into their extracellular environment. The most prominent vesicles are the microvesicles (MVs, 100-1000 nm in diameter, which are shed of the plasma membrane, and the exosomes (70-120 nm in diameter, derivates of the endosomal system. MVs have been associated with intercellular communication processes and transport numerous proteins, lipids and RNAs. As essential component of immune-escape mechanisms tumor-derived MVs suppress immune responses. Additionally, tumor-derived MVs have been found to promote metastasis, tumor-stroma interactions and angiogenesis. Since members of the carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM-family have been associated with similar processes, we studied the distribution and function of CEACAMs in MV fractions of different human epithelial tumor cells and of human and murine endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that in association to their cell surface phenotype, MVs released from different human epithelial tumor cells contain CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6, while human and murine endothelial cells were positive for CEACAM1 only. Furthermore, MVs derived from CEACAM1 transfected CHO cells carried CEACAM1. In terms of their secretion kinetics, we show that MVs are permanently released in low doses, which are extensively increased upon cellular starvation stress. Although CEACAM1 did not transmit signals into MVs it served as ligand for CEACAM expressing cell types. We gained evidence that CEACAM1-positive MVs significantly increase the CD3 and CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. All together, our data demonstrate that MV-bound forms of CEACAMs play important roles in intercellular communication processes, which can modulate immune response, tumor progression, metastasis and angiogenesis.

  9. Efficient expansion of human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene with lentiviral vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of an appropriate procedure for lentiviral gene transduction into keratinocyte stem cells is crucial for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine for genetic disorders of the skin. However, there is little information available on the efficiency of lentiviral transduction into human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells and the effects of gene transduction procedures on growth potential of the stem cells by systematic assessment. Methods In this study, we explored the conditions for efficient expansion of human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene with a lentiviral vector, by using the culture of keratinocytes on a feeder layer of 3 T3 mouse fibroblasts. The gene transduction and expansion of keratinocytes carrying a transgene were analyzed by Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry. Results Polybrene (hexadiamine bromide) markedly enhanced the efficiency of lentiviral gene transduction, but negatively affected the maintenance of the keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells at a concentration higher than 5 μg/ml. Rho-assiciated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632, a small molecule which enhanced keratinocyte proliferation, significantly interfered with the lentiviral transduction into cultured human keratinocytes. However, a suitable combination of polybrene and Y-27632 effectively expanded keratinocytes carrying a transgene. Conclusions This study provides information for effective expansion of cultured human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene. This point is particularly significant for the application of genetically modified keratinocyte stem/progenitor stem cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:24406242

  10. The evolution of carrying capacity in constrained and expanding tumour cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2015-08-12

    Cancer cells are known to modify their micro-environment such that it can sustain a larger population, or, in ecological terms, they construct a niche which increases the carrying capacity of the population. It has however been argued that niche construction, which benefits all cells in the tumour, would be selected against since cheaters could reap the benefits without paying the cost. We have investigated the impact of niche specificity on tumour evolution using an individual based model of breast tumour growth, in which the carrying capacity of each cell consists of two components: an intrinsic, subclone-specific part and a contribution from all neighbouring cells. Analysis of the model shows that the ability of a mutant to invade a resident population depends strongly on the specificity. When specificity is low selection is mostly on growth rate, while high specificity shifts selection towards increased carrying capacity. Further, we show that the long-term evolution of the system can be predicted using adaptive dynamics. By comparing the results from a spatially structured versus well-mixed population we show that spatial structure restores selection for carrying capacity even at zero specificity, which poses a solution to the niche construction dilemma. Lastly, we show that an expanding population exhibits spatially variable selection pressure, where cells at the leading edge exhibit higher growth rate and lower carrying capacity than those at the centre of the tumour.

  11. miRTar2GO: a novel rule-based model learning method for cell line specific microRNA target prediction that integrates Ago2 CLIP-Seq and validated microRNA-target interaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Alireza; Sablok, Gaurav; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2017-04-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼19-22 nucleotides (nt) long regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression by recognizing and binding to complementary sequences on mRNAs. The key step in revealing the function of a miRNA, is the identification of miRNA target genes. Recent biochemical advances including PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP allow for improved miRNA target predictions and are widely used to validate miRNA targets. Here, we present miRTar2GO, which is a model, trained on the common rules of miRNA-target interactions, Argonaute (Ago) CLIP-Seq data and experimentally validated miRNA target interactions. miRTar2GO is designed to predict miRNA target sites using more relaxed miRNA-target binding characteristics. More importantly, miRTar2GO allows for the prediction of cell-type specific miRNA targets. We have evaluated miRTar2GO against other widely used miRNA target prediction algorithms and demonstrated that miRTar2GO produced significantly higher F1 and G scores. Target predictions, binding specifications, results of the pathway analysis and gene ontology enrichment of miRNA targets are freely available at http://www.mirtar2go.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Interleukin 2 inhibits in vitro growth of human T cell lines carrying retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugamura, K; Nakai, S; Fujii, M; Hinuma, Y

    1985-05-01

    Four human T cell lines, TL-Mor, TL-Su, TL-TerI, and TL-OmI, carrying human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV), were established previously. TL-Mor, TL-Su, and TL-TerI were derived from interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent parental cell lines cloned from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of three healthy HTLV carriers, while TL-OmI was directly established from PBL of a patient with adult T cell leukemia. These four TL cell lines grow autonomously without IL-2. When they were cultured in the presence of IL-2, their growth was inhibited after a few days. This growth inhibition depended on the dose of IL-2, and the effective dose significantly promoted growth of their parental IL-2-dependent cell lines. The growth inhibition is demonstrated to be due to specific binding of IL-2 to receptors on the TL cells.

  13. Transfer of stem cells carrying engineered chromosomes with XY clone laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Ildiko; Katona, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Current transgenic technologies for gene transfer into the germline of mammals cause a random integration of exogenous naked DNA into the host genome that can generate undesirable position effects as well as insertional mutations. The vectors used to generate transgenic animals are limited by the amount of foreign DNA they can carry. Mammalian artificial chromosomes have large DNA-carrying capacity and ability to replicate in parallel with, but without integration into, the host genome. Hence they are attractive vectors for transgenesis, cellular protein production, and gene therapy applications as well. ES cells mediated chromosome transfer by conventional blastocyst injection has a limitation in unpredictable germline transmission. The demonstrated protocol of laser-assisted microinjection of artificial chromosome containing ES cells into eight-cell mouse embryos protocol described here can solve the problem for faster production of germline transchromosomic mice.

  14. Cross-talk between cancer and mesenchymal stem cells through extracellular vesicles carrying nucleic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana eLopatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are considered to be a novel complex mechanism of cell communication within the tumor microenvironment. EVs may act as vehicles for transcription factors and nucleic acids inducing epigenetic changes in recipient cells. Since tumor EVs may be present in patient biological fluids, it is important to investigate their function and molecular mechanisms of action. It has been shown that tumor cells release EVs, which are capable in regulating cell apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as, to suppress activity of immune cells, to enhance angiogenesis, and to prepare a favorable microenvironment for metastasis. On the other hand EVs derived from stromal cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, may influence the phenotype of tumor cells through reciprocal crosstalk greatly influenced by the transcription factors and nucleic acids they carry. In particular, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA, including microRNAs and long ncRNA RNAs, have recently been identified as the main candidates for the phenotypic changes induced in the recipient cells by EVs. Non-coding RNAs, which are important regulators of mRNA and protein expression, can function either as tumor suppressors or as oncogenes, depending on their targets. Herein, we have attempted to revise actual evidence reported in the literature on the role of EVs in tumor biology with particular regards to the crosstalk of ncRNAs between cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

  15. Bioactivities of Culture Supernatants from Retroviral Packaging Cells Carrying the Mouse Fas Ligand Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lingbo; ZOU Ping; GUO Rong; XIAO Juan; XU Zhiliang

    2001-01-01

    The bioactivities of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mouse Fas ligand (mFasL) gene was investigated. FasLcDNA was cloned into PLXIN with an internal ribosome entry site to link two cistrons through gene recombination technology, PLXIN and the recombinant vector PLFIN were separately transfected into PA317 retrovirus packing cell line by lipofectamine 2000, and the resistant clones were selected with G418 selective medium. The integration of genome DNA was assayed by genomic DNA PCR. NIH3T3 cells were transduced by the culture supernatants from PA317 carrying the mFasLcDNA gene, and were selected with G418 selective medium, so as to select the PLFIN-PA317 clone capable of producing higher titer of supernatants. The levels of mFasL protein on NIH3T3 cells membrane were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). The biological activity of mFasL on NIH3T3 cells membrane was investigated by the inducing apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells co-cultured with NIH3T3 cells expressing Fas ligand. To explore the direct mFasL cytotoxicity of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mFasL gene, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 and PLXIN-PA317 were separately co-cultured with Yac-1cells in parallel. The recombinant PLFIN was successfully constructed. The highest titer of supernatants from twelve resistant clones was 8. 5 × 105 colony-forming-unit (CFU)/ml. The NIH3T3cells transfected by above supernatants had a higher level of mFasL (53.81±6.9 %), and significantly induced the apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells (56. 78±4.5 %), as both were cocultured for 5 h at1 : 1 ratio, whereas it is 7. 08±3.4 % in control group (P<0. 01). Supernatant from PLFINPA317 could also directly induce the apoptosis of Yac-1 within 5 h of incubation. Thus, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 possessed both infectivity and cytotoxicity of mFasL.

  16. Human germ cell formation in xenotransplants of induced pluripotent stem cells carrying X chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Antonia A; Chiang, H Rosaria; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2014-09-22

    Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial loss of the second sex chromosome and is characterized by spontaneous fetal loss in >90% of conceptions. Survivors possess an array of somatic and germline clinical characteristics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity for insight into genetic requirements of the X chromosome linked to Turner syndrome. We derived iPSCs from Turner syndrome and control individuals and examined germ cell development as a function of X chromosome composition. We demonstrate that two X chromosomes are not necessary for reprogramming or maintenance of pluripotency and that there are minimal differences in gene expression, at the single cell level, linked to X chromosome aneuploidies. Formation of germ cells, as assessed in vivo through a murine xenotransplantation model, indicated that undifferentiated iPSCs, independent of X chromosome composition, are capable of forming germ-cell-like cells (GCLCs) in vivo. In combination with clinical data regarding infertility in women with X chromosome aneuploidies, results suggest that two intact X chromosomes are not required for human germ cell formation, qualitatively or quantitatively, but rather are likely to be required for maintenance of human germ cells to adulthood.

  17. Expression of Recombinant Baculovirus Carrying Schistosoma japonicum 26 ku GST in Mammalian Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangqing; SONG Jianhua; LIU Wenqi; LONG Xiaochun; MO Hongmei; LI Yonglong; CHEN Xinwen

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct recombinant baculovirus carrying Schistosoma japonicum 26 ku glutathione S-transferase gene (Sj26), and observe the expression of Sj26 in mammalian cells, the Sj26 gene was amplified with plasmid pGEX-3X as template by PCR, and then recombined into Tvector for sequencing. Sj26 gene was inserted into the downstream of CMV promoter of donor plasmid pFBDGC, and the recombinant donor plasmid pFBDGC-Sj26 transformed into DH10Bac,then the recombinant bacmid AcCMVSj26 was isolated and transfected into Sf9 cells. The recombinant baculovirus was harvested and final titer of vAcCMVSj26 was measured. BHK cells were transducted with recombinant baculovirus in vitro. By using Western blot, the expression of 26 ku glutathione S-transferase (GST) was detected. The results showed that after enzyme digestion and sequencing, the donor plasmid was successfully constructed. PCR confirmed that pFBDGC-Sj26 and Bacmid homologous recombination occurred in E. coli. After transfection of Sf9 cells with recombinant Bacmid, recombinant baculovirus was replicated in Sf9 cells and expressed green fluorescent protein. PCR further revealed recombinant baculovirus contained Sj26. The titer of the harvested baculovirus was 1.24 × 108. Western blot demonstrated that recombinant baculovirus could express 26 ku GST in BHK cells. It was concluded that Sj26 recombinant baculovirus was successfully constructed, and the 26 ku GST was expressed in mammalian cells.

  18. Generation of influenza virus from avian cells infected by Salmonella carrying the viral genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmin Zhang

    Full Text Available Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 10⁷ 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo.

  19. Higher vulnerability and stress sensitivity of neuronal precursor cells carrying an alpha-synuclein gene triplication.

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    Adrian Flierl

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and characteristic intracellular inclusions, called Lewy bodies. Genetic predisposition, such as point mutations and copy number variants of the SNCA gene locus can cause very similar PD-like neurodegeneration. The impact of altered α-synuclein protein expression on integrity and developmental potential of neuronal stem cells is largely unexplored, but may have wide ranging implications for PD manifestation and disease progression. Here, we investigated if induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal precursor cells (NPCs from a patient with Parkinson's disease carrying a genomic triplication of the SNCA gene (SNCA-Tri. Our goal was to determine if these cells these neuronal precursor cells already display pathological changes and impaired cellular function that would likely predispose them when differentiated to neurodegeneration. To achieve this aim, we assessed viability and cellular physiology in human SNCA-Tri NPCs both under normal and environmentally stressed conditions to model in vitro gene-environment interactions which may play a role in the initiation and progression of PD. Human SNCA-Tri NPCs displayed overall normal cellular and mitochondrial morphology, but showed substantial changes in growth, viability, cellular energy metabolism and stress resistance especially when challenged by starvation or toxicant challenge. Knockdown of α-synuclein in the SNCA-Tri NPCs by stably expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA resulted in reversal of the observed phenotypic changes. These data show for the first time that genetic alterations such as the SNCA gene triplication set the stage for decreased developmental fitness, accelerated aging, and increased neuronal cell loss. The observation of this "stem cell pathology" could have a great impact on both quality and quantity of neuronal networks and could provide a

  20. Design and synthesis of a peptide-PEG transporter tool for carrying adenovirus vector into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Mitsuko; Kida, Shinya; Hojo, Keiko; Eto, Yusuke; Gaob, Jian-Qing; Kurachi, Shinnosuke; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Mayumi, Tadanori; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Kawasaki, Koichi

    2005-02-01

    The adenovirus vector is a promising carrier for the efficient transfer of genes into cells via the coxackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrins (alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5). The clinical use of the adenovirus vector remains problematic however. Successful administration of this vector is associated with side effects because antibodies to this vector are commonly found throughout the human body. To make the adenovirus vector practicable for clinical use, it is necessary to design an auxiliary transporter. The present study describes the use of Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)-related peptide, a peptide that binds to integrins, as an auxiliary transporter to aid efficient transport of adenovirus vector. Furthermore, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was also used as a tool to modify the adenovirus such that the risk of side effects incurred during clinical application was reduced. The present study describes the design, preparation and use of (acetyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro-(beta)Ala)(2)Lys-PEG-(beta)Ala-Cys-NH(2)[(Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC] as an efficient peptide-PEG transporter tool for carrying adenovirus vector into cells. (Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC was coupled with 6-maleimidohexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the resulting 6-[(Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC-succinimido]hexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reacted with adenovirus. The modified adenovirus with the peptide-PEG hybrid exhibited high gene expression even in a CAR-negative cell line, DC2.4.

  1. Bacterial ‘Cell’ Phones: Do cell phones carry potential pathogens?

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    Kiran Chawla

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are important companions for professionals especially health care workers (HCWs for better communication in hospital. The present study compared the nature of the growth of potentially pathogenic bacterial flora on cell phones in hospital and community. 75% cell phones from both the categories grew at least one potentially pathogenic organism. Cell phones from HCWs grew significantly more potential pathogens like MRSA (20%, Acinetobacter species (5%, Pseudomonas species (2.5% as compared to the non HCWs. 97.5% HCWs use their cell phone in the hospital, 57.5% never cleaned their cell phone and 20% admitted that they did not wash their hands before or after attending patients, although majority (77.5% knows that cell phones can have harmful colonization and act as vector for nosocomial infections. It is recommended, therefore, that cell phones in the hospital should be regularly decontaminated. Moreover, utmost emphasis needs to be paid to hand washing practices among HCWs.

  2. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Zong; Hongxing Zhao; Yilei Zhao; Jingling Jia; Libin Yang; Chao Ma; Yang Zhang; Yuzhen Dong

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury.

  3. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  4. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  5. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  6. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K;

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  7. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high-re......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  8. Anion conductance of the human red cell is carried by a maxi-anion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glogowska, Edyta; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cueff, Anne

    2010-01-01

    played by serum in the recruitment of multiple new conductance levels showing very complex kinetics and gating properties upon serum addition. These channels, which seem to be dormant under normal physiological conditions, are potentially activable and could confer a far higher anion conductance...... channels proper has never been clarified, and the informations obtained by different groups of electrophysiologists are rather badly matched. This study, using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique, rationalizes and explains earlier confusing results by demonstrating...... that the diversity of anionic channel activities recorded in human erythrocytes corresponds to different kinetic modalities of a unique type of maxi-anion channel with multiple conductance levels and probably multiple gating properties and pharmacology, depending on conditions. It demonstrates the role of activator...

  9. Inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by nanoemulsion carrying gold nanoparticles and lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang RFS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rwei-Fen S Huang,1,2,* Yi-Jun Wei,1,2,* Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,3 Bing-Huei Chen1,3,4 1Graduate Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, 2Department of Nutritional Science, 3Department of Food Science, 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Lycopene (LP, an important functional compound in tomatoes, and gold nanoparticles (AN, have received considerable attention as potential candidates for cancer therapy. However, the extreme instability and poor bioavailability of LP limits its in vivo application. This study intends to develop a nanoemulsion system incorporating both LP and AN, and to study the possible synergistic effects on the inhibition of the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. LP–nanogold nanoemulsion containing Tween 80 as an emulsifier was prepared, followed by characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis. The particle size as determined by TEM and DLS was 21.3±3.7 nm and 25.0±4.2 nm for nanoemulsion and 4.7±1.1 nm and 3.3±0.6 nm for AN, while the zeta potential of nanoemulsion and AN was -32.2±1.8 mV and -48.5±2.7 mV, respectively. Compared with the control treatment, both the combo (AN 10 ppm plus LP 12 µM and nanoemulsion (AN 0.16 ppm plus LP 0.4 µM treatments resulted in a five- and 15-fold rise in early apoptotic cells of HT-29, respectively. Also, the nanoemulsion significantly reduced the expressions of procaspases 8, 3, and 9, as well as PARP-1 and Bcl-2, while Bax expression was enhanced. A fivefold decline in the migration capability of HT-29 cells was observed for this nanoemulsion when compared to control, with the invasion-associated markers being significantly reversed through the upregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and downregulation of Akt, nuclear factor kappa B, pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and

  10. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid nanovesicles carry evolutionarily conserved molecules and promote neural stem cell amplification.

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    David M Feliciano

    Full Text Available During brain development, neural stem cells (NSCs receive on-or-off signals important for regulating their amplification and reaching adequate neuron density. However, how a coordinated regulation of intracellular pathways and genetic programs is achieved has remained elusive. Here, we found that the embryonic (e CSF contains 10¹² nanoparticles/ml (77 nm diameter, some of which were identified as exosome nanovesicles that contain evolutionarily conserved molecules important for coordinating intracellular pathways. eCSF nanovesicles collected from rodent and human embryos encapsulate protein and microRNA components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF signaling pathway. Supplementation of eCSF nanovesicles to a mixed culture containing eNSCs activated the IGF-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 pathway in eNSCs and expanded the pool of proliferative eNSCs. These data show that the eCSF serves as a medium for the distribution of nanovesicles, including exosomes, and the coordinated transfer of evolutionary conserved molecules that regulate eNSC amplification during corticogenesis.

  11. Construction of lentivirus vectors carrying alphastatin gene and its secretion expression in human umbilical vein endothelia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To construct lentivirus vectors carrying alphastatin gene,test its secretion expression in human umbilical vein endothelia cells(HUVECs)and observe its effects on growth,migration and tube formation of HUVECs.Methods We constructed recombinant lentivirus vectors of NT4-alphastatin fusion gene containing neurotrophin-4 signal peptide,pro-region sequences and alphastatin,then transfected the recombinant lentivirus vectors into HUVECs to obtain secretory protein alphastatin and test its anti-angiogen...

  12. Generation of KCL025 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

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    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ΔTTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  13. Generation of KCL018 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the DMPK gene

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    Cristian Miere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the DMPK gene encoding the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (2200 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  14. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

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    Laureen Jacquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  15. Identification of Anti-tumor Cells Carrying Natural Killer (NK Cell Antigens in Patients With Hematological Cancers

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    Ewelina Krzywinska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, a cytotoxic lymphocyte lineage, are able to kill tumor cells in vitro and in mouse models. However, whether these cells display an anti-tumor activity in cancer patients has not been demonstrated. Here we have addressed this issue in patients with several hematological cancers. We found a population of highly activated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells that have recently degranulated, evidence of killing activity, and it is absent in healthy donors. A high percentage of these cells expressed natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46, natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D and killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs and a low percentage expressed NKG2A and CD94. They are also characterized by a high metabolic activity and active proliferation. Notably, we found that activated NK cells from hematological cancer patients have non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface, evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. Finally, we found that these activated NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype, as opposed to non-activated cells in patients or in healthy donors displaying a CD45RA+RO− phenotype similar to naïve T cells. In summary, we show that CD45RA+RO+ cells, which resemble a unique NK population, have recognized tumor cells and degranulate in patients with hematological neoplasias.

  16. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

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    Stringer Saundra L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors

  17. Production of anti TNF-α antibodies in eukaryotic cells using different combinations of vectors carrying heavy and light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabashin, Dmitriy; Kovalenko, Elena; Toporova, Viktoria; Aliev, Teimur; Panina, Anna; Svirshchevskaya, Elena; Dolgikh, Dmitry; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a key role in rheumatoid arthritis and some other autoimmune diseases. Therapy with anti-TNF-α recombinant antibodies (Ab) appears to be highly effective. Production of new hyper-producing eukaryotic cell lines can decrease the treatment cost, which currently is very high. However, due to the complexity of protein transcription, translation, processing, and secretion in mammalian cells, the stages at which antibody expression is affected are still poorly determined. The aim of this work was to compare the productivity of two cell lines developed in CHO DG44 cells, deficient in dihydrofolate reductase, transfected with vectors carrying either heavy (H) or light (L) chains of chimeric antibody under different combinations of selective elements. Both H and L chains were cloned either in pOptiVEC or pcDNA3.3 vectors and different combinations were used to produce HL and LH cell lines. We have shown that Ab production has been low and comparable between HL and LH cells until selection on methotrexate (MTX) when LH but not HL cells have responded with 3.5 times increased productivity. Flow cytometry analysis has demonstrated that intracellular concentration of full size Abs in LH cells was 5.6 times higher than in HL ones due to higher amount of H chain synthesis. No differences in viability between HL and LH cells have been found. We have concluded that the expression of H chain in the pOptiVEC vector, which is responsible for MTX resistance, has led to the suppression of H chain synthesis and limitation in full Ab assembly.

  18. Yeast NDI1 Improve Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity and Increases Protection Against Oxidative Stress and Cell Death in Cells Carrying a Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Soon; Li, You-fen; Bai, Yidong

    2007-01-01

    G11778A in the subunit ND4 gene of NADH dehydrogenase complex is the most common primary mutation found in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients. The NDI1 gene, which encodes the internal NADH -quinone oxidoreductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was introduced into the nuclear genome of a mitochondrial defective human cell line, Le1.3.1, carrying the G11778A mutation. In transformant cell lines, LeNDI1-1 and -2, total and complex I-dependent respiration were fully restored and largely resistant to complex I inhibitor, rotenone, indicating a dominant role of NDI1 in the transfer of electrons in the host cells. Whereas the original mutant Le1.3.1 cell grows poorly in medium containing galactose, the transformants have a fully restored growth capacity in galactose medium, although the ATP production was not totally recovered. Furthermore, the increased oxidative stress in the cells carrying the G11778A mutation was alleviated in transformants, demonstrated by a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Finally, transformants were also shown to be desensitized to induction to apoptosis and also exhibit greater resistance to paraquat-induced cell death. It is concluded that the yeast ND11 enzyme can improve the oxidative phosphorylation capacity in cells carrying the G11778A mutation and protect the cells from oxidative stress and cell death. PMID:17320357

  19. Yeast NDI1 improves oxidative phosphorylation capacity and increases protection against oxidative stress and cell death in cells carrying a Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Soon; Li, You-Fen; Bai, Yidong

    2007-05-01

    G11778A in the subunit ND4 gene of NADH dehydrogenase complex is the most common primary mutation found in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients. The NDI1 gene, which encodes the internal NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was introduced into the nuclear genome of a mitochondrial defective human cell line, Le1.3.1, carrying the G11778A mutation. In transformant cell lines, LeNDI1-1 and -2, total and complex I-dependent respiration were fully restored and largely resistant to complex I inhibitor, rotenone, indicating a dominant role of NDI1 in the transfer of electrons in the host cells. Whereas the original mutant Le1.3.1 cell grows poorly in medium containing galactose, the transformants have a fully restored growth capacity in galactose medium, although the ATP production was not totally recovered. Furthermore, the increased oxidative stress in the cells carrying the G11778A mutation was alleviated in transformants, demonstrated by a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Finally, transformants were also shown to be desensitized to induction to apoptosis and also exhibit greater resistance to paraquat-induced cell death. It is concluded that the yeast NDI1 enzyme can improve the oxidative phosphorylation capacity in cells carrying the G11778A mutation and protect the cells from oxidative stress and cell death.

  20. Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells by Using A Lentiviral Vector Carrying PDX1

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    Amir Allahverdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Type I diabetes is an immunologically-mediated devastation of insulin producing cells (IPCs in the pancreatic islet. Stem cells that produce β-cells are a new promising tool. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are self renewing multi potent cells showing capabilities to differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal tissues. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1 is a master regulator gene required for embryonic development of the pancreas and is crucial for normal pancreatic islets activities in adults. Materials and Methods: We induced the over-expression of the PDX1 gene in human bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs by Lenti-PDX1 in order to generate IPCs. Next, we examine the ability of the cells by measuring insulin/c-peptide production and INSULIN and PDX1 gene expressions. Results: After transduction, MSCs changed their morphology at day 5 and gradually differentiated into IPCs. INSULIN and PDX1 expressions were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunostaining. IPC secreted insulin and C-peptide in the media that contained different glucose concentrations. Conclusion: MSCs differentiated into IPCs by genetic manipulation. Our result showed that lentiviral vectors could deliver PDX1 gene to MSCs and induce pancreatic differentiation.

  1. c-RET molecule in malignant melanoma from oncogenic RET-carrying transgenic mice and human cell lines.

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    Yuichiro Ohshima

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1 transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1 were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM, while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma.

  2. The targeted inhibitory effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells carrying CXCR4 promoter and DAL-1 on non-small cell lung carcinoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Li, S; Cai, T; Wang, H; Xie, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1) protein has been demonstrated to be suppressive to various types of tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the targeted effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS cells) carrying CXCR4 promoter driven conditionally replicable adenovirus vector overexpressing DAL-1 (Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1) on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth. The apoptotic effects of virus vectors were assessed using flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity analyzed by CCK-8 assay. In vivo imaging system was used to determine the homing capability of hAFS cells. A549 cell xenograft mouse model was created to assess the in vivo effect of DAL-1 overexpression on NSCLC growth. We found that infection of Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 increased the apoptosis of A549 NSCLC cells but not 16HBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 administered via intratumoral injection led to significant reduced growth and greater necrosis of A549 xenograft tumors comparing to null vector treated animals. When infused via tail vein, hAFS cells carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 homed to lung cancer xenografts, caused virus replication and DAL-1 overexpression, and led to significant lower growth and greater necrosis of A549 cell xenografts comparing to non-treatment control. In conclusion, hAFS cells are capable of carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 vectors, specifically targeting to lung cancer, and causing oncolytic effects when administered in vivo.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX patient's fibroblasts carrying a R395S mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Höflinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were generated from dermal fibroblasts from a 60-year-old cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX patient, carrying a homozygous mutation c. [1183C>A]; p. R395S in CYP27A1. Episomal plasmids encoding the pluripotency genes OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC and LIN28 were introduced via electroporation. The generated line iPS-CTX-R395S has no sign of plasmid integration or chromosomal aberration and retained the mutation site in CYP27A1. Furthermore, iPSCs express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate in all germ layers in vitro. The generated line may be a useful tool for disease modelling of CTX.

  4. Helicobacter pylori vesicles carrying CagA localize in the vicinity of cell-cell contacts and induce histone H1 binding to ATP in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkina, Maria V; Olofsson, Annelie; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Arnqvist, Anna; Vikström, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces outer membrane vesicles (OMV), delivering bacterial substances including the oncogenic cytotoxin-associated CagA protein to their surroundings. We investigated the effects of H. pylori OMV carrying CagA (OMV-CagA) on cell junctions and ATP-binding proteome of epithelial monolayers, using proteomics, mass spectrometry and imaging. OMV-CagA localized in close vicinity of ZO-1 tight junction protein and induced histone H1 binding to ATP. We suggest the expression of novel events in the interactions between H. pylori OMV and epithelia, which may have an influence on host gene transcription and lead to different outcomes of an infection and development of cancer. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The role of sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation: can the germ cells carrying X and Y chromosomes differentiate into fertile oocytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketo, Teruko

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resultant XX males and XY females can lead healthy lives, except for a complete or partial loss of fertility. Germ cells carrying an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are efficiently eliminated by multilayered surveillance mechanisms in the testis, and also, though more variably, in the ovary. Studying the molecular basis for sex-specific responses to a set of sex chromosomes during gametogenesis will promote our understanding of meiotic processes contributing to the evolution of sex determining mechanisms. This review discusses the fate of germ cells carrying various sex chromosomal compositions in mouse models, the limitation of which may be overcome by recent successes in the differentiation of functional germ cells from embryonic stem cells under experimental conditions.

  6. The role of sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation: can the germ cells carrying X and Y chromosomes differentiate into fertile oocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruko Taketo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resultant XX males and XY females can lead healthy lives, except for a complete or partial loss of fertility. Germ cells carrying an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are efficiently eliminated by multilayered surveillance mechanisms in the testis, and also, though more variably, in the ovary. Studying the molecular basis for sex-specific responses to a set of sex chromosomes during gametogenesis will promote our understanding of meiotic processes contributing to the evolution of sex determining mechanisms. This review discusses the fate of germ cells carrying various sex chromosomal compositions in mouse models, the limitation of which may be overcome by recent successes in the differentiation of functional germ cells from embryonic stem cells under experimental conditions.

  7. Yeast NDI1 Improve Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity and Increases Protection Against Oxidative Stress and Cell Death in Cells Carrying a Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Soon; Li, You-Fen; Bai, Yidong

    2007-01-01

    G11778A in the subunit ND4 gene of NADH dehydrogenase complex is the most common primary mutation found in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients. The NDI1 gene, which encodes the internal NADH -quinone oxidoreductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was introduced into the nuclear genome of a mitochondrial defective human cell line, Le1.3.1, carrying the G11778A mutation. In transformant cell lines, LeNDI1-1 and -2, total and complex I-dependent respiration were fully restored and l...

  8. Epigenetic Characterization of the FMR1 Promoter in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Carrying an Unmethylated Full Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, Celine E.F.; Ghazvini, Mehrnaz; Loos, Friedemann; Schelling-Kazaryan, Nune; Widagdo, W.; Munshi, Shashini T.; van der Wal, Erik; Douben, Hannie; Gunhanlar, Nilhan; Kushner, Steven A.; Pijnappel, W.W.M. Pim; de Vrij, Femke M.S.; Geijsen, Niels; Gribnau, Joost; Willemsen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Summary Silencing of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. To study the epigenetic modifications of the FMR1 gene during silencing in time, we used fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of an unmethylated full mutation (uFM) individual with normal intelligence. The uFM fibroblast line carried an unmethylated FMR1 promoter region and expressed normal to slightly increased FMR1 mRNA levels. The FMR1 expression in the uFM line corresponds with the increased H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation in combination with a reduced H3K9 methylation. After reprogramming, the FMR1 promoter region was methylated in all uFM iPSC clones. Two clones were analyzed further and showed a lack of FMR1 expression, whereas the presence of specific histone modifications also indicated a repressed FMR1 promoter. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the standard reprogramming procedure leads to epigenetic silencing of the fully mutated FMR1 gene. PMID:25358783

  9. Epigenetic Characterization of the FMR1 Promoter in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Carrying an Unmethylated Full Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine E.F. de Esch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Silencing of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. To study the epigenetic modifications of the FMR1 gene during silencing in time, we used fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs of an unmethylated full mutation (uFM individual with normal intelligence. The uFM fibroblast line carried an unmethylated FMR1 promoter region and expressed normal to slightly increased FMR1 mRNA levels. The FMR1 expression in the uFM line corresponds with the increased H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation in combination with a reduced H3K9 methylation. After reprogramming, the FMR1 promoter region was methylated in all uFM iPSC clones. Two clones were analyzed further and showed a lack of FMR1 expression, whereas the presence of specific histone modifications also indicated a repressed FMR1 promoter. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the standard reprogramming procedure leads to epigenetic silencing of the fully mutated FMR1 gene.

  10. Early pregnancy diagnosis by serum progesterone and ultrasound in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Coppola, G; Mastromonaco, G F; St John, E; Reyes, E R; Betts, D H; King, W A

    2008-04-01

    Early pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring play an important role following embryo transfer in sheep. The aims of the current study were to investigate (i) the pattern of serum progesterone profiles in sheep carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived (clone) pregnancies, and (ii) the frequency of pregnancy loss during development following SCNT embryo transfer. Sheep SCNT embryos were made using standard nuclear transfer techniques. Day 7 embryos were surgically transferred to oestrus-synchronized recipients (n = 27). As a control, normal fertile ewes (n = 12) were bred by natural breeding. Serum was collected from all the ewes on the day of estrus (day 0 sample), 7 days post-estrus (day 7 sample) and 19 days post-estrus (day 19 sample) and every 10 days thereafter until lambing or pregnancy loss occurred. Serum progesterone (P4) was assessed using enzyme immunoassay. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound scanning on day 35 of pregnancy followed by subsequent scanning every 10 days. In control ewes, pregnancy rate on day 35 was 83.3% (10/12), whereas in the ewes that received SCNT embryos, it was 22.2% (6/27; p sheep. Further, the serum P4 levels directly reflect the degree of placental development in these two groups.

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying an A79V mutation in PSEN1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tong; Pires, Carlota; Nielsen, Troels T.

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 48-year-old presymptomatic woman carrying a A79V mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28...

  12. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a M146I mutation in PSEN1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tong; Pires, Carlota; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 46-year-old symptomatic man carrying a M146I mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), responsible for causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, ...

  13. Curative effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene on intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) gene on intracerebral

  14. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control cell line from an Alzheimer's disease patient iPSC line carrying a A79V mutation in PSEN1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Carlota; Schmid, Benjamin; Petræus, Carina;

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease causing neural cell degeneration and brain atrophy and is considered to be the most common form of dementia. We previously generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from an AD patient carrying an A79V...

  15. Proliferation of latently infected CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV-1: Potential role in latent reservoir dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmane, Nina N.; Kwon, Kyungyoon J.; Bruner, Katherine M.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ho, Ya-Chi

    2017-01-01

    A latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes precludes cure. Mechanisms underlying reservoir stability are unclear. Recent studies suggest an unexpected degree of infected cell proliferation in vivo. T cell activation drives proliferation but also reverses latency, resulting in productive infection that generally leads to cell death. In this study, we show that latently infected cells can proliferate in response to mitogens without producing virus, generating progeny cells that can release infectious virus. Thus, assays relying on one round of activation underestimate reservoir size. Sequencing of independent clonal isolates of replication-competent virus revealed that 57% had env sequences identical to other isolates from the same patient. Identity was confirmed by full-genome sequencing and was not attributable to limited viral diversity. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis suggested that identical sequences arose from in vivo proliferation of infected cells, rather than infection of multiple cells by a dominant viral species. The possibility that much of the reservoir arises by cell proliferation presents challenges to cure. PMID:28341641

  16. Enhancement of tumor cell death by combining cisplatin with an oncolytic adenovirus carrying MDA-7/IL-24

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-mei WU; Kang-jian ZHANG; Xue-tian YUE; Yi-qiang WANG; Yi YANG; Gong-chu LI; Na LI; Yi-gang WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to creatively implement a novel chemo-gene-virotherapeutic strategy and further strengthen the antitumor effect in cancer cells by the combined use of ZD55-IL-24 and cisplatin. Methods: ZD55-IL-24 is an oncolytic adenovirus that harbors interleukin 24 (IL-24), which has a strong antitumor effect and was identified and evaluated by PCR, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Enhancement of cancer cell death using a combination of ZD55-IL-24 and cisplatin was assessed in several cancer cell lines by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. Apoptosis induction by treatment with ZD55-IL-24 and/or cisplatin was detected in BEL7404 and SMMC7721 by morphological evaluation, apoptotic cell staining, and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, negative effects on normal cells were evaluated in the L-02 cell line using the MTT assay,the CPE assay, morphological evaluation, apoptotic cell staining, and flow cytometry analysis. Results: The combination of ZD55-IL-24 and cisplatin, which is superior to ZD55-IL-24, cisplatin, and ZD55-EGFP, as well as ZD55-EGFP plus cisplatin, resulted in a significantly increased effect. Most importantly, conjugation of ZD55-IL-24 with cisplatin had toxic effects equal to that of cisplatin and did not have overlapping toxicities in normal cells.Conclusions: This study showed that ZD55-IL-24 conjugated with cisplatin exhibited a remarkably increased cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effect in cancer cells and significantly reduced the toxicity in normal cells through the use of a reduced dose.

  17. Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by a replication incompetent adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: Cell culture, infectivity test and sensitivity test, observing the bystander effect and animal model experiment were carried out. RESULTS: All the established prostate cancer cell lines were eventually infectable, but ratio of vector/cell and time of exposed at which infection occurs was dependent on the cell lines. The expression of transfered cytosine deaminase gene peaked at different days, but persisted beyond 11 days. The prostate cell lines were sensitized to the 5-fluorocytosine by infection with the cytosine deaminase gene adenoviral vector, and only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells infected were required for 100% cell death. In the animal model, there was significant eradiation of tumor growth at the ratio of 400 vector particles/cell and with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. CONCLUSION: The adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit can sensitize the prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine, and the system can significantly inhibit the growth of prostatic tumor in mice.

  18. Glioma microvesicles carry selectively packaged coding and non-coding RNAs which alter gene expression in recipient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheryl C Y; Eaton, Sally A; Young, Paul E; Lee, Maggie; Shuttleworth, Rupert; Humphreys, David T; Grau, Georges E; Combes, Valery; Bebawy, Mary; Gong, Joyce; Brammah, Susan; Buckland, Michael E; Suter, Catherine M

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between glioma cells and their local environment are critical determinants of brain tumor growth, infiltration and neovascularisation. Communication with host cells and stroma via microvesicles represents one pathway by which tumors can modify their surroundings to achieve a tumor-permissive environment. Here we have taken an unbiased approach to identifying RNAs in glioma-derived microvesicles, and explored their potential to regulate gene expression in recipient cells. We find that glioma microvesicles are predominantly of exosomal origin and contain complex populations of coding and noncoding RNAs in proportions that are distinct from those in the cells from which they are derived. Microvesicles show a relative depletion in microRNA compared with their cells of origin, and are enriched in unusual or novel noncoding RNAs, most of which have no known function. Short-term exposure of brain microvascular endothelial cells to glioma microvesicles results in many gene expression changes in the endothelial cells, most of which cannot be explained by direct delivery of transcripts. Our data suggest that the scope of potential actions of tumor-derived microvesicles is much broader and more complex than previously supposed, and highlight a number of new classes of small RNA that remain to be characterized.

  19. Inhibiting Notch Activity in Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Glucose Functionalized Nanoparticles Carrying γ-secretase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Veronika; Niemi, Rasmus; Beck, Michaela; Özliseli, Ezgi; Desai, Diti; Landor, Sebastian; Gronroos, Tove; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Pettersen, Ina K N; McCormack, Emmet; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Linden, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a challenge in cancer treatment due to their therapy resistance. We demonstrated that enhanced Notch signaling in breast cancer promotes self-renewal of CSCs that display high glycolytic activity and aggressive hormone-independent tumor growth in vivo. We took advantage of the glycolytic phenotype and the dependence on Notch activity of the CSCs and designed nanoparticles to target the CSCs. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were functionalized with glucose moieties and loaded with a γ-secretase inhibitor, a potent interceptor of Notch signaling. Cancer cells and CSCs in vitro and in vivo efficiently internalized these particles, and particle uptake correlated with the glycolytic profile of the cells. Nanoparticle treatment of breast cancer transplants on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes efficiently reduced the cancer stem cell population of the tumor. Our data reveal that specific CSC characteristics can be utilized in nanoparticle design to improve CSC-targeted drug delivery and therapy.

  20. Development of Tethered Hsp90 Inhibitors Carrying Radioiodinated Probes to Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Timothy Haystead CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Duke University Durham, NC 27708 REPORT...Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0072 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy...as imaging agents in mouse models of breast cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiodination, tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, malignant breast tumor , ectopic Hsp90

  1. Establishment of a human herpes virus-8-negative malignant effusion lymphoma cell line (STR-428) carrying concurrent translocations of BCL2 and c-MYC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Tamiko; Nagasaki, Akitoshi; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Miyagi, Jun-ichi; Kakazu, Naoki; Makino, Shigeyoshi; Shinjyo, Tetsuharu; Taira, Naoya; Masuda, Masato; Takasu, Nobuyuki

    2007-09-01

    A new cell line, STR-428 was established from ascites tumor cells of a malignant effusion lymphoma patient without human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. STR-428 cells showed an immunophenotype of mature B-cells and produced few cytokines related to lymphomatous effusion. Karyotypic and genetic analysis revealed complex translocations including t(14;18)(q32;q21) effecting IgH/BCL2 and der(8)t(3;8)(q27;q24) involving c-MYC. STR-428 represents a unique, B-cell lymphoma cell line carrying concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and c-MYC genes with features distinct from those of HHV-8-related primary effusion lymphoma. This cell line may be a valuable tool, other than HHV-8, to investigate the pathogenesis of primary lymphomatous effusion.

  2. DNA ligase III and DNA ligase IV carry out genetically distinct forms of end joining in human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sehyun; Harvey, Adam; Zimbric, Jacob; Wang, Yongbao; Nguyen, Thanh; Jackson, Pauline J; Hendrickson, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    Ku-dependent C-NHEJ (classic non-homologous end joining) is the primary DNA EJing (end joining) repair pathway in mammals. Recently, an additional EJing repair pathway (A-NHEJ; alternative-NHEJ) has been described. Currently, the mechanism of A-NHEJ is obscure although a dependency on LIGIII (DNA ligase III) is often implicated. To test the requirement for LIGIII in A-NHEJ we constructed a LIGIII conditionally-null human cell line using gene targeting. Nuclear EJing activity appeared unaffected by a deficiency in LIGIII as, surprisingly, so were random gene targeting integration events. In contrast, LIGIII was required for mitochondrial function and this defined the gene's essential activity. Human Ku:LIGIII and Ku:LIGIV (DNA ligase IV) double knockout cell lines, however, demonstrated that LIGIII is required for the enhanced A-NHEJ activity that is observed in Ku-deficient cells. Most unexpectedly, however, the majority of EJing events remained LIGIV-dependent. In conclusion, although human LIGIII has an essential function in mitochondrial maintenance, it is dispensable for most types of nuclear DSB repair, except for the A-NHEJ events that are normally suppressed by Ku. Moreover, we describe that a robust Ku-independent, LIGIV-dependent repair pathway exists in human somatic cells.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cell generation from a man carrying a complex chromosomal rearrangement as a genetic model for infertility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouka, Aurélie; Izard, Vincent; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie; Yates, Frank; Mayeur, Anne; Drévillon, Loïc; Jarray, Rafika; Leboulch, Philippe; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Tosca, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Despite progress in human reproductive biology, the cause of male infertility often remains unknown, due to the lack of appropriate and convenient in vitro models of meiosis. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the cells of infertile patients could provide a gold standard model for generating primordial germ cells and studying their development and the process of spermatogenesis. We report the characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) in an azoospermic patient, and the successful generation of specific-iPSCs from PBMC-derived erythroblasts. The CCR was characterized by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization and oligonucleotide-based array-comparative genomic hybridization. The CCR included five breakpoints and was caused by the inverted insertion of a chromosome 12 segment into the short arm of one chromosome 7 and a pericentric inversion of the structurally rearranged chromosome 12. Gene mapping of the breakpoints led to the identification of a candidate gene, SYCP3. Erythroblasts from the patient were reprogrammed with Sendai virus vectors to generate iPSCs. We assessed iPSC pluripotency by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and teratoma induction. The generation of specific-iPSCs from patients with a CCR provides a valuable in vitro genetic model for studying the mechanisms by which chromosomal abnormalities alter meiosis and germ cell development. PMID:28045072

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cell generation from a man carrying a complex chromosomal rearrangement as a genetic model for infertility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouka, Aurélie; Izard, Vincent; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie; Yates, Frank; Mayeur, Anne; Drévillon, Loïc; Jarray, Rafika; Leboulch, Philippe; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Tosca, Lucie

    2017-01-03

    Despite progress in human reproductive biology, the cause of male infertility often remains unknown, due to the lack of appropriate and convenient in vitro models of meiosis. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the cells of infertile patients could provide a gold standard model for generating primordial germ cells and studying their development and the process of spermatogenesis. We report the characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) in an azoospermic patient, and the successful generation of specific-iPSCs from PBMC-derived erythroblasts. The CCR was characterized by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization and oligonucleotide-based array-comparative genomic hybridization. The CCR included five breakpoints and was caused by the inverted insertion of a chromosome 12 segment into the short arm of one chromosome 7 and a pericentric inversion of the structurally rearranged chromosome 12. Gene mapping of the breakpoints led to the identification of a candidate gene, SYCP3. Erythroblasts from the patient were reprogrammed with Sendai virus vectors to generate iPSCs. We assessed iPSC pluripotency by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and teratoma induction. The generation of specific-iPSCs from patients with a CCR provides a valuable in vitro genetic model for studying the mechanisms by which chromosomal abnormalities alter meiosis and germ cell development.

  5. Construction of the recombinant vector carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and cytokine genes expressed in cell line Tca8113

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Guang-hui; ZOU Jing-zhi; QU Le; YUE Ying; KUAI Jian-ke

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To construct expression vector containing fusion genes of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase(Hsv-tk), Interleukin-2(IL-2) with internal ribosome entry sites(IRES), and to assess their expression in cell lineTca8113. Methods: IL-2 cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription. Hsv-tk, IL-2 and IRES genes were amplified by PCR. The purified amplification products were inserted into pGEM-T-Easy, and transformed into E. coli JM109. The purified recombinant plasmids were identified by restriction endonucleases. The recombinant plasmids were digested and pEGFPN3 were linearized, DNA fragments of Hsv-tk, IRES and IL-2 were ligated into linearized pEGFP-N3, and then transferred into E. coli JM109. The recombinant tk-IL-2 genes were cloned separately and introduced into the expression vector pEGFPN3 containing GFP. The recombinant vectors were identified by their restriction sites through PCR. The plasmids pEGFP-TI was also transfected into Tca8113 cells by calcium phosphate method for the expression of fusion proteins. Fusion genes expressing vector PL(TI)SN was generated by the fusion of HSV-tk, IRES and IL-2 with the use of DNA recombination technology. The recombinant retroviruses were transferred into Tca8113 cells by lipofectamine. The positive clones were obtained after G418 selection and named Tca/TI respectively. Results: The pEGFP-TI pasmid was identified respectively by restriction endonucleases, and their fragment sizes were 1 120 bp and 450 bp. The pEGFP-TI pasmid as templates were amplified respectively by PCR, and their PCR products were 1 120 bp and 450 bp. The pEGFP-TI vectors were used to transfect Tca8113 cell, and the cells with fluorescence accounted for 60 % of the total amount. Conclusion: pFGFP- tk- IRES- IL-2 expressing vector is easy to assess the expression of tk-IRES-IL-2-GFP fusion protein localization in transfected cells. The successful construction of expressing vector containing fusion genes of Hsv-tk, IRES and IL-2 may be

  6. Conserved CDC20 cell cycle functions are carried out by two of the five isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kevei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. In yeasts and animals the main CDC20 function is the destruction of securin and mitotic cyclins. Plants have multiple CDC20 gene copies whose functions have not been explored yet. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are five CDC20 isoforms and here we aimed at defining their contribution to cell cycle regulation, substrate selectivity and plant development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studying the gene structure and phylogeny of plant CDC20s, the expression of the five AtCDC20 gene copies and their interactions with the APC/C subunit APC10, the CCS52 proteins, components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC and mitotic cyclin substrates, conserved CDC20 functions could be assigned for AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2. The other three intron-less genes were silent and specific for Arabidopsis. We show that AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are components of the MCC and interact with mitotic cyclins with unexpected specificity. AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are expressed in meristems, organ primordia and AtCDC20.1 also in pollen grains and developing seeds. Knocking down both genes simultaneously by RNAi resulted in severe delay in plant development and male sterility. In these lines, the meristem size was reduced while the cell size and ploidy levels were unaffected indicating that the lower cell number and likely slowdown of the cell cycle are the cause of reduced plant growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intron-containing CDC20 gene copies provide conserved and redundant functions for cell cycle progression in plants and are required for meristem maintenance, plant growth and male gametophyte formation. The Arabidopsis-specific intron-less genes are possibly "retrogenes" and have hitherto undefined

  7. Inhibiting notch activity in breast cancer stem cells by glucose functionalized nanoparticles carrying γ-secretase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a challenge in cancer treatment due to their therapy resistance. We demonstrated that enhanced Notch signaling in breast cancer promotes self-renewal of CSCs that display high glycolytic activity and aggressive hormone-independent tumor growth in vivo. We took advantage of the glycolytic phenotype and the dependence on Notch activity of the CSCs and designed nanoparticles to target the CSCs. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were functionalized with glucose moieties...

  8. Plasmid-based Survivin shRNA and GRIM-19 carried by attenuated Salmonella suppresses tumor cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bo Liu1; De-Qi Xu; Ling Zhang1; Ya-Xiong Guo; Li-Fang Gao; Xi-Chun Liu; Li-Juan Zhao; Bao-Feng Guo; Li-Jing Zhao; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Persistent activation of Survivin and its overexpression contribute to the formation,progression and metastasis of several different tumor types.Therefore,Survivin is an ideal target for RNA interference mediated-growth inhibition.Blockade of Survivin using specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) can significantly reduce prostate tumor growth.RNA interference does not fully ablate target gene expression,owing to the idiosyncrasies associated with shRNAs and their targets.To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Survivin-specific shRNA,we employed a combinatorial expression of Survivin-specific shRNA and gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19).Then,the GRIM-19 coding sequences and Survivin-specific shRNAs were used to create a dual expression plasmid vector and were carried by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S.typhimurium) to treat prostate cancer in vitroand in vivo.We found that the co-expressed Survivin-specific shRNA and GRIM-19synergistically and more effectively inhibited prostate tumor proliferation and survival,when compared with treatment with either single agent alone in vitro and in vivo.This study has provided a novel cancer gene therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.

  9. Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Valerio; Vergani, Lodovica; Bernazzi, Barbara; Zampieron, Claudia; Bucchi, Laura; Valentino, Maria; Rengo, Chiara; Torroni, Antonio; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2002-10-09

    The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable differences in multiple parameters exploring respiratory function were observed when mtDNAs belonging to European haplogroups X, H, T and J were used. Different possible explanations for the previously established association between haplogroup J and LHON 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 pathogenic mutations are discussed, including the unconventional proposal that mtDNA haplogroup J may exert a protective rather than detrimental effect.

  10. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lethiferous effects of a recombinant vector carrying thymidine kinase suicide gene on 2.2.15 cells via a self-modulating mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Cheng Kan; Zu-Jiang Yu; Yah-Chang Lei; Lian-Jie Hao; Dong-Liang Yang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the lethiferous effects of a recombinant vector carrying thymidine kinase (TK) suicide gene on 2.2.15cells and the possible self-modulating mechanism.METHODS: A self-modulated expressive plasmid pcDNA3-SCITK was constructed by inserting the fragments carrying hepatitis B virus antisense-S (HBV-anti-S) gene, hepatitis C virus core (HCV-C) gene, internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element of HCV and TK gene into the eukaryotic vector pcDNA3, in which the expression of TK suicide gene was controlled by the HBV S gene transcription. 2.2.15cells that carry the full HBV genome and stably express series of HBV antigen were transfected with pcDNA3-SCITK or vector pcDNA3-SCI which was used as the mock plasmid. The HepG2 cells transfected with pcDNA3-SCITK were functioned as the negative control. All the transfected cells were incubated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10 μg/ml. Of ganciclovir (GCV). The HBsAg levels in the supernatant of cell culture were detected by ELISA on the 1st, 3rd and 6th day post-transfection. Meanwhile, the morphology of tranfected cells was recorded by the photograph and the survival cell ratio was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test on the 6th day posttransfection.RESULTS: The structural accuracy of pcDNA3-SCITK was confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR with specific primers and DNA sequencing. The HBsAg levels in the supernatant of transfected 2.2.15 cell culture were significantly decreased on the 6th day post-transfection as compared with that of the mock control (P<0.05). The lethiferous effect of pcDNA3-SCITK expression on 2.2.15cells was initially noted on the 3rd day after transfection and aggravated on the 6th day post transfection, in which the majority of transfected 2.2.15 cells were observed shrunken, round in shape and even dead. With assessment by the trypan blue exclusion test, the survival cell ratio on the 6th day post transfection was 95% in the negative control and only 11% in the

  12. Development of T cells carrying two complementary chimeric antigen receptors against glypican-3 and asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Kesang; Jiang, Hua; Song, Fei; Gao, Huiping; Pan, Xiaorong; Shi, Bizhi; Bi, Yanyu; Wang, Huamao; Wang, Hongyang; Li, Zonghai

    2017-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy leveraging chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells holds great promise for the treatment of cancer. However, tumor-associated antigens often have low expression levels in normal tissues, which can cause on-target, off-tumor toxicity. Recently, we reported that GPC3-targeted CAR-T cells could eradicate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenografts in mice. However, it remains unknown whether on-target, off-tumor toxicity can occur. Therefore, we proposed that dual-targeted CAR-T cells co-expressing glypican-3 (GPC3) and asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) (a liver tissue-specific protein)-targeted CARs featuring CD3ζ and 28BB (containing both CD28 and 4-1BB signaling domains), respectively, may have reduced on-target, off-tumor toxicity. Our results demonstrated that dual-targeted CAR-T cells caused no cytotoxicity to ASGR1(+)GPC3(-) tumor cells, but they exhibited a similar cytotoxicity against GPC3(+)ASGR1(-) and GPC3(+)ASGR1(+) HCC cells in vitro. We found that dual-targeted CAR-T cells showed significantly higher cytokine secretion, proliferation and antiapoptosis ability against tumor cells bearing both antigens than single-targeted CAR-T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the dual-targeted CAR-T cells displayed potent growth suppression activity on GPC3(+)ASGR1(+) HCC tumor xenografts, while no obvious growth suppression was seen with single or double antigen-negative tumor xenografts. Additionally, the dual-targeted T cells exerted superior anticancer activity and persistence against single-targeted T cells in two GPC3(+)ASGR1(+) HCC xenograft models. Together, T cells carrying two complementary CARs against GPC3 and ASGR1 may reduce the risk of on-target, off-tumor toxicity while maintaining relatively potent antitumor activities on GPC3(+)ASGR1(+) HCC.

  13. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a retinoblastoma patient carrying a c.2663G>A mutation in RB1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong Zeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a male patient diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB carrying a c.2663G>A mutation in the 25 exon of RB1 gene. RB-iPS cells was generated via delivered four reprogramming factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and LIN28 into these skin fibroblasts. The RB-iPS cells retained the RB1 heterozygous mutation resulted in a truncated RB1 mRNA. Characteristic tests proved that the iPSC line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers in vitro.

  14. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a familial Alzheimer's disease patient carrying the L282F mutation in presenilin 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Anna Fong-Yee; Li, Tong; Pires, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) lead to the most aggressive form of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from AD patients can be differentiated and used for disease modeling. Here, we derived hiPSC from skin fibroblasts obtained from an AD...... patient carrying a L282F mutation in PSEN1. We transfected skin fibroblasts with episomal iPSC reprogramming vectors targeting human OCT4, SOX2, L-MYC, KLF4, NANOG, LIN28, and short hairpin RNA against TP53. Our hiPSC line, L282F-hiPSC, displayed typical stem cell characteristics with consistent...

  15. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  16. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lang Lin

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2. Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  17. Induction of potent CD8+ T-cell responses by novel biodegradable nanoparticles carrying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Uto, Tomofumi; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru; Baba, Masanori

    2007-09-01

    The mainstream of recent anti-AIDS vaccines is a prime/boost approach with multiple doses of the target DNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and recombinant viral vectors. In this study, we have attempted to construct an efficient protein-based vaccine using biodegradable poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which are capable of inducing potent cellular immunity. A significant expansion of CD8+ T cells specific to the major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted gp120 epitope was observed in mice intranasally immunized once with gp120-carrying NPs but not with gp120 alone or gp120 together with the B-subunit of cholera toxin. Both the gp120-encapsulating and -immobilizing forms of NPs could induce antigen-specific spleen CD8+ T cells having a functional profile of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Long-lived memory CD8+ T cells could also be elicited. Although a substantial decay in the effector memory T cells was observed over time in the immunized mice, the central memory T cells remained relatively constant from day 30 to day 238 after immunization. Furthermore, the memory CD8+ T cells rapidly expanded with boosting with the same immunogen. In addition, gamma-PGA NPs were found to be a much stronger inducer of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses than nonbiodegradable polystyrene NPs. Thus, gamma-PGA NPs carrying various HIV-1 antigens may have great potential as a novel priming and/or boosting tool in current vaccination regimens for the induction of cellular immune responses.

  18. Derivation, Characterization, and Neural Differentiation of Integration-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Parkinson's Disease Patients Carrying SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, and GBA Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momcilovic, Olga; Sivapatham, Renuka; Oron, Tal Ronnen

    2016-01-01

    We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from ten Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying SNCA, PARK2, LRRK2, and GBA mutations, and one age-matched control. After validation of pluripotency, long-term genome stability, and integration-free reprogramming, eight...... of these lines (one of each SNCA, LRRK2 and GBA, four PARK2 lines, and the control) were differentiated into neural stem cells (NSC) and subsequently to dopaminergic cultures. We did not observe significant differences in the timeline of neural induction and NSC derivation between the patient and control line...... to identify alterations by large-scale evaluation. While gene expression profiling clearly distinguished cells at different stages of differentiation, no mutation-specific clustering or difference was observed, though consistent changes in patient lines were detected in genes associated mitochondrial biology...

  19. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a M146I mutation in PSEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Pires, Carlota; Nielsen, Troels T; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hjermind, Lena E; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Dinnyes, Andras; Holst, Bjørn; Hyttel, Poul; Freude, Kristine K

    2016-03-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 46-year-old symptomatic man carrying a M146I mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), responsible for causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28 and shTP53 genes. M146I-iPSCs were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had the specific mutation but no additional genomic aberrancies, expressed the expected pluripotency markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers. The reported M146I-iPSCs line may be a useful resource for in vitro modeling of familial AD. Copyright © 2016 University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying an A79V mutation in PSEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Pires, Carlota; Nielsen, Troels T; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hjermind, Lena E; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Dinnyes, Andras; Hyttel, Poul; Freude, Kristine K

    2016-03-01

    Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 48-year-old presymptomatic woman carrying a A79V mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28 and shTP53 genes. A79V-iPSCs were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had the specific mutation but no additional genomic aberrancies, expressed the expected pluripotency markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers. The reported A79V-iPSCs line may be a useful resource for in vitro modeling of familial AD. Copyright © 2016 University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a M146I mutation in PSEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 46-year-old symptomatic man carrying a M146I mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1, responsible for causing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28 and shTP53 genes. M146I-iPSCs were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had the specific mutation but no additional genomic aberrancies, expressed the expected pluripotency markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers. The reported M146I-iPSCs line may be a useful resource for in vitro modeling of familial AD.

  2. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying an A79V mutation in PSEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 48-year-old presymptomatic woman carrying a A79V mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1, causing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28 and shTP53 genes. A79V-iPSCs were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had the specific mutation but no additional genomic aberrancies, expressed the expected pluripotency markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers. The reported A79V-iPSCs line may be a useful resource for in vitro modeling of familial AD.

  3. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control cell line from an Alzheimer's disease patient iPSC line carrying a A79V mutation in PSEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease causing neural cell degeneration and brain atrophy and is considered to be the most common form of dementia. We previously generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from an AD patient carrying an A79V mutation in PSEN1 as an in vitro disease model. Here we generated a gene-corrected version from this hiPSC line by substituting the point mutation with the wild-type sequence. The reported A79V-GC-iPSCs line is a very useful resource in combination with the A79V-iPSC line in order to study pathological cellular phenotypes related to this particular mutation.

  4. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control cell line from an Alzheimer's disease patient iPSC line carrying a A79V mutation in PSEN1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Carlota; Schmid, Benjamin; Petræus, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease causing neural cell degeneration and brain atrophy and is considered to be the most common form of dementia. We previously generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from an AD patient carrying an A79V...... mutation in PSEN1 as an in vitro disease model. Here we generated a gene-corrected version from this hiPSC line by substituting the point mutation with the wild-type sequence. The reported A79V-GC-iPSCs line is a very useful resource in combination with the A79V-iPSC line in order to study pathological...

  5. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a Bernard–Soulier syndrome patient carrying a W71R mutation in the GPIX gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lopez-Onieva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a Bernard–Soulier Syndrome (BSS patient carrying the mutation p.Trp71Arg in the GPIX locus (BSS1-PBMC-iPS4F4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were reprogrammed using heat sensitive non-integrative Sendai viruses containing the reprogramming factors Oct3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Successful silencing of the exogenous reprogramming factors was checked by RT-PCR. Characterization of BSS1-PBMC-iPS4F4 included mutation analysis of GPIX locus, Short Tandem Repeats (STR profiling, alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, analysis of conventional pluripotency-associated factors at mRNA and protein level and in vivo differentiation studies. BSS1-PBMC-iPS4F4 will provide a powerful tool to study BSS.

  6. The role of sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation: can the germ cells carrying X and Y chromosomes differentiate into fertile oocytes?

    OpenAIRE

    Teruko Taketo

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resulta...

  7. In vitro determination of carcinogenicity of sixty-four compounds using a bovine papillomavirus DNA-carrying C3H/10T(1/2) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, L A; Laitinen, A M; Mortazavi-Asl, B; Wee, R K; Erb, H E; Assi, K P; Madden, Z

    2000-01-01

    A new in vitro test for predicting rodent carcinogenicity is evaluated against a testing database of 64 chemicals including both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens and carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 microsomal fraction for detection in the bacterial mutagenicity assay. The assay uses focus formation in a stable, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA carrying C3H/10T(1/2) mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (T1) that does not require transfection, infection with virus, isolation of primary cells from animals, or addition of a microsomal fraction. Of a total database of 64 compounds, 92% of the carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens were correctly predicted. Based on previously reported results, the test of bacterial mutagenicity would have correctly predicted 58% of carcinogens, promoters or noncarcinogens and the Syrian hamster embryo test would have correctly predicted 87% of carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens of this database. Of carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 fraction, T1 cells correctly predicted rodent carcinogenicity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxins, azo-compounds, nitrosamines, and hydrazine without the addition of an S-9 fraction. Of nongenotoxic carcinogens, T1 cells correctly predicted diethylstilbestroel, diethylhexylphthalate, acetamides, alkyl halides, ethyl carbamate, and phorbol ester tumour promoters.

  8. Differentiation of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptor precursors from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells carrying an Atoh7/Math5 lineage reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xiang-Mei; Hashimoto, Takao; Tien, Amy H; Chen, Andrew; Ge, Jian; Yang, Xian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The neural retina is a critical component of the visual system, which provides the majority of sensory input in humans. Various retinal degenerative diseases can result in the permanent loss of retinal neurons, especially the light-sensing photoreceptors and the centrally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The replenishment of lost RGCs and the repair of optic nerve damage are particularly challenging, as both RGC specification and their subsequent axonal growth and projection involve complex and precise regulation. To explore the developmental potential of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors, we have established mouse iPS cells that allow cell lineage tracing of progenitors that have expressed Atoh7/Math5, a bHLH transcription factor required for RGC production. These Atoh7 lineage reporter iPS cells encode Cre to replace one copy of the endogenous Atoh7 gene and a Cre-dependent YFP reporter in the ROSA locus. In addition, they express pluripotent markers and are capable of generating teratomas in vivo. Under anterior neural induction and neurogenic conditions in vitro, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells differentiate into neurons that co-express various RGC markers and YFP, indicating that these neurons are derived from Atoh7-expressing progenitors. Consistent with previous in vivo cell lineage studies, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells also give rise to a subset of Crx-positive photoreceptor precursors. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling in the iPSC cultures results in a significant increase of YFP-positive RGCs and photoreceptor precursors. Together, these results show that Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells can be used to monitor the development and survival of RGCs and photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells.

  9. Differentiation of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptor precursors from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells carrying an Atoh7/Math5 lineage reporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Xie

    Full Text Available The neural retina is a critical component of the visual system, which provides the majority of sensory input in humans. Various retinal degenerative diseases can result in the permanent loss of retinal neurons, especially the light-sensing photoreceptors and the centrally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. The replenishment of lost RGCs and the repair of optic nerve damage are particularly challenging, as both RGC specification and their subsequent axonal growth and projection involve complex and precise regulation. To explore the developmental potential of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors, we have established mouse iPS cells that allow cell lineage tracing of progenitors that have expressed Atoh7/Math5, a bHLH transcription factor required for RGC production. These Atoh7 lineage reporter iPS cells encode Cre to replace one copy of the endogenous Atoh7 gene and a Cre-dependent YFP reporter in the ROSA locus. In addition, they express pluripotent markers and are capable of generating teratomas in vivo. Under anterior neural induction and neurogenic conditions in vitro, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells differentiate into neurons that co-express various RGC markers and YFP, indicating that these neurons are derived from Atoh7-expressing progenitors. Consistent with previous in vivo cell lineage studies, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells also give rise to a subset of Crx-positive photoreceptor precursors. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling in the iPSC cultures results in a significant increase of YFP-positive RGCs and photoreceptor precursors. Together, these results show that Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells can be used to monitor the development and survival of RGCs and photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells.

  10. CD229 is expressed on the surface of plasma cells carrying an aberrant phenotype and chemotherapy-resistant precursor cells in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Sara; Kovacsovics-Bankowski, Magdalena; Salama, Mohamed E; Bhardwaj, Neelam; Steinbach, Mary; Langemo, Amanda; Kovacsovics, Tibor; Marvin, James; Binder, Mascha; Panse, Jens; Kröger, Nicolaus; Luetkens, Tim; Atanackovic, Djordje

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell (PC) malignancy, which despite significant therapeutic advances, is still considered incurable. This is due to the persistence of chemotherapy-resistant minimal residual disease in the patients' bone marrow (BM) after an effective induction therapy. Immunotherapies targeting surface molecules expressed on the bulk of tumor cells and the chemotherapy-resistant, myeloma-propagating cells could play a central role in this clinical setting. We recently described surface molecule CD229 as a potential therapeutic target for MM. In our current study we assessed the expression of CD229 on different PC subtypes and on cells with a myeloma-propagating phenotype in a total of 77 patients with PC dyscrasias independently at 2 different cancer centers. We found that CD229 was strongly and homogeneously overexpressed on the PC of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma, MM, and PC leukemia. CD229 was particularly overexpressed on those PC showing an abnormal phenotype such as expression of CD56. Most importantly, CD229 was also highly expressed on those cells in the patients' BM displaying the phenotype of chemotherapy-resistant and myeloma-propagating cells. In conclusion, our combined findings suggest that immunotherapies targeting CD229 will not only be effective for the bulk of tumor cells but will also help to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cells remaining in the patients' BM after induction treatment. Hopefully, the design of CD229-specific monoclonal antibodies or chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells will help to achieve prolonged remissions or even cures in MM patients.

  11. Gene transfer into primary cultures of fetal neural stem cells by a recombinant adenovirus carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong FU; Shen-qing WANG; Ying-peng LIU; Guo-peng WANG; Jian-ting WANG; Shu-sheng GONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the transduction efficiency of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) into the primary cultures of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) by the expression of GFP. Methods: The Ad-GFP was constructed by homologous recombination in bacteria with the AdEasy system; NSCs were isolated from rat fetal hippocampus and cultured as neurosphere suspensions. After infection with the recombinant Ad-GFP, NSCs were examined with a fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometry for their expression of GFP. Results: After the viral infection, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of GFP-positive cells was as high as 97.05%. The infected NSCs sustained the GFP expression for above 4 weeks. After differentiated into astrocytes or neurons, they continued to express GFP efficiently. Conclusion: We have successfully constructed a viral vector Ad-GFP that can efficiently infect the primary NSCs. The reporter gene was showed fully and sustained expression in the infected cells as well as their differentiated progenies.

  12. Three Huntington's Disease Specific Mutation-Carrying Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Have Stable Number of CAG Repeats upon In Vitro Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Laureen; Neueder, Andreas; Földes, Gabor; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Hobbs, Carl; Jolinon, Nelly; Mioulane, Maxime; Sakai, Takao; Harding, Sian E; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD; OMIM 143100), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by an expanded trinucleotide CAG (polyQ) motif in the HTT gene. Cardiovascular symptoms, often present in early stage HD patients, are, in general, ascribed to dysautonomia. However, cardio-specific expression of polyQ peptides caused pathological response in murine models, suggesting the presence of a nervous system-independent heart phenotype in HD patients. A positive correlation between the CAG repeat size and severity of symptoms observed in HD patients has also been observed in in vitro HD cellular models. Here, we test the suitability of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines carrying HD-specific mutation as in vitro models for understanding molecular mechanisms of cardiac pathology seen in HD patients. We have differentiated three HD-hESC lines into cardiomyocytes and investigated CAG stability up to 60 days after starting differentiation. To assess CAG stability in other tissues, the lines were also subjected to in vivo differentiation into teratomas for 10 weeks. Neither directed differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vitro nor in vivo differentiation into teratomas, rich in immature neuronal tissue, led to an increase in the number of CAG repeats. Although the CAG stability might be cell line-dependent, induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients with larger numbers of CAG repeats could have an advantage as a research tool for understanding cardiac symptoms of HD patients.

  13. Three Huntington's Disease Specific Mutation-Carrying Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Have Stable Number of CAG Repeats upon In Vitro Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Jacquet

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD; OMIM 143100, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by an expanded trinucleotide CAG (polyQ motif in the HTT gene. Cardiovascular symptoms, often present in early stage HD patients, are, in general, ascribed to dysautonomia. However, cardio-specific expression of polyQ peptides caused pathological response in murine models, suggesting the presence of a nervous system-independent heart phenotype in HD patients. A positive correlation between the CAG repeat size and severity of symptoms observed in HD patients has also been observed in in vitro HD cellular models. Here, we test the suitability of human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines carrying HD-specific mutation as in vitro models for understanding molecular mechanisms of cardiac pathology seen in HD patients. We have differentiated three HD-hESC lines into cardiomyocytes and investigated CAG stability up to 60 days after starting differentiation. To assess CAG stability in other tissues, the lines were also subjected to in vivo differentiation into teratomas for 10 weeks. Neither directed differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vitro nor in vivo differentiation into teratomas, rich in immature neuronal tissue, led to an increase in the number of CAG repeats. Although the CAG stability might be cell line-dependent, induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients with larger numbers of CAG repeats could have an advantage as a research tool for understanding cardiac symptoms of HD patients.

  14. Human embryonic stem cells carrying an unbalanced translocation demonstrate impaired differentiation into trophoblasts: an in vitro model of human implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiz, A; Kalma, Y; Frumkin, T; Telias, M; Carmon, A; Amit, A; Ben-Yosef, D

    2015-03-01

    Carriers of the balanced translocation t(11;22), the most common reciprocal translocation in humans, are at high risk of creating gametes with unbalanced translocation, leading to repeated miscarriages. Current research models for studying translocated embryos and the biological basis for their implantation failure are limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) carrying the unbalanced chromosomal translocation t(11;22) can provide an explanation for repeated miscarriages of unbalanced translocated embryos. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and karyotype analysis were performed to analyze the t(11;22) in embryos during PGD and in the derived hESC line. The hESC line was characterized by RT-PCR and FACS analysis for pluripotent markers. Directed differentiation to trophoblasts was carried out by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Trophoblast development was analyzed by measuring β-hCG secretion, by β-hCG immunostaining and by gene expression of trophoblastic markers. We derived the first hESC line carrying unbalanced t(11;22), which showed the typical morphological and molecular characteristics of a hESC line. Control hESCs differentiated into trophoblasts secreted increasing levels of β-hCG and concomitantly expressed the trophoblast genes, CDX2, TP63, KRT7, ERVW1, CGA, GCM1, KLF4 and PPARG. In contrast, differentiated translocated hESCs displayed reduced and delayed secretion of β-hCG concomitant with impaired expression of the trophoblastic genes. The reduced activation of trophoblastic genes may be responsible for the impaired trophoblastic differentiation in t(11;22)-hESCs, associated with implantation failure in unbalanced t(11;22) embryos. Our t(11;22) hESCs are presented as a valuable human model for studying the mechanisms underlying implantation failure.

  15. Exosomes secreted by human placenta carry functional Fas ligand and TRAIL molecules and convey apoptosis in activated immune cells, suggesting exosome-mediated immune privilege of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenqvist, Ann-Christin; Nagaeva, Olga; Baranov, Vladimir; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is crucially important in mediating immune privilege of the fetus during pregnancy. We investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. Both molecules were intracellularly expressed, confined to the late endosomal compartment of the syncytiotrophoblast, and tightly associated to the generation and secretion of placental exosomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that FasL and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. Analyzing exosomes secreted from placental explant cultures, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that FasL and TRAIL are clustered on the exosomal membrane as oligomerized aggregates ready to form death-inducing signaling complex. Consistently, placental FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes triggered apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and activated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. Limiting the expression of functional FasL and TRAIL to exosomes comprise a dual benefit: 1) storage of exosomal FasL and TRAIL in multivesicular bodies is protected from proteolytic cleavage and 2) upon secretion, delivery of preformed membranal death molecules by exosomes rapidly triggers apoptosis. Our results suggest that bioactive FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes, able to convey apoptosis, are secreted by the placenta and tie up the immunomodulatory and protective role of human placenta to its exosome-secreting ability.

  16. Analysis of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    Chapter Ⅰ Introduction  Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.  ……

  17. B cells from knock-in mice expressing broadly neutralizing HIV antibody b12 carry an innocuous B cell receptor responsive to HIV vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Doyle-Cooper, Colleen; Cooper, Anthony B; Doores, Katherine J; Aoki-Ota, Miyo; Le, Khoa; Schief, William R; Wyatt, Richard T; Burton, Dennis R; Nemazee, David

    2013-09-15

    Broadly neutralizing Abs against HIV protect from infection, but their routine elicitation by vaccination has not been achieved. To generate small animal models to test vaccine candidates, we have generated targeted transgenic ("knock-in") mice expressing, in the physiological Ig H and L chain loci, two well-studied broadly neutralizing Abs: 4E10, which interacts with the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and b12, which binds to the CD4 binding site on gp120. 4E10HL mice are described in the companion article (Doyle-Cooper et al., J. Immunol. 191: 3186-3191). In this article, we describe b12 mice. B cells in b12HL mice, in contrast to the case in 4E10 mice, were abundant and essentially monoclonal, retaining the b12 specificity. In cell culture, b12HL B cells responded avidly to HIV envelope gp140 trimers and to BCR ligands. Upon transfer to wild-type recipients, b12HL B cells responded robustly to vaccination with gp140 trimers. Vaccinated b12H mice, although generating abundant precursors and Abs with affinity for Env, were unable to rapidly generate neutralizing Abs, highlighting the importance of developing Ag forms that better focus responses to neutralizing epitopes. The b12HL and b12H mice should be useful in optimizing HIV vaccine candidates to elicit a neutralizing response while avoiding nonprotective specificities.

  18. Interleukin-10 gene-carrying bifidobacteria ameliorate murine ulcerative colitis by regulating regulatory T cell/T helper 17 cell pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingguo; Wei, Cheng; Yao, Jun; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease suggested to be closely related to the imbalance of regulatory T cell/T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) signaling. Previously, we constructed an interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression vector, BL-hIL-10, and proved that it ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. In this study, we further explored the mechanisms underlying BL-hIL-10 treatment from the Treg/Th17 imbalance perspective. Our results showed that the oral administration of BL-hIL-10 reduced the UC inflammation in mice significantly, which was assessed by disease activity index, spleen index, and pathological changes in colon tissue. Moreover, the mice after BL-hIL-10 treatment had increased proportion of Treg cells while Th17 cells decreased greatly, leading to the reconstruction of Treg/Th17 balance. Furthermore, the Th17 cell-secreted factors, such as IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23, were reduced, but the Treg-related factors, IL-10 and Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were elevated accordingly. Finally, Western blot confirmed the inhibition of nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and cytoplasmic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in intestinal tissues. In conclusion, oral administration of BL-hIL-10 can alleviate the inflammation responses of UC in murine model through the restoration of Treg/Th17 imbalance, which might be at least partially due to the inhibition of hypoxia-mTOR-HIF-1α-Th17 axis as well as IL-6-STAT3-HIF-1α-Th17 pathway. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  19. Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiale; Zhou, Ping; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yang; Tang, Li; Tian, Shuangming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3), and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells. To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs), a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV). Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL-staining assay. CMBs

  20. Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3, and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells.To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs, a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs. Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV. Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL

  1. Derivation, Characterization, and Neural Differentiation of Integration-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Parkinson's Disease Patients Carrying SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, and GBA Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcilovic, Olga; Sivapatham, Renuka; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Meyer, Morten; Mooney, Sean; Rao, Mahendra S; Zeng, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from ten Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying SNCA, PARK2, LRRK2, and GBA mutations, and one age-matched control. After validation of pluripotency, long-term genome stability, and integration-free reprogramming, eight of these lines (one of each SNCA, LRRK2 and GBA, four PARK2 lines, and the control) were differentiated into neural stem cells (NSC) and subsequently to dopaminergic cultures. We did not observe significant differences in the timeline of neural induction and NSC derivation between the patient and control line, nor amongst the patient lines, although we report considerable variability in the efficiency of dopaminergic differentiation among patient lines. We performed whole genome expression analyses of the lines at each stage of differentiation (fibroblast, iPSC, NSC, and dopaminergic culture) in an attempt to identify alterations by large-scale evaluation. While gene expression profiling clearly distinguished cells at different stages of differentiation, no mutation-specific clustering or difference was observed, though consistent changes in patient lines were detected in genes associated mitochondrial biology. We further examined gene expression in a stress model (MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death) using two clones from the SNCA triplication line, and detected changes in genes associated with mitophagy. Our data suggested that even a well-characterized line of a monogenic disease may not be sufficient to determine the cause or mechanism of the disease, and highlights the need to use more focused strategies for large-scale data analysis.

  2. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  3. Microparticles from apoptotic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells carry tumour necrosis factor-α functionally active on cardiomyocytes from adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Milbank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After ischaemic injury and in patients with atherosclerosis, the pool of inflammatory macrophages is enlarged in the heart and in atherosclerotic plaques. Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles (MPs are part of the pathological process of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The present study focused on effects of MPs, produced by apoptotic murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that these MPs contained the soluble form of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening amplitudes and kinetics were reduced within 5 min of exposure to these MPs. Conversely, Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics were not modified. The contractile effects of MPs were completely prevented after pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase or TNF-α inhibitors as well as blocking TNF-α receptor 1 with neutralizing antibody. Microscopy showed that, after 1 h, MPs were clearly surrounding rod-shaped cardiomyocytes, and after 2 h they were internalized into cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis. After 4 h of treatment with MPs, cardiomyocytes expressed increased caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax and cytochrome C. Thus, MPs from apoptotic macrophages induced a negative inotropic effect and slowing of both contraction and relaxation, similar to that observed in the presence of TNF-α. The use of specific inhibitors strongly suggests that TNF-α receptors and the guanylate cyclase/cGMP/PKG pathway were involved in the functional responses to these MPs and that the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway was implicated in their proapoptotic effects. These data suggest that MPs issued from activated macrophages carrying TNF-α could contribute to propagation of inflammatory signals leading to myocardial infarction.

  4. "Christian carrying goomies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Passingan Usurup tells critics of his pragmatic approach on condom promotion that he is a Christian carrying condoms for Christ. He is head of the University of Papua New Guinea Medical Center and is credited with developing an AIDS/HIV policy for the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The condoms were named Goomy and promoted at launching in 1992 in a blue packet under the slogan "The bond that guards." Goomy was chosen as the name because it is pidgin for rubber, chewing gum, and anything associated with rubber. Blue packets were chosen over the calls of most soldiers for a camouflage design because of its universal appeal as the color of the sea and sky and because it was the preference of women in the airlines. Once firmly ensconced in his role at the University, Usurup plans to develop a policy for students and staff and help to conduct AIDS prevention and education activities on campus. He will encourage students to test for HIV rather than highlighting the gloom and doom of infection and disease.

  5. HPV-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is unresponsive to standard treatment and frequently carries disruptive mutations in TP53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, D.; Tomasoa, N. B.; Dewit, L.; Smits, P.H.M.; Bakker, R.; Van Velthuysen, M. L F; Rosenberg, E. H.; Beijnen, J. H.; Schellens, J. H M; Cats, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Human papillomavirus (HPV), p16 expression, and TP53 mutations are known prognostic factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, but their role in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is less well established. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic s

  6. Chimeric mice carrying 'regional' targeted deletion of the angiotensin type 1A receptor gene. Evidence against the role for local angiotensin in the in vivo feedback regulation of renin synthesis in juxtaglomerular cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsusaka, T; Nishimura, H.; Utsunomiya, H.; Kakuchi, J; Niimura, F; Inagami, T; Fogo, A.; Ichikawa, I

    1996-01-01

    We have developed chimeric mice carrying 'regional' null mutation of the angiotensin type 1A (AT1A) receptor, the AT1 receptor subtype exclusively present in mouse juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. The chimeric mouse (Agtr1a -/- +/+) is made up of wild-type (Agtr1a +/+) cells or cells homozygous for Agtr1a deletion (Agtr1a -/-). In the latter, the AT1A coding exon was replaced with a reporter gene, lacZ. In Agtr1a -/- +/+ mice, these two clones of cells are found to be clustered and display patch...

  7. [Construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying Lab gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its expression in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Guozheng; Zhou, Jianhua; Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Xie, Qingge

    2008-05-01

    In this study, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain OA/58 RNAs were used as templates for RT-PCR. By the molecular cloning, the Lab gene encoding leader protease called Lpro were cloned in retroviral vector pBPSTR1 to obtain reconstruction retroviral vector termed pBPSTR1-Lab. At different concentrations of puromycin and tetracycline respectively in the cell culture mediums, the growth of bovine kidney cells (MDBK) showed that the optimal puromycin resistant selection concentration was 3 microg/mL and tetracycline regulatory concentration was 1 microg/mL. Pseudotyped retroviral virus particles were produced by transiently co-tansfecting GP2-293 cells with a retroviral vector DNA and VSV-G plasmid. Then MDBK cells were infected by pseudotyped retroviral virus and were continually seeded in the medium at the optimal tetracycline regulatory concentration and puromycin selection concentration for 12 days to obtain puromycin resistant colonies whose genomes contained the Lab gene. After tetracycline removal, synthesis of Lpro induced severe morphological changes in the puromycin resistant MDBK cells. PCR and Western blotting proved that a stable MDBK cell line inducibly expressing the Lab gene under the control of tetracycline was obtained. The experiment might provide a basis for studying that Lpro of FMDV plays an important role in MDBK cell pathogenesis.

  8. Human glioblastoma cells persistently infected with simian virus 40 carry nondefective episomal viral DNA and acquire the transformed phenotype and numerous chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Steinberg, V I; Kosz-Vnenchak, M

    1985-02-01

    A stable, persistent infection of A172 human glioblastoma cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) was readily established after infection at an input of 450 PFU per cell. Only 11% of the cells were initially susceptible to SV40, as shown by indirect immunofluorescent staining for the SV40 T antigen at 48 h. However, all cells produced T antigen by week 11. In contrast, viral capsid proteins were made in only about 1% of the cells in the established carrier system. Weekly viral yields ranged between 10(4) and 10(6) PFU/ml. Most of the capsid protein-producing cells contained enormous aberrant (lobulated or multiple) nuclei. Persistent viral DNA appeared in an episomal or "free" state exclusively in Southern blots and was indistinguishable from standard SV40 DNA by restriction analysis. Viral autointerference activity was not detected, and yield reduction assays did not indicate defective interfering particle activity, further implying that variant viruses were not a factor in this carrier system. Interferon was also not a factor in the system, as shown by direct challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus. Persistent infection resulted in cellular growth changes (enhanced saturation density and plating efficiency) characteristic of SV40 transformation. Persistent infection also led to an increased frequency of cytogenetic effects. These included sister chromatid exchanges, a variety of chromosomal abnormalities (ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, breaks, and gaps), and an increase in the chromosome number. Nevertheless, the persistently infected cells continued to display a bipolar glial cell-like morphology with extensive process extension and intercellular contacts.

  9. Mitochondria-acting hexokinase II peptides carried by short-length carbon nanotubes with increased cellular uptake, endosomal evasion, and enhanced bioactivity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Lau, Wei Liang; Liu, Ang Yu; Prendergast, D'arcy; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor Chun Kong; Lee, Chengkuo; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-08-01

    Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to effectively deliver HKII(pep) across cellular barriers without compromising their bioactivity. The peptide was conjugated on either oxidized MWCNTs or 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized MWCNTs, yielding MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep), respectively. Both conjugates were shown to be internalized by breast cancer MCF-7 cells using confocal microscopy. Moreover, these nanoconjugates seemed to have escaped from endosomes and be in the vicinity of mitochondria. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay conducted on MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells revealed that MWCNT-peptide conjugates were significantly more effective in curbing cancer cell growth compared to a commercially available cell permeable HKII fusion peptide. In addition, both nanoconjugates displayed an enhanced ability in eliciting apoptosis and depleting the ATP level in HCT116 cells compared to the mere HKII peptide. Importantly, hexokinase II release from mitochondria was demonstrated in MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep) treated cells, highlighting that the structure and bioactivity of HKII(pep) were not compromised after covalent conjugation to MWCNTs.Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study

  10. Quantitative evaluations of the effect of UV irradiation on the infectivity of HTLV-III (AIDS virus) with HTLV-I-carrying cell line, MT-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, H.; Koyanagi, Y.; Harada, S.; Yamamoto, N.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on HTLV-III was quantitatively studied to evaluate the dosage of UV irradiation which inactivates the virus for sterilization of blood products and for laboratory decontamination. In order to estimate the biologic activity and quantitation of the virus, induction of HTLV-III-specific antigens and inhibition of DNA synthesis in MT-4 cells infected by UV-irradiated HTLV-III were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique and proliferation assay using (3H)thymidine uptake, respectively. Furthermore, plaque-forming assay was performed to count the infectious viral particles. Results showed that HTLV-III was completely inactivated by 5000 J/m2 UV irradiation. Cloned UV-irradiated HTLV-III (UV-1) was obtained from a plaque that was formed by 2000 J/m2 UV-irradiated virus. When MT-4 cells were infected by the clone UV-1, ballooning degeneration of cells was predominantly induced. These ballooning cells were not usually observed in MT-4 cells infected by unirradiated HTLV-III. The resistance to UV was not different between clone UV-1 and unirradiated HTLV-III.

  11. Increased cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bronchial epithelium of heavy smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma carries a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsunehiro; Sugio, Kenji; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Iwata, Teruo; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Isse, Toyohi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Kagawa, Norio; Yasumoto, Kosei; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Smoking induces mutations via the formation of DNA-adducts in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium and contributes to the development of lung cancer. Benz(a)pyrene and nitrosamine, typical carcinogens in cigarette smoke, undergo metabolic activation by the phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1. The transcriptional regulation of these phase I enzymes is regulated by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AH-R) which binds many well-known carcinogens. To identify a cause and effect relationship, the expression of cytochrome CYP and AH-R in the bronchial epithelium was correlated with the history of cigarette smoking in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although CYP3A+ cells were absent in the bronchial epithelium of all patients, there were many CYP2E1+ cells in heavy (>1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (38.5%). In contra-distinction, there was significantly less number of CYP2E1+ cells in light (less than 1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (15.6%) or non-smokers (10.0%). Similarly, there were more CYP1A1+ (19.2%) and CYP2A6+ cells in heavy (65.4%) smokers as compared to non-smokers. The number of AH-R+ cells was also significantly higher in cases with p53 mutation (62.5%) than those without (12.2%) mutation. Since in patients with early NSCLC, CYP positivity showed a close correlation with a poor survival (p less than 0.01), expression of CYP in bronchial epithelium has a prognostic potential.

  12. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a L150P mutation in PSEN-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubsuwan, Alisa; Pires, Carlota; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts isolated from a 58-year old male with a L150P mutation in the presenilin 1 (PSEN-1) gene, which is responsible for the majority of familial cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The iPSC swere established by co-electroporati......Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts isolated from a 58-year old male with a L150P mutation in the presenilin 1 (PSEN-1) gene, which is responsible for the majority of familial cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The iPSC swere established by co...

  13. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a L150P mutation in PSEN-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubsuwan, Alisa; Pires, Carlota; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.;

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts isolated from a 58-year old male with a L150P mutation in the presenilin 1 (PSEN-1) gene, which is responsible for the majority of familial cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The iPSC swere established by co-electroporation...

  14. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor siRNA carried by chitosan-transacylated lipid nanocapsules increases sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoudi K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Messaoudi,1 Patrick Saulnier,1 Kim Boesen,1 Jean-Pierre Benoit,1,2 Frederic Lagarce1,21L'Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, INSERM U1066, Micro et nanomédecines biomimétiques, Angers, France; 2Pharmacy Department, Angers University Hospital, Angers, FranceAbstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a crucial protein that plays an important role in the maintenance and development of glioblastomas. The silencing or knockdown of EGFR is possible by administering a small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs covered by chitosan were developed in our laboratory by a transacylation process. The resulting nanocapsules have a positive zeta potential that enables electrostatic interactions with the negatively-charged siRNA. Prior to transfection, the cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS test was performed on the U87MG cell line to determine non-toxic levels of the LNCs to avoid cell mortality. Treatment of the U87MG cells with the chitosan-transacylated LNCs/anti-EGFR siRNA complex resulted in a reduction of EGFR expression by 51.95%±6.03% (P≤0.05 after 96 hours of incubation. It also increased the cellular sensitivity to temozolomide in comparison to untreated cells with siRNA. The largest increase in mortality was 62.55%±3.55% (P<0.05. This successful knockdown provides proof for the concept of surface grafting of siRNA onto LNCs to modify cell sensitivity to temozolomide. The method could be implemented in future clinical models regarding the experimental treatment of glioblastoma cancer.Keywords: EGFR, glioblastoma, siRNA, lipid nanocapsules, chitosan, temozolomide

  15. Visualization of Content Release from Cell Surface-Attached Single HIV-1 Particles Carrying an Extra-Viral Fluorescent pH-Sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sood

    Full Text Available HIV-1 fusion leading to productive entry has long been thought to occur at the plasma membrane. However, our previous single virus imaging data imply that, after Env engagement of CD4 and coreceptors at the cell surface, the virus enters into and fuses with intracellular compartments. We were unable to reliably detect viral fusion at the plasma membrane. Here, we implement a novel virus labeling strategy that biases towards detection of virus fusion that occurs in a pH-neutral environment-at the plasma membrane or, possibly, in early pH-neutral vesicles. Virus particles are co-labeled with an intra-viral content marker, which is released upon fusion, and an extra-viral pH sensor consisting of ecliptic pHluorin fused to the transmembrane domain of ICAM-1. This sensor fully quenches upon virus trafficking to a mildly acidic compartment, thus precluding subsequent detection of viral content release. As an interesting secondary observation, the incorporation of the pH-sensor revealed that HIV-1 particles occasionally shuttle between neutral and acidic compartments in target cells expressing CD4, suggesting a small fraction of viral particles is recycled to the plasma membrane and re-internalized. By imaging viruses bound to living cells, we found that HIV-1 content release in neutral-pH environment was a rare event (~0.4% particles. Surprisingly, viral content release was not significantly reduced by fusion inhibitors, implying that content release was due to spontaneous formation of viral membrane defects occurring at the cell surface. We did not measure a significant occurrence of HIV-1 fusion at neutral pH above this defect-mediated background loss of content, suggesting that the pH sensor may destabilize the membrane of the HIV-1 pseudovirus and, thus, preclude reliable detection of single virus fusion events at neutral pH.

  16. The impact of intermittent versus continuous exposure to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor on selection of EGFR T790M-mutant drug-resistant clones in a lung cancer cell line carrying activating EGFR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Choi, Yu-Ra; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-07-12

    Drug-resistant cell lines are essential tools for investigating the mechanisms of resistance to molecular-targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, little is known about how to establish clinically relevant drug-resistant cell lines. Our study examined the impact of a drug-free period on the establishment of a cell line with clinically relevant resistance to molecular-targeted drugs. We used PC9 cells, a lung cancer cell line carrying EGFR mutation, because this is a validated target for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). PC9 cells were intermittently or continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of gefitinib (0.01 μM to 1.0 μM) and the emergence of the most common acquired resistance mutation in EGFR, T790M, was determined. T790M was detected at a 25-fold lower drug concentration in cells continuously exposed to gefitinib (PC9/GRc) than in cells intermittently exposed to gefitinib (PC9/GRi) (0.04 μM vs 1.0 μM, respectively). The mutation frequencies at those drug concentrations were 19.8% and 8.0% in PC9/GRc and PC9/GRi cells, respectively. After drug-free culture for 8 weeks, resistance to gefitinib decreased in the PC9/GRi cells but not in the PC9/GRc cells. In the PC9/GRc cells, the frequency of the T790M mutation was consistently about 20% from 0.04 μM to 1.0 μM of gefitinib. In the PC9/GRc cells, the T790M mutation was detected in all single-cell clones, at frequencies ranging from 7.0% to 37.0%, with a median of 19.5% (95% confidence interval, 17.3%-20.9%). In conclusion, compared with intermittent drug exposure, continuous exposure might select better minor drug-resistant clones when creating cell lines resistant to molecular-targeted drugs.

  17. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  18. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  19. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a L150P mutation in PSEN-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubsuwan, Alisa; Pires, Carlota; Rasmussen, Mikkel A; Schmid, Benjamin; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hjermind, Lena E; Hall, Vanessa; Nielsen, Troels T; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hyttel, Poul; Clausen, Christian; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Freude, Kristine K; Holst, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts isolated from a 58-year old male with a L150P mutation in the presenilin 1 (PSEN-1) gene, which is responsible for the majority of familial cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The iPSCs were established by co-electroporation with episomal plasmids containing hOCT4, hSOX2, hL-MYC, hKLF4, hNANOG, hLIN28, and short hairpin RNA against TP53. The iPSCs contained the specific heterozygous mutation c.449C>T, had normal karyotype, expressed the expected pluripotency genes and displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers. The iPSCs may be useful for studying familial AD pathology in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and overall survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer carrying EGFR mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidekazu Suzuki; Tomonori Hirashima; Norio Okamoto; Tadahiro Yamadori; Motohiro Tamiya; Naoko Morishita; Takayuki Shiroyama

    2013-01-01

    For patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive lung cancer,the relationship between the dose or duration of treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and overall survival remains unclear.Here,we analyzed clinical data of 39 patients who were diagnosed with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer and treated with TKI,but subsequently died.Several parameters were measured in this study:overall survival; first,second,and overall TKI therapy durations;first TKI intensity (actual dose/normal dose); and TKI rate (overall TKI therapy duration/overall survival).The response rate to TKI therapy was 50%,and the median survival was 553 days.After TKI therapy failed,38.5% patients were re-challenged with TKI.We observed a moderate relationship [r =0.534,95%confidential interval (CI) =0.263 to 0.727,P < 0.001] between overall TKI therapy duration and overall survival.However,we found no relationship between overall survival and first TKI intensity (r =0.073,95%CI =-0.380 to 0.247,P =0.657) or TKI rate (r =0.0345,95% CI =-0.284 to 0.346,P =0.835).Nonsmall cell lung cancer patients with mutation-positive tumors remained on TKI therapy for,on average,33% of the overall survival time.These findings suggest that patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors should not stick to using TKIs.

  1. An Analysis of English Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chapter Ⅰ Introduction Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.

  2. Carrying Capacity:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaofeng

    2004-01-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.

  3. Naturalistic Elements in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳晖

    2007-01-01

    @@ Theodore Dreiser is considered to be a controversial writer.His first novel.Sister Carrie makes a new way of presenting re-ality.This paper discusses the naturalistic elements from the de-tailed description of the environment in that society.

  4. Properties of Carry Value Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry Value Transformation (CVT is a model of discrete deterministic dynamical system. In the present study, it has been proved that (1 the sum of any two nonnegative integers is the same as the sum of their CVT and XOR values. (2 the number of iterations leading to either CVT=0 or XOR=0 does not exceed the maximum of the lengths of the two addenda expressed as binary strings. A similar process of addition of modified Carry Value Transformation (MCVT and XOR requires a maximum of two iterations for MCVT to be zero. (3 an equivalence relation is shown to exist on Z×Z which divides the CV table into disjoint equivalence classes.

  5. Studies on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA polymerase (POL) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) by the combined action of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and N-butyrate (SB in EBV-carrying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutter, L.M.; Tan, R.S.; Grill, S.; Li, J.S.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    TPA and SB were found to induce EBV early antigen in EBV-carrying Raji cells, a Burkitt's Lymphoma-derived human cell line. The mode of interaction of these agents was unclear. They have examined the induction of EBV-POL and DNase activities by TPA and SB. It was found that neither agent alone could induce EBV-POL and DNase activities, even though the virus DNA could be induced by either compound alone. Induction of virus enzymes could only occur when cells were exposed to both compounds. A 2h exposure to TPA followed by 46h to SB resulted in levels of induction of EBV-POL and DNase activities comparable to those induced with simultaneous exposure to both agents for 48h. No induction of the enzymes will occur if the sequence of exposure to these agents is reversed. Phospholipase C, which increases intracellular diacylglycerol (and subsequently the activation of Protein Kinase C), and 5-Aza-deoxycytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, were able to partially substitute for TPA and SB, respectively. These results suggest that the mechanism of induction of EBV enzyme activities by TPA and SB could involve both Protein Kinase C activation and DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, the synthesis of EBV DNA is not sufficient for induction of these virus enzyme activities.

  6. 失血性休克过程中红细胞携氧-释氧动力学研究%Kinetics of Carrying and Releasing Oxygen of Red Blood Cells in Hemorrhagic Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰珂; 王翔

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity changes of the red blood cells carrying and releasing oxygen. In order to provide theoretical basis and guidance for the clinical treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock,we investigated cases in the occurrence of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock,and also analyzed the mechanism of physiological cause. Twenty healthy SD rats were used to build the hemorrhagic shock model. Red blood cells were collected at the initial step,at blood lose 20%,30%,and 40% to determine the red blood cells capacities of carrying and releasing oxygen. The Hemox-analyzer was used to measure the thermodynamic parameters of the P50,the kinetic parameters of Tc50 and Tr50. The 2,3-DPG,pH value,glucose and lactate dehydrogenase changes were also captured and recorded. With the aggravation of shock,P50 and lactate dehydrogenase are continuously increased,Tr50,pH value and glucose are tended to reduce significantly,and Tc50 does not change significantly. With the increase of blood loss,red blood cell capacity to carry oxygen is stable,and the ability to release oxygen is increased,so that the oxygen consumption cannot be satisfied,which causes organ failure.%失血性休克过程中,红细胞自身代谢与功能的变化会导致红细胞携氧-释氧能力的改变.本文对不同休克程度红细胞携氧-释氧能力的变化进行了监测,探讨失血性休克的危重程度与红细胞携氧-释氧能力之间的相互关系,并进行生理生化指标分析.本文采用健康SD大鼠20只(雌雄各10只),建立失血性休克模型,分别在初始、失血20%、30%和40%时采集红细胞,并利用血氧分析仪测定红细胞携氧-释氧热力学参数P50,效应时间Tc50、Tr50,同时检测了2,3-DPG、pH值、葡萄糖和乳酸脱氢酶的变化.实验结果表明:随着休克程度的加深,P50值不断增大,乳酸脱氢酶增加,而Tr50、pH值、葡萄糖均呈现减小的趋势,Tc50变化不明显;红细胞携氧能力相对稳定,

  7. 铁碳纳米粒介导顺铂对喉癌细胞敏感性的研究%Effect of carbon coated iron nanoparticles carrying diamminedichloroplatinum on the chemotherapy sensitivity of laryngocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱力; 侯楠; 胡国华

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nanometer technique is one of the effective ways to improve chemotherapy sensitivity of tumor cells by refining dosage form and target action of chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the depression effect of carbon coated iron nanoparticles carrying diamminedichloroplatinum (CCINs-DDP) on Hep-2 laryngocarcinoma cells and expression of caspase 3 and survivin mRNA. METHODS: Hep-2 laryngocarcinoma cells were intervened by iron-carbon nanoparticles and (or) normal saline dispersion of cisplatin. Cells interfered with normal saline were selected as controls. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that cisplatin could inhibit cell growth of Hep-2 cells, and combined with the iron-carbon nanoparticles, the inhibitory effect was stronger. Cells were not adherent, appeared with slow proliferation and apoptosis. Reverse transcription-PCR results showed that caspase 3 mRNA level of the Hep-2 cells was significantly increased at co-cultured 5 days after treated with iron-carbon nanoparticles combined with cisplatin and simple treated with the cisplatin, but the expression of survivin mRNA was significantly decreased, which was more obviously after treated with iron-carbon nanoparticles combined with cisplatin, but simple application of iron-carbon nanoparticles had no effect on Hep-2 cells. It is indicated that CCINs-DDP can improve the chemotherapy sensitivity of Hep-2 laryngocarcinoma cells on the DDP and also improve therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics.%背景:应用纳米技术对化疗药物进行靶向性改进是增加肿瘤对化疗药物敏感性的有效手段之一.目的:观察铁碳纳米粒搭载顺铂对喉癌Hep-2细胞的抑制作用及对细胞Caspase 3,Survivin mRNA表达的影响.方法:分别应用铁碳纳米粒和(或)顺铂的生理盐水分散液干预喉癌Hep-2细胞,以生理盐水干预的细胞作为对照.结果与结论:MTT检测结果显示,顺铂可明显抑制Hep-2细

  8. p50PIK基因重组腺病毒的构建及对Hela细胞的影响%Construction of recombinant adenoviruses carrying p50 and Its effect on Hela cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 曹小年; 陈成; 杨锐; 胡俊波; 王晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct recombinant adenovirus carrying p50PIK gene and examine the effect on cervix cancer Hela cell lines after transfection with Ad-p50PIK. Methods p50PIK cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the template PcDNA3. 1-p50PIK, then cloned into the shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CMV. The plasmid pAdTrackCMV-p50 was linearized by PmeI, followed by homologous recombination with bone plasmid pAdEasy-1 in BJ5183, then identified by enzyme digestion.After linearized by PacI and transfection into HEK293 cells, recombinant adenovirus Ad-p50PIK were obtained in HEK293 cells then amplified by 3 circles. The green fluorescence in HEK293 cells was observed.Ad-p50PIK was transfected into Hela cells. The phosphorylation of Akt was detected by Western blotting.Results After double restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis of The Ad-p50PIK-GFP,the 1400 bp purpose band was sequenced, Results was exactly the same with the sequence GeneBank had reported,indicating that the recombinant adenovirus Ad-p50PIK-GFP were successfully constructed; Then transfected into HEK293 cells, green fluorescence shows that Ad-p50PIK-GFP in HEK293 packaging cells successfully expressed; by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to detect p50 on Akt phosphorylation, the Results show that high expression of p50 protein significantly increased AKT's Phosphorylated (Thr308).Conclusion Recombinant adenovirus Ad-p50PIK had been successfully constructed. Overexpression of p50PIK in Hela cell lines can promote phosphorylation of AKT.%目的 构建携带P50基因的重组腺病毒载体,观察其感染宫颈癌Hela细胞后对p-AKT(Thr308)的影响.方法 以PcDNA3.1-p50PIK质粒为模板,构建带有p50PIK基因的重组腺病毒质粒Ad-p50PIK-GFP,酶切鉴定后经PacI线性化后转染HEK293包装细胞,观察细胞内绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)表达情况,并进行3轮扩增,收获带有目的 片段的腺病毒.将重组腺病毒Ad-p50PIK

  9. Effect of heating in a calorstat to the oxygen-carrying function of red blood cell%恒温箱加温对库存红细胞悬液携氧能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔锋; 林芩; 周子鑫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the change of the oxygen-carried function of stored red blood cells,which was warmed in room temperature and calorstat.Methods Randomly removed from 4 ℃storage refrigerator,red blood cell suspension were put in room temperature 30 min (group N)and 37℃ calorstat 30 min (group H),and samples taken to examine electrolyte,blood gas,free Hb,ATP content,2,3-DPG content,oxygen affinity(P50).Results In two groups,blood pH value and blood Na+ did not change obviously due to heating.The content of blood K+ and free Hb increased,glucose fell,but there was no statistically significant difference.The content of ATP and 2,3-DPG in eryth-rocyte increased and P50 increased after heating (P <0.05),which increased more significantly in group H compared with group N (P<0.05).Conclusion Heating stored blood up to 37 ℃ can in-crease the oxygen-carried function of red blood cells,which contribute to improve the effectiveness of transfusion.%目的:研究库存红细胞悬液在室温加温和恒温箱加温下红细胞携氧功能的变化。方法从4℃贮血冰箱中随机取出红细胞悬液40份,分别置于室温中(N 组)或37℃恒温培养箱(H组)加温30 min,分别取样测定电解质、血气分析、游离 Hb、ATP 含量、2,3-DPG 含量、氧亲和力(P50)。结果两组血 pH 值、血 Na+都未有因加温而发生明显变化,血 K+含量增加,游离 Hb 升高,葡萄糖下降但差异无统计学意义。加温后红细胞 ATP 含量、2,3-DPG 含量、P50增加(P <0.05);与 N 组比较,H 组升高更明显(P<0.05)。结论库血加温至37℃能够增加红细胞携氧功能,有助于提高红细胞输注的有效性。

  10. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  11. Development of K562 cell clones expressing β-globin mRNA carrying the β039 thalassaemia mutation for the screening of correctors of stop-codon mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Francesca; Cantale, Vera; Breveglieri, Giulia; Zuccato, Cristina; Finotti, Alessia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Feriotto, Giordana; Destro, Federica; Canella, Alessandro; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense mutations, giving rise to UAA, UGA and UAG stop codons within the coding region of mRNAs, promote premature translational termination and are the leading cause of approx. 30 % of inherited diseases, including cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and thalassaemia. For instance, in β039-thalassaemia the CAG (glutamine) codon is mutated to the UAG stop codon, leading to premature translation termination and to mRNA destabilization through the well-described NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). In order to develop an approach facilitating translation and, therefore, protection from NMD, aminoglycoside antibiotics have been tested on mRNAs carrying premature stop codons. These drugs decrease the accuracy in the codon–anticodon base-pairing, inducing a ribosomal read-through of the premature termination codons. Interestingly, recent papers have described drugs designed and produced for suppressing premature translational termination, inducing a ribosomal read-through of premature but not normal termination codons. These findings have introduced new hopes for the development of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of β039-thalassaemia. In this context, we started the development of a cellular model of the β039-thalassaemia mutation that could be used for the screening of a high number of aminoglycosides and analogous molecules. To this aim, we produced a lentiviral construct containing the β039-thalassaemia globin gene under a minimal LCR (locus control region) control and used this construct for the transduction of K562 cells, subsequently subcloned, with the purpose to obtain several K562 clones with different integration copies of the construct. These clones were then treated with Geneticin (also known as G418) and other aminoglycosides and the production of β-globin was analysed by FACS analysis. The results obtained suggest that this experimental system is suitable for the characterization of correction of the β039-globin mutation causing

  12. Development of K562 cell clones expressing beta-globin mRNA carrying the beta039 thalassaemia mutation for the screening of correctors of stop-codon mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Francesca; Cantale, Vera; Breveglieri, Giulia; Zuccato, Cristina; Finotti, Alessia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Feriotto, Giordana; Destro, Federica; Canella, Alessandro; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-07-09

    Nonsense mutations, giving rise to UAA, UGA and UAG stop codons within the coding region of mRNAs, promote premature translational termination and are the leading cause of approx. 30% of inherited diseases, including cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and thalassaemia. For instance, in beta(0)39-thalassaemia the CAG (glutamine) codon is mutated to the UAG stop codon, leading to premature translation termination and to mRNA destabilization through the well-described NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). In order to develop an approach facilitating translation and, therefore, protection from NMD, aminoglycoside antibiotics have been tested on mRNAs carrying premature stop codons. These drugs decrease the accuracy in the codon-anticodon base-pairing, inducing a ribosomal read-through of the premature termination codons. Interestingly, recent papers have described drugs designed and produced for suppressing premature translational termination, inducing a ribosomal read-through of premature but not normal termination codons. These findings have introduced new hopes for the development of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of beta(0)39-thalassaemia. In this context, we started the development of a cellular model of the beta(0)39-thalassaemia mutation that could be used for the screening of a high number of aminoglycosides and analogous molecules. To this aim, we produced a lentiviral construct containing the beta(0)39-thalassaemia globin gene under a minimal LCR (locus control region) control and used this construct for the transduction of K562 cells, subsequently subcloned, with the purpose to obtain several K562 clones with different integration copies of the construct. These clones were then treated with Geneticin (also known as G418) and other aminoglycosides and the production of beta-globin was analysed by FACS analysis. The results obtained suggest that this experimental system is suitable for the characterization of correction of the beta(0

  13. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infections That Pets Carry KidsHealth > For Parents > Infections That Pets Carry ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . ...

  14. High performance pipelined multiplier with fast carry-save adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Angus

    1990-01-01

    A high-performance pipelined multiplier is described. Its high performance results from the fast carry-save adder basic cell which has a simple structure and is suitable for the Gate Forest semi-custom environment. The carry-save adder computes the sum and carry within two gate delay. Results show that the proposed adder can operate at 200 MHz for a 2-micron CMOS process; better performance is expected in a Gate Forest realization.

  15. Expression of Mouse SCP2 Gene Adenoviral Vector Carrying Albumin Promoter in Hepa1-6 Cells%固醇携带蛋白2腺病毒载体的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾岩峰; 崔云峰; 崔乃强; 彭雁飞; 宁召臣; 张琚

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To construct the replication defective adenoviral vector of SCP2 gene carrying murine albumin promoter, and study the relations between SCP2 gene and the formation of cholesterol calculus. Methods The cDNA of SCP2 gene was cloned by using RT-PCR technique. The albumin promoter was linked to SCP2 gene's upstream, and the EGFP gene lied in its downstream. The plasmid pDC312-ALB-SCP2-IRES2 -EGFP was constructed by the gene recombination technique. The Admax Adenoviral Vector System was used to generate the replication defective adenoviral vectors, which were purified by CsCl method. The processes of TCID50 were applied to detect the titers of the adenoviral vectors. The RNA and protein were respectively extracted from the infected Hepal-6 cells by the adenoviral vector. The real-time quantitative PCR was employed to detect the mRNA expression levels, and the Western blotting analysis was used to measure the SCP2 protein levels. Result We constructed successfully the replication defective adenoviral vector of SCP2 gene carrying murine albumin promoter. When the mRNA levels of SCP2 gene were overexpressed, CYP7al mRNA levels were down-regulated (t=3.97,p<0.05); and the mRNA levels of HMGCR were up-regulated (t=3.23,p<0.05). Conclusions The SCP2 gene overexpression may affect cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, which could promote the formation of cholesterol calculus.%目的:构建携带白蛋白启动子SCP2 基因腺病毒载体,研究其与胆固醇结石形成的关系.方法:(1)利用RT-PCR技术克隆小鼠SCP2基因,在其上游接入白蛋白(ALB)启动子,下游连接绿色荧光报告基因(EGFP),构建穿梭质粒pDC312-ALB-SCP2-IRES2-EGFP;(2)采用Ad Max TM Adenoviru5 Vector系统包装病毒,CsCl法纯化病毒、TCID50法测定滴度;(3)重组腺病毒感染小鼠hepa-1-6细胞,实时定量PCR检测mRNA的表达;Western印迹检测SCP2蛋白表达情况;结果:成功构建携带白蛋白启动子SCP2基因腺病毒载体;当SCP2

  16. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  17. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU... Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrying capacity. 1437.402 Section 1437.402... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering...

  19. A FEMINIST READING OF SISTER CARRIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高陈科

    2011-01-01

    In the history of American literature, Sister Carrie has always been a controversial character. The critics regard Carrie either as a "fallen woman" or as a "new women". This thesis aims to offer a feminist reading of the image of Sister Carrie in the con

  20. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  1. [Pathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma carrying hepatitis C virus antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Zhu, S; Zhang, X

    1997-10-01

    To analyze the pathological features of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) carrying different hepatitis virus antigens histopathologically and systematically. PAP and ABC kits were used in the immunohistochemical study, and CAS-200 System was applied in the image cytometry. As compared with HCCs carrying HBV marker(s), the HCCs carrying HCV marker showed more cases of clear cell type (7/9 vs 4/33), better differentiation of cancers, less necrosis of hepatocytes, milder lymphocyte infiltration in the hepatic sinuses or periportal areas (P < 0.01), higher incidence of bile ductule damages, and bore a close relation to the formation of lymphoid follicle in the surrounding tissues (P < 0.05). These patients were elder, with lower grade of symptoms and better prognosis after operation. HCCs carrying only HCAg have different pathological features and clinical characteristics from which carrying HBV marker(s). The results of image cytometry are in accordance with the biological behaviour of HCC.

  2. Sister Carrie:A Material Pursuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春花

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie dramatized by Dreiser is totally a material pursuer. She is selfish and accumulates money in a crazy way. What she does inevitably centers on materials. Living with Drouet and later Hurstwood, Carrie gets what she wants and enjoys the luxurious life in an easy way. However, with the satisfaction of some of her desires, Carrie ’s desires grow and expand. With enough food and clothes, she needs luxury. Hurstwood’s failure in business leads Carrie to the stage and finally she makes a suc⁃cess and becomes a famous actress in Broadway. She gets more money, but her desires grow even higher. Nothing can satisfy her. In this essay, the author tries to analyze Carrie according to Freud’s and Guo Weilu’s theories and prove that Carrie is totally a material pursuer.

  3. Establishing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Line Carrying a Fluorescent Undifferentiated Marker%建立对未分化细胞特异性标记的小鼠胚胎干细胞系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕路; 成俊英; 杨扬; 张崇本

    2004-01-01

    构建pRex-1-EGFP表达载体,电穿孔转染小鼠ES细胞,用增强绿色荧光蛋白对起源于3.5 d胚泡内细胞团的小鼠胚胎干细胞进行特异性标记,用荧光显微观察EGFP的表达以及RT-PCR方法检测Rex-1基因在未分化和分化中ES细胞中的表达情况.结果显示,EGFP基因成功转入小鼠ES细胞,并在未分化的ES细胞中高效表达;细胞开始分化后,EGFP的表达开始下降.由Rex-1基因启动子控制下的EGFP稳定表达的小鼠ES细胞系,对哺乳动物早期发育过程的研究以及对筛选能够调节上述过程的小分子化合物具有重要意义.%To label mouse ES cells,a cell line derived from the inner cell mass of 3.5-day blastocysts,with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP),the vector of pRex-1-EGFP was transferred into mouse ES cells by electroporation. The expressions of Rex-1 in undifferentiated and differentiated ES cells were detected by the microscopic observation of EGFP and by RT-PCR. The results showed that the EGFP gene was transferred into the mouse ES cell line,and the transfected cells in undifferentiated state showed high levels of EGFP expression. When the cells began to differentiate,the EGFP expressions were gradually reduced. A mouse ES cell line expressing EGFP under the control of Rex-1 gene promoter was generated. The cell line provides a powerful approach for the research of the process of mammalian development and for the screening of small molecules that can regulate this process.

  4. Measuring Social Carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON SPATIAL PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Muta'ali

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to examine environmental carrying capacity analyzed based on aspects of spatial planning and eco-region. The result showed that Kulonprogo Regency has low value of environmental carrying capacity and can only support as much as 79.81% of its total population. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of environmental carrying capacity of protected and cultivated area. The main factor among 12 variables determining the degree of environmen...

  6. The hetero-transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells carried by hydrogel unexpectedly demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynald; Li, Yanbin; Yu, Hao; Huang, Hua; Guo, Muyao; Hua, Rongrong; Jiang, Fenjun; Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Hailong; Wang, Fei; Li, Lusheng; Cui, FuZhai; An, Yihua

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes a disturbance in the microenvironment in the lesion site resulting in sudden loss of sensory and motor function. Transplantation of stem cells provides a promising strategy in the treatment of SCI. But limited growth and immunological incompatibility of the stem cells with the host limits the application of this strategy. In order to get better survival and integration with the host, we employed a hyaluronic acid (HA) based scaffold covalently modified by poly-l-Lysine (PLL) as a vehicle to deliver the human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the injured spinal cord of rats. The BMSCs were chosen as an ideal candidate for its advantage of low expression of major histocompatibility complex II. The data unexpectedly showed that the hetero-transplanted cells survived well in the lesion site even at 8 weeks post injury. Both the immunofluorescent and the electrophysiological assay indicated better survival of the transplanted cells and improved axonal growth in SCI rats transplanted with BMSCs in HA-PLL in contrast to the groups without either BMSCs or the HA scaffold transplantation. These promotions may account for the functional recovery assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale in the HA-PLL seeded with BMSCs group. These data suggests that hetero-transplantation of human BMSCs delivered by HA scaffold demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

  7. Bivalve carrying capacity in coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dame, R.F.; Prins, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    carrying capacity of suspension feeding bivalves in 11 coastal and estuarine ecosystems is examined. Bivalve carrying capacity is defined in terms of water mass residence time, primary production time and bivalve clearance time. Turnover times for the 11 ecosystems are compared both two and three di

  8. Comments on the image of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2016-01-01

    Thedore Oreiser was one of America's greatest writers and one of his famous masterpieces is Sister Carrie. the heroin of the novel was a country girl who struggled for success and finally became a movie star. Analysis on the image of Carrie is of practical significance to the country girls swarming into the city nowdays in our country.

  9. Carrie Chapman Catt and Woman Suffrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the material for this issue of the "Goldfinch," which explores the life of Carrie Chapman Catt, came from the archives of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) was an Iowan who advocated woman suffrage and spent 26 years actively working for that cause. The issue contains a biography of Catt, and…

  10. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...

  11. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  12. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴水妹

    2007-01-01

    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  13. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of HIG, a novel human cell line carrying t(1;3)(p36.3;q25.3) established from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Noriko; Ogawa, Seishi; Motokura, Tohru; Hangaishi, Akira; Wang, Lili; Qiao, Ying; Nannya, Yasuhito; Kogi, Mieko; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-12-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving 1p36, 3q21, and/or 3q26 have been reported in a subset of myeloid neoplasms having characteristic dysmegakaryopoiesis, and the overexpression of EVI1 on 3q26 or of MEL1 on 1p36 has been implicated in their pathogenesis. We describe molecular cytogenetic analyses of a novel human cell line, HIG, established from a unique case in which a novel translocation t(1;3)(p36;q26) appeared as the sole additional chromosomal abnormality at the time of blastic transformation of chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient displayed clinical features resembling those of the 3q21q26 syndrome. The HIG cell line retained der(1)t(1;3)(p36;q26) but lost t(9;22)(q34;q11). To identify the relevant gene that would be deregulated by this translocation, we molecularly cloned the translocation's breakpoints. They were distant from the breakpoint cluster regions of the 3q21q26 syndrome or t(1;3)(p36;q21), and neither the EVI1 nor the MEL1 transcript was detected in the HIG cell line. None of the genes located within 150 kilobase pairs of the breakpoints were aberrantly expressed, suggesting that in this case other gene(s) more distant from the breakpoints are deregulated by possible remote effects. Further analyses of the deregulated genes in the HIG cell line should provide important insight into the mechanisms involved in these types of leukemias.

  14. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  15. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  16. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak; Bal Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS) adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  17. Carrying Network Accessing Architecture and Strategy Based on Business Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abilities of real-time sensing and information sharing, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has been applied in more and more fields. Basing on the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT, the issue about heterogeneous network integration is becoming more important. We first analyze the new businesses that arise recently for cell phone users as well as the potential effect on carrying network. After that we mainly discuss the influence on traditional carrying network for WSN accessing and taking concurrent businesses as the study case, common access architecture from WSN to carrying network is constructed, which makes use of business differentiation. Furthermore, we propose the idea of tortuous access from WSN to the gateway in the carrying network to avoid congested paths with simulation and verification. Finally, we conclude the possible impacts for the integration of these two networks and present possible solutions.

  18. Effects of carrying methods and box handles on two-person team carrying capacity for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Chang, Shu-Yu

    2010-07-01

    This study used a psychophysical approach to examine the effects of carrying methods and the presence or absence of box handles on the maximum acceptable weight carried and resulting responses (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) in a two-person carrying task. After training, 16 female subjects performed a two-person carrying task at knuckle height for an 8-h work period. Each subject performed 4 different carrying combinations two times. The independent variables were carrying methods (parallel and tandem walking) and box handles (with and without handles). For comparison with two-person carrying, the subjects also performed one-person carrying. The results showed that the maximum acceptable weight carried (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly affected by the presence of box handles. However, the subjects' MAWC, HR, and RPE values were not significantly influenced by the carrying methods. The test-retest reliability of the psychophysical approach was 0.945. The carrying efficiency of two-person carrying was 96.2% of the one-person carrying method. In general, the use of box with handles allows the subjects to carry a higher MAWC (with lower HR and RPE) compared to carrying boxes without handles.

  19. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2015-01-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  20. POPULATION DENSITIES AND THE RANGE-CARRYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAPACITY FOR LARGE MAMMALS IN QUEEN ELIZABETH ... The highest known densities oflarge terrestrial mammals occur on the grasslands in ...... It is estimated that the proper average biomass carrying capacity for the several herbivore.

  1. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To screen positive lines for gene function, leaf lobes from two transgenic lines with a line carrying an empty vector and the wild type were subjected to somatic embryogenesis (SE), a known oxidative ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  2. A Naturalistic Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈月

    2016-01-01

    Sister Carrie is well known as the works in which naturalism attained maturity in America. Up until now, the relevant research on Dreiser and his Sister Carrie abroad and at home is primarily concerned with the frustration of American dream, the naturalistic thoughts and pessimism. The paper attempts to study it from naturalistic point of view and explain how environmental, hereditary factors and the idea of“survival of the fittest”influence Carrie’s fate.

  3. Effects of box handle position and carrying range on bi-manual carrying capacity for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Loiu, Yi; Chien, Te Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study utilizes a psychophysical approach to examine the effects on carrying capacity for bi-manual carrying tasks involving different handle positions and carrying ranges. A total of 16 female subjects participated in the experiment in groups of two people, and each group of subjects performed the tasks in a random order with 12 different combinations of carrying task. The independent variables are handle position (upper, middle, lower) and carrying range (F-F: floor height carried to floor height, F-W: floor height carried to waist height, W-W: waist height carried to waist height, W-F: waist height carried to floor height), the dependent variable is the maximum acceptable carried weight (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The results show that the handle position has a significant effect on MAWC and overall RPE but no significant effect on HR. Carrying range has a significant effect on the MAWC and HR, but no significant effect on overall HR. The handle position and carrying range have a significant interaction on the MAWC and HR. The RPE for different body parts shows significant differences, and the hands feel the most tired. Overall, this study confirms that the lower handle position with the W-W carrying range is the best combination for a two-person carrying task.

  4. Chimeric snRNA molecules carrying antisense sequences against the splice junctions of exon 51 of the dystrophin pre-mRNA induce exon skipping and restoration of a dystrophin synthesis in Δ48-50 DMD cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Fernanda Gabriella; Sthandier, Olga; Berarducci, Barbara; Toso, Silvia; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Ricci, Enzo; Cossu, Giulio; Bozzoni, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Deletions and point mutations in the dystrophin gene cause either the severe progressive myopathy Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder Becker muscular dystrophy, depending on whether the translational reading frame is lost or maintained. Because internal in-frame deletions in the protein produce only mild myopathic symptoms, it should be possible, by preventing the inclusion of specific mutated exon(s) in the mature dystrophin mRNA, to restore a partially corrected phenotype. Such control has been previously accomplished by the use of synthetic oligonucleotides; nevertheless, a significant drawback to this approach is caused by the fact that oligonucleotides would require periodic administrations. To circumvent this problem, we have produced several constructs able to express in vivo, in a stable fashion, large amounts of chimeric RNAs containing antisense sequences. In this paper we show that antisense molecules against exon 51 splice junctions are able to direct skipping of this exon in the human DMD deletion 48–50 and to rescue dystrophin synthesis. We also show that the highest skipping activity was found when antisense constructs against the 5′ and 3′ splice sites are coexpressed in the same cell. PMID:12077324

  5. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  6. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F.; Sindoni, L.; Caccioli, F.; Ududec, C.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  7. Establishment of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Line Carrying Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein and its Differentiation into Cardiomyocyte-like Cells in vitro%建立绿色荧光蛋白标记的小鼠胚胎干细胞系及向心肌样细胞的分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜祖韵; 袁毅君; 陈良标; 陆永良; 姚行; 戴利成; 张铭

    2004-01-01

    The availability of EGFP ES cell D3 lines provided a tractable model to study cell differentiation and tissue generation in vivo and in vitro. Plasmid pEGFP N2 was introduced into the murine embryonic stem cell D3 by standard calcium phosphate precipitation. Transfected clones were screened out under the fluorescence microscope at the 488 nm emission light in the presence of G418. Strong fluorescent EGFP clones were singly picked out and further proliferated on a feeder layer of mitomycin-C treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts. One line of EGFP ES D3 cells subcultured twenty passages and still carried the EGFP DNA without the selecting pressure. It indicated that the gene might integrate into the ES genome or still dissociated in the cytoplasm. PCR analysis for EGFP DNA showed that undifferentiated EGFP ES cells at passage 8 and 18 carried the EGFP gene. Alkaline phosphatase staining,embryoid body and teratoma formation were performed to analyze the differentiation status and potential of the EGFP ES D3 cells. The cells derived from embryoid body were able to differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes with green fluorescence clearly observable under the confocal laser scanning microscopy. 30% ~ 40% of cells from embryoid bodies were capable to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells, and it appeared lower than the non-transfected ES D3 cells, which could be 60% ~ 70% under the same conditions. The mechanism was currently unknown. Immunocytochemistry staining indicated that the contracting cells were cardiomyocytes based on the presence of cardiac specific molecular marker cTnT. Results showed that the stable EGFP positive ES cell line retained the typical characteristics of ES cells and possessed the pluripotential to differentiate into beating myocytes in vitro.The EGFP transfected cells stably yielding bright green fluorescence in real time and in situ rendered it was a powerful tool in cell transplantation and tissue engineering.%带有GFP基因的ES D3

  8. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  9. An Optical Carry Chain Fast Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Al-Dabass

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in Arithmetic Unit design and particularly for systolic arrays remains the speed attainable in achieving high speed addition. The root of the problem is carry propagation and a method is presented which is relatively independent of word length. The problem is addressed by the description of a suggested radical design involving a hybrid optical and electronic approach. The method of carry chain addition through pass gates is explained and a suggested implementation utilising Fabry-Perott resonators, optical waveguides and voltage controlled couplers is described. The design is suitable for n-stage modular expansion.

  10. Dataset in support of the generation of Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 patient-specific iPS cell lines carrying the novel NPC1 mutation c.1180T>C or the prevalent c.3182T>C mutation – Analysis of pluripotency and neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Peter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data presented in this article demonstrate the generation and characterization of two novel Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, related to the research article Trilck et al. (Diversity of Glycosphingolipid GM2 and Cholesterol Accumulation in NPC1 Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Neurons; Brain Res.; 2017; 1657:52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.11.031. For reprogramming fibroblasts, carrying the novel homozygous mutation c.1180T>C and the prevalent homozygous mutation c.3182T>C, were used. Reprogramming into patient-specific iPSCs was induced by retroviral transduction of the transcription factors Sox2, Klf4, Oct4 and c-Myc, and confirmed according to their pluripotency. The iPSCs were subsequently differentiated into neural progenitor cells, which were terminally differentiated into functional neurons and glial cells. The generation of these cell lines provides further valuable tools to investigate pathogenic mechanism of NPC1 in human neuronal cells carrying different NPC1 mutations.

  11. Dataset in support of the generation of Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 patient-specific iPS cell lines carrying the novel NPC1 mutation c.1180T>C or the prevalent c.3182T>C mutation - Analysis of pluripotency and neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Trilck, Michaela; Rabenstein, Michael; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2017-06-01

    Data presented in this article demonstrate the generation and characterization of two novel Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, related to the research article Trilck et al. (Diversity of Glycosphingolipid GM2 and Cholesterol Accumulation in NPC1 Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Neurons; Brain Res.; 2017; 1657:52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.11.031). For reprogramming fibroblasts, carrying the novel homozygous mutation c.1180T>C and the prevalent homozygous mutation c.3182T>C, were used. Reprogramming into patient-specific iPSCs was induced by retroviral transduction of the transcription factors Sox2, Klf4, Oct4 and c-Myc, and confirmed according to their pluripotency. The iPSCs were subsequently differentiated into neural progenitor cells, which were terminally differentiated into functional neurons and glial cells. The generation of these cell lines provides further valuable tools to investigate pathogenic mechanism of NPC1 in human neuronal cells carrying different NPC1 mutations.

  12. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  13. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  14. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  15. Computer Simulation Instruction: Carrying out Chemical Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtesam Al-Mashaqbeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of computer simulation Instruction (CSI on students' achievements: Carrying out chemical experiments to acquire chemical concepts for eleventh grade students. The subject of the study consisted two sections of a one girl's high school in Jordan. One section was randomly assigned to experimental group in which computer simulation Instruction (CSI was used, and the other section was randomly assigned to control group in which students were instructed by using the traditional teaching instruction. The findings indicated that there is progress on the part of the experimental group which used the computer simulation Instruction (CSI and this was reflected positively in the students’ achievement in carrying out chemical experiments to acquire chemical concepts.

  16. A decimal carry-free adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  17. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  18. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply.Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city.She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  19. A C-Testable Multiple-Block Carry Select Adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Nobutaka; Fujii, Shinichi; Takagi, Naofumi

    We propose a C-testable multiple-block carry select adder with respect to the cell fault model. Full adders and 2: 1 multiplexers are considered as cells. By an additional external input, we obtain a C-testable carry select adder. We only modify the least significant position of each block. The adder is testable with a test set consisting of 16 patterns regardless of the size of each block and the number of blocks. This is the minimum test set for the adder. We show two gate-level implementations of the adder which are testable with a test set of 9 patterns and 7 patterns respectively, with respect to the single stuck-at fault model.

  20. c-Myc-Induced Extrachromosomal Elements Carry Active Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Smith

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine Pre-13 lymphocytes with experimentally activated MycER show both chromosomal and extrachromosomal gene amplification. In this report, we have elucidated the size, structure, functional components of c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements (EEs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that EEs isolated from MycER-activated Pre-B+ cells are an average of 10 times larger than EEs isolated from non-MycER-activated control Pre-B- cells. We demonstrate that these large c-Myc-induced EEs are associated with histone proteins, whereas EEs of non-MycER-activated Pre B- cells are not. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses using pan -histone-specific, histone H3 phosphorylation-specific, histone H4 acetylation-specific antibodies indicate that a significant proportion of EEs analyzed from MycER-activated cells harbors transcriptionally competent and/or active chromatin. Moreover, these large, c-Myc-induced EEs carry genes. Whereas the total genetic make-up of these c-Myc-induced EEs is unknown, we found that 30.2% of them contain the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR gene, whereas cyclin C (CCNC was absent. In addition, 50% of these c-Myc-activated Pre-B+ EEs incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, identifying them as genetic structures that self-propagate. In contrast, EEs isolated from non-Myc-activated cells neither carry the DHFR gene nor incorporate BrdU, suggesting that c-Myc deregulation generates a new class of EEs.

  1. Information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simidzija, Petar; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of the sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter-dominated cosmologies.

  2. DESIGN OF OPTIMAL CARRY SKIP ADDER AND CARRY SKIP BCD ADDER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES

    OpenAIRE

    Praveena Murugesan; Thanushkodi Keppanagounder

    2014-01-01

    Reversible logic circuits have the ability to produce zero power dissipation which has found its importance in quantum computing, optical computing and low power digital circuits. The study presents improved and efficient reversible logic circuits for carry skip adder and carry skip BCD adder. The performance of the proposed architecture is better than the existing works in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant inputs. This design forms the basis for different quantum ALU and embe...

  3. Testability Synthesis for Jumping Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-In Henry Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis for testability ensures that the synthesized circuit is testable by exploring the fundamental relationship between don't care and redundancy. With the exploration of the relationship, redundancy removal can be applied to improve the testability, reduce the area and improve the speed of a synthesized circuit. The test generation problems have been adequately solved, therefore an innovative testability synthesis strategy is necessary for achieving the maximum fault coverage and area reduction for maximum speed. This paper presents a testability synthesis methodology applicable to a top–down design method based on the identification and removal of redundant faults. Emphasis has been placed on the testability synthesis of a high-speed binary jumping carry adder. A synthesized 32-bit testable adder implemented by a 1.2 μm CMOS technology performs addition in 4.09 ns. Comparing with the original synthesized circuit, redundancy removal yields a 100% testable design with a 15% improvement in speed and a 25% reduction in area.

  4. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-01

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.

  5. Efficient carry skip Adder design using full adder and carry skip block based on reversible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, binary full Adder with Design I and Design II are proposed. The performance analysis is verified using number of reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs, delay, number of logical calculations and Quantum Cost. According to the suitability of full adder design I and design II carry skip adder block is also constructed with some improvement in terms of delay in block carry generation. It is observed that Reversible carry skip Binary Adder with Design II is efficient compared to Design I

  6. 急进高原士兵血细胞指标及血气呼吸功能的改变与防护%Observation on the change and protection of soldiers'T sub,blood cell systems like RBC ete,Oxygen carrying function of red blood cells and respiration function in their abrupt highland advancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永良; 欧剑峰; 赵治华; 张世范; 董银生; 吴明延; 解好群; 刘彩虹

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of T sub,RBC,PLC,WBC systems,oxygen carrying function of red blood cells and respiration function of soldiers under abrupt highland advancing,and to observe the influence of self made functional food Anti fatigue capsuleⅢ on protection from acute altitudel/highland reaction(AHR)/acute respiration incompletion(ARI).Method To randomly divide 360 young soldiers under abrupt highland advancing from attitude of 550 ms to altitudes of 2260 ms,2900 ms,3200 ms,4400 ms and 4800 ms into Antifatigue Capsule Ⅲ group(AG),Red Honggjingtian Compound(RCO) group(RG) and placebo(PCO) contrast group(CG) with 120 persons each.They are asked to take anti fatigue capsule Ⅲ ,RCO and PCO respectively 24 hours before advancing.The at the altitudes of 3200 ms and 4400 ms,some soldiers chosen randomly from each group are tested to observe their functional changes of blood oxyen of arteria cruralis,T sub,blood cells and lungs.Result Cases of AHR and Ari in AG and RG are much lower in number than in CG;T Sub of AG show significance and more significance difference from those of RG and CG,and RBC,WBC,HGH and CTH in hemogram show different changes etc.Conclusion Abrupt highland advancing influences the soldiers'T cellular function,which shows irregular changes,While anti function Ⅲ can develop markedly their T cellular function and its stability,raise body's adaptability to abrupt altitude change and resistace to altitude reaction.%目的 观察急进高原士兵 T细胞亚群、红细胞、血小板和白细胞及血气、呼吸功能的改变,及使用功能性食品Ⅲ胶囊防护急性高原反应 (AHR)/急性呼吸功能不全 (ARI)的影响。方法从由内陆海拔为 555 m急进高原 2260 m、 2900m、 3200m、 4400m、 4800m的 360例青年士兵中随机分为,Ⅲ胶囊防治组 (AG),复方红景天 (RCO)防治组 (RG),安慰剂 (PCO)对照组 (CG)各 120例,均急进高原前 24 h

  7. HIF-1α基因RNA干扰质粒在胃癌细胞中的构建与鉴定%Construction of a vector carrying a small hairpin RNA targeting the HIF-1α gene and its expression in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚青; 方淑环; 高国全

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To construct a plasmid carrying a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the HIF-lct gene and to observe its expression in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. METHODS: SHIF-la-specific shRNA sequence was designed, synthesized and cloned into the expression vector pSilencer 1.0-U6. The recombi-nants were identified by double digestion with EcoR I + Apa I and DNA sequencing, and then transfected into SGC-7901 cells under hypoxia. Forty-eight hours after transfection, HIF-la expression was detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing confirmed that the shRNA was correctly inserted into the plasmid pSilenc-er 1.0-U6. The recombinant plasmid carrying the shRNA targeting HIF-la was successfully transfected into SGC-7901 cells. Western blot analysis suggested that HIF-la expression was knocked down in transfected cells compared to control cells. CONCLUSION: A plasmid carrying a shRNA targeting HIF-la has been constructed successfully, and SGC-7901 cells stably transfected with this recombinant vector have been obtained. These will offer favorable tools for studying HIF-la-targeted gene therapy.%目的:构建转录因子HIF-1α表达的RNA干扰(RNA interference,RNAi)质粒,为研究HIF-1α参与的细胞信号通路及以HIF-1α为靶点的基因治疗提供稳定转染细胞的RNAi.方法:选取HIF-1α基因的19nt特异性序列,设计针对HIF-1α的shRNA序列,应用基因重组技术克隆到pSilencer 1.0-U6表达载体中,利用EcoRⅠ和paⅠ双酶切和DNA测序鉴定重组克隆.低氧条件下,将包含HIF-1α基因RNAi序列的重组载体转染人胃癌细胞SGC-7901,转染48 h后,收集细胞裂解液,Western blotting分析低氧条件下对照组与转染组HIF-1α蛋白的表达水平.结果:双酶切证实shRNA插入pSilencer 1.0-U6质粒,DNA测序证实插入的序列正确;HIF-1α基因RNAi质粒转染胃癌细胞SGC-7901成功;Western blotting结果显示与空质粒对照组比转染组细胞HIF-1α表达下

  8. Efficient Approaches for Designing Fault Tolerant Reversible Carry Look-Ahead and Carry-Skip Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Combinational or Classical logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit implements only the functions having one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors and therefore naturally takes care of heating. Reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing fault tolerant reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed high speed reversible adders include MIG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The MIG gate is universal and parity preserving. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs...

  9. 含临床病毒株聚合酶逆转录酶区的乙肝病毒DNA稳定复制细胞系的构建%Establishment of a Stable Cell Line Replicating Hepatitis B Virus DNA Carrying the Reverse Transcriptase Region Derived from a Clinical Isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向明确; 蔡雪飞; 张文露; 黄爱龙; 胡接力

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建含有临床病毒株聚合酶逆转录酶(RT)区的乙肝病毒(HBV) DNA稳定复制细胞系.方法 采用巢式PCR从患者血清扩增HBV DNA片段,利用片段置换反应将该片段克隆到HBV DNA复制载体,并在该载体上引入新霉素抗性基因,在确认该重组DNA体外可复制后,将其转染HepG2细胞,G418筛选,采用real-time PCR结合ELISA及Southern blot检测初筛和鉴定HBV DNA稳定复制细胞系.结果 从患者血清扩增出的HBV DNA片段nt55~1654被成功置换到HBV复制质粒pLL相应区域,得到质粒p11;新霉素抗性基因表达片段被克隆到p11中HBV DNA下游,获得质粒p11-neo,Southern blot检测证实p11-neo可支持体外复制;p11-neo转染HepG2后,经筛选鉴定,获得了可支持HBV DNA稳定复制的细胞系3-10.结论 建立了含有临床病毒株聚合酶RT区的HBV DNA稳定复制细胞系,real-time PCR结合ELISA有助于HBV DNA稳定复制细胞系的快速初筛鉴定.%Objective To establish a stable cell line that can replicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA carrying the reverse transcriptase sequence derived from a clinical isolate. Methods Nested PCR was used to amplify the HBV DNA fragment from the serum. The fragment was cloned into a plasmid that can support HBV replication in vitro by fragment substitution reaction ( FSR) , followed by the cloning of the neomycin expressing fragment downstream from HBV DNA. G418 selection was conducted after the transfection of HepG2 cells with the recombinant DNA. Real-time PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to screen stable cell lines that can replicate HBV DNA, and the replication of HBV DNA by the cell line was confirmed by using Southern blot analysis. Results Fragment nt55-1654 amplified from the serum DNA was substituted to the plasmid pLL, generating the plasmid p11. The neomycin fragment was cloned into p11 , leading to the plasmid pll-neo, and pll-neo was confirmed to be HBV-replication-competent. A stable

  10. Twist基因逆转录病毒载体的构建及其诱导正常乳腺上皮细胞发生上皮间质转化%Construction of retroviral vector carrying Twist gene and its induction of epithelialmesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳佳; 胡萍; 周明莉; 黄杰涛; 柳满然

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct a retroviral vector carrying Twist gene and investigate its effect on human mammary MCF10A epithelial cells.Methods Myc-Twist was digested from pcDNA3/myc-Twist and subcloned into the retroviral vector pBABE-puro to construct a recombinant plasmid (pBABE-myc-Twist).The inserted Twist gene was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing.The plasmid pBABE-myc-Twist and the packaging plasmid pAmpho were co-transfected into HEK293T cells for packaging of retrovirus.Meanwhile,the control plasmid pBABE-puro and the packaging plasmid were co-transfected into the other HEK293T cells as a control group.Human mammary MCF10A epithelial cells were infected with the retroviruses carrying Twist gene or the controls,and selected by puromycin.The expression of Twist in the MCF10A-Twist and MCF10A-Vector cells was determined by RT-PCR and Westem blotting.The expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins induced by Twist in MCF10A cells were detected using immunofluorescence cytochemistry and Westem blotting.Cell migration and invasion abilities were analyzed by Transwell(R) assay.Results The myc-tagged Twist gene was correctly inserted into the retroviral expression vector as a recombinant plasmid (pBABE-myc-Twist) as identified by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing.The Twist gene was efficiently delivered into human mammary MCF10A epithelial cells by the retrovirus,resulting in the stable expression of Twist mRNA and myc-tagged Twist protein as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The expression of the epithelial biomarker E-cadherin was downregulated whereas,the mesenchymal marker vimentin upregulated in MCF10A-Twist cells as shown by immunofluorescence cytochemistry and Western blotting.Cell migration and invasion abilities were enhanced notably in MCF10A-Twist cells as compared with MCF10A-Vector control cells (P <0.01).Conclusion Twist induces EMT of MCF10A cells and plays an important role in

  11. Construction of recombinant adenovirus carrying HSV-TK controlled by hMAM enhancer and promoter and its targeted killing effect on human breast cancer cells%hMAM-EP调控HSV-TK腺病毒载体的构建及其对乳腺癌细胞的靶向杀伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建刚; 吴金香; 庞春秀; 林德馨

    2012-01-01

    目的:分别构建人乳腺珠蛋白(human mammaglobin,hMAM)基因增强子和启动子(enhancer and promoter of hMAM,hMAM-EP)调控的增强型绿色荧光蛋白(enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)报告基因和单纯疱疹病毒胸苷激酶(herpes simple virus thymidine kinase,HSV-TK)自杀基因两种重组腺病毒载体,探讨hMAM-EP调控的HSV-TK在乳腺癌细胞特异性表达及其对乳腺癌的靶向治疗作用.方法:构建hMAM-EP-EGFP和hMAM-EP-TK重组质粒载体,将重组质粒目的基因转移到腺病毒骨架黏粒载体pAxcwit2,并转染HEK 293细胞获得重组腺病毒载体Ad-EP-EGFP和Ad-EP-TK.将Ad-EP-EGFP感染乳腺癌细胞T-47D、ZR-75-30和鼻咽癌细胞5-8F,荧光显微镜观察EGFP的表达.将Ad-EP-TK感染T47D细胞,给予1、10、20、50 μg/ml前药更昔洛韦(ganciclovir,GCV),观察TK基因对乳腺癌细胞的特异杀伤作用.结果:成功构建hMAM-EP调控的重组腺病毒载体Ad-EP-EGFP和Ad-EP-TK.Ad-EP-EGFP感染后,乳腺癌T-47D细胞可见EGFP表达,但ZR-75-30细胞和5-SF细胞无表达.与未感染组或感染Ad-EP-EGFP组相比,Ad-EP-TK重组腺病毒联合GCV(50 μg/ml)组T-47D细胞存活率显著降低[(35.69±0.07)%vs (91.74±0.02)%,(87.69 ±0.11)%;P <0.05],且随GCV质量浓度的增加,T-47D细胞存活率逐渐下降,在MOI=100、GCV质量浓度分别为1、10、20、50 μg/ml条件下,细胞存活率分别为(94.34 ±0.04)%、(86.26 ±0.02)%、(66.51±0.09)%、(35.69±0.07)%.结论:hMAM-EP调控的HSV-TK自杀基因在乳腺癌T-47D细胞中特异性表达,Ad-EP-TK联合GCV可靶向杀伤乳腺癌T-47D细胞.%Objective:To construct two recombinant adenovirus vectors carrying reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or suicide gene herpes simple virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) at the downstream of enhancer and promoter of human mammaglobin (hMAM-EP). To explore breast-cancer-cell-specific regulation effect of hMAM-EP and new methods of targeted therapy for

  12. Construction of Cashmere Goat Embryos Carrying K2.9 Gene by Transgenic Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technology%转K2.9基因绒山羊体细胞核移植技术体系的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓燕; 于永生; 刘晓辉; 王正朝; 王晓阳; 朴庆林; 张立春; 金海国

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to change the protein composition of wool and improve the quality of wool, transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer technology was used to prepare K2.9 (gene from hair keratin intermediate filament type II) transgenic cashmere goat embryos to produce transgenic goats. [Method] Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells were transfected by hair follice-specific expression vector pcDNA3.1-K containing K2.9 and Neor gene, and G418 was used to select transgenic cells as donor cells. To improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer technology, the effects of the activation methods and the sources of donor cells and oocytes on the development of parthenogenetic embryos were studied. Identification of the genomic DNA of transgenic blastocysts by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved that the exogenous gene had already been integrated into genomes of blastocyst cells. [Result] The cleavage rate of adult cashmere goat parthenogenetic embryos was significantly increased by Iono+6-D activation. lono+6-D was more suitable to the activation of adult cashmere goat oocytes than A23187+6-D. The cleavage rate of lamb pathenogenetic embryos was significantly lower than that of adult cashmere goat parthenogenetic embryos, but the blastocyst rate had no significant difference. The development of nuclear transfer embryos from the transgenic fibroblast cells of two cashmere goat fetuses as donor cells weren't affected, but the fusion rate of nuclear transfer embryos from the transgenic fibroblast cells of 2nd cashmere goat fetuse as donor cells were greatly increased. The development of nuclear transfer embryos from lamb oocytes was signicicantly reduced. The manipulated blastocysts were confirmed carrying K2.9 gene by PCR. [Conclusion] The transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer technology could produce cashmere goat blastocysts carrying K2.9 gene , which were constructed through K2.9 transgenic cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells by hair follicle-specific expression

  13. Fault tolerant reversible logic synthesis: Carry look-ahead and carry-skip adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar; 10.1109/ACTEA.2009.5227871

    2010-01-01

    Irreversible logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit naturally takes care of heating because it implements only the functions that have one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors. Therefore reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed 16-bit high speed reversible adder will include IG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The IG gate is universal in the sense that it can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean-functions. The IG gate is parity preserving, that is, the parity of the input...

  14. Carrying photosynthesis genes increases ecological fitness of cyanophage in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweger, Ferdi L

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses infecting marine cyanobacteria carry photosynthesis genes (e.g. psbA, hli) that are expressed, yield proteins (D1, HLIP) and help maintain the cell's photosynthesis apparatus during the latent period. This increases energy and speeds up virus production, allowing for a reduced latent period (a fitness benefit), but it also increases the DNA size, which slows down new virus production and reduces burst size (a fitness cost). How do these genes affect the net ecological fitness of the virus? Here, this question is explored using a combined systems biology and systems ecology ('systems bioecology') approach. A novel agent-based model simulates individual cyanobacteria cells and virus particles, each with their own genes, transcripts, proteins and other properties. The effect of D1 and HLIP proteins is explicitly considered using a mechanistic photosynthesis component. The model is calibrated to the available database for Prochlorococcus ecotype MED4 and podovirus P-SSP7. Laboratory- and field-scale in silico survival, competition and evolution (gene packaging error) experiments with wild type and genetically engineered viruses are performed to develop vertical survival and fitness profiles, and to determine the optimal gene content. The results suggest that photosynthesis genes are nonessential, increase fitness in a manner correlated with irradiance, and that the wild type has an optimal gene content.

  15. Comparison of Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Red Blood Cell in Salvaged Blood of Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery vs Peripheral Blood Before Anesthesia%骨科手术中回收血红细胞与患者麻醉前红细胞携氧能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱颐; 丁玉美; 崔永武; 安敏

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the difference of oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cell between salvaged blood of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and peripheral blood before anesthesia. [Methods] Thirty patients undergoing orthopedic surgery received autologous blood transfusion by using blood salvage machine during operation. Thirty blood samples in each of salvaged blood processed by blood salvage machine and peripheral blood before anesthesia were drawn.The pH of blood samples in two groups was measured. The formula was used to calculate 50 % partial pressure of oxygen (P50) in blood samples. The level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate(2,3- DPG) in erythrocytes was measured by radioimmunoas say and red cell deformability index(RCD) was determined on blood rheology instrument. [Results] The pH and P50 in salvaged blood were higher than those in peripheral blood before anesthesia, but there was no significant difference( P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in 2,3 DPG level and RCD between salvaged blood and peripheral blood before anesthesia( P >0.05). [Conclusion] The oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cell in salvaged blood of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery is the same as that in peripheral blood before anesthesia.%[目的]比较骨科患者术中回收血红细胞与麻醉前红细胞携氧能力的差异.[方法]使用血液回收机对30例骨科手术患者行术中自体血液回收.取血液回收机处理后的回收血和麻醉前患者外周血各30份,检测两组血样的pH、根据公式计算血样的50%氧分压(P50),采用放射免疫法测定红细胞内2,3-二磷酸甘油酸浓度(2,3-DPG)、在血液流变仪上测定红细胞变形指数(RCD).[结果]回收血样pH值、P50高于麻醉前血样,但无显著性差异(P>0.05);2,3-DPG 浓度、RCD与麻醉前血样比较差异亦无显著性(P>0.05).[结论]骨科患者术中回收血红细胞与麻醉前外周血红细胞具有相同的携氧能力.

  16. Carrying Capacity of Marine Region in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carrying capacity is one of important studies on coordinating development of population, resources, and environment. At present, the researches on it mainly concentrate on the carrying capacity for population and economy,such as the water resources carrying capacity, the land resources carrying capacity, the environment carrying capacity,etc. Based on the related theories and methods, this paper creatively proposed the concept and meaning of carrying capacity of marine region, and formed the appraisal system. According to the developing situation of marine economy of Liaoning Province in recent years, and by employing the method of the state space, this paper also measured the cartying capacity and carrying state of marine region and discussed the sustainable problems of marine economy of Liaoning. The research results show that the carrying state of marine region of Liaoning is in the state of overloading at present, but taking a favorable turn.

  17. 携带绿色荧光蛋白基因的神经上皮干细胞移植治疗帕金森病%Treatment of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of neuroepithelial stem cells carrying green fluorescent protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家增

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic transplantation of neural stem cells in cell replacement therapy is the hot spots for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). But the prior studies mainly focus on the morphological information of transplanted cells and animal behavior change, and the mechanism is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanism of neuroepithelial stem cells transplantation for the treatment of PD through the research of the relationship between the rotation behavior change and the content of dopamine of PD rats after neuroepithelial stem cells transplantation.METHODS: The PD rat models were established and divided into two groups. The neuroepithelial stem cells derived from green fluorescent protein in experimental group were transplanted into striatum of PD rat model after clone, and then rat in the control group was injected with normal saline. The survival and differentiation of transplant neuroepithelial stem cells were detected and the relationship between the change of rotation behavior and content of dopamine were analyzed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The rotation behavior of rat in the experimental group was improved significantly after transplantation. Some grafts were found survived well and some TH-positive cells could be detected in the graft region. The content of dopamine in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group. The recovery of PD rat rotational behavior was positively related to dopamine content change after the transplantation of neuroepithelial stem cells carrying green fluorescent protein, the differentiation of functional TH-positive cells may be the basic mechanism of neuroepithelial stem cells transplantation for the treatment of PD.%背景:神经干细胞异体移植的细胞替代疗法是治疗帕金森病的热点,但先前的研究重点关注移植细胞的形态学信息和动物的行为改变,作用机制尚未明确.目的:通过检测神经上皮干细胞脑内移植后帕金森病模型大鼠的旋

  18. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shen Lin; Damu Radhakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture ...

  19. Interpretations of the Image of Caroline in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱绘

    2014-01-01

    In the history of American naturalistic literature, Sister Carrie is a representative work of this literary genre. And the protagonist of this novel Caroline has always been a controversial character. Based on Sister Carrie and the social background of that period in America, this paper discussed the various interpretations of the image of Carrie from different aspects.

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each...

  1. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shen Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture delivers the sum and carry outputs in lesser unit delays than existing carry-skip adders. The adder is implemented in 0.25 m CMOS technology at 3.3 V. The critical delay for the proposed adder is 3.4 nanoseconds. The simulation results show that the proposed adder is 18% faster than the current fastest carry-skip adder.

  2. GOOD OUTCOME FOR VERY HIGH RISK ADULT B-CELL ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKAEMIA CARRYING GENETIC ABNORMALITIES t(4;11(q21;q23 or t(9;22(q34;q11, IF PROMPTLY SUBMITTED TO ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION, AFTER OBTAINING A GOOD MOLECULAR REMISSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Parma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL carrying t(9;22 or t(4;11 genetic abnormalities represents a very high risk subtype of disease (VHR-ALL. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT still remains the only curative option also in the Imatinib era. In the last years low molecular level of minimal residual disease (MRD before HSCT was reported as one of the best favourable indexes for survival in ALL. Here we observed that even these patients can show a favourable outcome, if submitted to HSCT with very low MRD. Methods: We considered 18 consecutive VHR-ALL patients eligible to HSCT. 16 of them were transplanted upon first remission, as soon as possible, employing myelo-ablative conditioning regimens. Molecular MRD has been evaluated before and after HSCT.Results: Immediately before HSCT MRD revealed: complete molecular remission (MRDneg for 5 patients and a level <1x10-3 for 7 patients; 100 days after HSCT we had: MRDneg for 7 patients and a decrease for all the others after HSCT. After tapering of immunosuppressive drugs, 13 patients reached the MRDneg in a median time of 8 months (range 3-16; Based on intention to treat analysis: 14/18 patients are alive and disease free at the time of analysis, overall survival and event free survival is of 78% and 66% respectively, with an average follow-up of 45 months (range 6-84 since HSCT. Conclusion: Early transplantation with low MRD level seems to be correlated with a favourable outcome also in VHR-ALL

  3. 人Nanog基因重组腺病毒载体的构建及其在人脐带间充质干细胞中的表达%Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector carrying human Nanog gene and its expression in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙靖; 徐哲; 钱茜; 严家来; 陈圆; 张徐; 高硕; 钱晖; 许文荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct recombinant adenovirus vector carrying human Nanog gene and transfect human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs). Methods The amplification products of Nanog in polymernse chain reaction (PCR) by using a pair of primers containing the sites of restriction endonuclease Kpn I and Xho I were subcloned into shuttle plasmid pAdtrack-CMV.After analysis of restriction endonuclease and confirmation by sequencing, the recombinant shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CMV-Nanog was linearized by Pme I , and then transformed into E. coli. BJ5183 which was transformed by adenoviral backbone plasmid pAdEasy-1.The recombinant plasmid pAd-Nanog obtained from screening was confirmed by PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis. The pAdNanog plasmid was linearized by Pac Ⅰ and transfected into human embryonal kidney cell 293A via liposome. The recombinant adenovirus was packaged and amplified in 293A cells following three amplification. The prepared highly expresed Ad-Nanog was transfected into hucMSCs. Results PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis confirmed that Nanog gene was inserted into the recombinant adenovirus vector successfully. The efficiently expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected hucMSCs was visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion Recombinant adenovirus vector containing Nanog was constructed successfully and efficiently transfected hucMSCs which should be useful in the successive investigation on transgenic mesenchymal stem cells.%目的 构建重组人Nanog基因腺病毒栽体(Ad-Nanog),转染人脐带间充质干细胞(hucMSCs),用于后续研究.方法 设计含有Kpn Ⅰ及Xho Ⅰ酶切位点的引物,PCR扩增Nanog基因,将扩增产物亚克隆到pAdTrack-CMV穿梭质粒上,经双酶切和基因测序鉴定,重组穿梭质粒经Pine Ⅰ线性化后,在含有腺病毒骨架质粒pAdEasy-1的BJ5183中同源重组,筛选获得Ad-Nanog重组腺病毒质粒.经Pac Ⅰ酶切线性化,脂质体转染293A细胞,包

  4. Construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying HSV-TK gene and its expression in HepG2 cells%含HSV-TK基因的真核表达载体的构建及其在HepG2细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳德; 孙颖

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying the HSV-TK gene driven by AFP enhancer and CMV promoter for the purpose of targeted gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods:The minimal essential DNA fragment of AFP gene enhancer was amplified through PCR from genome DNA of HepG2 cells and cloned into the BglII site of plasmid pcDNA3.1-LUC to construct the recombinant plasmid pAFP-LUC. Then the full length cDNA of HSV-TK was cloned into EcoRI site of the recombinant plasmid pAFP-LUC instead of the Luciferase gene to construct pAFP-TK. The recombinant plasmid pAFP-LUC was transferred into AFP-producing hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and non-AFP-producing nonhepatoma cell line (HeLa) by means of lipofectamine. The expression of Luciferase was tested by Luciferase Assay. Results: The length and sequence of AFP enhancer amplified by PCR were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing.The length, position and orientation of inserted AFP enhancer in pAFP-LUC were all confirmed correct by the methods of restriction digestion and PCR. And it was confirmed by electrophoresis after restriction digestion that the full length HSV-TK was directedly and successfully cloned into the eukaryotic vector . The transcription of Luciferase gene was under the control of AFP enhancer. The expression of Luciferase gene was detected in HepG2 and HeLa cells. The expression of Luciferase is more potent in HepG2 than in HeLa (P<0.05).Conclusions:Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying HSV-TK gene driven by AFP enhancer and CMV promotor and its specific expression in HepG2 cells provide a sound basis for targeted gene therapy for HCC.%目的构建AFP增强子CMV启动子调控下的HSV-TK 真核表达质粒用于肝细胞癌的靶向基因治疗.方法采用PCR方法从HepG2细胞基因组DNA中扩增AFP基因增强子最小的功能片断,插入pcDNA3.1-LUC质粒的Bgl II位点,从而构建重组表达质粒pAFP-LUC.HSV-TK cDNA

  5. 腺病毒介导G250基因转染树突状细胞激活免疫效应细胞治疗肾癌的实验研究%Experimental study of transfecting adenovirus carrying G250 antigen gene to dendritic cells and to activate immune effector cells in kidney cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐桓; 郑少斌

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate T cell-mediated effects of dendritic cells(DC)transfected with kidney associated antigen G250 gene using adenovirus(Ad)as vector in the treatment of kidney cancer. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC)were isolated by standard FicollPaque density gradient centrifugation of heparinized blood obtained from healthy donors.After removal of the nonadherent ceils,the adherent cells were divided into gene transfer group,protein pulsed group and control group.The gene transfer group was infected with Ad/G250 virus;the protein pulsed group was added with G250 protein; the control group was added with PBS.The DCs were cultured and proliferated in vitro using recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and inlerleukin-4.The autologous T cells were added into the 3 DC groups(responders:dendritics,20:1).After 5 d co-culture,3 eytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL)groups were collected.TheG250 mRNA expression was detected in transduced DCs using RT-PCR.The G250 protein translation products and cell surface marker of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry.The specific cytolytic activities of CTL to different target cells(renal carcinoma 786-0 cell line and lung cancer A549 cell line)were assessed by MTT method. Results Ad/G250 transfected DC successfully and the G250 expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression levels of CD_(80), CD_(83). HLA-DR and CD_(86) in the Ad/G250 group were higher than those in the other 2 groups. The cytotoxicity to 786-0 of T lymphocytes activated by Ad/G250 transfecting DCs(83. 4±2. 8)% was greater than those of T lymphocytes in the protein pulsed group(79. 6±2. 4)% and control group(77. 3±2. 1)%. There were no significant differences of the cytotyxicities to A549 among the 3 cytotoxic T lymphocyte groups(F=0. 373.P=0.693). Conclusions Ad-loading DCs may be useful for immunotherapeutic protocols against self-antigens for the kidney cancer.%目的 探讨以腺病毒(Ad)载

  6. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in health and disease: To carry or not to carry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tom; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism, hosting the machinery for oxidative phosphorylation, the most efficient cellular pathway for generating ATP. A major checkpoint in this process is the transport of pyruvate produced by cytosolic glycolysis into the mitochondrial matrix, which is accomplished by the recently identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). As the gatekeeper for pyruvate entry into mitochondria, the MPC is thought to be of fundamental importance in establishing the metabolic programming of a cell. This is especially relevant in the context of the aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, which is a hallmark in many types of cancer, and MPC loss of function promotes cancer growth. Moreover, mitochondrial pyruvate uptake is needed for efficient hepatic gluconeogenesis and the regulation of blood glucose levels. In this review we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the MPC, and we argue that it may offer a promising target in diseases like cancer and type 2 diabetes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  7. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  8. 携SH2-Caspase8融合基因重组腺病毒的构建及对K562细胞增殖的影响%Construction of recombinant adenovirus carrying SH2-Caspase8 fusion gene and its effect on proliferation in K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双凤; 胡晶; 曹唯希; 史静; 彭智; 王海霞; 李亚娟; 冯文莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct the recombinant adenovirus carrying SH2-Caspase8 fusion gene and its mutant to observe its inhibitory effect on proliferation of K562 cells. Methods SH2-Caspase8 fusion gene was amplified by RT-PCR and splicing PCR, and cloned into the shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CMV of adenovirus. The shuttle plasmid pAdT-SC-EGFP was constructed and identified by double-enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing, and transformed into ultra-competent pAdEasy-BJ5183 after Pme Ⅰ digestion. Defective replication recombinant adenovirus plasmid pAdE-SC-EGFP and its mutant were generated by homologous recombination and further transfected into AD293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus after Pac Ⅰ digestion. Recombinant adenovirus plasmid AdE-SC-EGFP was identified by PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and amplified for the measurement of its titers. Results PCR, enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the shuttle and recombinant plasmids of adenovirus, pAdT-SC-EGFP and pAdE-SC-EGFP, were successfully constructed. PCR and EGFP expression confirmed that the recombinant plasmid of adenovirus, pAdE-SC-EGFP, was successfully packaged. After amplification, its titer was 1.5 ×l012pfu/ml. Western blot analysis displayed the expression of target protein. MTT and colony formation test could inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells. Conclusion Recombinant adenovirus plasmid, AdE-SC-EGFP, carrying SH2-Caspase8 fusion gene and its mutant, has been successfully constructed, and can significantly inhibit the proliferation of BCR-ABL positive K562 cells in vitro.%目的构建并鉴定携SH2 -Caspase8融合基因的重组腺病毒AdE-SC-EGFP及其突变体,观察其对K562细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法采用RT-PCR、重叠PCR扩增SH2-Caspase8融合基因,克隆至腺病毒穿梭载体pAdTrack-CMV中,构建穿梭质粒pAdT-SC-EGFP,进行酶切和测序鉴定。将PmeⅠ酶切后的穿梭质粒转化pAdEasy-BJ5183感受态,通过细菌内同源重组产

  9. Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    hardware intellectual property (PCHIP) framework, which aims to ensure the trustworthiness of third-party hardware IPs utilizing formal methods. We...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property Report Title By...borrowing ideas from the proof carrying code (PCC) in software domain, in this project we introduced the proof carrying hardware intellectual property

  10. Optimal design method for fast carry-skip adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Songjun; Swartzlander, Earl E., Jr.

    2001-11-01

    A carry-skip adder is faster than a ripple carry adder and it has a simple structure. To maximize the speed it is necessary to optimize the width of the blocks that comprise the carry skip adder. This paper presents a simple algorithm to select the size of each block. Assuming that each logic gate has a unit delay, the algorithm achieves slightly faster designs for 64 and 128 bit adders than previous methods developed by Guyot, et al. and Kantabutra.

  11. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  12. Magnetically Guiding Atoms with Current-Carrying Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 高伟建; 印建平

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel magnetic guide for cold neutral atoms using some current-carrying conductors. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from a V-shaped or U-shaped current-carrying conductor are calculated, and the relationship between the resulting magnetic field and the parameters of the current-carrying conductors is analysed in detail. The result shows that these current-carrying conductors can be used to realize a single or a controllable double magnetic guide of cold atoms in the weak-field-seeking state, and to construct various atom-optical elements, and even to realize a single-mode atomic waveguiding under certain conditions.

  13. Expressional patterns of chaperones in ten human tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavc Irene

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chaperones (CH play an important role in tumor biology but no systematic work on expressional patterns has been reported so far. The aim of the study was therefore to present an analytical method for the concomitant determination of several CH in human tumor cell lines, to generate expressional patterns in the individual cell lines and to search for tumor and non-tumor cell line specific CH expression. Human tumor cell lines of neuroblastoma, colorectal and adenocarcinoma of the ovary, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma, lung, cervical and breast cancer, promyelocytic leukaemia were homogenised, proteins were separated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel digestion of proteins and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was carried out for the identification of CH. Results A series of CH was identified including the main CH groups as HSP90/HATPas_C, HSP70, Cpn60_TCP1, DnaJ, Thioredoxin, TPR, Pro_isomerase, HSP20, ERP29_C, KE2, Prefoldin, DUF704, BAG, GrpE and DcpS. Conclusions The ten individual tumor cell lines showed different expression patterns, which are important for the design of CH studies in tumor cell lines. The results can serve as a reference map and form the basis of a concomitant determination of CH by a protein chemical rather than an immunochemical method, independent of antibody availability or specificity.

  14. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  15. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying among Cocktail Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Megan D.; Wilder, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received…

  16. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  17. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 122.340 Section 122.340... Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 122.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be...

  18. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor unless...

  19. The Disillusion of American Dream in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    Dreiser is a generally acknowledged writer as one of American's literary naturalists. In Sister Carrie, the author skillfully used the naturalistic writing style which incisively and vividly showed the society environment at that time. The paper states the process that how the American dream in Sister Carrie disillusioned gradually.

  20. 携自杀基因微泡转染卵巢癌细胞株SKOV_3的超声参数及转染效率%Ultrasound parameters and transfection efficiency of microbubble carrying suicide gene for transfecting ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV_3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊萍; 杨竹; 王志刚; 汪朝霞; 甘胜伟; 李攀

    2009-01-01

    目的:探究超声介导携I型单纯疱疹病毒胸苷激酶(hsv_1tk)自杀基因微泡转染SKOV_3细胞的超声参数及转染效率.方法:超卢在不同微泡浓度与辐照时间(8,15,30,60 S间隔1 s)组合下辐照SKOV,细胞,MTT法筛选最适辐照时间和微泡浓度.将实验分成6组分别进行以下处理:超声辐照组,脂质体+超声辐照组,脂质体+微泡+超声辐照组,微泡+超声辐照组,裸质粒组(阴性对照),脂质体组(阳性对照).用裸质粒及脂质体处理后分别转染pcDNA3.1-EGFP/hsv_1tk质粒;采用荧光显微镜、流式细胞技术分别定件和定量检测各组转染效率;采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法检测hsv1tk基因的表达.结果:MTF检测在超声强度0.5 W/cm~2,频率1 MHz,微泡浓度0.56×10~(11)/L,辐照时间8 S间隔1 S条件下,超声辐照微泡转染对细胞活性无明显抑制.经此条件转染后荧光显微镜下可观察到脂质体+微泡+超声辐照组的绿色荧光强度最强;流式细胞技术检测表明,微泡+超声辐照组转染效率为(11.74 ±0.19)%,比超声辐照组(2.19 ±0.22)%高,而脂质体+微泡+超声辐照组(25.62±O.08)%均高于其他各组(JP<0.05).RT-PCR检测hsv_1tk基因结果显示,脂质体+微泡+超声辐照组的SKOV,细胞表达最高.结论:在最适的超声参数下,超声介导微泡不仅能单独促进hsv_1tk基因转染,而且还能够增强脂质体的转染效率,且能有效在SKOV_3细胞中表达.%AIM: To investigate the ultrasound parameters and transfection efficiency of microbubble carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene (hs_1wtk) for transfecting SKOV_3 cells mediated by the ultrasound. METHODS: Under the combination conditions of different ultrasound exposure times ( 8,15,30,and 60 s with the interval as 1 s) and microbubbles at different concentrations, SKOV_3 cells were exposed to the ultrasound so as to screen out the optimal ultrasound exposure time and microbubble concentration by 3

  1. National attitudes concerning gun carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D; Miller, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine public attitudes in the United States concerning gun carrying. In the past 15 years, many state legislatures have passed laws making it easier for United States citizens to carry concealed firearms, not only on the street but into various locations, including churches and government buildings. National random digit dial telephone surveys conducted in 1996 and 1999 asked questions concerning the public's feelings of safety as more people in their community carry firearms, and whether, in the language of the question, respondents believe "regular" citizens should be allowed to carry guns into public or government buildings. Americans feel less safe rather than more safe as more people in their community begin to carry guns. By margins of at least nine to one, Americans do not believe that "regular" citizens should be allowed to bring their guns into restaurants, college campuses, sports stadiums, bars, hospitals, or government buildings. The public believes that increased gun carrying by others reduces rather than increases their safety. Overwhelmingly, the public believes that in many venues gun carrying should be prohibited.

  2. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  3. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  4. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  5. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  6. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  7. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  8. Determination of the sediment carrying capacity based on perturbed theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity.

  9. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  10. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Modelled as discrete-time logistic equations with fixed carrying capacities, it captures the wildlife herbivore population dynamics. Time series data, covering a period ..... Building Models for Conservation and. Wildlife Management. (New York ...

  11. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Diana; Jaafar Mastura; Marzuki Azizan

    2014-01-01

    The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environme...

  12. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  13. Design and Implementation of High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopinath; N Sangeetha; S.Jenifer nancy; T.Umarani

    2015-01-01

    In electronic adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. Adders can be constructed for many numerical representations such as arithmetic and logical operation. The most adders operates on binary numbers. Among the different types of adders, carry select adder is a one of the fastest adder.The gate level modification is to reduce the power and area of carry select adder by using the concept of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this paper , different techniques such as Binary T...

  14. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  15. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  16. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  17. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments.

  18. The Broken American Dream Based on Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenjuan

    2012-01-01

      Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, It tells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway. In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as its distinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue American dream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society%  Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, Ittells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway.In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as itsdistinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue Americandream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society

  19. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  20. Reducing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearinger, Linda H; Pettingell, Sandra L; Resnick, Michael D; Potthoff, Sandra J

    2010-07-01

    To examine the likelihood of weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people, given the presence of salient risk and protective factors. The study used data from a confidential, self-report Urban Indian Youth Health Survey with 200 forced-choice items examining risk and protective factors and social, contextual, and demographic information. Between 1995 and 1998, 569 American Indian youths, aged 9-15 years, completed surveys administered in public schools and an after-school program. Using logistic regression, probability profiles compared the likelihood of weapon-carrying, given the combinations of salient risk and protective factors. In the final models, weapon-carrying was associated significantly with one risk factor (substance use) and two protective factors (school connectedness, perceiving peers as having prosocial behavior attitudes/norms). With one risk factor and two protective factors, in various combinations in the models, the likelihood of weapon carrying ranged from 4% (with two protective factors and no risk factor in the model) to 80% of youth (with the risk factor and no protective factors in the model). Even in the presence of the risk factor, the two protective factors decreased the likelihood of weapon-carrying to 25%. This analysis highlights the importance of protective factors in comprehensive assessments and interventions for vulnerable youth. In that the risk factor and two protective factors significantly related to weapon-carrying are amenable to intervention at both individual and population-focused levels, study findings offer a guide for prioritizing strategies for decreasing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bullying and weapon carrying: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    Studies suggest that adolescents involved in bullying are more likely to carry weapons than their uninvolved peers. To use meta-analyses to determine whether victims, bullies, and bully-victims are more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. PsycINFO, ERIC, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and Dissertation Abstracts International were searched for relevant publications (1950 through January 2014). The reference list of a review article and reference lists of retrieved articles were checked for further relevant studies. Studies were included if they provided an effect size comparing the weapon carrying of adolescent victims, bullies, or bully-victims with that of uninvolved peers. Studies that included individuals older than 21 years were excluded, as were studies that focused on incarcerated youth or youth diagnosed as having a psychopathologic condition. Studies were coded independently by 2 of us. The agreement rate was 93%. Effect sizes were coded that compared victims, bullies, or bully-victims with uninvolved peers. Meta-analyses were based on 22 studies for victims (n = 257 179), 15 studies for bullies (n = 236 145), and 8 studies for bully-victims (n = 199 563). This study focused on weapon carrying among adolescents. Hypotheses were formulated before the study. Victims (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.62-2.39), bullies (3.25; 2.72-3.89), and bully-victims (4.95; 3.77-6.50) were more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. Analyses provided no indication of publication bias. Studies conducted in the United States found stronger relations between being a bully-victim and weapon carrying (odds ratio, 7.84; 95% CI, 6.02-10.21) than studies from other countries (3.62; 2.30-5.68; Q1 = 8.401; P = .004). Involvement in bullying as a victim, bully, or bully-victim is related to weapon carrying.

  2. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-04-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term 'carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many 'local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contribution of individual immigrants to bacterial population sizes on leaves. Our analysis revealed that plant foliage represents to bacteria an environment where individual fate is determined by the local carrying capacity of the site where an immigrant cell lands. With increasing inoculation densities, the RS of most immigrants declined, suggesting that local carrying capacity under the tested conditions was linked to local nutrient availability. Fitting the observed experimental data to an adapted model of phyllosphere colonization indicated that there might exist three types of sites on leaves, which differ in their frequency of occurrence and local carrying capacity. Specifically, our data were consistent with a leaf environment that is characterized by few sites where individual immigrants can produce high numbers of offspring, whereas the remainder of the leaf offered an equal number of sites with low and medium RS. Our findings contribute to a bottom-up understanding of bacterial colonization of leaf surfaces, which includes a quantifiable role of chance in the experience at the individual level and in the outcome at the population level.

  3. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  4. Effects of dendritic cell vaccines on hematogenous micrometastasis of bladder cancer carrying for PBL-SCID mice%树突状细胞疫苗对人化荷人膀胱癌SCID鼠循环微转移转归的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Zhenguo Mi; Zhibin Li; Xiniing Yang; Jianwu Liu; Jiwen Song; Huiqing Chen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of dendritic cells loaded with whole tumor antigen on hematogenous micrometasta-sis of bladder cancer model in hu-PBL-SCID mice. Methods: T24-3 cell subset was selected from human bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cell line by Boyden chamber system. The SCID mice intraperitoneally injected with 4×107 hu-PBL and subcutaneously injected with 3 × 106 T24-3 cells were named hu-PBL-T24-3-SCID model. Human IgG level in the blood plasma of mice was detected by ELISA, and human CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T cells in blood and spleen cells of mice were detected by FCM analysis for human immune reconstruction study. Human CK20 mRNA expression in mice peripheral blood was de-tected by RT-PCR to investigate metastasis of tumor cells. The PBMCs were isolated from human peripheral blood, and were induced into DCs by co-culture with rhGM-CSF and rhlL-4 in vitro. The DC vaccines were produced by co-culturing with whole tumor antigen which was purified through freezing and melting T24-3 cell subset. After T24-3 cells injected into SCID mice for 5 weeks, the mice were treated with DC vaccines. Results: All mice were initially treated at 5th week. The expression of CK20 mRNA in peripheral blood of DC vaccines treated mice was the lowest. There was 2 mice showing CK20 mRNA expression and 3 mice with metastasis tumor in PBS group. MMP-7 mRNA expression in tumor tissues of DC vaccines treated mice was statistically lower than that of PBS group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: DC vaccines have a good effect on hu-PBL-SCID mice bladder cancer model by reducing hematogenous micrometastasis.

  5. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  6. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2002-01-01

    A time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population $N(x,t)$ is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, $B$, and of death, $D$, determine the carrying capacity $K$. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position, $x$, and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, $\\Pi (K)$. This distribution has self-similar character owing to the imposed hierarchy. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of $B$ and $D$. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a "towering pillar" biofilm. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature change away from optimal growth co...

  7. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  8. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  9. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  10. Description of Model Tests Carried Out by Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Schlütter, F.; Andersen, H.

    1996-01-01

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects.......As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  11. Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks U.S. National Park Service and CDC advise using insect repellents on ... Planning a hiking trip in an eastern U.S. national park? Better pack tick repellent -- a new study found ...

  12. 44 CFR 332.3 - Carrying out voluntary agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, each meeting of the participants in the agreement held to discuss problems, determine policies... § 332.5 of this part. A person attending a meeting under this section may present oral or written data... communications among themselves or with any other member of their industry, related to the carrying out of...

  13. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  14. Carrying Out Collaborative Action Research in a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    To help in-service English teachers improve their teaching practices and pupils' learning opportunities through an enquiry-oriented and cooperative approach, the author carried out collaborative action research during a practicum in a teacher education course at a university in Hong Kong. This article describes how the collaborative research…

  15. Arrangement for carrying out and studying chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, A.D.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9102029 (A) Described is an arrangement for carrying out TAP experiments. Such an arrangement comprises a reaction chamber in which a very short-lived beam of molecules is directed at a target to produce a short-lived beam of intermediate-product molecules, and a vacuum chamber wher

  16. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  17. Ferromagnetic behavior of formyl-group-carrying stable thioaminyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yozo; Nakamura, Shogo; Teki, Yoshio

    2003-10-17

    Four formyl-group-carrying thioaminyl radicals were generated, and one radical could be isolated as radical crystals. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the isolated radical showed a ferromagnetic regular linear-chain interaction of 2J/k(B) = 3.2 K, which was explained in terms of the X-ray crystallographic results.

  18. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  19. Cultural Carrying Capacity: A Biological Approach to Human Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Garrett

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the human and cultural implications of scientific discoveries and knowledge, the biological concept of carrying capacity is explored. Maintaining that human beings are truly animals answering to principles that govern all animals, the author addresses the need for human populations to work within the context of culture and carrying…

  20. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  1. Wakes in Dilatonic Current-Carrying Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, A L N

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we present the gravitational field generated by a cosmic string carrying a timelike current in the scalar-tensor gravities. The mechanism of formation and evolution of wakes is fully investigated in this framework. We show that the inclusion of electromagnetic properties for the string induces logarithmic divergences in the accretion problem.

  2. Nanoparticles carry chemotherapy drug deeper into solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS researchers have developed a new drug delivery method using nano-sized molecules to carry the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin to tumors, improving the effectiveness of the drug in mice and increasing their survival time. Their work has been reported online June 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  3. Maze Busters: Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane & Kathleen Sheehan--Harvard University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Even if one is equipped with an MLS, the 11 libraries that comprise the Harvard College Library can be pretty daunting. That is why Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane and Kathleen Sheehan created Threading the Maze. The online publication is presented to students in expository writing, the one course all undergraduates must take. "This highly effective…

  4. Connection and Commitment: The Career of Carrie Billy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Carrie Billy, a member of the Navajo Nation and CEO and president of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), attributes one of the country's oldest youth organizations, Girl Scouts, for opening her mind to the possibility of creating change for countless citizens. She is a trained attorney and has made it her life work to advocate…

  5. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals bacteria carried in different wind eroded sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the microbial communities carried in wind-eroded sediments from various soil types and land management systems. A novel technique, pyrosequencing, promises to expand our understanding of the vast microbial diversity of soils and eroded sediments as it can sequence between 10-10...

  7. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP, and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC. Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constructions for binary addition have been planned over the last decades, covering a wide range of presentation characteristics. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost for ripple carry adder and carry skip adder. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  8. Variable Block Carry Skip Logic using Reversible Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rafiqul; Karim, Muhammad Rezaul; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; Babu, Hafiz Md Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Reversible circuits have applications in digital signal processing, computer graphics, quantum computation and cryptography. In this paper, a generalized k*k reversible gate family is proposed and a 3*3 gate of the family is discussed. Inverter, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates can be realized by this gate. Implementation of a full-adder circuit using two such 3*3 gates is given. This full-adder circuit contains only two reversible gates and produces no extra garbage outputs. The proposed full-adder circuit is efficient in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and quantum cost. A 4-bit carry skip adder is designed using this full-adder circuit and a variable block carry skip adder is discussed. Necessary equations required to evaluate these adder are presented.

  9. High Speed Boosted Cmos Differential Logic for Ripple Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Roy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a high speed boosted CMOS differential logic which is applicable in Ripple Carry Adders. The proposed logic operating with supply voltage approaching the MOS threshold voltage. The logic style improves switching speed by boosting the gate-source voltage of transistors along timing critical signal path. It allows a single boosting circuit to be shared by complementary outputs as a result the area overhead also minimizes. As compared to the conventional logic gates the EDP (energy delay product is improved. The test sets of logic gates and adders where designed in tsmc0.18μm of Mentor Graphics EDA tool. The experimental result for Ripple Carry Adders using the proposed logic style revealed that the addition time is reduced as compared with the conventional CMOS circuits.

  10. A novel reversible carry-selected adder with low latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Cui; Zhou, Ri-Gui

    2016-07-01

    Reversible logic is getting more and more attention in quantum computing, optical computing, nanotechnology and low-power complementary metal oxide semiconductor designs since reversible circuits do not loose information during computation and have only small energy dissipation. In this paper, a novel carry-selected reversible adder is proposed primarily optimised for low latency. A 4-bit reversible full adder with two kinds of outputs, minimum delay and optimal quantum cost is presented as the building block for ?-bit reversible adder. Three new reversible gates NPG (new Peres gate), TEPG (triple extension of Peres gate) and RMUX21 (reversible 2-to-1 multiplexer) are proposed and utilised to design efficient adder units. The secondary carry propagation chain is carefully designed to reduce the time consumption. The novelty of the proposed design is the consideration of low latency. The comparative study shows that the proposed adder achieves the improvement from 61.46% to 95.29% in delay over the existing designs.

  11. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws.

  12. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  13. Superpositions of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OF LIGHT FIELDS CARRYING ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM By Angela Dudley A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the PhD degree of Science in the School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban... this dissertation for submission. _________________________________ Prof Andrew Forbes On this_______day of____________________________2012 iv Declaration 2 - Plagiarism I, ???????????????. declare that 1...

  14. Modeling the Flexural Carrying Capacity of Corroded RC Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hui; LIU Xi-la

    2008-01-01

    Considering the change of bond strength between corroded steel and concrete, flexural carrying ca-pacity of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) beam was calculated. On the basis of the condition of equilibriumof forces and compatibility of deformations for the whole beam, a model for the prediction of flexural carryingcapacity of the corroded RC beam was proposed. Comparison of the model's predictions with the experimentalresults published in the literature shows the practicality of the proposed method.

  15. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favour their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g. mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries, and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g. in humans, big cats and rodents. These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/ her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/ she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g. Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Perinatal Brain Disorders.

  16. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders).

  17. High Speed Carry Select Adder for ALU Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Rama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The regular SQRT CSLA consists of two RCA blocks with carry input as 0 and 1.The Final sum will be selected from multiplexers (Mux by the carry out generated by the pervious block. This paper, proposes an area and delay efficient carry select adder with logical reduction of excess redundant hardware. In the proposed architecture, we had implemented the RCA with carry input as 1, only with Mux, Or gate and And gate. For 16-bit regular SQRT CSLA there is a reduction of basic logic gates from 434 to 323.The delay is reduced by replacing Full-adder with half-adder in first bit of every RCA in theproposed architecture. This will reduces the number of Iterations required to get the final sum. The proposed architecture shows that there is reduction of area and delay. Based on this architecture, wedesigned 4-bit,8-bit,16-bit and 32-bit Square-root CSLA (SQRT CSLA and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. In this work, we evaluated the performance of the proposed design in 90-ηm CMOS Technology in Cadence Tools. The result analysis shows that, the proposed SQRT CSLA of 4-bit, 8-bit 16- bit and 32-bit has a reduction of 31.74%, 30.13%, 21.92% and 21.76 % respectively compared with regular SQRT CSLA in area. The delay of Proposed SQRT CSLA of 4-bit,8-bit 16-bit and 32-bit are reduce by 27.47%, 17.23%, 14.32% and 11.63% respectively.

  18. Gluteus medius and thigh muscles electromyography during load carrying walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šťastný

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the electromyographic (EMG peak amplitude changes of gluteus medius (Gmed, vastus medialis (VMO, vastus lateralis (VL and biceps femoris (BF during load carrying walking due to the increased load. The percentage of maximum isometric voluntary contractions (%MVIC of both limbs and 3D kinematic of lower limbs were detected on eighteen resistance-trained men (mean age ± SD, 31 ± 3.4 years while carrying loads of 25, 50 and 75% of their body mass (BM. The repeated measurement ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in muscles %MVIC and 3D kinematics at all load conditions. Significant differences were found for Gmed %MVIC (F3,99 = 19.8, p < 0.001. Gmed activity was significantly different between load carrying walking with 25% of BM (mean ± SD, 20 ± 12%MVIC, 50% of BM (32 ± 17%MVIC and 75% of BM (45 ± 26%MVIC condition. Differences were found in hip flexion at Gmed EMG peak (F3,96 = 14, p < 0.001, between 25% of BM (18 ± 11° and 50% of BM (29 ± 7°. No significant differences were found for thigh muscles, when thigh muscle activity did not exceed 30%MVIC even at 75% of BM condition. Load carrying walking is an exercise which activates Gmed more than thigh muscles. This exercise increases the Gmed activity along with increased loads and it should be regarded as a complex Gmed strengthening exercise. This exercise is recommended for strengthening the Gmed with low activation of VL and VMO.

  19. Self-timed Manchester chain carry propagate adder

    OpenAIRE

    Escribà, J; Carrasco, Juan A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present a self-timed adder that uses two Manchester chains to propagate carries in a two-rail code. With the inclusion of buffers in the chains, the adder meets the timing conditions typical of an asynchronous design based in the ‘bundled-data, bounded-delay’ model and is signifcantly faster than self-timed adders with restoring logic and similar complexity.

  20. Low Power 256-bit Modified Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carry Select Adder (CSLA is one of the high speed adders used in many computational systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. When compared to earlier Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Look Ahead Adder, Regular CSLA (R-CSLA is observed to provide optimized results in terms of area. This study proposes an efficient method which replaces the RCA using BEC. The modified CSLA architecture has been developed using gate-level modification to significantly reduce the delay and power of the CSLA. Based on this modification 8-, 16-, 32-, 64- and 128-bit Square-Root CSLA (SQRT CSLA architecture have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design for 256-bit has reduced power and delay as compared with the regular SQRT CSLA. Designs were developed using structural Verilog module and synthesized using Xilinx ISE simulator and the implementation is done in cadence RTL compiler using 0.18 µm technology. For 256-bit addition in this study, it is proposed to simple gate level modification which significantly reduces the power by 19.4% when compared with R-CSLA. The result analysis shows that the proposed architecture achieves two folded advantages in terms of delay and power.

  1. A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and mor...... simultaneously providing efficient justin-time compilation and target-machine independence. In particular, our approach reduces the complexity of the required proofs, resulting in fewer proof obligations that need to be discharged at the target machine.......Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and more...... subtly, the need to provide such verification by the code consumer inhibits the amount of optimization that can be performed by the code producer. This in turn makes justin-time compilation surprisingly expensive. Proof-Carrying Code, on the other hand, has its own set of limitations, among which...

  2. Targeted drug-carrying bacteriophages as antibacterial nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-06-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of approximately 20,000 compared to the free drug.

  3. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P rhythm and blues (6.9%), and country (6.3%) videos (P = .002). The videos with the highest level of sexuality or eroticism were found to be less likely to contain violence (P < or

  4. Construction and characterization of recombinant Japanese encephalitis virus carrying brainspecific miRNA target sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yuan CAO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct the recombinant Japanese encephalitis virus ( JEV carrying brain-specific miRNA targeting sequences. Methods The target sequences of brain-specific miR-124 and miR-125 were introduced into the infectious cDNA clone of JEV to generate recombinant plasmids based on reverse genetics technology. The recombinant plasmids were linearized with Xho Ⅰ and served as templates of transcription with SP6 RNA polymerase to generate infectious viral RNA. The RNA transcripts were then transfected into BHK-21 cells, and the supernatant was obtained after incubated at 37℃, 5% CO2 for 3 days. The cytopathic changes of BHK-21 cells inoculated with the supernatant were observed after one passage. The rescued viruses carrying miRNA target sequences were validated by RT-PCR, standard plaque forming test on BHK-21 cells and growth curves analysis. Results Two recombinant viruses carrying miR-124 or miR-125 target sequence were rescued, respectively. The insertion of miRNA target sequences was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The rescued viruses yielded similar plaque morphology and replication efficiency compared with wild type JEV. Conclusion The recombinant JEV containing brain-specific miRNA target sequences can be obtained by reverse genetics technique, which could be used in further studies of miRNA-mediated tissue-specific attenuation mechanism of JEV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.06.01

  5. Can amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes carry functional nerve growth factor?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chen; Qing Xiong; Quanxia Ren; Yake Guo; Gao Li

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes can carry protein into cells to induce biological effects. Amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes are soluble and biocompatible, have high reactivity and low toxicity, and can help promote nerve cell growth. In this study, amino-functionalized ethylenediamine-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to prepare carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complexes by non-covalent grafting. The physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity to PC12 and chick embryo dorsal root ganglion, and biological activity of the carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complexes were investigated. The results showed that amino functionalization improved carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complex dispersibility, reduced their toxicity to PC12 cells, and promoted PC12 cell differentiation and chick embryo dorsal root ganglion.

  6. Phoenix Again Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab Cell 1 delivery funnel on Sol 41, the 42nd Martian day after landing, or July 6, 2008, after a soil sample was delivered to the instrument. The instrument's Cell 1 is second one from the foreground of the image. The first cell, Cell 0, received a soil sample two weeks earlier. This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Construction of recombinant adenoviruses carrying human urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its expression in hepatic stellate cells in vitro%人尿激酶型纤溶酶原激活剂重组腺病毒的构建及其在肝星形细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢渭芬; 林勇; 张新; 张忠兵; 陈伟忠; 程志红; 陈岳祥; 张兴荣

    2002-01-01

    @@ 我们利用AdEasy系统在细菌内构建携带非分泌型尿激酶型纤溶酶原激活剂(urokinase-type plasminogen acti-vator,uPA)和绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescent protein, GFP)cDNA的复制缺陷型腺病毒,并观察其在肝星形细胞(hepatic stellate cell, HSC)中的表达.

  8. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi; Gurinderpal Singh

    2014-01-01

    The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP), and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constru...

  9. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Design and Verification of Advanced Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Dixit Chepuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Design ofareaefficient data pathlogicsystems formsthelargestareasofresearch inVLSIsystem design.Indigital adders, thespeed of addition islimitedbythetimerequired totransmit a carrythroughtheadder.CarrySelectAdder (CSA isoneofthefastestadders usedinmanydata-processingprocessorstoperform fastarithmetic functions. Fromthestructure oftheCSA,itisclear thatthereisscopeforreducing thearea and powerintheCSA. This work usesasimpleandefficient gate-level modification todrasticallyreducetheareaandpower oftheCSA.Basedonthismodification 16,32,64 and128-bitsquare-root CSA(SQRT CSA architectureshavebeendevelopedandcomparedwith theregularSQRTCSAarchitecture. Theproposed designhasreducedarea and powerascompared withtheregular SQRTCSA.Thisworkestimates theperformanceof theproposed designsintermsofpower,areaand isimplementedusingXilinxISE and synthesized using cadence in 90nm technology.

  11. Optimal Final Carry Propagate Adder Design for Parallel Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    B., Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ASIC layout level simulation of 7 types of adder structures each of four different sizes, i.e. a total of 28 adders, we propose expressions for the width of each of the three regions of the final Carry Propagate Adder (CPA) to be used in parallel multipliers. We also propose the types of adders to be used in each region that would lead to the optimal performance of the hybrid final adders in parallel multipliers. This work evaluates the complete performance of the analyzed designs in terms of delay, area, power through custom design and layout in 0.18 um CMOS process technology.

  12. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  13. The information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Simidzija, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light-signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light-signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter dominated cosmologies.

  14. The carry-over effect does not influence football results.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Dries; Spieksma, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    In a round robin tournament, it is often believed that each team has an effect on its opponent, which carries over to the next game of that opponent. Indeed, if team A plays against team B, and subsequently against team C, A’s performance against C may have been affected by B, and we say that team C receives a carryover effect from B. For instance, if team B is a very strong team, then team A could be exhausted and discouraged after this game, which could benefit its next opponent, team C. Cl...

  15. In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaks Lilach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines are a new class of nanomedicines that combines biological and chemical components into a modular nanometric drug delivery system. The core of the system is a filamentous phage particle that is produced in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. Target specificity is provided by a targeting moiety, usually an antibody that is displayed on the tip of the phage particle. A large drug payload is chemically conjugated to the protein coat of the phage via a chemically or genetically engineered linker that provides for controlled release of the drug after the particle homed to the target cell. Recently we have shown that targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines can be used to eradicate pathogenic bacteria and cultured tumor cells with great potentiation over the activity of the free untargeted drug. We have also shown that poorly water soluble drugs can be efficiently conjugated to the phage coat by applying hydrophilic aminoglycosides as branched solubility-enhancing linkers. Results With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine.

  16. Construction of pEGFP-N3-APC vectors carrying various APC functional domains and their expression in HCT-II6 cells%APC蛋白功能区域重组质粒的构建及其在结肠癌细胞株HCT-116中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕梁; 霍继荣; 刘佳; 张宏斌; 武捷; 王捷

    2009-01-01

    目的 构建并鉴定含有APC蛋白不同功能区域的真核细胞表达载体pEGFP-N3-APC1~5,转染人类结直肠癌细胞HCT-116,观察重组质粒在细胞内的表达.方法 根据APC基因的功能结构以及APC突变簇集区的特点,设计特异性引物扩增APC基因特异性的功能区域片段.将扩增出的5个APC片段克隆到pEGFP-N3载体的N端,经测序分析对重组质粒pEGFP-N3-APC1~5进行鉴定.使用脂质体转染法将重组质粒转染人类结直肠癌细胞HCT-116,通过观察细胞中绿色荧光蛋白的表达情况来检测APC功能区域在细胞内的表达.以RT-PCR法进一步验证重组质粒在细胞中的表达.结果 构建5个pEGFP-N3-APC结构区域的重组真核表达载体,重组真核表达载体转染HCT-116细胞后,细胞中均可见绿色荧光蛋白的表达.RT-PCR结果显示,5个蕈组质粒在HCT-116细胞中均可表达.结论 真核细胞表达载体pEGFP-N3-APC1~5的成功构建,为进一步研究其在细胞内的功能,筛选结直肠癌基因治疗的有效且易于基因操作的靶标片段提供了基础.%Objective To construct recombinant plasmids containing various functional domains of APC protein and detect their expression in HCT-116 cells. Methods Five APC gene fragments were amplified by PCR with whole APC gene as template and primers designed according to APC cDNA sequence and mutation cluster domain. The five obtained fragments were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N3 to generate recombinant pEGFP-N3-APC1-5. Sequence of the inserted gene was identified and analyzed after restriction enzyme digestion. Liposome-mediated recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N3-APC was transfected into HCT 116 cells and identified by green fluorescence. RT-PCR was employed to validate the expression of recombinant vectors in cells. Results Recombinant pEGFP-N3-APC1-5 were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analysis. The plasmids could be expressed in HCT-116 cell line

  17. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  18. Are food brands that carry light claims different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjostrom, Therese; Corsi, Armando Maria; Driesener, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the market performance of brands that carry light claims (e.g. low fat, low sugar) in comparison to their regular counterparts. In order to fill this gap, we explore whether light brands perform similarly to regular brands in terms of a) brand performance measures, such as m......Little is known about the market performance of brands that carry light claims (e.g. low fat, low sugar) in comparison to their regular counterparts. In order to fill this gap, we explore whether light brands perform similarly to regular brands in terms of a) brand performance measures......, such as market share and penetration, b) loyalty levels, and c) customer sharing. We analyse three product categories (Cola, Flavoured Carbonated Beverages and Margarine) using UK household panel data provided by Kantar. The results show that when considering standard brand performance measures (i.e. market...... share, penetration and purchase frequency), regular brands receive higher brand performance measures than light brands. However, when considering repeat purchase loyalty, light brands achieve greater levels of loyalty than their regular counterparts. Finally, light brands share their buyers more...

  19. Kinematic analysis of males with transtibial amputation carrying military loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barri L. Schnall, MPT

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical responses to load carriage, a common task for dismounted troops, have been well studied in nondisabled individuals. However, with recent shifts in the rehabilitation and retention process of injured servicemembers, there remains a substantial need for understanding these responses in persons with lower-limb amputations. Temporal-spatial and kinematic gait parameters were analyzed among 10 male servicemembers with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA and 10 uninjured male controls. Participants completed six treadmill walking trials in all combinations of two speeds (1.34 and 1.52 m/s and three loads (none, 21.8, and 32.7 kg. Persons with TTA exhibited biomechanical compensations to carried loads that are comparable to those observed in uninjured individuals. However, several distinct gait changes appear to be unique to those with TTA, notably, increased dorsiflexion (deformation of the prosthetic foot/ankle, less stance knee flexion on the prosthetic limb, and altered trunk forward lean/excursion. Such evidence supports the need for future work to assess the risk for overuse injuries with carried loads in this population in addition to guiding the development of adaptive prosthetic feet/components to meet the needs of redeployed servicemembers or veterans/civilians in physically demanding occupations.

  20. The Population Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Yulin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan; DANG; Yong; XU; Zhiqiang; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the water resource carrying capacity is beneficial for measuring the scale of industry and population agglomeration,and also avoiding the contradiction between increasing people and decreasing available water resource,due to the expansion of industry and city size.Based on the prediction model of optimum population development size,by using hydrological data,also with the demographic data from 1956 to 2010,this article analyzes and predicts the urban moderate scale under the limit of the water resource in the future of Yulin City by GIS. The main conclusions are as follows. There is growing tendency of water resources overloading. According to the result of model simulation,by2015,the overload rate of population size will be 1. 04. By 2020,the overload rate of population size will grow up to 1. 08. The oversized population mainly comes from cities and towns. The overload rate for cities and towns in 2015 and 2020 is 1. 89 and 1. 73,respectively. With the expansion of cities and industries,suburban areas could have a great potential for carrying population,because lots of suburban people may move to cities and towns according to prediction. In view of the above-mentioned facts,the population size should be controlled in a reasonable range.

  1. A Novel Framework to Carry Out Cloud Penetration Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Hu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available in current cloud services, users put their data and resources into the cloud so as to enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services. Different from the conventional services, users in cloud services lose control of their data which is instead manipulated by the large-scale cloud. Therefore, cloud service providers (CSP guarantee that the cloud which they provide is of high confidence in accuracy and integrity. Traditional penetration test is carried out manually and has low efficiency. In this paper, we propose FPTC, a novel framework of penetration test in cloud environment. In FPTC, there are managers, executors and toolkits. FPTC managers guide FPTC executors to gather information from the cloud environment, generate appropriate testing scenarios, run matched tools in the toolkit and collect test results to do evaluation. The capacity and quality of the toolkit is a key issue in FPTC. We develop a prototype in which FPTC is implemented and the experimental results show that FPTC is helpful to automatically carry out penetration test in cloud environment.

  2. Immunochemotherapy of Cancer with Chlorambucil-carrying Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, T.; Norvell, S. T.; Guclu, A.; Cameron, D.; Bodurtha, A.; MacDonald, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    Cell-surface localizing heterologous antibodies against the mouse EL4 lymphoma and a human malignant melanoma could be bound to chlorambucil without causing the loss of the alkylating activity of chlorambucil or interfering with the reactivity of the antibodies with their respective tumour cells. When given to mice preinoculated with tumour cells 2, 24, 72, and 120 hours before the beginning of treatment the chlorambucil-bound antibody was a much more effective tumour inhibitor than chlorambucil or the antibody alone. In a patient with disseminated malignant melanoma injection of the chlorambucil-bound anti-melanoma antibody first locally into a few metastatic nodules and then by the intravenous route was followed by the regression of all the metastatic nodules. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4560726

  3. 携带SEA和CD80双基因的重组腺病毒转染B16细胞体外诱导T淋巴细胞活化的研究%Study on T lymphocyte activation induced by B16 cell after infection with the recombinant adenovirus carrying SEA and CD80 gene in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司少艳; 刘俊丽; 徐冰心; 化楠; 秦亚亚; 刘昌叶; 宋淑军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe whether Staphylococcus enterotoxin A( SEA)and CD80 expressing on the surface of B16 cells could induce immune response after infection with recombinant adenoviruses. Methods:Mouse spleen lymphocytes were cocultured with B16 cells after infection with empty adenoviruse vector Ad( empty)or the recombi-nant adenoviruses of Ad-MMRE-mTERT-B7,Ad-MMRE-mTERT-SEA or Ad-MMRE-mTERT-BIS. Then,lymphocyte proliferation was assayed by BrdU incorporation using a commercial kit,flow cytometric analysis was used to detect proliferation of T lymphocyte subgroups. The production of IL-2,TNF-α and IFN-γ was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:Compared with B16 infected with empty adenovirus or without infec-tion,B16 infected with recombinant adenoviruses could significantly induce proliferation of spleen lymphocytes and T lymphocyte subgroups,and increase IL-2,TNF-αand IFN-γproduction. The antitumor response was significantly stronger in B16 cells after dual-gene expression than that in B16 cells after single-gene expression. Conclusion:The results indicate that SEA and CD80 expressed on the membrane of B16 cells after infection with recombinant ade-novirus has immune activities. This study provides some experimental evidence for further immune genetherapy against malignant melanoma with the recombinant adenovirus.%目的:观察恶性黑色素瘤B16细胞经重组腺病毒感染后,表达在B16细胞膜上的SEA和CD80体外能否诱导免疫学反应。方法:B16细胞分别经空载体腺病毒Ad(空)和重组腺病毒Ad-MMRE-mTERT-B7、Ad-MMRE-mTERT-SEA、Ad-MMRE -mTERT-BIS感染后,和小鼠脾淋巴细胞共培养,然后,采用Brdu 酶联免疫法( ELISA)检测淋巴细胞增殖;流式细胞术检测T淋巴细胞亚群增殖;ELISA法检测细胞因子IL-2、TNF-α和IFN-γ的产生。结果:与感染空载体腺病毒Ad(空)和未感染B16细胞相比,经重组腺病毒感染的B16细胞体外能够显著

  4. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  5. Carrying capacity in agriculture: environmental significance and some related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre M

    2009-06-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important and possibly the oldest economic activity developed by humans. This activity was developed extensively and is becoming more and more dependent on development of technologies. The goal of this manuscript was examining some patents related to technologies developed for improving crop yields. Such patents are mainly related to more efficient formulations of agrochemicals and management techniques of plants, cattle and natural resources. A brief comment is carried out about bioprospection and related problems, relating, for example the case of Cupuaçu. The article is concluded mentioning that the development of policies and management strategies that increase agricultural yield and simultaneously preserve or conserve natural resources should also be prioritized, because certainly this is the only way we have to get the real sustainability and to improve life quality abroad the world.

  6. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  7. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous...... communication. Method Twelve subjects produced speech in 3 conditions: rote speech (weekdays), sentences in a set form, and semispontaneous speech. Subjects simultaneously performed a secondary visual discrimination task for which response times were measured. On completion of each speech task, subjects rated...... their experience on a questionnaire. Results Response times from the secondary, visual task were found to be shortest for the rote speech, longer for the semispontaneous speech, and longest for the sentences within the set framework. Principal components derived from the subjective ratings were found to be linked...

  8. Pallet Optimization of the Heavy Rotary Table Load Carrying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapin, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The pallet optimization of the heavy rotary table load-carrying system, which is a part of the multi-purpose machine, is considered in terms of the deterministic and probabilistic models. As a result of optimum design in case of the deterministic model the mass of the pallet is reduced by 35.5 % in comparison with a serial model. The evaluation of the influence of optimization problem limitations on design variables confirms the importance of rigidity criterion in relation to other criteria. Calculation for probabilistic model allows reducing the mass of the construction by 27 % in comparison with the deterministic model. Considering a work piece rigidity on the basis of a conventional work piece of the minimum rigidity (without stiffening ribs etc.) leads to reducing of the pallet mass by 22.3 % in comparison with the deterministic model.

  9. Modeling symbiosis by interactions through species carrying capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a mathematical model of symbiosis between different species by taking into account the influence of each species on the carrying capacities of the others. The modeled entities can pertain to biological and ecological societies or to social, economic and financial societies. Our model includes three basic types: symbiosis with direct mutual interactions, symbiosis with asymmetric interactions, and symbiosis without direct interactions. In all cases, we provide a complete classification of all admissible dynamical regimes. The proposed model of symbiosis turned out to be very rich, as it exhibits four qualitatively different regimes: convergence to stationary states, unbounded exponential growth, finite-time singularity, and finite-time death or extinction of species.

  10. Carry Trade e Risco Cambial: um Conto de Dois Fatores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retornos da estratégia de carry trade tem sido explicados usando-se funções de utilidade inseparáveis no tempo que permitem prêmios de risco voláteis. Tipicamente tais funções mimetizam as preferências de economia fechada que dependem de bens duráveis e não duráveis. Este trabalho retorna a uma classificação mais tradicional, em macroeconomia internacional, de consumo entre bens domésticos e importados. O modelo é aplicado para países que representam 98,2% do volume mundial do comércio bilateral de câmbio. Reporta-se uma melhora acentuada na significância dos betas de consumo.

  11. Filaggrin compound heterozygous patients carry mutations in trans position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2013-01-01

    ; however, this has not been scientifically investigated. Two different FLG null mutations in the same individual may be in trans position, meaning that each mutation locates to a different allele functionally equivalent to homozygosity, or may be in cis position, meaning that both mutations locate...... to the same allele functionally equivalent to heterozygosity. To experimentally investigate allelic in cis versus in trans configuration of the two most common filaggrin (FLG) mutations (R501X and 2282del4) in compound heterozygous individuals. Testing for in cis or in trans allele configuration was performed...... compound heterozygous individuals were found to carry the two mutations in trans position. FLG null mutation compound heterozygous individuals can be considered functionally equivalent to FLG null mutation homozygosity for any of the two mutations....

  12. Fatigue Analysis of Load-Carrying Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tychsen, Jesper; Andersen, Jens Ulfkjær

    2006-01-01

    is a doubler plate connection, which is often applied in connection with modifications of offshore structures. As a part of the present work, fatigue tests have been performed with test specimens fabricated by the current industry standard for welded offshore steel structures. The fatigue tests show......The fatigue strength of load-carrying fillet welds is, in most codes of practice, performed neglecting the influence of bending in the weld throat section. However, some commonly applied structural details give rise to significant bending in the weld throat section. An example of such a detail...... that the degree of bending (DOB) has an influence on the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue lifetime decreases significantly when increasing the bending stress. In order to take into account the effect of the bending, a new fatigue stress definition applicable for fillet welds failing through the weld is presented...

  13. Overview of the activities carried out at the FEBEX site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.; Buil, B.; Garralon, A.; Gomez, P. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Medioambien te, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R. [Inst. Jaume Almera, CSIC (Spain); Suso, J.; Carretero, G.; Bueno, J.; Martinez, L. [AITEMIN (Spain) ; Hernan, P. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    One of the main aim of WP 4.1 and 4.2 is to study solute migration mechanisms in crystalline host-rock in realistic conditions. Many organisations are participating in a joint study that is being performed in the FEBEX gallery (NAGRA's Grimsel Test Site, GTS, Switzerland). The FEBEX experiment reproduces at a real scale a high-level waste repository in granite and was installed more than 9 years ago. At moment, it represents the most realistic environment where the processes affecting radionuclide migration from the bentonite to granite can be studied. This paper summarises the main activities carried out at the FEBEX site during the second year of the project.

  14. Rise-Time Distortion of Signal without Carrying Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhman, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    The article deals with one-dimensional problem of rise-time distortion signal without carrying signal, that appears in the starting point intermittently, that is signal distortion at front edge or one of its derivative. The authors show that front edge of signal isn't distorted in case of propagation in unrestricted (including absorbing) area (amplitude of starting signal step or of one of its derivatives doesn't change) and move with the accuracy of vacuum light speed. The paper proves that it is the time interval shortage that causes signal loss with the route extension, but not the reduction of its starting amplitude, during which front edge of signal retains its starting value. The research presents new values for this time interval.

  15. 超声破坏LHRHa靶向脂质微泡造影剂对卵巢癌A2780/DDP细胞内顺铂浓度的影响%Effect of ultrasound mediated LHRHa Carrying microbubbles destruction on the concentration of Cisplatin (DDP) in ovarian cancer cell A2780/DDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严宇; 孙江川; 常淑芳; 郭娟; 朱轶; 李敏; 朱深银; 王志刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨超声联合LHRHa靶向脂质微泡对卵巢癌耐药细胞内化疗药物DDP浓度的影响.方法:取对数生长期的A2780/DDP细胞,分为空白组,DDP组,DDP+超声组,DDP+超声+普通脂质微泡以及DDP+超声+LHRHa靶向脂质微泡组等5组,分别给予不同的干预手段,分别于作用后,12小时、24小时、48小时撤药,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)法测定各组细胞中DDP的浓度,流式细胞仪检测脂质微泡加超声处理后的不同时间点(即时、12小时、24小时、48小时)细胞膜对PI染料的通透性.结果:超声联合脂质微泡可增加细胞膜对PI染料的通透性,这种作用在处理后即刻最明显,随着时间的延长,细胞膜对PI染料的通透性逐渐下降.在所建立的色谱条例下,测得DDP浓度呈良好线性关系,相关系数为R=0.9994.经HPLC测定DDP在各组细胞中的浓度结果显示:DDP+超声+LHRHa靶向脂质微泡组在处理后12小时、24小时胞内药物浓度明显高于其他组(P<0.05).结论:超声联合LHRHa靶向脂质微泡能明显增加顺铂在卵巢癌A2780/DDP细胞中的浓度,且胞内药物浓度上调速率随时间逐渐减慢.%Objective:To investigate the effects of the ultrasound combine with LHRHa- bound liposome microbubles (LHRHa- LM) in intracellur Cisplatin {DDP)concentration. Method: The human ovarian cancer cell line A2780/DDP was divided into 5 groups: control group, DDP group, DDP and ultrasound radiation group, DDP and LM plus ultrasound radiation group, and DDP and LHRHa - LM plus ultrasound radiation group. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect intracellular drug concentration at 12h, 24h, 48h after treatment for every group. Flow Cytometry (FCM) test was used to detect the cytomembrane permeability to propidine iodide(PI) instantly, 12h, 24h after liposome microbubles (LM)combined ultrasound irradiation in vitro A2780/DDP cell. Result: cytomembrane permeability to PI has increased instantly

  16. Detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma of the women with pregnancy, who have high-risk of carrying a Down's fetus in Down's syndrome screening%唐氏综合征高危孕妇血浆游离胎儿DNA的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖; 陈汉平

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Realtime PCR ( RQ-PCR) for detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to screen the high-risk women in Down's syndrome screening. Methods: We seclected 42 cases of second trimester pregnant women, 22 cases have high-risk of earring a Down's fetus and 20 cases normal. Using RQ-PCR to detect SRY and GAPDH genes in maternal plasma, the varince between the two groups was analysizd by 2△△C1 method. Results; SRY was detected in all 22 women with male fetus, but SRY was detected in 2 cases of 20 women with femal fetus. The amount of cell-free fetal DNA was significantly higher in high-risk pregnant women than normal (P = 0. 006, < 0.05 ) , the ratio was 2. 79. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is of great value in the Down's syndrome screening.%目的 探讨实时荧光定量PCR(RQ-PCR)检测孕妇血浆游离胎儿DNA在筛查唐氏综合征高危孕妇中的应用.方法 采用RQ-PCR检测22例唐氏综合征高危孕妇及20例低危孕妇血浆中GAPDH及SRY水平,2-△△Ct法分析两组间的差异.结果 22例孕男胎均检出SRY基因,20例孕女胎中出现2例假阳性,高危组游离胎儿DNA水平明显高于低危组(P=0.006,<0.05),比值为2.79.结论 孕妇血浆游离胎儿DNA的定量检测在唐氏综合征筛查中有重要价值.

  17. Sex chromosome mosaicism in males carrying Y chromosome long arm deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffroi, J P; Le Bourhis, C; Krausz, C; Barbaux, S; Quintana-Murci, L; Kanafani, S; Rouba, H; Bujan, L; Bourrouillou, G; Seifer, I; Boucher, D; Fellous, M; McElreavey, K; Dadoune, J P

    2000-12-01

    Microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq) are a common cause of male infertility. Since large structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome are commonly associated with a 45,XO/46,XY chromosomal mosaicism, we studied whether submicroscopic Yq deletions could also be associated with the development of 45,XO cell lines. We studied blood samples from 14 infertile men carrying a Yq microdeletion as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 6), in which karyotype analysis demonstrated a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and group 2 (n = 8) with apparently a normal 46,XY karyotype. 45,XO cells were identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromeric probes. Lymphocytes from 11 fertile men were studied as controls. In addition, sperm cells were studied in three oligozoospermic patients in group 2. Our results showed that large and submicroscopic Yq deletions were associated with significantly increased percentages of 45,XO cells in lymphocytes and of sperm cells nullisomic for gonosomes, especially for the Y chromosome. Moreover, two isodicentric Y chromosomes, classified as normal by cytogenetic methods, were detected. Therefore, Yq microdeletions may be associated with Y chromosomal instability leading to the formation of 45,XO cell lines.

  18. Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed.

  19. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    Full Text Available Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis.

  20. Certificate size reduction in Abstraction-Carrying Code

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Elvira; Puebla, Germán; Hermenegildo, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Carrying Code (ACC) has recently been proposed as a framework for mobile code safety in which the code supplier provides a program together with an abstraction (or abstract model of the program) whose validity entails compliance with a predefined safety policy. The advantage of providing a (fixpoint) abstraction to the code consumer is that its validity is checked in a single pass (i.e., one iteration) of an abstract interpretation-based checker. A main challenge to make ACC useful in practice is to reduce the size of certificates as much as possible while at the same time not increasing checking time. The intuitive idea is to only include in the certificate information that the checker is unable to reproduce without iterating. We introduce the notion of reduced certificate which characterizes the subset of the abstraction which a checker needs in order to validate (and re-construct) the full certificate in a single pass. Based on this notion, we instrument a generic analysis algorithm with the necessary exte...

  1. Report of mecC-carrying MRSA in domestic swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angen, Ø.; Stegger, M.; Larsen, J.; Lilje, B.; Kaya, H.; Pedersen, K. S.; Jakobsen, A.; Petersen, A.; Larsen, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We unexpectedly identified MRSA isolates carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA) from a Danish swine farm located in eastern Zealand. The objective of the present study was to investigate the origin of these isolates and their genetic relatedness to other mecC-MRSA isolates from Zealand. Methods WGS was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship between 19 identified mecC-MRSA isolates from the swine farm and 34 additional epidemiologically unrelated human isolates from the same geographical region of Denmark. Variations in the accessory genome were investigated by bioinformatics tools, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed by MIC determination. Results mecC-MRSA was isolated from a domestic swine farm, but not from cattle reared at the same farm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all mecC-MRSA isolates from both farm animals and workers formed a separate cluster, whereas human isolates from the same municipality belonged to a closely related cluster. Analysis of the accessory genome supported this relationship. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mecC-MRSA isolated from domestic swine. The investigation strongly indicates that transmission of mecC-MRSA has taken place on the swine farm between the farmers and swine. The close clustering of farm isolates and isolates from the same municipality suggests a local transmission of mecC-MRSA. PMID:27650187

  2. Radar imaging using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tiezhu; Cheng, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang; Fan, Bo

    2017-03-01

    The concept of radar imaging based on orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation, which has the ability of azimuthal resolution without relative motion, has recently been proposed. We investigate this imaging technique further in greater detail. We first analyze the principle of the technique, accounting for its resolving ability physically. The phase and intensity distributions of the OAM-carrying fields produced by phased uniform circular array antenna, which have significant effects on the imaging results, are investigated. The imaging model shows that the received signal has the form of inverse discrete Fourier transform with the use of OAM and frequency diversities. The two-dimensional Fourier transform is employed to reconstruct the target images in the case of large and small elevation angles. Due to the peculiar phase and intensity characteristics, the small elevation is more suitable for practical application than the large one. The minimum elevation angle is then obtained given the array parameters. The imaging capability is analyzed by means of the point spread function. All results are verified through numerical simulations. The proposed staring imaging technique can achieve extremely high azimuthal resolution with the use of plentiful OAM modes.

  3. Wildlife carrying capacities in relation to human settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Eltringham

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Human encroachment into wildlife areas, which has increased almost exponentially over the past few decades, has usually resulted in the elimination of the larger species, particularly the large mammals. This is not an inevitable consequence and this paper considers the extent to which man and wildlife can coexist. There is a linear inverse relationship between human and elephant densities and the reasons for this are discussed with particular reference to Uganda. Such a relationship does not necessarily hold for all species and the outcome of increasing human pressure on wildlife habitats varies with a variety of factors including the species concerned, the rainfall, vegetation, soil and, above all, the attitudes of the people towards wildlife. Wild animals are more likely to be tolerated if they do no harm to human activities or if the harm they do is outweighed by the benefits to be obtained from their exploitation. In many parts of Africa utilisation is likely to be the best hope for the conservation of wildlife. Some examples are given of situations in which worthwhile carrying capacities of wildlife can be maintained in the presence of human activities.

  4. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P cell donors and gestation duration in the cloned group. Even though the basal rectal temperature in the prepartum period was not different between control and cloned groups (36.9 ± 0.1 °C and 37.2 ± 0.1 °C, respectively), serum progesterone concentration on delivery day was significantly higher in the cloned group (2.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml) compared with the control group (0.5 ± 0.1 ng/ml; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods.

  5. Inverse PCR for subtyping of Acinetobacter baumannii carrying ISAba1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shukho; Park, Yun-Ju; Kim, Jungmin

    2016-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has been prevalent in nosocomial infections, often causing outbreaks in intensive care units. ISAba1 is an insertion sequence that has been identified only in A. baumannii and its copy number varies among strains. It has been reported that ISAba1 provides a promoter for bla(OXA-51-like), bla(OXA-23-like), and bla(ampC), which are associated with the resistance of A. baumannii to carbapenems and cephalosporins. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel inverse PCR method capable of typing A. baumannii strains. The method involves three major steps: cutting of genomic DNA with a restriction enzyme, ligation, and PCR. In the first step, bacterial genomic DNA was digested with DpnI. In the second step, the digested genomic DNAs were ligated to form intramolecular circular DNAs. In the last step, the ligated circular DNAs were amplified by PCR with primers specific for ISAba1 and the amplified PCR products were electrophoresed. Twenty-two clinical isolates of A. baumannii were used for the evaluation of the inverse PCR (iPCR) typing method. Dendrogram analysis revealed two major clusters, similar to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results. Three ISAba1-associated genes--bla(ampC), bla(OXA-66-like), and csuD--were amplified and detected in the clinical isolates. This novel iPCR typing method is comparable to PFGE in its ability to discriminate A. baumannii strains, and is a promising molecular epidemiological tool for investigating A. baumannii carrying ISAba1.

  6. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be

  7. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  8. Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera Hernandez, Sergio

    2012-02-15

    Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all

  9. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major

  10. Ovarian cancer gene therapy using HPV-16 pseudovirion carrying the HSV-tk gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Fu Hung

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from all gynecological cancers and conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy usually fail to control advanced stages of the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative and innovative therapeutic options. We reason that cancer gene therapy using a vector capable of specifically delivering an enzyme-encoding gene to ovarian cancer cells will allow the cancer cell to metabolize a harmless prodrug into a potent cytotoxin, which will lead to therapeutic effects. In the current study, we explore the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV pseudovirion to deliver a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk gene to ovarian tumor cells. We found that the HPV-16 pseudovirion was able to preferentially infect murine and human ovarian tumor cells when administered intraperitoneally. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of HPV-16 pseudovirions carrying the HSV-tk gene followed by treatment with ganciclovir led to significant therapeutic anti-tumor effects in murine ovarian cancer-bearing mice. Our data suggest that HPV pseudovirion may serve as a potential delivery vehicle for ovarian cancer gene therapy.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 and ZEBRA: targets for therapeutic strategies against EBV-carrying cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Pyndiah, Slovénie; Apcher, Sébastien; Mazars, Anne; Manoury, Bénédicte; Ammari, Nisrine; Nylander, Karin; Voisset, Cécile; Blondel, Marc; Fåhraeus, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The EBV-encoded EBNA1 was first discovered 40 years ago, approximately 10 years after the presence of EBV had been demonstrated in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. It took another 10 years before the functions of EBNA1 in maintaining the viral genome were revealed, and it has since been shown to be an essential viral factor expressed in all EBV-carrying cells. Apart from serving to maintain the viral episome and to control viral replication and gene expression, EBNA1 also harbours a cis-acting mechanism that allows virus-carrying host cells to evade the immune system. This relates to a particular glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) within EBNA1 that has the capacity to suppress antigen presentation to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. We discuss the role of the GAr sequence at the level of mRNA translation initiation, rather than at the protein level, as at least part of the mechanism to avoid MHC presentation. Interfering with this mechanism has become the focus of the development of immune-based therapies against EBV-carrying cancers, and some lead compounds that affect translation of GAr-carrying mRNAs have been identified. In addition, we describe the EBV-encoded ZEBRA factor and the switch from the latent to the lytic cycle as an alternative virus-specific target for treating EBV-carrying cancers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how EBNA1 and ZEBRA interfere with cellular pathways not only opens new therapeutic approaches but continues to reveal new cell-biological insights on the interplay between host and virus. This review is a tale of discoveries relating to how EBNA1 and ZEBRA have emerged as targets for specific cancer therapies against EBV-carrying diseases, and serves as an illustration of how mRNA translation can play roles in future immune-based strategies to target viral disease.

  12. FPGA-Based Synthesis of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kokilavani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry select adder is a square-root time high-speed adder. In this paper, FPGA-based synthesis of conventional and hybrid carry select adders are described with a focus on high speed. Conventionally, carry select adders are realized using the following: (i full adders and 2 : 1 multiplexers, (ii full adders, binary to excess 1 code converters, and 2 : 1 multiplexers, and (iii sharing of common Boolean logic. On the other hand, hybrid carry select adders involve a combination of carry select and carry lookahead adders with/without the use of binary to excess 1 code converters. In this work, two new hybrid carry select adders are proposed involving the carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead subadders with/without binary to excess 1 converters. Seven different carry select adders were implemented in Verilog HDL and their performances were analyzed under two scenarios, dual-operand addition and multioperand addition, where individual operands are of sizes 32 and 64-bits. In the case of dual-operand additions, the hybrid carry select adder comprising the proposed carry select and section-carry based carry lookahead configurations is the fastest. With respect to multioperand additions, the hybrid carry select adder containing the carry select and conventional carry lookahead or section-carry based carry lookahead structures produce similar optimized performance.

  13. Enhancing the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells by Using Donor Polymers Carrying Discretely Distributed Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Li, Guangwu; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Jicheng; Feng, Shiyu; Liu, Yahui; Li, Cuihong; Ma, Wei; Bo, Zhishan

    2017-07-19

    Conjugated polymers with three components, P1-1 and P1-2, were prepared by one-pot Stille polymerization. The two-component polymer P1-0 is only composed of a 5-fluoro-6-alkyloxybenzothiadiazole (AFBT) acceptor unit and a thiophene donor unit, while the three-component polymers P1-1 and P1-2 contain 10% and 20% 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT), respectively, as the third component. The incorporation of the third component, 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole, makes the side chains discretely distributed in the polymer backbones, which can enhance the π-π stacking of polymers in film, markedly increase the hole mobility of active layers, and improve the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices. Influence of the third component on the morphology of active layer was also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. P1-1/PC71BM-based PSCs gave a high PCE up to 7.25%, whereas similarly fabricated devices for P1-0/PC71BM only showed a PCE of 3.46%. The PCE of P1-1/PC71BM-based device was further enhanced to 8.79% after the use of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as the solvent additive. Most importantly, after the incorporation of 10% 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole unit, P1-1 exhibited a marked tolerance to the blend film thickness. Devices with a thickness of 265 nm still showed a PCE above 8%, indicating that P1-1 is promising for future applications.

  14. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Wolf, Sonya J.; Samulski, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber’s congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV’s high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package “large” genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6–8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6–8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161–169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568–8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383–391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697–701, 2002). This method involves “splitting” the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383–391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697–701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124–130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15

  15. Doxorubicin-conjugated bacteriophages carrying anti-MHC class I chain-related A for targeted cancer therapy in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumyen, Achara; Jantasorn, Siriporn; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer therapy by systemic administration of anticancer drugs, besides the effectiveness shown on cancer cells, demonstrated the side effects and cytotoxicity on normal cells. The targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles may decrease the required drug concentration at the site and the distribution of drugs to normal tissues. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain–related A (MICA) in cancer is useful as a targeted molecule for the delivery of doxorubicin to MICA-expressing cell lines. Methods The application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide (EDC) chemistry was employed to conjugate the major coat protein of bacteriophages carrying anti-MICA and doxorubicin in a mildly acid condition. Doxorubicin (Dox) on phages was determined by double fluorescence of phage particles stained by M13-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and drug autofluorescence by flow cytometry. The ability of anti-MICA on phages to bind MICA after doxorubicin conjugation was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One cervical cancer and four cholangiocarcinoma cell lines expressing MICA were used as models to evaluate targeting activity by cell cytotoxicity test. Results Flow cytometry and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that most of the phages (82%) could be conjugated with doxorubicin, and the Dox-carrying phage-displaying anti-MICA (Dox-phage) remained the binding activity against MICA. Dox-phage was more efficient than free drugs in killing all the cell lines tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Dox-phage were lower than those of free drugs at approximately 1.6–6 times depending on MICA expressions and the cell lines tested. Conclusion Evidently, the application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide chemistry is effective to conjugate doxorubicin and major coat protein of bacteriophages without destroying binding activity of MICA antibodies. Dox-carrying

  16. Uptake of ammonia by Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying the plasmid pCYG4 related with ammonia assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Filho, J L; Ledingham, W M

    1992-08-01

    Batch culture experiments involving ammonia uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BC55 pCYG4 have been carried out. This strain carries the plasmid pCYG4 that directs substantial overproduction of NADP-GDH, conferring an 11-fold increase in activity. The wild type cells had a specific growth rate greater than BC55 pCYG4. The ammonia uptake was practically the same until 15 h of growth. However, the amount of ammonia hydroxide added during growth (60 h) was two and half times greater in the BC55 pCYG4 than wild type cells. The results suggest that the presence of the plasmid pCYG4 can increase the amount of ammonia taken by the cells, but not the amount of biomass.

  17. Lactobacillus casei BL23 Produces Microvesicles Carrying Proteins That Have Been Associated with Its Probiotic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paula Domínguez Rubio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaea, bacteria, and eukarya secrete membrane microvesicles (MVs as a mechanism for intercellular communication. We report the isolation and characterization of MVs from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. MVs were characterized using analytical high performance techniques, DLS, AFM and TEM. Similar to what has been described for other Gram-positive bacteria, MVs were on the nanometric size range (30–50 nm. MVs carried cytoplasmic components such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Using a proteomic approach (LC-MS, we identified a total of 103 proteins; 13 exclusively present in the MVs. The MVs content included cell envelope associated and secretory proteins, heat and cold shock proteins, several metabolic enzymes, proteases, structural components of the ribosome, membrane transporters, cell wall-associated hydrolases and phage related proteins. In particular, we identified proteins described as mediators of Lactobacillus’ probiotic effects such as p40, p75 and the product of LCABL_31160, annotated as an adhesion protein. The presence of these proteins suggests a role for the MVs in the bacteria-gastrointestinal cells interface. The expression and further encapsulation of proteins into MVs of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe bacteria could represent a scientific novelty, with applications in food, nutraceuticals and clinical therapies.

  18. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  19. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains may carry virulence properties of diarrhoeagenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Cecilia M; Salvador, Fábia A; Falsetti, Ivan N; Vieira, Mônica A M; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Machado, Antônia M O; Elias, Waldir P; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2008-04-01

    To analyze whether Escherichia coli strains that cause urinary tract infections (UPEC) share virulence characteristics with the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes and to recognize their genetic diversity, 225 UPEC strains were examined for the presence of various properties of DEC and UPEC (type of interaction with HeLa cells, serogroups and presence of 30 virulence genes). No correlation between adherence patterns and serogroups was observed. Forty-five serogroups were found, but 64% of the strains belonged to one of the 12 serogroups (O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O21, O25, O75, and O175) and carried UPEC virulence genes (pap, hly, aer, sfa, cnf). The DEC genes found were: aap, aatA, aggC, agg3C, aggR, astA, eae, ehly, iha, irp2, lpfA(O113), pet, pic, pilS, and shf. Sixteen strains presented aggregative adherence and/or the aatA sequence, which are characteristics of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), one of the DEC pathotypes. In summary, certain UPEC strains may carry DEC virulence properties, mostly associated to the EAEC pathotype. This finding raises the possibility that at least some faecal EAEC strains might represent potential uropathogens. Alternatively, certain UPEC strains may have acquired EAEC properties, becoming a potential cause of diarrhoea.

  20. Correlates of weapon carrying in school among adolescents in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with weapon carrying in school among Czech, Russian, and US adolescents. Logistic regression was used to analyze data drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Violent behavior (perpetration / victimization) was linked to adolescent weapon carrying in all countries. Substance use was associated with weapon carrying among boys in all countries. Greater parental warmth reduced the odds for weapon carrying among Czech and Russian adolescents. Associating with delinquent peers was important for weapon carrying only among US adolescents. Factors associated with weapon carrying in school vary among countries although violent behavior and substance use may be associated with weapon carrying across countries.

  1. 基于组间进位预测的快速进位加法器%Rapid Carry Adder Based on Carry Forecast Between Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宜栋; 刘昌明; 方湘艳

    2011-01-01

    为加快密码系统中大数加法的运算速度,提出并实现一种基于组间进位预测的快速进位加法器.将参与加法运算的大数进行分组,每个分组采用改进的超前进位技术以减少组内进位延时,组间通过进位预测完成不同进位状态下的加法运算,通过每个组产生的进位状态判断最终结果.性能分析表明,该进位加法器实现1024位大数加法运算的速度较快.%This paper presents and realizes a rapid carry adder based on carry forecast between groups to improve the speed of the large numbers adder in some cryptography systems. The large numbers is divided into many groups, the delay of carry-chain is reduced by carry lookahead in group. The group addition operation of different carry state is finished by carry forecast between groups. The addition sun of different carry forecast state is selected as the final result based on the carry state. Performance analysis shows that the computing speed of the carry adder is faster when realizing the 1 024 bit large numbers add operation.

  2. Dynamic Carrying Capacity Analysis of Double-Row Four-Point Contact Ball Slewing Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfeng Li; Di Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Carrying capacity is the most important performance index for slewing bearings. Maximizing the carrying capacity of slewing bearing is one pursuing goal for the bearing designer; this is usually realized by optimizing the design parameters. A method of analyzing the carrying capacity of double-row four-point contact ball slewing bearing by using dynamic carrying capacity surfaces was proposed in this paper. Based on the dynamic load carrying capacity surface of the slewing bearing, the effect...

  3. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan

    2015-09-11

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6oC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μat the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 106 cells mL-1 and generally covaried with μbut, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μand K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. © FEMS 2015.

  4. Photocrosslinkable Trehalose Derivatives Carrying Mesogenic Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Evaluation for Fibroblast Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A photocrosslinkable trehalose derivative carrying mesogenic groups was synthesized by esterification reactions. The derivative (TC-HBPHA was synthesized by the reaction of partially cinnamoyl-modified trehalose (TC4 with 4-(4-hexyloxybenzoyloxyphenoxy-6-oxohexanoic acid (HBPHA as a mesogenic unit. TC-HBPHA showed a nematic liquid crystalline mesophase at a temperature range from 150 °C to 175 °C in the heating process under observation with a polarized optical microscope. The dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups of TC-HBPHA by ultraviolet (UV light irradiation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinked film was obtained after the UV irradiation of TC-HBPHA, and it kept the liquid crystalline mesophase at almost the same temperature range. Fibroblast cells cultured on the photocrosslinked TC-HBPHA proliferated as well as on the polystyrene culture plate, indicating that the film has no toxicity. Interestingly, some cells on photocrosslinked TC-HBPHA had a spindle shape and aligned characteristically.

  5. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  6. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  7. Psychophysical determination of load carrying capacity for a 1-h work period by Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S P; Chen, C C

    2001-09-15

    This study used the psychophysical approach to examine the effects of container width, the presence or absence of container handles, and different load-carrying frequencies and distances on the maximum acceptable weight carried and the resulting response (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) by well-conditioned males for a 1-h work period. After training, 12 male subjects performed a load-carrying task at knuckle height. Each subject performed 30 different carrying combinations. The conditions examined were container width, from 15.2 to 55.9 cm; carrying frequency, from 1 carry to 5 carries/min; and carrying distance from 1 to 6 m. The results were compared with prior studies and led to the following conclusions: (1) the use of container handles leads to the subjects carrying a significantly higher maximum acceptable weight than when containers do not have handles, which differs from the results of a previous study by Morrissey and Liou; (2) there were significant reductions in the maximum acceptable carrying weight with increases in container width, frequency and distance; (3) the presence or absence of container handles, different frequencies and load-carrying distances had significant effects on heart rate, although the effect of container width was not significant. In addition, the various frequencies and distances for load carrying had significant interaction effects on heart rate; (4) the effects of various frequencies and load-carrying distances on the rating of perceived exertion were statistically significant. The most stressed body parts were the wrists and arms.

  8. Construction of a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying Helicobacter pylori hpaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Can; Li, Zhao-Shen; Du, Yi-Qi; Tu, Zhen-Xing; Gong, Yan-Fang; Jin, Jing; Wu, Hong-Yu; Xu, Guo-Ming

    2005-01-07

    To construct a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying Helicobacter pylori hpaA gene and to detect its immunogenicity. Genomic DNA of the standard H pylori strain 17 874 was isolated as the template, hpaA gene fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into pUCmT vector. DNA sequence of the amplified hpaA gene was assayed, then cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES through enzyme digestion and ligation reactions. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform competent Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and the positive clones were screened by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Then, the recombinant pIRES-hpaA was used to transform LB5000 and the recombinant plasmid isolated from LB5000 was finally used to transform SL7207. After that, the recombinant strain was grown in vitro repeatedly. In order to identify the immunogenicity of the vaccine in vitro, the recombinant pIRES-hpaA was transfected to COS-7 cells using Lipofectamine2000, the immunogenicity of expressed HpaA protein was detected with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The 750-base pair hpaA gene fragment was amplified from the genomic DNA and was consistent with the sequence of H pylori hpaA by sequence analysis. It was confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion that H pylori hpaA gene was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES and a stable recombinant live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying H pylori hpaA gene was successfully constructed and the specific strip of HpaA expressed by pIRES-hpaA was detected through Western blot. The recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine strain expressing HpaA protein with immunogenicity can be constructed and it may be helpful for further investigating the immune action of DNA vaccine in vivo.

  9. Construction of a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying Helicobacter pylori hpaA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can Xu; Zhao-Shen Li; Yi-Qi Du; Zhen-Xing Tu; Yan-Fang Gong; Jing Jin; Hong-Yu Wu; Guo-Ming Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying Helicobacter pylori hpaA gene and to detect its immunogenicity.METHODS: Genomic DNA of the standard H pylori strain 17 874 was isolated as the template, hpaA gene fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into pUCmT vector. DNA sequence of the amplified hpaA gene was assayed, then cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES through enzyme digestion and ligation reactions. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform competent Escherichia coliDH5α, and the positive clones were screened by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Then, the recombinant pIRES-hpaA was used to transform LB5000 and the recombinant plasmid isolated from LB5000 was finally used to transform SL7207. After that, the recombinant strain was grown in vitrorepeatedly. In order to iclentify the immunogenicity of the vaccinein vitro, the recombinant pIRES-hpaA was transfected to COS-7 cells using LipofectamineTM2000, the immunogenicity of expressed HpaA protein was detected with SDS-PAGE and Western blot.RESULTS: The 750-base pair hpaA gene fragment was amplified from the genomic DNA and was consistent with the sequence of H pylori hpaA by sequence analysis. It was confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion that H pylori hpaA gene was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES and a stable recombinant live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine carrying H pylori hpaA gene was successfully constructed and the specific strip of HpaA expressed by pIRES-hpaA was detected through Western blot.CONCLUSION: The recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium DNA vaccine strain expressing HpaA protein with immunogenicity can be constructed and it may be helpful for further investigating the immune action of DNA vaccine in vivo.

  10. Sdelki carry trade ne roskosh, a sredstvo nakoplenija / Darius Gecevicius, Dmitri Fokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gecevicius, Darius

    2007-01-01

    Strateegia carry trade kasutamisest valuutaturgudel. Carry trade on tehing, mis enamasti toimub valuutaturul, kus investor laenab raha sisse valuutas, mille intressid on madalamad ning paigutab selle valuutas, kus intressid on kõrgemad. Diagramm

  11. Sdelki carry trade ne roskosh, a sredstvo nakoplenija / Darius Gecevicius, Dmitri Fokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gecevicius, Darius

    2007-01-01

    Strateegia carry trade kasutamisest valuutaturgudel. Carry trade on tehing, mis enamasti toimub valuutaturul, kus investor laenab raha sisse valuutas, mille intressid on madalamad ning paigutab selle valuutas, kus intressid on kõrgemad. Diagramm

  12. Doxorubicin-conjugated bacteriophages carrying anti-MHC class I chain-related A for targeted cancer therapy in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumyen A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Achara Phumyen,1–3 Siriporn Jantasorn,1 Amonrat Jumnainsong,1 Chanvit Leelayuwat1–4 1The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories (CMDL, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, 2The Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, 3Research Cluster: Specific Health Problem of Grater Maekong Subregion (SHeP-GMS, 4Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Sciences, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Cancer therapy by systemic administration of anticancer drugs, besides the effectiveness shown on cancer cells, demonstrated the side effects and cytotoxicity on normal cells. The targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles may decrease the required drug concentration at the site and the distribution of drugs to normal tissues. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain–related A (MICA in cancer is useful as a targeted molecule for the delivery of doxorubicin to MICA-expressing cell lines. Methods: The application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide (EDC chemistry was employed to conjugate the major coat protein of bacteriophages carrying anti-MICA and doxorubicin in a mildly acid condition. Doxorubicin (Dox on phages was determined by double fluorescence of phage particles stained by M13-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and drug autofluorescence by flow cytometry. The ability of anti-MICA on phages to bind MICA after doxorubicin conjugation was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One cervical cancer and four cholangiocarcinoma cell lines expressing MICA were used as models to evaluate targeting activity by cell cytotoxicity test. Results: Flow cytometry and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that most of the phages (82% could be conjugated with doxorubicin, and the Dox-carrying phage-displaying anti-MICA (Dox-phage remained the binding activity against MICA

  13. 46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried... jackets and must not be substituted for the approved life jackets required to be worn during drills and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  15. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 11 cumulative hours following 10 consecutive... commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor...

  16. Campaign for Right to Carry Concealed Guns on Campuses Gains Traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Five years after the Virginia Tech massacre prompted a student in Texas to start a Facebook page in favor of the right to carry concealed weapons on college campuses, the resulting group, Students for Concealed Carry, has advanced its cause. In more than a dozen states, legislation has been introduced to allow the carrying of concealed firearms on…

  17. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  18. 25 CFR 161.204 - How are carrying capacities and stocking rates established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are carrying capacities and stocking rates... WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.204 How are carrying capacities..., review and adjust the carrying capacity of each range unit by determining the number of livestock,...

  19. Binomial mitotic segregation of MYCN-carrying double minutes in neuroblastoma illustrates the role of randomness in oncogene amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Lundberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amplification of the oncogene MYCN in double minutes (DMs is a common finding in neuroblastoma (NB. Because DMs lack centromeric sequences it has been unclear how NB cells retain and amplify extrachromosomal MYCN copies during tumour development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that MYCN-carrying DMs in NB cells translocate from the nuclear interior to the periphery of the condensing chromatin at transition from interphase to prophase and are preferentially located adjacent to the telomere repeat sequences of the chromosomes throughout cell division. However, DM segregation was not affected by disruption of the telosome nucleoprotein complex and DMs readily migrated from human to murine chromatin in human/mouse cell hybrids, indicating that they do not bind to specific positional elements in human chromosomes. Scoring DM copy-numbers in ana/telophase cells revealed that DM segregation could be closely approximated by a binomial random distribution. Colony-forming assay demonstrated a strong growth-advantage for NB cells with high DM (MYCN copy-numbers, compared to NB cells with lower copy-numbers. In fact, the overall distribution of DMs in growing NB cell populations could be readily reproduced by a mathematical model assuming binomial segregation at cell division combined with a proliferative advantage for cells with high DM copy-numbers. CONCLUSION: Binomial segregation at cell division explains the high degree of MYCN copy-number variability in NB. Our findings also provide a proof-of-principle for oncogene amplification through creation of genetic diversity by random events followed by Darwinian selection.

  20. Design of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders using VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vijay V. Gotmare; Dr. Pankaj Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Carry select adder (CSA) is a square-root time high-speed adder. CSA is one of the fastest adders used in many data processing systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. In this project we propose to design hybrid carry select adders with a focus on high speed. CSA is a compromise between the longer delay Ripple carry adder (RCA) and the shorter delay Carry look-ahead adder (CLA). Conventionally carry select adders are realize using the full adders and 2:1 multiplexers. On the other hand ...

  1. The energetic costs of load-carrying and the evolution of bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Payne, R C; Chamberlain, A T; Jones, R K; Sellers, W I

    2008-05-01

    The evolution of habitual bipedalism is still a fundamental yet unsolved question for paleoanthropologists, and carrying is popular as an explanation for both the early adoption of upright walking and as a positive selection pressure once a terrestrial lifestyle had been adopted. However, to support or reject any hypothesis that suggests carrying efficiency was an important selective pressure, we need quantitative data on the costs of different forms of carrying behavior, especially infant-carrying since reduction in the grasping capabilities of the foot would have prevented infants from clinging on for long durations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the mode of load carriage influences the energetic cost of locomotion. Oxygen consumption was measured in seven female participants walking at a constant speed while carrying four different 10-kg loads (a weighted vest, 5-kg dumbbells carried in each hand, a mannequin infant carried on one hip, and a 10-kg dumbbell carried in a single hand). Oxygen consumption was also measured during unloaded standing and unloaded walking. The results show that the weighted vest requires the least amount of energy of the four types of carrying and that, for this condition, humans are as efficient as mammals in general. The balanced load was carried with approximately the predicted energy cost. However, the asymmetrical conditions were considerably less efficient, indicating that, unless infant-carrying was the adaptive response to a strong environmental selection pressure, this behavior is unlikely to have been the precursor to the evolution of bipedalism.

  2. Dynamic Carrying Capacity Analysis of Double-Row Four-Point Contact Ball Slewing Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is the most important performance index for slewing bearings. Maximizing the carrying capacity of slewing bearing is one pursuing goal for the bearing designer; this is usually realized by optimizing the design parameters. A method of analyzing the carrying capacity of double-row four-point contact ball slewing bearing by using dynamic carrying capacity surfaces was proposed in this paper. Based on the dynamic load carrying capacity surface of the slewing bearing, the effect of changes of the bearing design parameters, such as axial clearance, raceway groove radius coefficient, and contact angle, on the dynamic carrying capacity of the slewing bearing was researched; the trend and the degree of the effect of the micro changes of the bearing design parameters on the dynamic load carrying capacity of the bearing were discussed, and the results provide the basis for optimizing the design parameter of this type of slewing bearing.

  3. Focused interventional cancer radiation therapy using lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The overall goal in cancer therapy is to achieve complete tumor eradication while causing minimal damage to healthy organs and tissue. Based on the broadly accepted theory of tumor control being a probabilistic event, every fraction of radiation treatment kills a portion of cancer cells and higher radiation dose should result in improved tumor control. Ultimately, radiation oncologists must balance the delivery of high enough radiation to tumors for achieving tumor control while not delivering so much radiation as to cause unacceptable normal tissue risk. This project centers on the locoregional delivery of lipid (liposome) nanoparticle-carried therapeutic radionuclides (186Re/ 188Re) to apply a focal and ablative radiation dose to target regions while greatly decreasing normal tissue toxicity of surrounding tissues. Specific Aim 1 includes the development of dosimetric and radiobiological models to assess small animal / patient specific radionuclide therapy at a voxel level. This will be used for a proof of concept study to characterize a novel technique to treat the post-lumpectomy wall for residual early stage breast cancer while simultaneously treating draining lymph nodes. Specific Aim 2 will look at methods of improving therapeutic ratio by evaluating in vivo characteristics of different liposome formulations and tumor vasculature modification chemicals following direct intratumoral infusion of 99m Tc-liposomes within a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (HNSCC) model in nude rats. Specific Aim 3 will evaluate the therapy potential for direct intratumoral injection of 186Re-liposomes within a human HNSCC xenograft model in nude rats using the dosimetric and radiobiological models of Aim 1 with improved treatment modifications from Aim 2.

  4. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  5. A Turner Syndrome Patient Carrying a Mosaic Distal X Chromosome Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaschi, Roberto L. P.; Taylor, Juliet; Robertson, Stephen P.; Love, Donald R.; George, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    A skin sample from a 17-year-old female was received for routine karyotyping with a set of clinical features including clonic seizures, cardiomyopathy, hepatic adenomas, and skeletal dysplasia. Conventional karyotyping revealed a mosaic Turner syndrome karyotype with a cell line containing a small marker of X chromosome origin. This was later confirmed on peripheral blood cultures by conventional G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microarray analysis. Similar Turner mosaic marker chromosome cases have been previously reported in the literature, with a variable phenotype ranging from the mild “classic” Turner syndrome to anencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, complex heart malformation, and syndactyly of the fingers and toes. This case report has a phenotype that is largely discordant with previously published cases as it lies at the severe end of the Turner variant phenotype scale. The observed cytogenetic abnormalities in this study may represent a coincidental finding, but we cannot exclude the possibility that the marker has a nonfunctioning X chromosome inactivation locus, leading to functional disomy of those genes carried by the marker. PMID:24778889

  6. A Turner Syndrome Patient Carrying a Mosaic Distal X Chromosome Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. P. Mazzaschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A skin sample from a 17-year-old female was received for routine karyotyping with a set of clinical features including clonic seizures, cardiomyopathy, hepatic adenomas, and skeletal dysplasia. Conventional karyotyping revealed a mosaic Turner syndrome karyotype with a cell line containing a small marker of X chromosome origin. This was later confirmed on peripheral blood cultures by conventional G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microarray analysis. Similar Turner mosaic marker chromosome cases have been previously reported in the literature, with a variable phenotype ranging from the mild “classic” Turner syndrome to anencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, complex heart malformation, and syndactyly of the fingers and toes. This case report has a phenotype that is largely discordant with previously published cases as it lies at the severe end of the Turner variant phenotype scale. The observed cytogenetic abnormalities in this study may represent a coincidental finding, but we cannot exclude the possibility that the marker has a nonfunctioning X chromosome inactivation locus, leading to functional disomy of those genes carried by the marker.

  7. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  8. Construction of the Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein Expression Vector Carrying IFN-γ Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqing Lan; Jian Ge; Yehong Zhuo; Jinlin Wang; Huiyi Chen; Haiquan Liu

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To construct the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) vector carryinginterferon-y gene (ifn-γ) in order to provide an ideal reporter in the expression of ifn-γand location of protein in vitro and in vivo.Method: According to the nucleotide sequence of ifn-y gene, a pair of oligonucleotideswas designed as primer whose two end contained nucleotide sequence of EcoR V and NotⅠ restriction endonuclease respectively. The gene encoding for inf-y was amplified usingPCR technique. After the PCR product was retrieved and purified, it was digested withEcoR V and Not Ⅰ restriction endonuclease, and then cloned into the plasmidpIRES-EYFP. The recombinant plasmid plRES-EYFPIFN-γwas identified by restrictionendonuclease enzyme analysis and DNA sequence analysis.Results: The ifn-γ was successfully amplified and verified by partial DNA sequenceanalysis. The recombinant plasmid was correctly screened.Conclusion: The EYFP expression vector carrying ifn-γgene was successfully established.This research work has formed a base for monitoring the ifn-y gene expression andprotein position in living cells.

  9. Muscle Releases Alpha-Sarcoglycan Positive Extracellular Vesicles Carrying miRNAs in the Bloodstream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Guescini

    Full Text Available In the past few years, skeletal muscle has emerged as an important secretory organ producing soluble factors, called myokines, that exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that muscle releases microRNAs into the bloodstream in response to physical exercise. These microRNAs affect target cells, such as hormones and cytokines. The mechanisms underlying microRNA secretion are poorly characterized at present. Here, we investigated whether muscle tissue releases extracellular vesicles (EVs, which carry microRNAs in the bloodstream under physiological conditions such as physical exercise. Using density gradient separation of plasma from sedentary and physically fit young men we found EVs positive for TSG101 and alpha-sarcoglycan (SGCA, and enriched for miR-206. Cytometric analysis showed that the SGCA+ EVs account for 1-5% of the total and that 60-65% of these EVs were also positive for the exosomal marker CD81. Furthermore, the SGCA-immuno captured sub-population of EVs exhibited higher levels of the miR-206/miR16 ratio compared to total plasma EVs. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the aerobic fitness and muscle-specific miRNAs and EV miR-133b and -181a-5p were significantly up-regulated after acute exercise. Thus, our study proposes EVs as a novel means of muscle communication potentially involved in muscle remodeling and homeostasis.

  10. Implementation of an Arithmetic Logic Using Area Efficient Carry Lookahead Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Dubey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An arithmetic logic unit acts as the basic building blocks or cell of a central processing unit of a c omputer. And it is a digital circuit comprised of the basic electronics components, which is used to perform va rious function of arithmetic and logic and integral opera tions further the purpose of this work is to propos e the design of an 8-bit ALU which supports 4-bit multipl ication. Thus, the functionalities of the ALU in th is study consist of following main functions like addi tion also subtraction, increment, decrement, AND, O R, NOT, XOR, NOR also two complement generation Multip lication. And the functions with the adder in the airthemetic logic unit are implemented using a Carr y Look Ahead adder joined by a ripple carry approac h. The design of the following multiplier is achieved using the Booths Algorithm therefore the proposed A LU can be designed by using verilog or VHDL and can al so be designed on Cadence Virtuoso platform

  11. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofre Juan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene. Results Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol. Conclusion This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  12. A Role of TMEM16E Carrying a Scrambling Domain in Sperm Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyobu, Sayuri; Miyata, Haruhiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Yamazaki, Daiju; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 16E (TMEM16E) belongs to the TMEM16 family of proteins that have 10 transmembrane regions and appears to localize intracellularly. Although TMEM16E mutations cause bone fragility and muscular dystrophy in humans, its biochemical function is unknown. In the TMEM16 family, TMEM16A and -16B serve as Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, while TMEM16C, -16D, -16F, -16G, and -16J support Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling. Here, we show that TMEM16E carries a segment composed of 35 amino acids homologous to the scrambling domain in TMEM16F. When the corresponding segment of TMEM16A was replaced by this 35-amino-acid segment of TMEM16E, the chimeric molecule localized to the plasma membrane and supported Ca2+-dependent scrambling. We next established TMEM16E-deficient mice, which appeared to have normal skeletal muscle. However, fertility was decreased in the males. We found that TMEM16E was expressed in germ cells in early spermatogenesis and thereafter and localized to sperm tail. TMEM16E−/− sperm showed no apparent defect in morphology, beating, mitochondrial function, capacitation, or binding to zona pellucida. However, they showed reduced motility and inefficient fertilization of cumulus-free but zona-intact eggs in vitro. Our results suggest that TMEM16E may function as a phospholipid scramblase at inner membranes and that its defect affects sperm motility. PMID:26667038

  13. Comparative analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Peter R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidine (TRD represents an anti-infective substance with anti-neoplastic activity in many malignant cell lines. So far, the knowledge about the cell death inducing mechanisms and pathways activated by TRD is limited. The aim of this study was therefore, to perform a comparative analysis of cell death induction by TRD simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. Materials and methods Five different malignant cell lines (HT29/Colon, Chang Liver/Liver, HT1080/fibrosarcoma, AsPC-1/pancreas and BxPC-3/pancreas were incubated with increasing concentrations of TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM for 6 h and 24 h. Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by FACS analysis (Propidiumiodide/AnnexinV staining. Additionally, cells were co-incubated with the caspase Inhibitor z-VAD, the radical scavenger N-Acetylcystein (NAC and the Gluthation depleting agent BSO to examine the contribution of caspase activation and reactive oxygen species in TRD induced cell death. Results All cell lines were susceptible to TRD induced cell death without resistance toward this anti-neoplastic agent. However, the dose response effects were varying largely between different cell lines. The effect of NAC and BSO co-treatment were highly different among cell lines - suggesting a cell line specific involvement of ROS in TRD induced cell death. Furthermore, impact of z-VAD mediated inhibition of caspases was differing strongly among the cell lines. Conclusion This is the first study providing a simultaneous evaluation of the anti-neoplastic action of TRD across several malignant cell lines. The involvement of ROS and caspase activation was highly variable among the five cell lines, although all were susceptible to TRD induced cell death. Our results indicate, that TRD is likely to provide multifaceted cell death mechanisms leading to a cell line specific diversity.

  14. Generating a transgenic mouse line stably expressing human MHC surface antigen from a HAC carrying multiple genomic BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ishikura, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Takanori; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Junpei; Nakayama, Manabu; Okamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Tuneko; Koseki, Haruhiko; Ohara, Osamu; Ikeno, Masashi; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector is a promising tool to improve the problematic suppression and position effects of transgene expression frequently seen in transgenic cells and animals produced by conventional plasmid or viral vectors. We generated transgenic mice maintaining a single HAC vector carrying two genomic bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from human HLA-DR loci (DRA and DRB1). Both transgenes on the HAC in transgenic mice exhibited tissue-specific expression in kidney, liver, lung, spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, and thymus cells in RT-PCR analysis. Stable functional expression of a cell surface HLA-DR marker from both transgenes, DRA and DRB1 on the HAC, was detected by flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes and maintained through at least eight filial generations. These results indicate that the de novo HAC system can allow us to manipulate multiple BAC transgenes with coordinated expression as a surface antigen through the generation of transgenic animals.

  15. The Antibacterial Effect of Silver-carrying B2O3-SiO2-Na2O Glass Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; CHENG Jinshu; LI Xi; GAO Deqiang; LIU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of carrying silver B2O3-SiO2-Na2O glass material was studied by means of antibacterial ring, nephelometery,MIC value, thin film attachment and microcalorimetry, respectively. The experimental results of five kinds of antibacterial test methods are almost identical and can verify that carrying silver B2O3-SiO2-Na2O glass material exerts an excellent antibacterial performance. Antibacterial ring and nephelometery are simple, quick, but the precision is restrictive. MIC value, thin film attachment method and microcalorimetry can quantitatively compare the antibacterial effects of the antibacterial glass material.Compared with the traditional microbe test methods, the microcalorimetry can analyze the inhibiting effect of the cell's growth and metabolism on the antibacterial glass material by monitoring the thermal effect continuously and automatically.

  16. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  17. A model to estimate aquaculture carrying capacity in three areas of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarzan Legović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A model was developed to estimate the production carrying capacity of water bodies based on nutrient inputs from aquaculture and other sources, flushing rates, and the risk of algal blooms for three different areas of the Philippines – Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan (brackishwater site and Taal Lake (freshwater site. The results suggest that aquaculture production in the Taal Lake was greater than the sustainable carrying capacity. Aquaculture structures in Bolinao were close to carrying capacity during average tidal exchange but greater than the carrying capacity during low tidal exchange and no winds.Aquaculture production in the Dagupan estuary has not overcome its carrying capacity even during low flow. However, during very low flow and no tidal flushing, carrying capacity has been overcome.

  18. Design & Analysis of Low Power, Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design & analysis of Carry Select Adder (CSLA & Carry lookahead adder (CLA. Adders are designed using 0.18µm CMOS process technology & simulated with Modelsim6.3f. The adder designs, Regular CSLA, modified CSLA using BEC, modified CSLA without using multiplexer, modified CSLA using D-Latch & Carry lookahead adders in 4-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, are compared with the simulated results on the basis area.

  19. Synchronisation of fertility with carrying capacity; an investigation using classical and agent based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Crozier Murrell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalized Verhulst model subject to seasonal change in both fertility rate and carrying capacity is outlined. Numerical solutions to the Verhulst equations are employed to obtain optimal fertility rate phase shift with respect to carrying capacity. Possible natural selection for a preferred season of conception is investigated using agent based simulations. Both experiments indicate that synchronization of fertility rate to environment carrying capacity is beneficial to species survival.

  20. Research on Carrying Capacity of Water Resource Based on Multi-reservoir Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Renyuan; Li Lei; Li Hua; Huang Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Analyze the level of Carrying Capacity of Water Resources; evaluate the condition of e region social, economic and ecological environment comprehensive and sustainable development. This study is based on analyzing the meaning of water resources carrying capacity, take water resources of the Midwest of Shenzhen City an example., by the way of the “Coordinated and sustainable development” theory, found the model of the Carrying Capacity of Water Resources, Calculated and analyzed. Water efficie...

  1. Effects of a Fluctuating Carrying Capacity on the Generalized Malthus-Verhulst Model

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Calisto; Chandía, Kristopher J.; Mauro Bologna

    2014-01-01

    We consider a generalized Malthus-Verhulst model with a fluctuating carrying capacity and we study its effects on population growth. The carrying capacity fluctuations are described by a Poissonian process with an exponential correlation function. We will find an analytical expression for the average of a number of individuals and show that even in presence of a fluctuating carrying capacity the average tends asymptotically to a constant quantity.

  2. Estimating Recreational Carrying Capacity of Gheisary Protected Area in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, A; Jafari, A.; Setoodeh, A

    2014-01-01

    It is now certain that to ensure a long term sustainable development, protected areas, the favored destinations for ecotourism, required a well written planning management. Each destination however has limited capability which is called “carrying capacity” to invite visitors. Physical, real (ecological) and effective (manageable) are different kinds of carrying capacity. The current study presented these varieties of carrying capacities for Gheisary protected area, stretched over 10,000 ha in...

  3. ANALYSIS OF ABILITY FOR IGNITING METHANE OF WATER-CARRYING EXPLOSIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆守香

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the ability to ignite methane of water-carrying explosives is discussed in detail. The difference of the safety towards methane of water- carrying explosives and ammonite is analysed comparatively. It is shown that the process of detonation reaction, the duration of flame by combustible residues of detonation and the fineness of cooling salt in detonation products are important factors of the safety of explosive towards methane. Water-carrying explosives are safer than ammonite used in coal mines.

  4. Effects of a Fluctuating Carrying Capacity on the Generalized Malthus-Verhulst Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Calisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized Malthus-Verhulst model with a fluctuating carrying capacity and we study its effects on population growth. The carrying capacity fluctuations are described by a Poissonian process with an exponential correlation function. We will find an analytical expression for the average of a number of individuals and show that even in presence of a fluctuating carrying capacity the average tends asymptotically to a constant quantity.

  5. The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-07-30

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  7. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa; Amit Grover; Neeti Grover; GurpreetSingh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can b...

  8. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can be greatly reduced from 1947 to 960.

  9. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  10. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  11. Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Carrying a Peroxisomal Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene from Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Feng; SHI Wei-Ming; A. UEDA; T. TAKABE

    2008-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases (APX), localized in the cytosol, peroxisome, mitochondria, and chloroplasts of plant cells,catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water by using ascorbic acid as the specific electron donor. To determine the role of peroxisomal type ascorbate peroxidasc (pAPX), an antioxidant enzyme, in protection against salt-induced oxidative stress, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant carrying a pAPX gene (HvAPX1) from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was analyzed. The transgenic line pAPX3 was found to be more tolerant to salt stress than the wild type. Irrespective of salt stress, there were no significant differences in Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents and the ratio of K+ to Na+ between pAPX3 and the wild type. Clearly, the salt tolerance in pAPX3 was not due to the maintenance and reestablishment of cellular ion homeostasis. However, the degree of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (measured as the levels of malondialdehyde)accumulation under salt stress was higher in the wild type than in pAPX3. The mechanism of salt tolerance in transgenic pAPX3 can thus be explained by reduction of oxidative stress injury. Under all conditions tested, activities of superoxide,glutathionc reductase, and catalase were not significantly different between pAPX3 and the wild type. In contrast, the activity of APX was significantly higher in the transgcnic plant than in wild type under salt stress. These results suggested that in higher plants, HvAPX1 played an important role in salt tolerance and was a candidate gene for developing salt-tolerant crop plants.

  12. Mucilaginibacter carri sp. nov., isolated from a car air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Hyosun; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, So Yoon; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, pink bacterial strain, designated PR0008KT, was isolated from an automobile evaporator core in Korea. The cells were obligately aerobic and rod-shaped. The strain grew at 10-40 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 5-8 (optimum, 7), and in the presence of 0-1.5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetically, the strain was closely related to members of the genus Mucilaginibacter (93.4-97.0% 16S rRNA sequence similarities) and showed a high sequence similarity with Mucilaginibacter litoreus BR-18T, Mucilaginibacter lutimaris BR-3T and Mucilaginibacter soli R9-65T (97.0%, 96.9% and 96.9% 16S rRNA sequence similarity, respectively). It contained summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), C16 : 0, iso-C17:0 3-OH and C16:0 as the predominant fatty acids and MK-7 as the major menaquinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown aminolipids and two unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of this strain was 47.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain PR0008KT represents a novel species in the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter carri sp. nov. (=KACC 17938T=NBRC 111539T) is proposed.

  13. MCP-1 binds to oxidized LDL and is carried by lipoprotein(a) in human plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Philipp; Tafelmeier, Maria; Chittka, Dominik; Choi, Soo-Ho; Zhang, Li; Byun, Young Sup; Almazan, Felicidad; Yang, Xiaohong; Iqbal, Navaid; Chowdhury, Punam; Maisel, Alan; Witztum, Joseph L.; Handel, Tracy M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein oxidation plays an important role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) induces profound inflammatory responses in vascular cells, such as production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2], a key chemokine in the initiation and progression of vascular inflammation. Here we demonstrate that OxLDL also binds MCP-1 and that the OxLDL-bound MCP-1 retains its ability to recruit monocytes. A human MCP-1 mutant in which basic amino acids Arg-18 and Lys-19 were replaced with Ala did not bind to OxLDL. The MCP-1 binding to OxLDL was inhibited by the monoclonal antibody E06, which binds oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in OxLDL. Because OxPLs are carried by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in human plasma, we tested to determine whether Lp(a) binds MCP-1. Recombinant wild-type but not mutant MCP-1 added to human plasma bound to Lp(a), and its binding was inhibited by E06. Lp(a) captured from human plasma contained MCP-1 and the Lp(a)-associated endogenous MCP-1 induced monocyte migration. These results demonstrate that OxLDL and Lp(a) bind MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo and that OxPLs are major determinants of the MCP-1 binding. The association of MCP-1 with OxLDL and Lp(a) may play a role in modulating monocyte trafficking during atherogenesis. PMID:23667177

  14. 46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. (a) Equipment carried under this section is not acceptable in lieu of any portion of the required number of approved life jackets and must not be substituted for the...

  15. Risk-premia, Carry-trade Dynamics, and Economic Value of Currency Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    -cited ‘forward bias puzzle’ originates from the omission of the risk-premium in standard UIP tests. Consistent with its popularity among market professionals, the carry-trade strategy can be rationalized as it systematically collects risk-premia, however, the economic value generated by bilateral carry-trades...

  16. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  17. Complete genome sequences of Incl1 Plasmids carrying extended-spectrum B-Lactamase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.S.M.; Bossers, A.; Harders, F.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Smith, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Often, the resistance genes are carried by conjugative plasmids which are responsible for dissemination. Five IncI1 plasmids carrying ESBLs from commensal and clinical Escherichia coli isolates were compl

  18. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  19. Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Kelley, Norma J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Bousman, Chad A.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Ji, Ming; Clapp, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties. Methods: Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Results: The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying,…

  20. Carrying a Weapon to School and Perceptions of Social Support in an Urban Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2003-01-01

    This study of perceived social support and weapon possession surveyed 461 students in an urban middle school. Students who reported carrying weapons to school reported less overall or total perceived social support (from peers, parents, teachers, classmates, and school) than did their peers who did not carry weapons. Perceived social support was a…

  1. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  2. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  3. 48 CFR 19.707 - The Small Business Administration's role in carrying out the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Subcontracting Program 19.707 The Small Business Administration's role in carrying out the program. (a) Under the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Small Business Administration's role in carrying out the program. 19.707 Section 19.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  4. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  5. The application of a phosphorus mass balance model for estimating the carrying capacity of Lake Kariba

    OpenAIRE

    MHLANGA, Lindah; MHLANGA, Wilson; MWERA, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use an empirical mass balance equation to estimate the carrying capacity of Lake Kariba, where cage culture for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been practiced since 1996. The carrying capacity for the lake was estimated at 33.2 × 103 t per year using the Dillon-Rigler phosphorus budget model.

  6. CERTAINTY EQUIVALENCE FOR DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION RATES WITH CARRY-OVER

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C. Robert

    1983-01-01

    This note demonstrates that a certain class of stochastic problems for determination of optimal fertilizer application rates in the presence of fertilizer carry-over can be simplified to static, certainly equivalent problems. Conditions required for certainty equivalence to hold are: (1) fertilizer carry-over is agronomically equivalent to applied fertilizer; and (2) some addition of fertilizer is optimal in every decision period.

  7. Toddlers actively reorganize their whole body coordination to maintain walking stability while carrying an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Hao; Miranda, Daniel L; Chistolini, Trevor L; Goldfield, Eugene C

    2016-10-01

    Balanced walking involves freely swinging the limbs like pendula. However, children immediately begin to carry objects as soon as they can walk. One possibility for this early skill development is that whole body coordination during walking may be re-organized into loosely coupled collections of body parts, allowing children to use their arms to perform one function, while the legs perform another. Therefore, this study examines: 1) how carrying an object affects the coordination of the arms and legs during walking, and 2) if carrying an object influences stride length and width. Ten healthy toddlers with 3-12 months of walking experience were recruited to walk barefoot while carrying or not carrying a small toy. Stride length, width, speed, and continuous relative phase (CRP) of the hips and of the shoulders were compared between carrying conditions. While both arms and legs demonstrated destabilization and stabilization throughout the gait cycle, the arms showed a reduction in intra-subject coordination variability in response to carrying an object. Carrying an object may modify the function of the arms from swinging for balance to maintaining hold of an object. The observed period-dependent changes of the inter-limb coordination of the hips and of the shoulders also support this interpretation. Overall, these findings support the view that whole-body coordination patterns may become partitioned in particular ways as a function of task requirements.

  8. Phenomenological approach to describe logistic growth and carrying capacity-dependent growth processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIBYENDU BISWAS; SWARUP PORIA; SANKAR NARAYAN PATRA

    2016-11-01

    In this communication, different classes of phenomenological universalities of carrying capacity dependent growth processes have been proposed. The logistic as well as carrying capacity-dependent West-type allometry-based biological growths can be explained in this proposed framework. It is shown that logistic and carrying capacity-dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However, there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment-dependent description. It is also found phenomenologically that the energy intake of an organism depends on carrying capacity whereas metabolic cost does not depend on carrying capacity. In addition, some other phenomenologicaldescriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  9. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie: Carrie——the Aspiring Cinderella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷娟

    2008-01-01

    Like Cinderella in the fairy tale Cinderella, Carrie is beautiful, innocent and poor. But unlike the traditional Cinderella who mindlessly waits around for a handsome prince to come to her rescue, Carrie, the aspiring Cinderella, resolvedly leaves the men she ever depended on and eventually becomes a successful actress. Sister Carrie, the most impressive heroine of Theodore Dreiser, is a contradictory character. Some accuse her of realizing her ambition with immoral means. However, some others take sympathy with her courage, determination, and aspiration. By analyzing the most distinguished quality of Sister Carrie - her aspiration, this essay is to illustrate from the perspective of feminism that women are not limited by their sex. Ignoring her own sex as well as the conventional attitude toward women in a male-dominated society, sister Carrie, full of aspiration, takes an active pan in creating and determining her own lives and her own futures..

  10. Research on Carrying Capacity of Water Resource Based on Multi-reservoir Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Renyuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the level of Carrying Capacity of Water Resources; evaluate the condition of e region social, economic and ecological environment comprehensive and sustainable development. This study is based on analyzing the meaning of water resources carrying capacity, take water resources of the Midwest of Shenzhen City an example., by the way of the “Coordinated and sustainable development” theory, found the model of the Carrying Capacity of Water Resources, Calculated and analyzed. Water efficiency coefficients are different in different states, the Carrying Capacity of Water Resources is different too. the water resources in the Midwest of Shenzhen City can only meet now this stage (2010 Urban water demand, meanwhile people of over loading in there are also constantly increasing, In the future, Water requirement of Shenzhen Midwest cities must increase Dongjiang water and west diversion works of Shen Zhen, in order to enhance Carrying Capacity of Water Resources of the area.

  11. Risk Analysis on Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Blind Number Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji; YU Sujun

    2007-01-01

    Blind numbers of evaluation indices about groundwater resources carrying capacity are defined from the concomitancy of randomness, fuzziness, grey property and unascertainment of groundwater system.Based on fuzzy theory, a comprehensive evaluation model on groundwaterresources carrying capacity is constructed with blind information. Then arisk assessment model of surcharge about groundwater resources carryingcapacity is established on blind reliability theory. The probable value"*"'matrix of fuzzy membership degree about carrying capacity corresponding to each judgment level can be obtained with the aid of blind algorithm as well as the subjective reliability "×" matrix. And then a graph of"groundwater carrying capacity v.s. accumulative reliability" can be gained.Based on the graph, fuzzy membership degree of groundwater resourcescarrying capacity to each judgment level under different risk probabilitycan be got. Thus, a comparatively reasonable judgment to groundwaterresources carrying capacity might be obtained, with comprehensive analysis to the state of society, economy technology and ecology.

  12. Comparative analysis of environmental carrying capacity of the Bohai Sea Rim area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; Zhang, Tianzhu; Zeng, Siyu

    2011-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is an essential metric for measuring regional sustainability. Although the term "carrying capacity" has been applied for over a century, the concept definition, quantitative methods and comprehensive evaluation remain arguable. This study analyzed the carrying capacity of four environmental elements, including water resources, air, surface water and offshore sea, and integrated them into a comprehensive index to represent overall regional profiles of resources and environment. The method was then applied to thirteen municipalities in the Bohai Sea Rim area, one of the most rapidly developing regions in transition China. The results show that the comprehensive environmental carrying capacity of the municipalities in the south sub-region were largest in 2007, while that of the west municipalities were lowest. The regional economic development exceeded the overall environmental carrying capacity by 36% and the west sub-region area deserves overwhelming attention for future industrial allocation.

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity induced by Clostridium perfringens isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe gene is exclusively dependent on sporulation and enterotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasugi, Mayo; Sugahara, Yuki; Hoshi, Hidenobu; Kondo, Kaori; Talukdar, Prabhat K; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Kamata, Yoichi; Miyake, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases in humans. In the intestinal tract, the vegetative cells sporulate and produce a major pathogenic factor, C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). Most type A FP isolates carry a chromosomal cpe gene, whereas NFB type A isolates typically carry a plasmid-encoded cpe. In vitro, the purified CPE protein binds to a receptor and forms pores, exerting a cytotoxic activity in epithelial cells. However, it remains unclear if CPE is indispensable for C. perfringens cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of cpe-harboring C. perfringens isolates co-cultured with human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The FP strains showed severe cytotoxicity during sporulation and CPE production, but not during vegetative cell growth. While Caco-2 cells were intact during co-culturing with cpe-null mutant derivative of strain SM101 (a FP strain carrying a chromosomal cpe gene), the wild-type level cytotoxicity was observed with cpe-complemented strain. In contrast, both wild-type and cpe-null mutant derivative of the NFB strain F4969 induced Caco-2 cell death during both vegetative and sporulation growth. Collectively, the Caco-2 cell cytotoxicity caused by C. perfringens strain SM101 is considered to be exclusively dependent on CPE production, whereas some additional toxins should be involved in F4969-mediated in vitro cytotoxicity.

  14. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β -Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breveglieri, Giulia; Mancini, Irene; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Lampronti, Ilaria; Salvatori, Francesca; Fabbri, Enrica; Zuccato, Cristina; Cosenza, Lucia C; Montagner, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Altruda, Fiorella; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Carandina, Gianni; Rubini, Michele; Aiello, Vincenzo; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto; Finotti, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece) are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6) carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a) the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b) the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c) as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin (mu) α-globin2/(hu) β-globin2 and, more importantly, (d) the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia.

  15. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-07-29

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens.

  16. Analysis of the effects of blue light on morphofunctional status of in vitro cultured blastocysts from mice carrying gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharova, N Yu; Mezhevikina, L M; Smirnov, A A; Vikhlyantseva, E F

    2014-05-01

    We studied the effect of blue light (440-490 nm) on the development of late blastocysts of mice carrying the gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Exposure to blue light for 20 min reduced adhesive properties of blastocysts and their capacity to form primary colonies consisting of the cells of inner cell mass, trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm. The negative effects of blue light manifested in morphological changes in the primary colonies and impairment of differentiation and migration of cells of the trophoblast and extraembryonic endoderm. The problems of cell-cell interaction and inductive influences of the inner cell mass on other cell subpopulations are discussed. EGFP blastocysts were proposed as the model for evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of blue light as the major negative factor of visible light used in in vitro experiments on mammalian embryos.

  17. Object carrying as socio-sexual display in an aquatic mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A R; da Silva, V M F; Rothery, P

    2008-06-23

    Amazon river dolphins or botos (Inia geoffrensis Blainville) were observed carrying objects in 221 social groups over a 3-year study period. Sticks, branches and clumps of grass were taken from the water surface and often repeatedly thrashed or thrown. Lumps of hard clay were collected from the river bed and held in the mouth while the carrier rose slowly above the surface and submerged again. Carriers were predominantly adult males and less often subadult males. Adult females and young dolphins rarely carried objects. Groups of dolphins in which object carrying occurred were differentially large and comprised a greater proportion of adult males and adult females. Aggression, mostly between adult males, was significantly associated with object carrying. The behaviour occurred year-round, with peaks in March and July. A plausible explanation of the results is that object carrying by adult males is aimed at females and is stimulated by the number of females in the group, while aggression is targeted at adult males and is stimulated by object carrying in the group. We infer that object carrying in this sexually dimorphic species is socio-sexual display. It is either of ancient origin or has evolved independently in several geographically isolated populations.

  18. Ecological Carrying Capacity in Beijing Mountainous Areas Taking Fangshan District as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to investigate ecological carrying capacity of Fangshan District in Beijing. [Method] Ecological footprint and carrying capacity of Fangshan District in 2007 and 2008 were analyzed with ecological footprint model and the difference between ecological footprint and carrying capacity there was con- cluded. Furthermore, an assessment was made on relation between Fangshan de- velopment with local ecological carrying capacity to evaluate sustainable development of Fangshan District. [Result] Fangshan District is of lightly ecological deficit; ecologi- cal footprint per capita in 2007-2008 was deficit and tended to expand. Two meth- ods are available to reduce ecological :deficit, including reduction of ecological foot- print and increase of carrying capacity. In general, supply and demand of carrying capacity in Fangshan are better, though with some problems. It is necessary to fur- ther develop related industries to final eliminate ecological deficit in order to achieve ecological conservation-orientation and sustainable development of Fangshan District. [Conclusion] The research provides theoretical references for overall evaluation on eco- logical carrying capacity of Fangshan District.

  19. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  20. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sophie D; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  1. State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Hemenway, David

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence and injuries pose a substantial threat to children and youth in the United States. Existing evidence points to the need for interventions and policies for keeping guns out of the hands of children and youth. (1) To examine the association between state gun law environment and youth gun carrying in the United States, and (2) to determine whether adult gun ownership mediates this association. This was a repeated cross-sectional observational study design with 3 years of data on youth gun carrying from US states. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey comprises data of representative samples of students in grades 9 to 12 from biennial years of 2007, 2009, and 2011. We hypothesized that states with more restrictive gun laws have lower rates of youth gun carrying, and this association is mediated by adult gun ownership. State gun law environment as measured by state gun law score. Youth gun carrying was defined as having carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey. In the fully adjusted model, a 10-point increase in the state gun law score, which represented a more restrictive gun law environment, was associated with a 9% decrease in the odds of youth gun carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.96]). Adult gun ownership mediated the association between state gun law score and youth gun carrying (AOR, 0.94 [ 95% CI, 0.86-1.01], with 29% attenuation of the regression coefficient from -0.09 to -0.07 based on bootstrap resampling). More restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying. These findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.

  2. Micro- and Nano-vesicles from First Trimester Human Placentae Carry Flt-1 and Levels Are Increased in Severe Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mancy; Chen, Qi; James, Joanna L; Stone, Peter R; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a life-threatening hypertensive disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear, it is known that placenta-derived factors trigger the disease by activating maternal endothelial cells prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes extruded by the placenta may be one factor. The truncated/secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1) has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We investigated whether placental EV production is altered in preeclampsia such that they induce endothelial cell activation, and whether (s)Flt-1 is involved. Macro-, micro-, and nano-vesicles were collected from normal and preeclamptic (PE) placental explants, and separated by differential centrifugation. The number and size of micro- and nano-vesicles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and their ability to activate endothelial cells was quantified by endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and monocyte adhesion. The levels of Flt-1 were measured by western blots and ELISA. PE placentae extruded significantly more micro- and nano-vesicles than control placentae and the extruded micro-vesicles were larger than those from control placentae. Micro- and nano-vesicles from both first trimester and term human placentae carried Flt-1 and levels were significantly increased in EVs from severe, but not mild, PE compared to normotensive placentae. All fractions of EVs from PE placentae activated endothelial cells, and for micro- and nano-vesicles, activation was reduced in the presence of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a Flt-1 neutralizing antibody, or by pre-treatment with VEGF. While EV-bound VEGF constituted over 20% of the total detected VEGF secreted by PE and normotensive placentae, EV-bound Flt-1 did not significantly contribute to the total level of sFlt-1/Flt-1 released by human third trimester placentae. Micro- and nano

  3. A stapled peptide antagonist of MDM2 carried by polymeric micelles sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide treatment through p53 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xishan; Tai, Lingyu; Gao, Jie; Qian, Jianchang; Zhang, Mingfei; Li, Beibei; Xie, Cao; Lu, Linwei; Lu, Wuyuan; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-11-28

    Antagonizing MDM2 and MDMX to activate the tumor suppressor protein p53 is an attractive therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, challenges remain with respect to the poor ability of p53 activators to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and/or blood-brain tumor barrier and to specifically target tumor cells. To circumvent these problems, we developed a cyclic RGD peptide-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic acid) polymeric micelle (RGD-M) that carried a stapled peptide antagonist of both MDM2 and MDMX (sPMI). The peptide-carrying micelle RGD-M/sPMI was prepared via film-hydration method with high encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity as well as ideal size distribution. Micelle encapsulation dramatically increased the solubility of sPMI, thus alleviating its serum sequestration. In vitro studies showed that RGD-M/sPMI efficiently inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells in the presence of serum by activating the p53 signaling pathway. Further, RGD-M/sPMI exerted potent tumor growth inhibitory activity against human glioblastoma in nude mouse xenograft models. Importantly, the combination of RGD-M/sPMI and temozolomide--a standard chemotherapy drug for GBM increased antitumor efficacy against glioblastoma in experimental animals. Our results validate a combination therapy using p53 activators with temozolomide as a more effective treatment for GBM.

  4. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  5. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  6. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  7. Reference Maps of human ES and iPS cell variation enable high-throughput characterization of pluripotent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Christoph; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Verstappen, Griet; Gu, Hongcang; Boulting, Gabriella; Smith, Zachary D; Ziller, Michael; Croft, Gist F; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Oakley, Derek H; Gnirke, Andreas; Eggan, Kevin; Meissner, Alexander

    2011-02-04

    The developmental potential of human pluripotent stem cells suggests that they can produce disease-relevant cell types for biomedical research. However, substantial variation has been reported among pluripotent cell lines, which could affect their utility and clinical safety. Such cell-line-specific differences must be better understood before one can confidently use embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in translational research. Toward this goal we have established genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation and gene expression for 20 previously derived human ES lines and 12 human iPS cell lines, and we have measured the in vitro differentiation propensity of these cell lines. This resource enabled us to assess the epigenetic and transcriptional similarity of ES and iPS cells and to predict the differentiation efficiency of individual cell lines. The combination of assays yields a scorecard for quick and comprehensive characterization of pluripotent cell lines.

  8. IMMUNITY AND DYNAMICS OF INFECTIONS IN HERPESVIRUS-CARRYING PREGNANT WOMEN WITH UNDIFFERENTIATED FORMS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYSPLASIA HERPES VIRUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Dorohova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We have studied some immune parameters in pregnant women with undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia (n = 51, who harboured herpesviruses, i.e., cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex virus. A relative insufficiency of CD3+ lymphocytes, along with deficiency of CD4+T cells, and predominance of CD16+ cells (NK cells, and CD20+ cells were revealed, accompanied by increase in IgM and the decrease in IgA and IgG levels. Disturbances of cellular and humoral immunity in such patients were more expressed than in women without undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia (n = 50, being associated with increased  frequency  of  infection  manifesting  as  inflammatory  placental  lesion  with  secondary  placental insufficiency and more pessimistic perinatal outcomes. The results obtained justify a need for second preventive measures  in  pregnant,  herpesvirus-carrying  women with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 175-180

  9. Carrying Capacity Model Applied to Coastal Ecotourism of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Rosyid, D. M.; Nuzula, N. I.

    2017-07-01

    The resources of Baluran National Park have been used for marine and coastal ecotourism. The increasing number of visitors has led to the increasing of tourists and its related activities. This condition will cause the degradation of resources and the welfare of local communities. This research aims to determine the sustainability of coastal ecotourism management by calculating the effective number of tourists who can be accepted. The study uses the concept of tourism carrying capacity, consists the ecological environment, economic, social and physical carrying capacity. The results of the combined carrying capacity analysis in Baluran National Park ecotourism shows that the number of 3.288 people per day (151.248 tourists per year) is the maximum number of accepted tourists. The current number of tourist arrivals is only 241 people per day (87.990 tourists per year) which is far below the carrying capacity.

  10. Geometry of carrying simplices of 3-species competitive Lotka-Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigent, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the existence, uniqueness and Gaussian curvature of the invariant carrying simplices of 3 species autonomous totally competitive Lotka-Volterra systems. Explicit examples are given where the carrying simplex is convex or concave, but also where the curvature is not single-signed. Our method monitors the curvature of an evolving surface that converges uniformly to the carrying simplex, and generally relies on establishing that the Gaussian image of the evolving surface is confined to an invariant cone. We also discuss the relationship between the curvature of the carrying simplex near an interior fixed point and its Split Lyapunov stability. Finally we comment on extensions to general Lotka-Volterra systems that are not competitive.

  11. 76 FR 16239 - Moratorium on New Exemptions for Passenger Carrying Operations Conducted for Compensation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... holder to operate a large, crew-served, piston-powered, multiengine, World War II (WWII) bomber carrying... experience flight in these aircraft. A 2004 policy explicitly limited the scope of LHFE exemptions to WWII...

  12. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...

  13. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, M F; Dijkstra, P U; Westmaas, M; Göeken, L N H

    2002-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using a 2-day FCE protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for weight lifted and carried. Predictive relationships between test and retest were explored by means of a regression analysis. The results of ICC were lifting low 0.87, lifting overhead 0.87, and carrying 0.77. Performances on day 2 were on an average 6-9% higher. Other than the amount of weight handled on day 1, no variable was found to predict performance on day 2. It was concluded that test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying was good, and the need for a 2-day protocol could not be confirmed.

  14. The importance of carrying a backpack in the rehabilitation of osteoporotic patients (biomechanical analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlova, J

    2011-01-01

    Based on a simple biomechanical analysis available to physicians, the article recommends carrying a backpack regularly as a part of the complex rehabilitation of osteoporotic patients. Carrying a backpack in front or on the back is recommended to patients with uncomplicated osteoporosis, while carrying a backpack on the back only is recommended to patients with osteporotic vertebral fractures. The importance of carrying a backpack is based upon removing the muscular dysbalance of the trunk muscles and upon increasing the bone strength by compressive force acting upon the vertebrae and proximal femur and activating osteoblasts to enhance the process of osteoformation. The backpack load is differentiated--patients with vertebral fractures put a weight up to 1 kg into their backpacks, patients without vertebral fractures increase the load up to 2 kg (Fig. 2, Ref. 12).

  15. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  16. CARRIE web service: automated transcriptional regulatory network inference and interactive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Peter M; Frith, Martin C; Weng, Zhiping

    2004-07-01

    We present an intuitive and interactive web service for CARRIE (Computational Ascertainment of Regulatory Relationships Inferred from Expression). CARRIE is a computational method that analyzes microarray and promoter sequence data to infer a transcriptional regulatory network from the response to a specific stimulus. This service displays an interactive graph of the inferred network and provides easy access to the evidence for the involvement of each gene in the network. We provide functionality to include network data in KEGG XML (KGML) format in this graph. Our service also provides Gene Ontology annotation to aid the user in forming hypotheses about the role of each gene in the cellular response. The CARRIE web service is freely available at http://zlab.bu.edu/CARRIE-web.

  17. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  18. Recreation carrying capacity estimations to support beach management at Praia de Faro, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Zacarias, D. A.; Williams, Allan T.; Newton, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to outline the theory and practice of tourism carrying capacity assessment and its relevance as a management tool for coastal management. Based on the Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment for Protected Areas Framework and the Image Capture Technique associated with the PAOT (people at one time) approach, this paper explores Praia de Faro as the study area and attempts to assess the optimum number of people that should be allowed without jeopar...

  19. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Fluidized Solid Particles in Gas Carrying Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志家; 孙成新; 孙相彧; 刘展红

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics are studied for gas carrying evaporation with fluidized solid particles in a vertical rectangular conduit. Experimental results show that heat transfer of gas carrying evaporation is enhanced and the superheat of liquid in contact with heating surface lowers remarkably by introducing solid particles. Nucleate boiling on the heating surface is suppressed to a considerable degree. The mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by fluidized solid particles is analyzed with the consideration of collisions of solid particles with the boiling vapor bubbles.

  20. A 5-year audit of outcome of apicectomies carried out in a district general hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, A. J.; Hughes, C E; Dixon, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    Success rates of up to 90% have been claimed for apicectomy. However, the conditions that this procedure is carried out under at district general hospitals may be at variance with such studies. A 5-year audit of outcome was therefore carried out within a district general hospital. It was found that 89% of apicected teeth still remained at 5 years. Outcome was not influenced by any of the factors examined, and could not be predicted radiographically. Most failures occurred after the average po...

  1. Analysis of Interpersonal Relationship in the Consumer Society Context in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩秀

    2009-01-01

    Carrie's characterization is a familiar topic in the criticism in Sister Carrie. However, how it could be re-viewed in the context of the consumer society is relalively a new issue. This paper attempts to analyze the interpersonal relationship in the context of a consumer society. It explores the consumer society's influences on the lovers and family. In addition, it points out Dreiser's ambivalent attitude towards consumer ideology.

  2. Theoretical Research of the Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity in the Epoch of Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Li Changliang; Lian Lina

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that ecological factors are prominent constraints of cities in the urbanization process. By contrast, this article provides a fresh conception of the urban comprehensive carrying capacity in the context of ecosystem, economy and social dimensions. Based on in-depth analysis, the author makes out a list of informative area-based indicators in three differentiated layers and the findings are that the urban comprehensive carrying capacity is an entanglement of three ...

  3. Load-carrying capacity test of a long-span timber truss

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Varum, Humberto; Ramisote, Vitor; Costa, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behavior of existing timber trusses in order to improve the knowledge that may support engineers in the definition of more adequate restoration interventions in old buildings, particularly of long-span timber structures, as industrial or monumental constructions. For this purpose, a cyclic load-carrying test was carried out on a full-scale timber planar truss rescued from an old industrial roof structure. Before the tests, an accurate geometrical characte...

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus in Sweden carries various types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, B; Berglund, C

    2009-12-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections and is usually susceptible to the antimicrobial agents used for their treatment. However, S. saprophyticus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and carrying mecA has been reported. Eight Swedish isolates of mecA-positive S. saprophyticus with diverse origin carrying at least three different types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) are described here.

  5. Evaluating Beijing's human carrying capacity from the perspective of water resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxuan; Chen, Min; Zhou, Wenhua; Zhuang, Changwei; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2010-01-01

    As the demands on limited water resources intensify, concerns are being raised about the human carrying capacity of these resources. However, few researchers have studied the carrying capacity of regional water resources. Beijing, the second-largest city in China, faces a critical water shortage that will limit the city's future development. We developed a method to quantify the carrying capacity of Beijing's water resources by considering water-use structures based on the proportions of water used for agricultural, industrial, and domestic purposes. We defined a reference structure as 45:22:33 (% of total, respectively), an optimized structure as 40:20:40, and an ideal structure as 50:15:35. We also considered four domestic water quotas: 55, 75, 95, and 115 m3/(person x yr). The urban carrying capacity of 10-12 million was closest to Beijing's actual 2003 population for all three water-use structures with urban domestic water use of 75 m3/(person x yr). However, after accounting for our underlying assumptions, the adjusted carrying capacity is closer to 5-6 million. Thus, Beijing's population in 2003 was almost twice the adjusted carrying capacity. Based on this result, we discussed the ecological and environmental problems created by Beijing's excessive population and propose measures to mitigate these problems.

  6. Sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests of carrying the ball in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakojević Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at examining sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests while carrying the ball. The research included 76 male examinees, aged 17 years (+/- 6 months, who were divided into two qualitatively different subgroups. For determining the speed while carrying the ball, the tests of M type of carrying the ball between cones and slalom ball carrying with a pass were performed. The obtained results proved that the examinees from the group of more successful soccer players (Group 1 scored better on the applied tests when compared to the results of the group consisting of the soccer players from lower ranked clubs and who are not national team members (Group 2. High values of the result homogeneity in the two groups (for the Groups 1 and 2 it was 75% and 68.75% respectively lead to the conclusion that this ability is essential characteristics of young soccer players. The coefficient of discrimination of 0.269 for the results of M type test and 0.197 for the results of the test of carrying the ball with a pass indicate that the results of the two tests provide possibility to qualitatively distinguish youth players. Therefore, it can be concluded that as a technical element, carrying the ball significantly affects the quality of players' performance.

  7. Simvastatin increases the antineoplastic actions of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoemulsions in melanoma-bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Guido, Maria C; Contente, Thaís C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipid nanoemulsions (LDEs) that bind to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors used as carriers of paclitaxel (PTX) can decrease toxicity and increase PTX antitumoral action. The administration of simvastatin (Simva), which lowers LDL-cholesterol, was tested as an adjuvant to commercial PTX and to PTX associated with LDE (LDE-PTX). Materials and methods B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice were treated with saline solution or LDE (controls), Simva, PTX, PTX and Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva: PTX dose 17.5 μmol/kg (three intraperitoneal injections, 3 alternate days): Simva 50 mg/kg/day by gavage, 9 consecutive days. Results Compared with saline controls, 95% tumor-growth inhibition was achieved by LDE-PTX and Simva, 61% by LDE-PTX, 44% by PTX and Simva, and 43% by PTX. Simva alone had no effect. Metastasis developed in only 37% of the LDE-PTX and Simva, 60% in LDE-PTX, and 90% in PTX and Simva groups. Survival rates were higher in LDE-PTX and Simva and in LDE-PTX groups. The LDE-PTX and Simva group presented tumors with reduced cellular density and increased collagen fibers I and III. Tumors from all groups showed reduction in immunohistochemical expression of ICAM, MCP-1, and MMP-9; LDE-PTX and Simva presented the lowest MMP-9 expression. Expression of p21 was increased in the Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva groups. In the Simva and LDE-PTX and Simva groups, expression of cyclin D1, a proliferation and survival promoter of tumor cells, was decreased. Therapy with LDE-PTX and Simva showed negligible toxicity compared with PTX and Simva, which resulted in weight loss and myelosuppression. Conclusion Simva increased the antitumor activity of PTX carried in LDE but not of PTX commercial presentation, possibly because statins increase the expression of LDL receptors that internalize LDE-PTX. PMID:27022257

  8. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  9. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihua Wang

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV, a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol; their open reading frames (ORFs overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES. We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to

  10. Studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae under carbon-limiting growth transformed with plasmid pCYG4 that carries the gene for NADP-GDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Filho, J L; Ledingham, W M

    1990-02-01

    The gene (GDH1) coding for the NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase system (NADP-GDH) has been cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Cells being transformed by the NADP-GDH gene on a 2 micron bared vector (pCYG4) plasmid confering 11-fold higher level on expressed GDH activity over the wild-type cells. The behavior of these cells was investigated under chemostatic growth with a carbon rate-limiting nutrient. Specific growth rates of cells carrying plasmid pCYG4 were found to be slightly slower than wild type cells. Furthermore, the NADP-GDH activity increases proportionally with the dilution rate. In addition, oscillations in the NADP-GDH activity, especially at a dilution rate up to 0.15/h, are probably consequential on the appearance of a changing mixed population (cells with and without plasmids).

  11. Estimation of Carrying Angle Based on CT Images in Preoperative Surgical Planning for Cubitus Deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the "three-dimensional carrying angle." These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7 degrees +/-3.61, while it was 16.3 degrees +/-3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability.

  12. Spatial patterns of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in China at county level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong; FENG Zhiming; YANG Yanzhao; YOU Zhen

    2011-01-01

    A balanced ecological carrying capacity and its understanding are important to achieve sustainable development for human kind.Here,the concept of ecological carrying capacity has been used for measuring the dependencies between human and nature.China's ecological balance between supply and demand has become a global concern and is widely debated.In this study the 'Ecological Footprint' method was used to analyze the supply-demand balance of China's ecological carrying capacity.Firstly,the ecological supply and demand balance was calculated and evaluated,and secondly,the ecological carrying capacity index (ECCI) was derived for each county of China in 2007,and finally this paper systematically evaluated the ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance of China.The results showed that ecological deficit appeared to be the main characteristic of ecological carrying capacity supply-demand balance in 2007 of China at county scale.In general,more than four-fifths of the Chinese population was concentrated in less than one-third of the land area and more than two-thirds of the land.area was inhabited by less than one-fifth of the population.The spatial distribution of the ecological carrying capacity demand-supply was unbalanced ranging from significant overloading to affluence from southeastern to northwestern part of China.It appeared to be more dominant in regions located at coastal areas which are attracted by migrants and had a generally higher population density.Along with the rapid development and urbanization trends in China,ecological deficits in these regions will become more severe.

  13. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  14. A protocol for clinical evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow by anatomic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampagni, Maria Luisa; Casino, Daniela; Martelli, Sandra; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present an in vivo protocol to estimate the carrying angle of the elbow in full extension. Forty-four arms were measured by using an electrogoniometer to acquire 3-dimensional coordinates of the landmarks. An algorithm based on the Cardan decomposition method was used to compute the carrying angle and the flexion and pronation angles of the elbow. The mean carrying angle was 12.42 degrees +/- 4.06 degrees , in agreement with the literature and with values obtained by a standard goniometer (r = 0.46; P = .000). Our protocol provided excellent repeatability (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.85), greater than a goniometer (ICC = 0.76), and a standard error of measurement of only 1.62 degrees . Flexion was a significant factor (P = .01) in carrying angle estimation. This study suggests that the carrying angle cannot be estimated independently by the flexion angle, even when measured in apparently full extension, and it could be useful in elbow disorders, such as fractures or epicondylar disease management and evaluation of elbow reconstruction.

  15. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province,I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity.By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008,the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed.It is unveiled that inharmonious population,natural resources and economic resources affect the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province;the underdeveloped economy of Henan Province impacts the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province and the overburdened population lead to the insufficiency of ecological carrying capacity.Around protecting the threshold of ecological system,the countermeasures are put forward,which cover forming the idea of ecological economy and circular economy and promoting the transformation of economy growth mode;taking the development road of using resources intensively and performing the strategy of sustainable utilization of resources;strictly control population growth and strengthening people’s crisis awareness of resources and environment.

  16. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  17. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  18. Carrying weapons and intent to harm among Victorian secondary school students in 1999 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle A; Romaniuk, Helena; Williams, Joanne; Toumbourou, John W; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George C

    2013-12-16

    To examine comparable survey data across 10 years to assess whether rates of self-reported weapon carrying and intent to harm others have increased as suggested in reported trends in violent offences. Population-based surveys administered to Victorian secondary school students in 1999 (8984 students) and 2009 (10 273 students) attending government, Catholic and independent schools. Student self-reports of carrying a weapon and attacking someone with the intent to harm in the past 12 months. In both surveys, about 15.0% of students reported carrying a weapon and about 7.0% reported attacking someone with intent to harm in the past 12 months, with higher rates among boys than girls. There was no change over time in the rates of students carrying weapons or attacking someone with the intent to harm, after controlling for demographic variables. In contrast to media portrayals and reported trends in violent offences, rates of students carrying weapons and attacking others with intent to harm have not changed between 1999 and 2009. These findings underline the importance of having national population-based data to regularly monitor the rates of these and related behaviours among young Australians.

  19. La ascendencia paterna de Daniel Carrión García

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Álvarez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Carrión García, mártir de la medicina peruana y héroe nacional, tenía antiguas raíces peruanas por línea materna, pero su ascendencia paterna era netamente ecuatoriana. Los Carrión fueron una de las familias más prominentes de la ciudad de Loja, a tal punto que, en 1830, al elegirse el primer Presidente de la República del Ecuador, uno de los dos candidatos fue don Manuel Carrión. La participación política de la familia continuó en los años siguientes y uno de sus miembros, el doctor José Baltazar Carrión y Torres, padre de Daniel, unió su destino al del General Juan José Flores, quien al caer en desgracia, luego de un frustrado intento revolucionario, lo arrastró consigo y debió exiliarse en el Perú. Nuestro objetivo es contribuir al conocimiento de la ascendencia paterna de Daniel Carrión García.

  20. Modelling of carrying capacity in National Park - Fruška Gora (Serbia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of tourism development in a destination are usually the consequence of the high concentration of tourists, accommodation facilities and the activities that are practiced in a relatively restricted area. One of the most important measures to protect the areas is to calculate the maximum number of tourists that can simultaneously reside in a region, i.e. the determination of the carrying capacity. This paper outlines a method for determining carrying capacity based on zoning of environmental resources and zoning within a region. The paper argues for a return to the idea of identifying maximum appropriate number of users. The main hypothesis of the paper is based on the statement that the development of tourism in Fruška Gora (Mountain National Park in Northern Serbia must be in accordance with the basic principles of sustainability, including the determination of carrying capacity. The main research goal was to show the opinion of local residents about the uncontrolled development of tourism, and to determine the carrying capacity in four sports and recreational zones of the mountain. The carrying capacity of the area is calculated by Lavery and Stanev formulas.

  1. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject. PMID:26247386

  2. On Sister Carrie from Feminist Perspective and its Influence on Chinese Modern Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武毅; 叶青

    2013-01-01

    Sister Carrie is a famous naturalistic novelist-Theodore Dreiser’s first novel in the first 20th century. It tells a story of a young rural woman Carrie how to become the red Broadway actress from the bottom of society, and the story vividly depicts the survival state and psychological and ideological process of Carrie. When it was published, it attracted attentions of critics from domestic and abroad at large, and they researched it from different perspectives. But most of their researches discussed from the materialism angle to concern with the expression of Determinism and Darwinism. So far, few people made the research from the topic of Carrie’s pursuit of self-achievement and perspective of feminist. Actually, not only did Carrie restrict on the material pursuit, but also boldly in pursuit of the self-achievement of new women. This paper aims at Carrie how to pursue the self-achievement of new women, and the influence of feminist to Chinese modern women.

  3. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  4. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  5. Modelling of carrying capacity in National Park - Fru\\vska Gora (Serbia) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujko, Aleksandra; Plavša, Jovan; Petrović, Marko D.; Radovanović, Milan; Gajić, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Negative effects of tourism development in a destination are usually the consequence of the high concentration of tourists, accommodation facilities and the activities that are practiced in a relatively restricted area. One of the most important measures to protect the areas is to calculate the maximum number of tourists that can simultaneously reside in a region, i.e. the determination of the carrying capacity. This paper outlines a method for determining carrying capacity based on zoning of environmental resources and zoning within a region. The paper argues for a return to the idea of identifying maximum appropriate number of users. The main hypothesis of the paper is based on the statement that the development of tourism in Fru\\vska Gora (Mountain) National Park in Northern Serbia must be in accordance with the basic principles of sustainability, including the determination of carrying capacity. The main research goal was to show the opinion of local residents about the uncontrolled development of tourism, and to determine the carrying capacity in four sports and recreational zones of the mountain. The carrying capacity of the area is calculated by Lavery and Stanev formulas.

  6. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  7. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    of national and nature parks. Nature parks should rather develop towards a status as 'Biosphere Reserves' representing models for regional development, land use and landscape design in general. A relevant zoning of the regional environment of the Parks will be included as an instrument for such a strategy.......Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor/nature carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out. All the parks are candidates for recognition...

  8. An Alternative Approach for High Speed Railway Carrying Capacity Calculation Based on Multiagent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a multiobjective mixed integer programming problem that calculates the carrying capacity of high speed railway based on mathematical programming method. The model is complex and difficult to solve, and it is difficult to comprehensively consider the various influencing factors on the train operation. The multiagent theory is employed to calculate high speed railway carrying capacity. In accordance with real operations of high speed railway, a three-layer agent model is developed to simulate the operating process of high speed railway. In the proposed model, railway network agent, line agent, station agent, and train agent are designed, respectively. To validate the proposed model, a case study is performed for Beijing–Shanghai high speed railway by using NetLogo software. The results are consistent with the actual data, which implies that the proposed multiagent method is feasible to calculate the carrying capacity of high speed railway.

  9. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    capacity of a reference region divided by its population and thus describes the annual personal share of the carrying capacity.The developed references can be applied to indicator results obtained using commonly applied characterisation models in LCIA. The European NR are generally lower than the global NR...... ozone formation and soil quality were found to exceed carrying capacities several times.The developed carrying capacity-based normalisation references offer relevant supplementary reference information to the currently applied references based on society’s background interventions by supporting...... an evaluation of the environmental sustainability of product systems on an absolute scale.Challenges remain with respect to spatial variations to increase the relevance of the normalisation references for impact categories that function at the local or regional scale. The sensitivity of NR to different choices...

  10. Siblings and Adolescent Weapon Carrying: Contributions of Genetics, Shared Environment, and Nonshared Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    2017-07-01

    Many past studies have observed evidence of sibling similarity and influence for delinquency and substance use. However, studies of sibling similarity for adolescent weapon carrying, particularly for weapons beyond firearms, are largely absent from the literature. The present study assesses sibling similarity in weapon carrying as well as the relative contributions of genetics, shared environment, and nonshared environment. Data are obtained from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and analyzed using biometrical genetic models for twins and actor-partner interdependence models for nontwins. Results indicate little, if any, contribution stemming from genetics. There is also no evidence of a significant shared environment effect. Instead, all or nearly all of the variation and similarity in weapon carrying among siblings are related to the nonshared environment, particularly gang affiliation. Implications and possible extensions of these findings are discussed.

  11. First Identification of a Patient Colonized With Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shin Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL. Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, blaNDM-1, have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  12. Biophysical and RNA Interference Inhibitory Properties of Oligonucleotides Carrying Tetrathiafulvalene Groups at Terminal Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Pérez-Rentero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide conjugates carrying a single functionalized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF unit linked through a threoninol molecule to the 3′ or 5′ ends were synthesized together with their complementary oligonucleotides carrying a TTF, pyrene, or pentafluorophenyl group. TTF-oligonucleotide conjugates formed duplexes with higher thermal stability than the corresponding unmodified oligonucleotides and pyrene- and pentafluorophenyl-modified oligonucleotides. TTF-modified oligonucleotides are able to bind to citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and produce stable gold AuNPs functionalized with oligonucleotides. Finally, TTF-oligoribonucleotides have been synthesized to produce siRNA duplexes carrying TTF units. The presence of the TTF molecule is compatible with the RNA interference mechanism for gene inhibition.

  13. Estimating the carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using net nutrient removal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisunont, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate the nutrient removal potential and carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using the mass balance model. The developed model takes into consideration the green mussel growth rate, density and chlorophyll a concentration. The data employed in this study were based on culture conditions at Sriracha Fisheries Research Station, Thailand. Results show that net nutrient removal by green mussel is 3302, 380, and 124mg/year/indv for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus respectively. The carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation was found to be 300indv/m(2) based on chlorophyll a concentration which will not release phosphorus in the water environment beyond the standard (45μg-PO4(-3)-P/L). Higher chlorophyll a concentration results in lowered green mussel carrying capacity. This model can assist farm operators with possible management strategies for a sustainable mussel cultivation and protection of the marine environment.

  14. A 5-year audit of outcome of apicectomies carried out in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A. J.; Hughes, C. E.; Dixon, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    Success rates of up to 90% have been claimed for apicectomy. However, the conditions that this procedure is carried out under at district general hospitals may be at variance with such studies. A 5-year audit of outcome was therefore carried out within a district general hospital. It was found that 89% of apicected teeth still remained at 5 years. Outcome was not influenced by any of the factors examined, and could not be predicted radiographically. Most failures occurred after the average postoperative review period of 10.5 months. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was high at over 90%. Based on these results it was concluded that apicectomy was an effective procedure when carried out by staff of all grades within the district general hospital, and that repeated follow-up appointments with radiographs over the first postoperative year were not useful. PMID:7574319

  15. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. Carrying capacities understood as limits or standards not to be exceeded to protect a supporting landscape system are not scientifically determined sizes. They are a result of political decision processes among...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated...

  16. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  17. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2012-03-27

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  18. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63 vs. 1.69 (0.51 respectively. The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  19. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, José C; Olivares, Pedro R; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Maestre-Cascales, Cristina; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the "Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB)" wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63) vs. 1.69 (0.51) respectively). The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  20. Correlates of weapon carrying among high school students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2008-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries arising from interpersonal violence among adolescents are major public health concerns in the United States. The bearing of weapons among adolescents is a critical factor in many of these deaths and injuries. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2005 United States Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Survey data was carried out to examine the variables associated with self-reported history of weapon carrying on school property among high school students. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations. Results Of the 13,707 respondents who participated in the survey, 10.2% of males and 2.6% of females reported carrying a weapon on school property. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males were more likely to report having carried a weapon than females (odds ratio (OR) = 5.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) [4.23, 7.62]). Self-reported race/ethnicity was also associated with weapon carrying. Other variables positively associated with weapon carrying at school were substance use (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.16, 2.68]), depression (OR = 1.44; 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]), suicidal ideation (OR = 1.64; 95% CI [1.23, 2.19]), having had property stolen or deliberately damaged at school (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.21, 1.98]), having been raped (OR = 1.70; 95% CI [1.22, 2.37]), having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (OR = 2.19; 95% CI [1.63, 2.95]), and having engaged in physical fighting (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.56, 2.63]). Conclusion This research identifies factors that are associated with weapon bearing among adolescents in the United States. These factors may be important in the design of interventions aimed at improving school safety and adolescent health. PMID:18605995

  1. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsuar, José C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J.; Maestre-Cascales, Cristina; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB)” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63) vs. 1.69 (0.51) respectively). The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population. PMID:26855878

  2. A Novel Evaluation algorithm of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity Index System in Northwest China:Lanzhou city as a example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lei, Song; Ling, Ma

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid growth of the urban population and quick expansion of urban dimensions, the affecting urban development constraints of urban carrying capacity has increasingly been attracting people's attention. However, the effective synthesization of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity hardly acted as an urban comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system. In this paper, the novel comprehensive index system of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity was used for analyzing and evaluating urban comprehensive carrying capacity. Firstly, the standardization of evaluation index was constructed in the urban comprehensive carrying capacity index system. In addition, the past decade data from 2002 to 2011 was analyzed and evaluated in the weighted index system. Finally, the influence mechanism of various carrying capacity factors on urban comprehensive carrying capacity was investigated in Lanzhou. Experimental results can be summarized that the variation tendency of urban comprehensive carrying capacity was the annual increase of levels and the promotion countermeasure was put forward with congenital restricting factors and acquired restricting factors.

  3. Notification on carrying out the special rectification of rare earth production order nationwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To implement "Some Opinions of the State Council of P.R.C. on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry", regulate and standardize rare earth production order and accelerate the transformation of rare earth industry development pattern, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Supervision, Ministry of Environmental Protection, the State Administration of Taxation, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and the State Administration of Work Safety jointly issued the "Notification on Carrying out the Special Rectification of Rare Earth Production Order Nationwide" and decided to carry out the special campaigns from 2011 August 1 to December 31.

  4. Fault Tolerant Variable Block Carry Skip Logic (VBCSL) using Parity Preserving Reversible Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic design has become one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient design approaches of fault tolerant carry skip adders (FTCSAs) and compares those designs with the existing ones. Variable block carry skip logic (VBCSL) using the fault tolerant full adders (FTFAs) has also been developed. The designs are minimized in terms of hardware complexity, gate count, constant inputs and garbage outputs. Besides of it, technology independent evaluation of the proposed designs clearly demonstrates its superiority with the existing counterparts.

  5. On the major Characteristics of Writing in Dreiser’s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张含

    2014-01-01

    Dreiser’s Sister Carrie has been controverted for a long time. It is still consummate today and as alive and valid as when it was written. First, the description of the psychology plays an important role in revealing the personalities of the major characters and deepens the theme. The second is Dreiser’s usage of comparison. Finally Dreiser uses the method of realism like Balzac. Sister Carrie is the exact reflection and the mirror of the society. Its special characteristics and the realistic writing style start a new field in American literature.

  6. Surface barrier effect on magnetization of a current-carrying type-II superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genenko, Yu. A.; Freyhardt, H. C.

    2000-10-01

    Vortex penetration in and exit from ideal flux-filled current-carrying superconductors are studied in the frame of the modified Meissner state model accounting for the vortex interactions with the sample surface, transport current, external field and the other vortices inside the sample. The generalized Silsbee's rule is first formulated and the M- H diagram of ideal current-carrying superconductors in a parallel field is estimated which is irreversible due to the surface effect alone. In general, magnetic behaviour of superconductors is shown to be more reversible in the presence of a transport current.

  7. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems.

  8. Designing of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder(SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  9. Design of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  10. Cuttings-carried theory and erosion rule in gas drilling horizontal well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In gas horizontal drilling, the gas with cuttings will go through the annulus at high speed which will lead strong erosion to the drill tools. This paper proposes a cuttings-carried theory and modified the critical cuttings-carried model for the gas-solid flow. Meanwhile, the erosive energy is obtained through simulating the gas-solid mixture in different conditions. The study result has positive significance on the determination of reasonable injection volume by optimizing construction parameters of horizontal well in gas drilling.

  11. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  12. Low Power Modulo 2n+1 Adder Based on Carry Save Diminished-One Number System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Timarchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulo 2n+1 adders find great applicability in several applications including RNS implementations. This paper presents a new number system called Carry Save Diminished-one for modulo 2n+1 addition and a novel addition algorithm for its operands. In this paper, we also present a novel architectures for designing modulo 2n+1 adders, based on parallel-prefix carry computation units. CMOS implementations reveal the superiority of the resulting adders against previously reported solutions in terms of implementation area and delay.

  13. The Conflict Between the Traditional Value and Reality In Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆媛; 陈飞; 孙胜强; 常利娜; 张罗斌

    2009-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser relates a story of Carrie's rise from a poor country girl to a Broadway star in Sister Carrie.An attempt is rnade in this paper to analyze the cold society.Byway of analyzing this unequal and cruel reality to prove:in the world only the fittest can survive.the standards and requirements of morality are challenged and the traditional value is suspected.In the cold reality.any way that Can protect oneself or survivein the wodd is sensible,morality and traditional value are weak and mcaningless.

  14. THE ENTERPRISE - THE LEGAL FORM FOR CARRYING ON AN ACTIVITY HAVING A PROFESSIONAL NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu D. C RPENARU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Romanian Civil Code has institutionalised a new conception regarding the regulating system for civil and commercial legal relations. Thus, new concepts emerge to fit the new conception, concepts regarding to the persons, the professionals, and the carrying on of an organised and systematised activity that qualifies such activity as having a professional nature. As one can find the new civil code has changed the conception regarding the enterprise, as it resulted from the actual commercial code. The operation of an enterprise will represent the legal form of carrying on an activity having a professional nature.

  15. Carrying capacity for the electromagnetic suspension low-speed maglev train on the horizontal curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the lateral dislocation between the electromagnets and the rails on a horizontal curve,we investigated a single magnetic bogie of the maglev train in this paper.The magnetic levitation and guidance forces supplied by the suspension modules were deduced by the flux tube method.According to the dynamic equilibrium equations of the maglev train on the curved track with cant,several major factors that influence the carrying capacity were analyzed,and the formula of the carrying capacity was presented.The results provide a theoretical reference for the design of maglev train.

  16. First observation of photons carrying orbital angular momentum in undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, J; Holldack, K; Kuske, P; Müller, R; Scheer, M; Schmid, P

    2013-07-19

    Photon beams of 99 eV energy carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been observed in the 2nd harmonic off-axis radiation of a helical undulator at the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source BESSY II. For detection, the OAM carrying photon beam was superimposed with a reference beam without OAM. The interference pattern, a spiral intensity distribution, was recorded in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. The orientation of the observed spiral structure is related to the helicity of the undulator radiation. Excellent agreement between measurements and simulations has been found.

  17. A new method to prevent carry-over contaminations in two-step PCR NGS library preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Volkhard; Schaper, Sigrid; Dröge, Anja; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Hennig, Steffen

    2015-11-16

    Two-step PCR procedures are an efficient and well established way to generate amplicon libraries for NGS sequencing. However, there is a high risk of cross-contamination by carry-over of amplicons from first to second amplification rounds, potentially leading to severe misinterpretation of results. Here we describe a new method able to prevent and/or to identify carry-over contaminations by introducing the K-box, a series of three synergistically acting short sequence elements. Our K-boxes are composed of (i) K1 sequences for suppression of contaminations, (ii) K2 sequences for detection of possible residual contaminations and (iii) S sequences acting as separators to avoid amplification bias. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method we analyzed two-step PCR NGS libraries derived from a multiplex PCR system for detection of T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangements. We used this system since it is of high clinical relevance and may be affected by very low amounts of contaminations. Spike-in contaminations are effectively blocked by the K-box even at high rates as demonstrated by ultra-deep sequencing of the amplicons. Thus, we recommend implementation of the K-box in two-step PCR-based NGS systems for research and diagnostic applications demanding high sensitivity and accuracy.

  18. Two galactose-α-1,3-galactose carrying peptidases from pork kidney mediate anaphylactogenic responses in delayed meat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Christiane; Fischer, Jörg; Swiontek, Kyra;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum IgE-antibodies directed at galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis occuring upon consumption of red meat or innards. Pork kidney is known as the most potent trigger of this syndrome, but the culprit allergens have not yet been....... Proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Isolated proteins were assayed in ELISA and ELISA inhibition, basophil activation and skin prick test. RESULTS: Several IgE-binding proteins of high molecular weight (100 - >200 kDa) were detected in pork kidney extracts by immunoblot using patient...... resistent to heat denaturation. Pork kidney extract, isolated ACE I and AP-N were able to activate patient basophils and elicit positive responses in skin prick tests. CONCLUSION: Two cell-membrane proteins carrying α-Gal epitopes were identified in pork kidney. For the first time, isolated meat proteins...

  19. Protection by nitric oxide against liver inflammatory injury in animals carrying a nitric oxide synthase-2 transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojena, M; Hortelano, S; Castrillo, A; Diaz-Guerra, M J; Garcia-Barchino, M J; Saez, G T; Bosca, L

    2001-03-01

    The effect of pre-existent hepatic NO synthesis on liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide was studied in animals carrying a nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) transgene under the control of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter. These animals expressed NOS-2 in liver cells under fasting conditions. Lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in D-galactosamine-conditioned mice, which enhanced notably the effect of the endotoxin on the liver, was impaired in animals expressing NOS-2. This protection against inflammatory liver damage was dependent on NO synthesis and was caused by an inhibition of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity and an impairment of the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor a and interleukin 1b. These data indicate that intrahepatic synthesis of NO protects liver by inhibiting the release of cascades of proinflammatory mediators and suggest a beneficial role for local delivery of NO in the control of liver injury.

  20. Production in Escherichia coli of a rat chimeric proinsulin polypeptide carrying human A and B chains and its preparative chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, J; Cruz, N; Sánchez, M; López, M; Balbás, P; Gosset, G; Valle, F; Bolivar, F

    1994-11-30

    A pseudohuman proinsulin coding DNA sequence (MMRPI) carrying human A and B chains, was constructed via directed mutagenesis of a previously modified rat proinsulin cDNA (MRPI) and expressed as a tryptophan (Trp)LE-proinsulin fusion protein in Escherichia coli W3110. Expression of the hybrid gene was achieved by depletion of tryptophan from the medium. The heterologous fusion protein, accumulated as insoluble inclusion bodies within the cell, was obtained by differential centrifugation and then solubilized using formic acid. At the junction of the two peptides, a methionine residue allowed proinsulin to be released from the carrier protein by cyanogen bromide treatment. The sulfonated form of this proinsulin polypeptide was easily purified, at a preparative level, using ion exchange chromatography.