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Sample records for carrot daucus carota

  1. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)(Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated domestication and genetic structure in wild and open pollinated cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) with 3481 SNPs developed from carrot transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear genetic separation between wild and cultivated carrot accessions. Among the wild ...

  2. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa;

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...... genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates from cultivated carrot under controlled and outdoor conditions. Inoculated roots from both wild and cultivated plants produced sclerotia and soft rot in a growth chamber test. Two isolates...... differed significantly in the ability to produce lesions and sclerotia on roots of both wild carrots and cv. Bolero. Flowering stems of wild carrots produced dry, pale lesions after inoculation with the pathogen, and above-ground plant weight was significantly reduced 4 weeks after inoculation...

  3. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  4. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  5. Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...

  6. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...

  7. Genome-wide association of the domestication syndrome in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were domesticated over 1,000 years ago in Central Asia. Two traits selected during domestication were increased carotenoid accumulation (white -> yellow -> orange root color) and decreased lateral root formation. While some preliminary research has been conducted on the un...

  8. Expression Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  9. Understanding the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in carrot (Daucus carota) using real time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  10. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

  11. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  12. Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

  13. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  14. Bioactive C₁₇-Polyacetylenes in Carrots (Daucus carota L.): Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Dunemann, Frank; Schwab, Wilfried; Nothnagel, Thomas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    C17-polyacetylenes (PAs) are a prominent group of oxylipins and are primarily produced by plants of the families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, and Asteraceae, respectively. Recent studies on the biological activity of polyacetylenes have indicated their potential to improve human health due to anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and serotogenic effects. These findings suggest targeting vegetables with elevated levels of bisacetylenic oxylipins, such as falcarinol, by breeding studies. Due to the abundant availability, high diversity of cultivars, worldwide experience, and high agricultural yields, in particular, carrot (Daucus carota L.) genotypes are a very promising target vegetable. This paper provides a review on falcarinol-type C17-polyacetylenes in carrots and a perspective on their potential as a future contributor to improving human health and well-being. PMID:26451696

  15. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis. PMID:25924989

  16. New Claims for Wild Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. carota) Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Cardoso, Susana M; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. carota from Portugal, with high amounts of geranyl acetate (29.0%), α-pinene (27.2%), and 11αH-himachal-4-en-1β-ol (9.2%), was assessed for its biological potential. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were evaluated showing a significant activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.32-0.64 μL/mL), Cryptococcus neoformans (0.16 μL/mL), and dermatophytes (0.32-0.64 μL/mL). The inhibition of the germ tube formation and the effect of the oil on Candida albicans biofilms were also unveiled. The oil inhibited more than 50% of filamentation at concentrations as low as 0.04 μL/mL (MIC/128) and decreased both biofilm mass and cell viability. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as assessed by two in chemico methods, was not relevant. Still, it seems to exhibit some anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing nitric oxide production around 20% in LPS-stimulated macrophages, without decreasing macrophages viability. Moreover, the oils safety profile was assessed on keratinocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and hepatocytes. Overall, the oil demonstrated a safety profile at concentrations below 0.64 μL/mL. The present work highlights the bioactive potential of D. carota subsp. carota suggesting its industrial exploitation. PMID:26981143

  17. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. PMID:25956452

  18. Gamma irradiation induced variation in carrots (Daucus Carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue culture, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by > 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type [reducing vs. non reducing sugars]. Induced variation in root color and rot shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment (Author)

  19. Gamma irradiation-induced variation in carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue cultures, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type (reducing vs. non reducing sugars). Induced variation in root color and root shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment

  20. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates an efflux of 45Ca2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [3H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and IP3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP2 or IP3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP2 and IP3, were present in these cells. Thus, [3H]inositol metabolites other than IP2 and IP3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells

  1. Genes of resistance to carrot soft rot in Daucus carota germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwinia carotovora is a casual agent of soft rot in the carrot. This disease causes severe root losses in the crop, mainly during post-harvest storage but also in the field in the late growing season. Of the many cultivars screened in our department between 1988 and 1990, we found none that was resistant. Consequently, we started to look for sources of resistance genes among wild Daucus carota subspecies. Resistant plants were used for callus production, which will constitute the material for in vitro selection. Resistance to Erwinia carotovora is rather rare. Proof of this is research on the potato, which has been conducted for many years and where the only source of resistance that has been found is the wild species Solanumb brevidens. 3 refs

  2. Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP3) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP3 on Ca2+ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in 45Ca2+-containing medium and the 45Ca2+ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP3 (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated 45Ca2+ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of 45Ca2+ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP6), also stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP3- and the IP6-induced 45Ca2+ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine

  3. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-[1-3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When [3H]IP3 was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, [3H]IP2 was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered [3H] by electrophoresis. [3H]IP was only 6% of the [3H] recovered, and 10% of the [3H]IP3 was not further metabolized. In contrast, when [3H]IP3 was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of [3H]IP2 and [3H]IP were recovered. Ca2+ (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP3 dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO42- (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP2 by the soluble fraction. MoO42-, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the soluble fraction. Li+ (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP3 metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li+ (50 millimolar) inhibited IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%

  4. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  5. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  6. Cadmium and zinc toxicity effects on growth and mineral nutrients of carrot (Daucus Carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out in two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007 on carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantesa superior) at the Ministry of Local Government (Al Zahra Municipality), Gaza Strip, Palestine. It aimed to study the effect of (Cd and Zn) at different rates (10, 20 and 40 mu g g-1 Cd) and (75, 150 and 225 mu g g-1 Zn) on carrot plants. All of the studied growth characters (fresh and dry weights of shoot and root) and some of growth analysis (leaf weight ratio (LWR), relative growth rate (RGR mg g/sup -1d-1/), the rate of production of one sub-cellular component per unit of Cd and Zn (mg/g Cd or Zn per day) and specific utilization rate (SUR mg dw mg Cd/sup -1/ or Zn/sup -1/ d/sup -1/) decreased with increasing Cd either alone or combined with Zn soil addition at all levels, but it increased when Zn (at all levels) was added, with some exception. Moreover attempts were carried out to reduce the toxic effect of Cd on the plants by using different rates of Zn soil addition. The effect of Cd and Zn either alone or their combination on minerals (N, P and K) in plant (shoot and root) were studied. Increase in K, P and N concentrations was recorded by the carrot shoots and roots supplied with the all levels of Zn soil addition either alone or combined with Cd soil addition. Adding Zn alone was found to insignificantly affect growth characters, but if it was combined with Cd in different levels, it overcome to some extent the toxicity of Cd on growth characters as well as minerals concentrations. (author)

  7. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way. PMID:26513153

  8. Color evolution of aqueous solutions obtained by thermal processing of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: influence of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, H; Cazor, A; Trinh, D

    2008-05-01

    The color of aqueous solutions obtained by heating carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots in water ("stocks") is different when the thermal treatment is applied with or without exposure to light. CIE L*, a*, and b* scale values of stocks processed for different times were recorded and 4 patterns were initially observed. To explain the 1st part of this evolution (patterns 1 and 2), pectin extraction and beta-elimination in stocks were studied. Light dependence was investigated to explain patterns 3 and 4. A model with 2 compounds is proposed to explain all the color variations. PMID:18460127

  9. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  10. Quantification of the relative abundance of plastome to nuclear genome in leaf and root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits, providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. Carotenoids primarily serve as photoprotectants in leaves during photosynthesis where they accumulate in chloroplasts. Carotenoids can also accumulat...

  11. Quantification of the Ratio of Plastid to Chromosomal Genome in Leaf and Root Tissue of Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits associated with providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. These carotenoid pigments primarily serve as photoprotectants during photosynthesis, but also provide pigment to attract pollinators and ...

  12. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  13. Pervasive Mitochondrial Sequence Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of Wild Carrot, Daucus carota spp. carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    Full Text Available Exceptions to the generally accepted rules that plant mitochondrial genomes are strictly maternally inherited and that within-individual sequence diversity in those genomes, i.e., heteroplasmy, should be minimal are becoming increasingly apparent especially with regard to sequence-level heteroplasmy. These findings raise questions about the potential significance of such heteroplasmy for plant mitochondrial genome evolution. Still studies quantifying the amount and consequences of sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations are rare. In this study, we report pervasive sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations of wild carrot, a close relative of the cultivated crop. In order to assay directly for this heteroplasmy, we implemented a quantitative PCR assay that can detect and quantify intra-individual SNP variation in two mitochondrial genes (Cox1 and Atp9. We found heteroplasmy in > 60% of all wild carrot populations surveyed and in > 30% of the 140 component individuals that were genotyped. Heteroplasmy ranged from a very small proportion of the total genotype (e.g., 0.995:0.005 to near even mixtures (e.g., 0.590:0.410 in some individuals. These results have important implications for the role of intra-genomic recombination in the generation of plant mitochondrial genome genotypic novelty. The consequences of such recombination are evident in the results of this study through analysis of the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD between the SNP sites at the two genes studied.

  14. Modeling the transfer of arsenic from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.)--a greenhouse and field-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhou, Fen; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-07-01

    Reliable empirical models describing arsenic (As) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to estimate the human As burden from dietary intake. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in parallel with a field trial located at three sites through China to develop and validate soil-plant transfer models to predict As concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Stepwise multiple linear regression relationships were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or available (0.5 M NaHCO3) soil As fractions. Carrot As contents were best predicted by the pseudo total soil As concentrations in combination with soil pH and Fe oxide, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 70 %. The constructed prediction model was further validated and improved to avoid overprotection using data from the field trial. The final obtained model is of great practical relevance to the prediction of As uptake under field conditions. PMID:25750050

  15. Transfer model of lead in soil-carrot (Daucus carota L.) system and food safety thresholds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-09-01

    Reliable empirical models describing lead (Pb) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to improve soil environmental quality standards. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to develop soil-plant transfer models to predict Pb concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Soil thresholds for food safety were then derived inversely using the prediction model in view of the maximum allowable limit for Pb in food. The 2 most important soil properties that influenced carrot Pb uptake factor (ratio of Pb concentration in carrot to that in soil) were soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC), as revealed by path analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or extractable (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.005 M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) soil Pb concentrations. Carrot Pb contents were best explained by the pseudo total soil Pb concentrations in combination with soil pH and CEC, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 93%. The derived soil thresholds based on added Pb (total soil Pb with the geogenic background part subtracted) have the advantage of better applicability to soils with high natural background Pb levels. Validation of the thresholds against data from field trials and literature studies indicated that the proposed thresholds are reasonable and reliable. PMID:25904232

  16. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  17. Investigation and Assessment of 40K Accumulation in the Segments of an Ordinary Carrot (Daucus carota L. and Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an alteration in specific activity and transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil with a loamy structure to the segments of root vegetables – an ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.. The paper establishes the specific activity of 40K in soil and vegetable segments and evaluates transfer factors (TF. The obtained data show that the transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil to the segments of the ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. varied from 0,28 to 0,99 while that of the red beet (Beta vulgaris L. – from 0,53 to 0,96. The results of the study could be used for estimating 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant” and accumulation of radionuclide in composting garden waste.Artilce in Lithuanian

  18. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chalchat, Jean Claude; Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. Th...

  19. Quantifying biochemical quality parameters in carrots (Daucus carota L.) - FT-Raman spectroscopy as efficient tool for rapid metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähmer, Andrea; Böttcher, Christoph; Rode, Andrea; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2016-12-01

    Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, carbohydrates, polyacetylenes and phenylpropanoids with high bioactive potential was investigated in storage roots of Daucus carota. Within single FT-Raman experiment carbohydrates, carotenoids, and polyacetylenes could be reliably quantified with high coefficients of determination of R(2)>0.91. The most abundant individual representatives of each compound class could be quantified with comparably high quality resulting in R(2)=0.97 and 0.96 for α-carotene and β-carotene, in R(2)=0.90 for falcarindiol (FaDOH), R(2)=0.99, 0.98 and 0.96 for fructose, glucose and sucrose. In contrast, application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of two laserine-type phenylpropanoids was investigated but failed due to low concentration and Raman response. Furthermore, evaluation of metabolic profiles by principle component analysis (PCA) revealed metabolic variety of carrot root composition depending on root color and botanical relationship. PMID:27374560

  20. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  1. Influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília

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    Lisiane das Neves Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília with and without the application of a gelatin film. The samples were packed in flexible bags and stored at 1, 5 and 10 °C. During the five days of storage, the CO2 and O2 concentrations in the headspace of the package were monitored by gas chromatography, and the mathematical model based on enzymatic kinetics was used to estimate the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots. The effect of temperature on the respiration rate was evaluated by the Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the O2 concentration decreased during the storage period and the CO2 concentration increased. The lowest O2 concentrations of 2.59 and 2.66% were found for the samples stored at 10 °C with and without the film, respectively. For the CO2 concentration, the highest concentrations of 16.25 and 16.32% were again found for the temperature of 10 °C with and without the application of the film, respectively. At the temperature of 1 °C, the maximum respiratory rates for the samples without and with the film were 10.82 and 10.44 mL CO2.kg-1/hour, respectively, after 72 hours of storage. The greatest respiratory rate was obtained at 10 °C, the maximum peak being reached after 50 hours. Activation energy values were of 50.59 kJ.mol-1, for the samples with the film, and 51.88 kJ.mol-1 for the samples without the film.

  2. Genetic diversity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars revealed by analysis of SSR loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work we evaluate a collection of 88 carrot cultivars and landraces for polymorphisms at SSR loci and use the obtained markers to assess the genetic diversity, and we show molecular evidence for divergence between Asiatic and Western carrot genetic pools. The use of primer pairs flanking repe...

  3. Analysis of texture in baby carrot (Daucus carota) subjected to the process of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: ssabato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The carrot is a vegetable of great economic value due to its versatility in the food industry and can be used as raw or minimally processed vegetable or aggregating value to the product, transforming the fresh carrots in baby carrots. It is well known that the application of gamma radiation in food may help in maintaining the quality of food. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation on texture of minimally processed baby carrot after the processing in a Multipurpose {sup 60}Co irradiator. It can be concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keep the quality of fresh-cut baby carrot. (author)

  4. Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols from Plant-Processing Byproducts of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Bilen, Fatma Damla; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John

    2016-03-30

    Plant-processing byproducts of black carrot represent an important disposal problem for the industry; however, they are also promising sources of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The present study focused on the changes in polyphenols from black carrot, peel, and pomace during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas identification and quantification of polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS(E) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. TPC, TMAC, and TAC significantly decreased (23-82%) as a result of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nevertheless, the amount of pomace anthocyanins released at all stages of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was higher than black carrot anthocyanins, suggesting that pomace may be a better source of bioaccessible anthocyanins. Overall, the current study highlighted black carrot byproducts as substantial sources of polyphenols, which may be used to enrich food products. PMID:26262673

  5. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:21864090

  6. Estudio Cinético y de Superficie de Respuesta para la Rehidratación de Zanahorias (Daucus carota Liofilizadas Kinetic Study and Surface Response Analysis on the Rehydration of Frozen-dried Carrot (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L Zambrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio el efecto de la temperatura sobre la cinética, el coeficiente de difusión y la adición de ácido cítrico y cloruro de sodio sobre la rehidratación de zanahorias (Daucus carota. Se aplicó un diseño de superficie de respuesta con 4 factores y 3 puntos centrales. No se encontró diferencia significativa (a=0.05 a temperaturas de 70 y 93ºC con constante cinética promedio de 0.42 min-1, con diferencias entre los coeficientes de difusión entre 6.1 a 3.18 x10-9m²/s. Las variables de mayor influencia sobre la rehidratación son el contenido de ácido cítrico, la temperatura y la concentración de ácido cítrico, a los niveles estudiados. Las condiciones de mayor rehidratación para las muestras de zanahoria liofilizada fueron obtenidas para una concentración de 0.636 g/100ml ácido, con un óptimo de 7kg de agua/kg de sólido seco, de acuerdo al modelo de superficie de respuesta obtenido. El valor promedio fue de 6.65kg de agua/kg de sólido seco.In this work the effect of temperature on the kinetics, the diffusion coefficient sand the addition of citric acid and sodium chloride on the rehydration of frozen-dried carrots (Daucus carota have been studied. The model response surface was 4 factors with 3 central points. For 70 and 93 ºC, no significant differences (a=0.05 for the kinetic constant with mean of 0.42min-1. Important differences were found between diffusion coefficients, from 6.1 to 3.18 x10-9 m²/s for 70 y 93ºC. The variables with higher influence on rehydration were the content of citric acid, citric acid concentration and temperature, at the studied levels. The best condition for rehydration of carrot frozen-dried was obtained for 0.636 g/100ml acid concentration with 7 kg of water/kg dry solid, using the surface model. The mean value was 6.65 kg of water/kg dry solid.

  7. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L.) LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari; Retno Kawuri; Meitini Wahyuni Proborini

    2015-01-01

    Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L.) causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method). Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8) were ...

  8. Biofortification of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) with Iodine and Selenium in a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Koronowicz, Aneta; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The low content of iodine (I) and selenium (Se) forms available to plants in soil is one of the main causes of their insufficient transfer in the soil-plant-consumer system. Their deficiency occurs in food in the majority of human and farm animal populations around the world. Both elements are classified as beneficial elements. However, plant response to simultaneous fertilization with I and Se has not been investigated in depth. The study (conducted in 2012–2014) included soil fertilization of carrot cv. “Kazan F1” in the following combinations: (1) Control; (2) KI; (3) KIO3; (4) Na2SeO4; (5) Na2SeO3; (6) KI+Na2SeO4; (7) KIO3+Na2SeO4; (8) KI+Na2SeO3; (9) KIO3+Na2SeO3. I and Se were applied twice: before sowing and as top-dressing in a total dose of 5 kg I⋅ha-1 and 1 kg Se⋅ha-1. No negative effects of I and Se fertilization were noted with respect to carrot yield. Higher accumulation and the uptake by leaves and storage roots of I and Se were obtained after the application of KI than KIO3, as well as of Na2SeO4 than Na2SeO3, respectively. Transfer factor values for leaves and roots were about a dozen times higher for Se than for I. Selenomethionine content in carrot was higher after fertilization with Na2SeO4 than with Na2SeO3. However, it was the application of Na2SeO3, KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 that resulted in greater evenness within the years and a higher share of Se from selenomethionine in total Se in carrot plants. Consumption of 100 g f.w. of carrots fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 can supply approximately or slightly exceed 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance for I and Se. Moreover, the molar ratio of I and Se content in carrot fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 was the best among the research plots. PMID:27303423

  9. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  10. Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Rogoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura.Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota plants. The herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to

  11. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  12. Study of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has focused on the assessment of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (L1, L2, L3, F4, E5, R7, R8, L10, G11 and S12 to salt stress, grown in the region of Sidi Bouzid. The tests were carried out under plastic greenhouse (during 5 months. The results obtained show that the salt stress reduced the parameters of growth and production. However, a difference in the response to salt stress was recorded between the accessions studied. A reduction in yield of up to 70 % with the concentration 3 g / l of NaCl, for different accessions studied is recorded. However, the accession L1 who has given the longer roots and dry matter yield and the largest root shows the most tolerant accessions unlike L10, G11 and S12 which are the most sensitive.

  13. Identification and characterization of DcUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase responsible for anthocyanin galactosylation in purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Jing; Wang, Feng; Ma, Hong-Yu; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) accumulate large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in their taproots. Cyanidin can be glycosylated with galactose, xylose, and glucose in sequence by glycosyltransferases resulting in cyanidin 3-xylosyl (glucosyl) galactosides in purple carrots. The first step in the glycosylation of cyanidin is catalysis by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (UCGalT) transferring the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to cyanidin. In the present study, a gene from 'Deep purple' carrot, DcUCGalT1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant DcUCGalT1 galactosylated cyanidin to produce cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and showed optimal activity for cyanidin at 30 °C and pH 8.6. It showed lower galactosylation activity for peonidin, pelargonidin, kaempferol and quercetin. It accepted only UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor when cyanidin was used as an aglycone. The expression level of DcUCGalT1 was positively correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. The enzyme extractions from 'Deep purple' exhibited galactosylation activity for cyanidin, peonidin and pelargonidin, while those from 'Kuroda' (a non-purple cultivar) did not. PMID:27264613

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on the germination of the seeds of a collection of carrot accessions (Daucus carota L. cultivated in the region of Sidi Bouzid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. collected from seven areas in the region of Sidi Bouzid, Lessouda (three accessions: L1, L2 and L3 Faid (one accession: F4, El Ogla (one accession: E5, Regueb (two accessions: R7 and R8, Lahweze (one accession: L10 Garet Hdid (one accession: G11 and Souk Jedid (one accession: S12 were germinated at 20° C in the dark and in the presence of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 g/l during 14 days. The results obtained showed that germination is possible until the highest concentration of salt (16 g/l but germination and speed of germination decrease according to the concentration, so the accession L3 was the most tolerant and accessions L1, L2 and S12 was the most sensitive.

  15. Polyacetylenes from carrots (Daucus carota) improve glucose uptake in vitro in adipocytes and myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Christensen, Kathrine B; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Oksbjerg, Niels; Wolber, Gerhard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-07-01

    A dichloromethane (DCM) extract of carrot roots was found to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake (GU) in adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the DCM extract resulted in the isolation of the polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol. Both polyacetylenes were able to significantly stimulate basal and/or insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and porcine myotube cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Falcarindiol increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-mediated transactivation significantly at concentrations of 3, 10 and 30 μM, while PPARγ-mediated transactivation by falcarinol was only observed at 10 μM. Docking studies accordingly indicated that falcarindiol binds to the ligand binding domain of PPARγ with higher affinity than falcarinol and that both polyacetylenes exhibit characteristics of PPARγ partial agonists. Falcarinol was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation as evident by gene expression studies and Oil Red O staining, whereas falcarindiol did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, which indicates that these polyacetylenes have distinct modes of action. The results of the present study suggest that falcarinol and falcarindiol may represent scaffolds for novel partial PPARγ agonists with possible antidiabetic properties. PMID:25970571

  16. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveals evolution and expression profiles under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Tian, Chang; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    AP2/ERF is a large transcription factor family that regulates plant physiological processes, such as plant development and stress response. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an important economical crop with a genome size of 480 Mb; the draft genome sequencing of this crop has been completed by our group. However, little is known about the AP2/ERF factors in carrot. In this study, a total of 267 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the whole-genome sequence of carrot. These AP2/ERF proteins were phylogenetically clustered into five subfamilies based on their similarity to the amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis. The distribution and comparative genome analysis of the AP2/ERF factors among plants showed the AP2/ERF factors had expansion during the evolutionary process, and the AP2 domain was highly conserved during evolution. The number of AP2/ERF factors in land plants expanded during their evolution. A total of 60 orthologous and 145 coorthologous AP2/ERF gene pairs between carrot and Arabidopsis were identified, and the interaction network of orthologous genes was constructed. The expression patterns of eight AP2/ERF family genes from each subfamily (DREB, ERF, AP2, and RAV) were related to abiotic stresses. Yeast one-hybrid and β-galactosidase activity assays confirmed the DRE and GCC box-binding activities of DREB subfamily genes. This study is the first to identify and characterize the AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot using whole-genome analysis, and the findings may serve as references for future functional research on the transcription factors in carrot. PMID:25971861

  17. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida S.; Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi; Wyler, Patricia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E- mail: tperecin@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; lcasilva@cena.usp.br; dtstuchi@ig.com.br; patwyler@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  18. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  19. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  20. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Bradfield, Scott J; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Ce(4+). The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how

  1. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D.; Bradfield, Scott J.; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C.; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn2+, Cu2+, or Ce4+. The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how peeling

  2. Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendi I Melquíades

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros. Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 ºC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. Se observó que la rehidratación se ve afectada por el pretratamiento debido a los cambios estructurales, que finalmente afectan la capacidad de rehidratación de las muestras. Los coeficientes de difusión no presentan tal dependencia.A kinetic study of the rehydration of carrots for two types of cuts (geometries (slabs and cylinders, is presented. The carrots were washed, peeled and cut an then treated for 5 min in distilled water at 80 ºC before being dehydrated in a convection oven at different temperatures. The rehydration kinetics was obtained by means of a diffusion model and its temperature dependence was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. It was observed that the rehydration is affected by the pretreatment due to the structural changes that finally affect the rehydration capacity of the samples. Diffusion coefficients do not present such dependence.

  3. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway

  4. Reassessment of practical species identifications of the USDA Daucus carota germplasm collection: Morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in the western Mediterranean. Obli...

  5. Reassessment of practical subspecies identifications of the USDA Daucus carota L. germplasm collection: Morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G. Martens, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in t...

  6. Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota) à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift

    OpenAIRE

    R.P. Rogoli; L.C. Fontana; S.S. Figueredo; J.A. Noldin

    2008-01-01

    Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota), em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbi...

  7. A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Estudio Cinético y de Superficie de Respuesta para la Rehidratación de Zanahorias (Daucus carota) Liofilizadas Kinetic Study and Surface Response Analysis on the Rehydration of Frozen-dried Carrot (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    María L Zambrano; Deborah B Rodríguez; Alfredo Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Se estudio el efecto de la temperatura sobre la cinética, el coeficiente de difusión y la adición de ácido cítrico y cloruro de sodio sobre la rehidratación de zanahorias (Daucus carota). Se aplicó un diseño de superficie de respuesta con 4 factores y 3 puntos centrales. No se encontró diferencia significativa (a=0.05) a temperaturas de 70 y 93ºC con constante cinética promedio de 0.42 min-1, con diferencias entre los coeficientes de difusión entre 6.1 a 3.18 x10-9m²/s. Las variables de mayor...

  9. An Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Irish Grown Organic and Conventional Carrots (Daucus carota L.) and mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Grace; Pierce, Eoin

    2008-01-01

    There is a general belief among consumers that organically farmed foods are superior in sensory quality when compared to conventionally produced foods. The aim of this study was to establish whether perceptible sensory differences exist between Irish grown organic and conventional carrots and Irish grown organic and conventional mushrooms. Three batches of organically farmed carrots and mushrooms and three batches of conventionally produced carrots and mushrooms were tested. A semi-trained pa...

  10. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrotsDaucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...... markers specific to the cultivated carrot makes it possible to detect introgression from cultivated to wild types....

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  12. Cloning of lea cDNA fragment of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and analysis of its expression features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Addition of concentrated sucrose to MS culture arrests the development of carrot somatic embryo at the stage of cotyledon embryo and, with the sucrose concentration restored to normal level, the embryo thus arrested is reactivated into post-embryonic development. Using the method of RT-PCR, the cDNA fragment of a new member of the Dc3 family of lea has been obtained from carrot somatic embryo under regulated state. As revealed by Northern blotting, strong expression has been observed in carrot somatic embryo under regulated state but the expression was much reduced 12 h after deregulation, and nearly disappeared 24 h after. Based on this finding as well as results of related studies, it is surmised that changing the sucrose concentration in culture enabled carrot somatic embryo under suspension culture to undergo a specific course of development which is comparable to the dormancy-germination process of seeds.

  13. Influence of Cultivar and UGmax on Antioxidative Properties of Carrot Roots (Daucus Carota L. and their Stability During Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keutgen Anna J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, the significance of cultivar (convention-al and coloured and of the application of the soil fertility enhancer UGmax on health-promoting properties of carrot roots subjected to the freezing process of carrot cubes after water blanching was investigated. The selection of cultivar turned out to be highly signif-icant with respect to the development of health-promoting properties of carrot roots. The highest antioxidant properties were found in the purple cultivar ‘Deep Purple’. Its mean antioxidant capacity accounted for 5.31 mmol Fe+2 · kg–1 f.m. Essential for health-promoting properties were the contents of anthocyanins (R2 = 0.83, chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.81 and total polyphenolics (R2 = 0.71. The application of the biological agent UGmax improved the qual-ity of carrot significantly, increasing the content of total carotenoids and reducing the losses of ascorbic acid during processing. The freezing process negatively influenced the antioxidative properties of carrot irrespective of cultivar and applied agro-technique (use of UGmax, especially in the case of water-soluble antioxidants such as anthocyanins and ascorbic acid.

  14. Genomic identification of WRKY transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota) and analysis of evolution and homologous groups for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the largest transcription factor families. These factors possess functions in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. Here, we identified 95 DcWRKY genes in carrot based on the carrot genomic and transcriptomic data, and divided them into three groups. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins from carrot and Arabidopsis divided these proteins into seven subgroups. To elucidate the evolution and distribution of WRKY transcription factors in different species, we constructed a schematic of the phylogenetic tree and compared the WRKY family factors among 22 species, which including plants, slime mold and protozoan. An in-depth study was performed to clarify the homologous factor groups of nine divergent taxa in lower and higher plants. Based on the orthologous factors between carrot and Arabidopsis, 38 DcWRKY proteins were calculated to interact with other proteins in the carrot genome. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DcWRKY20 can interact with DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK4. The expression patterns of the selected DcWRKY genes based on transcriptome data and qRT-PCR suggested that those selected DcWRKY genes are involved in root development, biotic and abiotic stress response. This comprehensive analysis provides a basis for investigating the evolution and function of WRKY genes. PMID:26975939

  15. The DcMaster Transposon Display maps polymorphic insertion sites in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    DcMaster is a family of PIF/Harbinger-like class II transposable elements identified in carrot. We present a modified Transposon Display molecular marker system allowing amplification of genomic regions containing DcMaster elements. We scored 77 DcMaster Transposon Display (DcMTD) amplicons, of whic...

  16. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  17. Effect of the gamma ionizing irradiation on after crop quality of cv. Nantes carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the post harvest physical and chemical characteristics of cv. Nantes carrots. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. It is also well known that the carrot is one of the best sources of provitamin A (a and b-carotene). Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy of gamma ionizing irradiation, from a cesium source, in accordance with the maximum dose allowed by the FDA (1995), were used on the carrots. The different treatments and the control group were evaluated by analysing for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/TTA ratio, weight loss, hardness, colour, total carotenoid content, ascorbic acid concentration and volatiles. The variance analysis (F of the Fisher treatment) of the results showed no significant difference at the 5% level between the irradiated samples and the control group for most of the tests, except for the colour intensity, which faded with increase in the irradiation dose, total acidity and TSS/TTA ratio, which decreased due to the decrease in the organic acid concentration after harvest. The results show that the low dose irradiation process is very promising to maintain the quality of the product, being a good alternative to avoid post harvest losses. (author)

  18. Hypotensive action of coumarin glycosides from Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A H; Shaheen, E; Saeed, S A; Bibi, S; Irfanullah; Sadiq, M; Faizi, S

    2000-10-01

    Daucus carota (carrot) has been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension. Activity-directed fractionation of aerial parts of D. carota resulted in the isolation of two cumarin glycosides coded as DC-2 and DC-3. Intravenous administration of these compounds caused a dose-dependent (1-10 mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetised rats. In the in vitro studies, both compounds caused a dose-dependent (10-200 microg/ml) inhibitory effect on spontaneously beating guinea pig atria as well as on the K+ -induced contractions of rabbit aorta at similar concentrations. These results indicate that DC-2 and DC-3 may be acting through blockade of calcium channels and this effect may be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of the compounds observed in the in vivo studies. PMID:11081994

  19. The Protein synthesis spectrum during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultures and the role of Nitrogen forms for embryo development

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was to broaden our knowledge about the pattern of protein synthesis during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Daucus cultures using petioles as the source material implementing histological, bio-chemical, molecular and bio-informatics methods to achieve this aim for a better understanding of the somatic embryo-genesis in the model system carrot. During the induction phase, histological examination of cross sections of petiole ex-plants of Da...

  20. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai; Mariana Rangel Alves de Souza; Natalia Vinhosa Bruno; Édira Castello Branco de Andrade Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Bett...

  1. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Better performance was obtained for coated carrots, which exhibited a tendency to have lower whiteness index than uncoated counterparts and enhanced overall quality. Despite a drop in color saturation expressed by chroma values (varying from 59 to 46 was observed, color index presented a positive value for all samples (varying from 13 to 15 indicating orange color preservation throughout storage. Although color parameter was influenced by coating treatment, minor modifications occur over storage concerning weight loss, pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. Results obtained demonstrated the potential of the fruit and vegetable residues flour for edible coatings formulation. Practical application on minimally processed carrots supported its suitability to be used as an alternative coating material and constitute a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this alternative preservation technique.

  2. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126) roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Medina Sierra; Francisco Hernando Orozco P.; María Elena Márquez F.

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se transformaron raíces de kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides) y de zanahoria (Daucus carota) en diferentes medios de cultivo, mediante el empleo de cinco cepas diferentes de Agrobacterium rhizogenes; de comportamiento diferente tanto en la transformación de zanahoria por las cepas de A. rhizogenes A.r.15834, A.r.8196 y A.r.2659; como en la transformación de kudzú por las cepas A.r.15834 y A.r.1724. Por otro lado, se logró la multiplicación en medio White modificado (WM) de l...

  3. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  4. Estimativa do consumo de água na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L. v. nantes superior, para a região de piracicaba, através do método do balanço hídrico Estimation of carrot water consumption (Daucus carota, L. t. nantes superior, in piracicaba county through the water balance methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.T. Moura

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a demanda hídrica da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L. cv. Nantes Superior, pelo método do balanço hídrico sob condições de campo, para a região de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, à 560 metros de altitude. Os valores de evapotranspiração máxima obtidos pelo método do balanço hídrico foram correlacionados com os valores de evapotranspiração de referência estimados pelo método de Penman, objetivando a determinação do coeficiente de cultura. O consumo total de água considerando-se um ciclo vegetativo de 101 dias foi de 365 mm, gerando um consumo médio de 3,61 mm/dia. Nesta situação, o coeficiente de cultura médio encontrado foi de 1,1.To estimate the evapotranspiration of a carrot crop (Daucus carota, L. v. Nantes Superior, under field conditions, in Piracicaba (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, at 560 m., maximum evapotranspiration was determinated by the water balance method and correlated to the reference evapotranspiration estimated by Penman's method, in order to obtain the crop coefficient. The total water consumption of the vegetative cycle (101 days was about 365 mm, with a mean of 3,61 mm/dia. In this situation the mean crop coefficient was 1.1.

  5. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Lafortune, R

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10{sup 6} CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O{sub 2}, 30% CO{sub 2} and 10% N{sub 2}). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4{+-}1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses {>=}0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  6. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots ( Daucus carota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10 6 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O 2, 30% CO 2 and 10% N 2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1°C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ⩾0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  7. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (106 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O2, 30% CO2 and 10% N2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ≥0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage

  8. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126 roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kudzú (P. phaseoloides and carrot (D. carota roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia, did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.

  9. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  10. Effect of the gamma ionizing irradiation on after crop quality of cv. Nantes carrots (Daucus carota L.); Efeito da irradiacao ionizante gama na qualidade pos-colheita de cenouras (Daucus carota L.) cv. Nantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Grossi, Jorge L.S. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: keilacople@ig.com.br; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Alves, F.M.P.[Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil). Instituto de Projetos Especiais; Coneglian, Regina C.C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Tecnologia Agroindustrial de Alimentos; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U.O. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao. Departamento de Nutricao Basica e Experimental]. E-mail: keilacople@ig.com.br

    2001-08-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the post harvest physical and chemical characteristics of cv. Nantes carrots. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. It is also well known that the carrot is one of the best sources of provitamin A (a and b-carotene). Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy of gamma ionizing irradiation, from a cesium source, in accordance with the maximum dose allowed by the FDA (1995), were used on the carrots. The different treatments and the control group were evaluated by analysing for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/TTA ratio, weight loss, hardness, colour, total carotenoid content, ascorbic acid concentration and volatiles. The variance analysis (F of the Fisher treatment) of the results showed no significant difference at the 5% level between the irradiated samples and the control group for most of the tests, except for the colour intensity, which faded with increase in the irradiation dose, total acidity and TSS/TTA ratio, which decreased due to the decrease in the organic acid concentration after harvest. The results show that the low dose irradiation process is very promising to maintain the quality of the product, being a good alternative to avoid post harvest losses. (author)

  11. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis; Reducao enzimatica do 4-(dimetilamino)benzaldeido com pedacos de cenoura (Daucus carota): um experimento simples na compreensao da biocatalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Alvaro Takeo; Portas, Viviane Barbosa; Oliveira, Camila de Souza de, E-mail: alvaro.omori@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  12. The influence of antimicrobial compounds or coating and modified atmosphere packaging on radiation sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua on quality maintenance of ready-to-use carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An edible coating based on caseinate and whey protein combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP): (60% O2; 30% CO2; 10% N2) and gamma irradiation on the microbiological stability and physico-chemical quality of minimally processed carrots (Daucus carota L.) was evaluated. Carrots were irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy and stored at 4 ± 1 deg. C for 21 days. Results showed that gamma irradiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the physico-chemical properties of the carrots. Microbiological analysis showed that for uncoated carrots a dose of 0.5 and 1 kGy applied under air and MAP reduced, respectively, by 3.5 and 4 log CFU/g and by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g the content in aerobic plate count (APC). For coated carrots a dose of 0.5 and 1 kGy applied under air and MAP reduced, respectively, by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g and by 3 and 4.25 log CFU/g the content of APC. The coating was able to protect carrots against dehydration during storage under air. Coating and irradiation treatment at 1 kGy were also able to protect the firmness during storage under air. MAP retarded whitening of uncoated carrots, but this treatment had a detrimental effect on the firmness. Processed carrots were also coated with caseinate based coating containing spice extracts or of antimicrobial compounds present in spices and irradiated at doses from 0.07 to 2.4 kGy to evaluate the radiosensitization of Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812 serovar 1/2a (106 CFU/g). The dose (D10) required to reduce L. monocytogenes population by 1 log was 0.36 kGy for samples packed under air and 0.17 kGy for those packed under MAP. In presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde, Spanish oregano, winter savory and Chinese cinnamon, the results showed that these active compounds had an effect on the irradiation sensitivity of bacterium in reducing L. monocytogenes population in carrots. The most efficient compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde where a mean increase of the relative radiation sensitivity of 3.8 times was observed for both

  13. INFLUENCE OF AMMONIACAL FERTILIZERS IN THE MAIN ROOT BRANCHING OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. INFLUÊNCIA DOS ADUBOS AMONIACAIS NA RAMIFICAÇÃO DA RAIZ PRINCIPAL DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Misshape of carrot roots can be incited by soil agents, like badly prepared soil and nematodes or by ammonium fertilizers. RALEIGH (Knott, cited by SILVA, found that ammonium fertilizers can kill the root and consequently cause malformation. The preference of sodium nitrate or other non-ammonium fertilizers is widely spread in Brazilian literature about carrot. MALAVOLTA (1967 even recommends only small quantities of manure to prevent root damage. REGINA (1964 advises against use of ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers for the same reason. CAMARGO (1963 also prefers sodium nitrate but mentions the possibility of substitution by ammonium sulphate, too. Although, it was impossible to find any original experimental information about, in Brazilian literature. The sodium nitrate is imported by Brazil from Chile and is therefore almost five times more expensive than ammonium sulphate, in spite of its lower nitrogen content. This trial investigated four sources of nitrogen: ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, urea and manure. The quantities applied were higher than MALAVOLTA recommends for carrot. The results don't show any significant difference between treatments, neither in ramification frequence nor in yield. The variety used was a cone-shaped carrot, named London. Other varieties possibly are susceptible to malformation of root by ammonium fertilizers. This will be investigated in further experiments.

    A deformação da raiz da cenoura pode ser causada por diversos agentes do solo, como nematóides, solo mal preparado e, ainda adubos ricos em amônio. Segundo RALEIGH, citado por Silva, adubos amoniacais podem matar a ponta radicular, causando assim deformação da raiz. Na literatura brasileira sobre adubação de cenoura, é muito difundida a preferência de nitrato de sódio ou outros adubos n

  14. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attribu...

  15. Daucus carota pentane-based fractions arrest the cell cycle and increase apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Mroueh, Mohammad; Bodman-Smith, Kikki; Mansour, Anthony; Taleb, Robin I; Costantine F. Daher; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus carota L.ssp.carota (wild carrot), an herb used in folk medicine worldwide, was recently demonstrated to exhibit anticancer activity. In this study we examined the anticancer effect of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) fractions on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and clarified the mechanism of action. Methods and results Using the WST assay, the pentane fraction (F1) and 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) were shown to possess the highest ...

  16. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  17. Studi Tentang Kandungan Timbal (Pb) Dan Kadmium (Cd) Dalam Wortel (Daucus Carota L) Di Pasar Kota Medan Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Deva

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a tuber vegetable that has an important role in the provision of food, especially the provision of vitamins and minerals. Carrot contain vitamin A and many other substances which have medicinal effect, so it is favored by the people. Crops especially vegetables, is a mediator for metal absorption. Because of its widespread utilization, carrot should be free of all contaminants that can harm humans, including heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to determin...

  18. Development and Characterization of Novel SSR Markers in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and Their Application for Mapping and Diversity Analysis in Apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic resources in carrot and other Apiaceae are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of a large set of pcr-based codominant markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), would allow integration of the different carrot genetic maps constructed to date (mainly using anonymous dominant mark...

  19. Bioreduction of substituted {alpha}-tetralones promoted by Daucus carota root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Bianco, Graziela G.; Bombonato, Fernanda I.; Andrade, Leandro H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: grazielabianco@gmail.com; Porto, Andre L.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The bioreduction of a series of substituted {alpha}-tetralones, carried out using Daucus carota root (carrot), afforded the corresponding homochiral {alpha}-tetralols in variable conversions (9 to 90%) and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Two of the assayed {alpha}-tetralones were resistant to the bioreduction conditions. The absolute configurations of four {alpha}-tetralols were assigned as being (S), by comparison to the (S)-enantiomers obtained by kinetic resolution promoted by CALB-catalysed acetylation. Additionally, the new 5-methoxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone was synthesized in seven steps from 3-methylsalicylic acid. (author)

  20. Bioreduction of substituted α-tetralones promoted by Daucus carota root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioreduction of a series of substituted α-tetralones, carried out using Daucus carota root (carrot), afforded the corresponding homochiral α-tetralols in variable conversions (9 to 90%) and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Two of the assayed α-tetralones were resistant to the bioreduction conditions. The absolute configurations of four α-tetralols were assigned as being (S), by comparison to the (S)-enantiomers obtained by kinetic resolution promoted by CALB-catalysed acetylation. Additionally, the new 5-methoxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone was synthesized in seven steps from 3-methylsalicylic acid. (author)

  1. Early Identification of Stable Transformation Events by Combined Use of Antibiotic Selection and Vital Detection of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yeu Yau; Seth J Davis; Ahmet Ipek; Philipp W Simon

    2008-01-01

    Genetic transformation is a useful technique to complement conventional breeding in crop improvement. Although carrot has been a model organism for in vitro embryogenesis study, genetic transformation of carrot is still lengthy and labor intensive. An efficient transformation and detection system is desirable. Direct infection of Agrobacterium to carrot calli has provided an easy way for carrot genetic transformation. To improve the efficiency of antibiotic selection in this method, we report the combined use of an improved green-fluorescent protein, referred to as smGFP, to establish a versatile selection method for carrot callus transformation system. By combining antibiotic selection with the bright fluorescence observed in the callus tissue, we were able to easily identify stable transformants in early stage of the transformation process. In addition to the GFP expression of the callus cells, the transgenic nature of callus cells was confirmed with Southern and Western analysis. We found we can link the simplicity of carrot-callus-cell transformation, early detection of stable transformants with antibiotic selection, visualization of GFP fluorescence, and molecular analysis (Southern and Western) of callus tissue (non-photosynthetic tissue) to provide a more efficient way in identifying stable transformants at early stage of carrot transformation.

  2. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  3. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...... metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins....... carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one...

  4. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershoj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day−1 per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. RESULTS: Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not...

  5. Combined effects of coating, modified atmosphere packaging, and gamma irradiation on quality maintenance of ready-to-use carrots (Daucus carota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, R; Caillet, S; Lacroix, M

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an edible coating combined with modified atmosphere (MA; 60% O2, 30% CO2, and 10% N2) packaging and gamma irradiation on the microbiological stability and physicochemical quality of minimally processed carrots. A coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolates was used. Coated and uncoated peeled minicarrots were packed under the MA or air (78.1% N2, 20.9% O2, and 0.036% CO2), irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy, and stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 21 days. Samples were evaluated periodically for aerobic plates counts (APCs) and physicochemical properties (firmness, white discoloration, and whiteness index). Gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the physicochemical properties of the carrots (P > 0.05). Microbiological analysis revealed that for uncoated carrots irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 3.5 and 4 log CFU/g and by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g, respectively. For coated carrots, irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g and by 3 and 4.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The coating was able to protect carrots against dehydration during storage under air. Coating and irradiation at 1 kGy were also able to protect carrot firmness during storage under air. MA packaging retarded whitening of uncoated carrots but had a detrimental effect on firmness. The edible coating used in this study did not significantly inhibit (P > 0.05) microbial growth on carrots. PMID:15726981

  6. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  7. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or β-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of β-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot. PMID:26001525

  8. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Batista Lima; Luana Lopes Assumpção Rentschler; João Tavares Bueno; Ana Cláudia Boaventura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of...

  9. Fractionation of Plant Bioactives from Black Carrots (Daucus carota subspecies sativus varietas atrorubens Alef.) by Adsorptive Membrane Chromatography and Analysis of Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Liehr, Martin; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-07-27

    Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography. Furthermore, possible anti-diabetic effects of the DPC XAD-7 extract and its AF and CF were determined. DPC samples (XAD-7, CF, and AF) inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DPC XAD-7 and chlorogenic acid, but not DPC CF and DPC AF, caused a moderate inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells. However, DPC samples did not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) activity. Overall, DPC exhibits an inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and on cellular glucose uptake indicating potential anti-diabetic properties. PMID:27362825

  10. Estimativa do consumo de água na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L.) v. nantes superior, para a região de piracicaba, através do método do balanço hídrico Estimation of carrot water consumption (Daucus carota, L.) t. nantes superior, in piracicaba county through the water balance methodology

    OpenAIRE

    M.V.T. de Moura; S. Marques Júnior; T.A. BOTREL; J.A. Frizone

    1994-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a demanda hídrica da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L.) cv. Nantes Superior, pelo método do balanço hídrico sob condições de campo, para a região de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, à 560 metros de altitude). Os valores de evapotranspiração máxima obtidos pelo método do balanço hídrico foram correlacionados com os valores de evapotranspiração de referência estimados pelo método de Penman, objetivando a de...

  11. Influence of cultivar and harvest year on the volatile profiles of leaves and roots of carrots (Daucus carota spp. sativus Hoffm.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Detlef; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-04-01

    The focus of the present work centers on the diversity of volatile patterns of carrots. In total 15 main volatiles were semiquantified in leaves and roots using isolation by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with FID and MS detection. Significant differences in the main number of compounds were detected between the cultivars as well as the years. Genotype-environment interactions (G × E) are discussed. The most abundant metabolites, β-myrcene (leaves) and terpinolene (roots), differ in the sum of all interactions (cultivar × harvest year) by a factor of 22 and 62, respectively. A statistical test indicates significant metabolic differences between cultivars for nine volatiles in leaves and 10 in roots. In contrast to others the volatiles α-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, and myristicine in leaves as well as β-pinene, humulene, and bornyl acetate in roots are relatively stable over years. A correlation analysis shows no strict clustering regarding root color. While the biosynthesis in leaves and roots is independent between these two organs for nine of the 15 volatiles, a significant correlation of the myristicine content between leaves and roots was determined, which suggests the use of this compound as a bitter marker in carrot breeding. PMID:25797828

  12. Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of the Individual Anthocyanin Compounds of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A New Approach Using High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Ioanna; Thaeron, Delphine; Baker, Ashley; Jones, Anita; Robertson, Neil

    2015-08-12

    The black carrot dye is a mixture of cyanidin molecules, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of which shows a highly overlapped aromatic region. In this study, the (1)H NMR (800 MHz) aromatic chemical shifts of the mixture were fully assigned by overlaying them with the characterized (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the separated compounds. The latter were isolated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their chemical shifts were identified using (1)H and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the black carrot mixture to heat exposure was investigated at pH 3.6, 6.8, and 8.0 by heat-treating aqueous solutions at 100 °C and the powdered material at 180 °C. From integration of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra, it was possible to follow the relative degradation of each compound, offering advantages over the commonly used ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and HPLC approaches. UV/vis spectroscopy and CIE color measurements were used to determine thermally induced color changes, under normal cooking conditions. PMID:26160425

  13. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Two Laccases from Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Their Response to Abiotic and Metal Ions Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Laccases, which belong to the blue copper oxidase enzyme family, oxidize many organic and inorganic compounds. The laccase-encoding genes DcLac1 and DcLac2 were isolated from the economically important tuberous root carrot, and their proteins were successfully expressed and purified using the Escherichia coli expression system BL21(DE3). DcLac1 and DcLac2 had molecular masses of approximately 64 and 61.9 kDa, respectively. With 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate acid) as the substrate, DcLac1 and DcLac2 had K m values of 3.9043 and 1.255 mM, respectively, and V max values of 54.0832 and 81.7996 μM mg(-1) min(-1), respectively. Moreover, DcLac1 and DcLac2 had optimal pH values of 2.8 and 2.6, respectively, and optimal temperatures of 45 and 40 °C, respectively. The activities of the two enzymes were promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Na(+) but inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), K(+), SDS, and EDTA. Expression profiles showed that the two DcLac genes had almost identical responses to high and low temperature stresses but different responses to salt, drought, and metal stresses. This study provided insights into the characteristics and tolerance response mechanisms of laccase in carrot. PMID:26626349

  14. Isolation of development-related genes in somatic embryo radicle of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using modified cDNA RDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁丰秋; 张雷; 黄美娟; 吴乃虎

    2000-01-01

    Using modified cDNA RDA capitalizing on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin and magnetic-absorption-based separation, we have obtained four bands of specifically expressed cDNA in the carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h, which were designated as NR-1, NR-2, NR-3 and NR-4, respectively. As revealed by homology analysis of their DNA sequences after cloning them into pBS, remarkable homology was demonstrated in NR-2, NR-3 and NR-4 with the genes coding for LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein), Dna J and xyloglucan endo-trans-glycosylase in plants. On the other hand, NR-1 showing no homology with any known sequence may have come from unknown genes. Using 32P-labeled NR-1 as probe, hybridization with cDNA fragment population has shown that we have actually cloned a new gene fragment related to radicle development. As shown by further Southern hybridization, these genes may be present in carrot genome in the form of single or low copies.

  15. Isolation of development-related genes in somatic embryo radicle of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using modified cDNA RDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using modified cDNA RDA capitalizing on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin and magnetic-absorption-based separation,we have obtained four bands of specifically expressed cDNA in the carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h,which were designated as NR-1,NR-2,NR-3 and NR-4,respectively.As revealed by homology analysis of their DNA sequences after cloning them into pBS,remarkable homology was demonstrated in NR-2,NR-3 and NR-4 with the genes coding for LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein),Dna J and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase in plants.On the other hand,NR-1 showing no homology with any known sequence may have come from unknown genes.Using 32P-labeled NR-1 as probe,hybridization with cDNA fragment population has shown that we have actually cloned a new gene fragment related to radicle development.As shown by further Southern hybridization,these genes may be present in carrot genome in the form of single or low copies.

  16. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  17. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmigielski, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increased by approximately 48%. The main constituent compounds in the oil are: carotol (OeA: 40.80%–OeB: 46.17%, daucol (OeA: 7.35%–OeB: 6.22%, sabinene (OeA: 5.12%–OeB: 6.13%, alpha-pinene (OeA: 4.24%–OeB: 5.11% and geranyl acetate (OeA: 4.50%–OeB: 3.68%. As compared to the control sample, the essential oil obtained from enzyme-pretreated carrot seeds has the same biological activity against Bacillus subtilis and Candida sp., lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and higher activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum.Ocho preparados enzimáticos fueron seleccionados con el fin de maximizar el rendimiento de aceites esenciales de semillas de zanahoria. Tres de los ocho preparados de las enzimas investigadas, lipasa de Mucor circinelloides, Xpect® pectinasa y Esperase® proteasa, influyeron de manera significativa sobre la cantidad de aceite esencial obtenido, siendo Esperase® el más eficaz. El método de Taguchi se aplicó para optimizar las condiciones del procesamiento para esta última. Bajo las condiciones óptimas, el rendimiento de los aceite esenciales aumentó aproximadamente un 48%. Los principales compuestos constituyentes del aceite son: carotol (OEA: 40.80%–OeB: 46,17%, ducol (OEA: 7,35%–OeB: 6,22%, sabineno (OEA: 5,12%–OeB: 6,13%, alfa-pineno (OEA: 4,24%– OeB: 5,11% y acetato de geranilo (OEA: 4,50%–OeB: 3,68%. En comparación con la muestra control, el

  18. Characterization of Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated and Wild Carrots (Daucus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

  19. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Properties Carrot (Daucus carrota) Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Susiloningsih Enny Karti Basuki; Sarofa Ulya; Sholihah Fauziah Imroatus

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Dascus carota L.) is one of the more commonly used vegetables of human nutrition. It is rich in beta carotene, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and classified as vitaminized food. Combination of carrot juice and yoghurt produce a nutritionally balanced food. The aim of this study is to determine the best combination of carrot juice concentration and was fermentation duration. soyghurt was prepared in the laboratory scale production from soymilk and carrot juice was fermented with Streptococc...

  1. Nutritional Content and Antioxidant Properties of Pulp Waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, B N; Jamuna, P

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulp waste from two vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Different in vitro assays used for determining antioxidant potential of extracts of pulp wastes were: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method. Total polyphenols, tannins and antioxidative components such as vitamin C, total carotenoids and β-carotene were analysed in the samples. The moisture content of samples ranged from 79 - 84%. The protein content was high in beetroot (13.23 mg/100g) and low in carrot (6.21mg/100g). Total polyphenols were higher in methanol extracts of samples (220-250 mg/100g) compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method exhibited 40% and 78% activity in methanol extracts of carrot and beetroot pulp waste (20 mg) respectively. Overall, the results suggest that carrot and beetroot pulp wastes can be exploited for their nutrients and antioxidant components and used for value addition in food formulations. Hence, these results pave the way for utilisation of bio-wastes from the food industry. PMID:22691993

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota Linn root formulated cream on wound healing using excision and incision wound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Daucus carota L. (Carrot) (Apiaceae) is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments. The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root on excision wound model and incision wound model. Methods: The soft paraffin based cream containing 1%, 2% and 4% w/w of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. (EEDC) root was formulated and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters such as rheological properties, pH, skin irritation and external characters. Excision wounds sized 300 mm2 and 2 mm depth were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization at different time intervals. Incision wounds six centimeter long and two linear-paravertebral incisions were used for the study of tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content measured on 10th day old incision wound. Results: Ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root cream formulation when applied topically did not show any sign and symptoms of skin irritation. Animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (1%, 2%and 4% w/w) showed significance decrease in wound area, epithelization period and scar width whereas rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.001 and P<0.001 resp.) as compared to control group animals in excision wound model. In incision wound model there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein content of animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (2% and 4% w/w, respectively). Conclusions: Wound-healing property of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root may be attributed to the various phytoconstituents like flavonoids and phenolic derivatives present in the root and the quicker process of wound healing could be a function of either its antioxidant or antimicrobial potential. The present findings provide scientific evidence to the ethanomedicinal properties of Daucus

  3. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with two aromatic plants, coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., on the population density of select carrot pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, or the use of different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems, can be classified as an ecological method that limits harmful human interference in the environment, especially the consumption of chemicals. The impact of intercropping carrot with coriander Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory Satureja hortensis L. on the occurrence of select carrot pests was estimated in the years 2010-2011. Intercropping had a significant effect on the decrease of the number of roots damaged by carrot rust fly Psila rosae. During harvest, the least number of damaged roots was observed in combination with summer savory S. hortensis L. The number of carrot psyllid Trioza viridula Zett. and aphids on carrot leaves and roots damaged by nematodes was significantly lower on plots where carrot was intercropped. Intercropping both herbs had a positive influence on the number of beneficial insects. In all of the years of the study, the highest number of Coccinellidae and Syrphidae were observed on plots where carrot was intercropped with coriander.

  4. Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

    2013-03-20

    The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

  5. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jankowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with French marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. 'Kolombina' and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Promyk' on carrot yield, its quality, and the occurrence of pests. On average in both years of the study, intercropping did not reduce total or marketable carrot yield. In 2003 intercropping contributed to a significant increase in marketable yield compared with yield from sole cropping. In 2004 the dry matter content was higher in the roots of carrots grown with pot marigold. The treatments intercropped with both French and pot marigold were characterized by an increased content of sugars in carrot roots and in 2004 year – of carotenoids. Intercropping had a significant effect on the number of roots damaged by the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae, (the best in this respect was the combination with Tagetes and by nematodes (the best in this respect was the combination with Calendula. The number of larvae of carrot psyllid, Trioza viridula, was significantly lower in the plots where carrot was intercropped. The study did not find intercropping to have a positive effect on reducing the occurrence of the root aphid.

  6. Efecto de la aplicación de ultrasonidos en vegetales: impacto sobre la microbiota, textura y color de la Zanahoria (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Diaz, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has the challenge of the constant innovation and optimization process. In vegetable decontamination by chemical disinfectants is the trend. The aim of this project is evaluate the efficacy of low-frequency ultrasound as a method for reducing microbial in vegetables and evaluate the effect on their colour and firmness. We have worked with raw carrots (Daucus carota) subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 10-20 minutes and the frequency used was 25 and 40 kHz. The effectiveness...

  7. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L.) with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L.) and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Jankowska; Elżbieta Jędrszczyk; Małgorzata Poniedziałek

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with Fren...

  8. N-acetyl glutamate kinase from Daucus carota suspension cultures: embryogenic expression profile, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M; Loukanina, Natalia; Ferrar, Tony S; Moorhead, Greg B G; Thorpe, Trevor A

    2005-09-01

    In Daucus carota, N-acetylglutamate-5-phosphotransferase (NAGK; E.C. 2.7.2.8) specific activity was shown to correlate with the progression of somatic embryogenesis and was highest in the latter stages, where growth was most rapid. The enzyme was subsequently purified greater than 1200-fold using heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, anion exchange and dye ligand chromatography. Carrot NAGK was shown to have a subunit molecular weight of 31 kDa and form a hexamer. The Kms for NAG and ATP are 5.24 and 2.11 mM, respectively. Arginine (Arg) is a K-type allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme, and Hill coefficients in the order of 5 in the presence of Arg suggest that the enzyme is highly cooperative. D. carota NAGK does not bind to Arabidopsis thaliana PII affinity columns, nor does the A. thaliana PII increase NAGK specific activity, indicating its cellular location is probably different. PMID:16289950

  9. HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DAUCUS CAROTA SEEDS IN NORMAL RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Kamlesh Singh; Hemant Dhongade; Nisha Singh; Pranita Kashyap

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota seeds in Normal rats.Method: Rats were divided in to 4 groups. First control group, treated with vehicle only for 7 days. Second group was standard, treated with lovastatin (7.2mg/kg) for 7 days. Third and fourth group were test, treated with Daucus carota seeds extract (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) for 7 days. 8th day blood sample was collected by retro orbital route and lipid profiles were estimated in serum.Result and Conclu...

  10. Development and in-house validation of allergen-specific ELISA tests for the quantification of Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 in carrot extracts (Daucus carota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Foetisch; L. Dahl; B. Jansen; W.M. Becker; J. Lidholm; R. van Ree; H. Broll; S. Kaul; S. Vieths; T. Holzhauser

    2011-01-01

    Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau

  11. Phylogenomics of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. We here explore the utility of multiple nuclear orthologs for the taxonomic resolution of a wide variety of Daucus species and outgroups. We studied the phylogeny of 89 ...

  12. Daucus for the flora of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...

  13. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  14. Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Bodman-Smith, K B; Mansour, Anthony; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2015-07-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea, wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) has been used in folk medicine throughout the world and recently was shown to possess anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study aims to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). Treatment of cells with various concentrations of F1 or F2 fractions produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both fractions induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. Western blot revealed the activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and a considerable increase in Bax and p53 levels, and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt. Furthermore, the combined treatment of F1 or F2 with wortmannin showed no added inhibition of cell survival suggesting an effect of F1 or F2 through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study proposes that DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways. PMID:25599142

  15. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  16. Comparative FISH mapping of Daucus species (Apiaceae family)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae family) contains about 20 mostly diploid species with n=9, 10 and 11, including carrot (D. carota L., 2n=18). Here, we report a pachytene chromosome-based karyotype of carrot. We integrated the carrot linkage groups with chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FI...

  17. 胡萝卜多糖体外抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉军; 陈彦; 王松华; 方玉明

    2011-01-01

    Carrot Polysaccharides were extracted with hot water. The antioxidant activity in vitro of Carrot polysaccharide was investigated by measuring its scavenging effect superoixide anion, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and its inhibitory effect on peroxidation of yolk lipoprotein. The results show that carrot polysaccharide had good scavenging effects on 0-2, ·OH and DPPH· and inhibitory effect on peroxidation of yolk lipoprotein. So polysaccharides from carrot had strong antioxidant activity in Vitro.%采用热水浸提法从胡萝卜中提取胡萝卜多糖,通过测定胡萝卜多糖对超氧阴离子自由基(O-·2)、羟基自由基(·OH)、DPPH自由基的清除能力以及对卵黄脂蛋白脂质过氧化的抑制作用,研究其体外抗氧化活性.结果表明,胡萝卜多糖对·OH、O-·2、DPPH自由基具有较强的清除能力,对卵黄脂蛋白脂质过氧化具有一定的抑制作用,因此胡萝卜多糖具有良好的体外抗氧化活性.

  18. First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

  19. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM THE ROOTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA L IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Khatib

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae, is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders viz., acidity and gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to determine the gastroprotective potential of the fresh juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota. The juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota (DCE was tested orally at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, on gastric ulceration experimentally induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol induced. The parameters considered to assess the anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, mucus content and ulcer index. The DCE at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, significantly decreased gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index, while it increased the pH and the mucus content as compared with control. The DCE at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced 60.45, 56.80 and 43.51 % significant inhibition when gastric ulceration were induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol, respectively. The DCE possesses gastroprotective property and the results supported traditional uses of the roots of this plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer and acidity.

  20. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G; Kumar, Sarma R; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes' were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  1. Stress-induced accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a transcripts coincides with critical time point for structural biomass prediction in carrot primary cultures (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia eCampos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS, this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21 °C and 28 °C, DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes’ were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene (AFP. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the sequence of gDcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1.

  2. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Śmigielski, K. B.; Majewska, M.; Kunicka-Styczyńska, A.; Gruska, R.; Stańczyk, Ł.

    2014-01-01

    Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increas...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Daucus (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the phylogeny of 22 accessions of Daucus: D. broteri, D. capillifolius, D. carota, D. carota subsp. carota, D. carota subsp. commutatus, D. carota subsp. commutatus, D. carota subsp. drepanensis, D. carota subsp. gadecaei, D. carota subsp. gummifer, D. carota subsp. halophilius, D. carota...

  4. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (kads) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (Ea) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (qm and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH), free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures

  5. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, Fuat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)], E-mail: fguzel@dicle.edu.tr; Yakut, Hakan; Topal, Giray [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2008-05-30

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (k{sub ads}) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (E{sub a}) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (q{sub m} and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy ({delta}H), free energy ({delta}G), and entropy ({delta}S) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures.

  6. CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of ‘DC-27’ carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) d...

  7. Cloning and sequencing of antifreeze protein gene inDaucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl%胡萝卜var sativus Hoffm Deutschl抗冻蛋白基因的克隆及测序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹明安; 崔鸿文; 樊代明; 郭立

    2001-01-01

    Antifreeze protein gene (afp) in three native carrot cultivars(Daucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl),Wuzhong carrot in Ningxia,H uaxian carrot in Shaanxi and Hanzhong carrot in Shaanxi,was cloned by PCR (polym erase chain reaction).Wuzhong carrots afp was sequenced and its sequence w as compared with that of Daucus carota var \\%autumn\\% King from British.Ther e were 35 different bases between two varieties in 1004 sequenced nucleotides,among which there were 20 nonsense mutations and 15 sense mutations.Based on sense mutations homology was 98.5%.%以宁夏吴忠胡萝卜、陕西华县胡萝卜、陕西汉中胡萝卜3个地方品种为材料,用PCR方法克隆了中国胡萝卜var\\%sativus\\%HoffmDeutschl的抗冻蛋白基因\\%afp\\%,测定了宁夏吴忠胡萝卜\\%afp\\%的核苷酸序列,和英国胡萝卜var\\%autumn\\%King\\%afp\\%序列对比,在所测1004个核苷酸中,有35个碱基不同,其中无义突变20个,有义突变15个。按有义突变计,同源性为\\{98.5%\\}

  8. Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major anthocyanins accumulated by an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota L. are cyanidin 3-(xylosylglucosylgalactosides) acylated with sinapic or ferulic acid. The formation of the branched triglycoside present as a common structural element requires an ordered sequence of glycosylation events. Two of these enzymic glycosylation reactions have been detected in protein preparations from carrot cell-suspension cultures. The first step is a galactosyl transfer catalyzed by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (CGT) resulting in cyanidin 3-galactoside. The putative second step is the formation of cyanidin 3-(xylosylgalactoside) catalyzed by UDP-xylose: cyanidin 3-galactoside xylosyltransferase (CGXT). Both enzyme activities were characterized from crude protein preparations. The CGT was purified 526-fold from the cytosolic fraction of UV-irradiated cell cultures by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel, affinity chromatography on Blue Sepharose CL-6B, gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and elution from the gel matrix after non-dissociating PAGE. Its molecular mass was estimated by SDS-PAGE and by calibrated gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75. In both cases a molecular mass of 52 kDa was determined, indicating that the native protein is a monomer of 52 kDa. The galactosyl transfer and the xylosyl transfer are presumed to be catalyzed by separate enzymes. (author)

  9. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:27457992

  10. Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

  11. Metabolic cycles in primary metabolism of cell suspensions of Daucus carota L. analysed by C-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krook, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the work described in this thesis, uptake and conversion of sugar by cells of batch-grown suspensions of Daucus carota L. were studied. Invasive techniques (measurements of enzyme activities and sugar and starch levels) and non-invasive techniques ( 13C-NMR) were used to

  12. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  13. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Singh; Nisha Singh; Anish Chandy; Ashish Manigauha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods: Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results: A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P< 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats.

  14. Induction of extracellular defense-related proteins in suspension cultured-cells of Daucus carota elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María A

    2014-04-01

    Suspension cultured-cells (SCC) of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses, particularly the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. A comparative study of the extracellular proteome (secretome) between control and elicited carrot SCC pointed to the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to glycoproteins which have inhibitory activity against the cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by pathogens and/or are induced when carrot cells are exposed to a pathogen elicitor. Other amino acid sequences were homologous to Leucine-Rich Repeat domain-containing proteins, which play an essential role in defense against pathogens, as well as in the recognition of microorganisms, making them important players in the innate immunity of this plant. Also, some tryptic peptides were shown to be homologous to a thaumatin-like protein, showing high specificity to abiotic stress and to different reticuline oxidase-like proteins that displayed high levels of antifungal activity, suggesting that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in SCC of D. carota. Apart from these elicitor-inducible proteins, we observed the presence of PR-proteins in both control and elicited carrot SCC, suggesting that their expression is mainly constitutive. These PR-proteins are putative class IV chitinases, which also have inhibitory activity against pathogen growth and the class III peroxidases that participate in response to environmental stress (e.g. pathogen attack and oxidative), meaning that they are involved in defense responses triggered by both biotic and abiotic factors. PMID:24589476

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  16. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  17. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  18. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

  19. Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Perla; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad; Nasrallah, Anita; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Daucus carota (DC) is a herb used in folklore medicine in Lebanon to treat numerous diseases including cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory on DC oil and its fractions revealed potent anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the most potent DC fraction, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50), on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell motility and invasion. Upon treatment, a pronounced decrease in cancer cell motility was observed in the 4 cell lines. The treatment also led to a decrease in cancer cell invasion and an increased cell adhesion. Additionally, the DC fraction caused a decrease in the activation of the ρ-GTPases Rac and CDC42, a finding that may partially explain the treatment-induced decrease in cell motility. The current study demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis, making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy specifically targeting cancer motility and metastasis. PMID:26088465

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeswin Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueous extracts of aloevera (Aloevera barbedensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, honey and pomegranate (Punicagranatum, and to assess the reason for inhibition of growth of pathogenic organisms by DNA and protein analysis. Various aqueous extracts showed inhibition to microrganisms like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexineri and Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion significance and impact of study: The study also formulated and standardized a nourishing health drink and salad using the tested foods and estimated their shelf life and nutritive value. The health drink and salad had a low protein, low fat and moderate carbohydrate content. Therapeutically this drink and salad can be used to treat obesity.

  1. Analytical and biological studies of kanji and extracts of its ingredient, daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermented beverage, Kanji, prepared from roots of Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. var. vavilovii Mazk. (Apiaceae), despite long usage history has not been investigated for analytical studies and biological activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate different types of Kanji samples and various types of extracts/fractions of root of the plant for a number of analytical studies and in vitro antioxidant activities. The Kanji sample, Lab-made Kanji, having better analytical and biological profile was further investigated for preliminary clinical studies. The analytical studies indicated that Lab-made Kanji was having comparatively higher contents of phytochemicals than that of the commercial Kanji samples, different types of extracts and fractions (P < 0.05). All the Kanji samples and aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh roots exhibited comparable antioxidant activities in DPPH assay (52.20 - 54.19%) that were higher than that of methanol extract (48.78%) of dried roots. The antiradical powers (1/ EC50) of Lab-made Kanji and aqueous extract were found to be higher than that of the ethanol and methanol extracts. In beta-carotene linoleate assay, the Kanji samples showed higher activity than that of the methanol extract, but comparable to that of the vitamin-E and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) (P < 0.05). A preliminary clinical evaluation indicated that Kanji has no harmful effect on blood components, liver function and serum lipid profile. The results of the present study indicate that Kanji is an effective antioxidant beverage. (author)

  2. Combating photooxidative stress in green hairy roots of Daucus carota cultivated under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Sircar, Debabrata; Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2014-01-15

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species, which can disrupt normal metabolic process of plant, is termed as photo-oxidative stress. Plants are equipped with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system to reduce the effect of such stress. Hairy root culture of Daucus carota when cultivated under continuous illumination (250 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) turned green. To know the reason behind that and photo-oxidative stress response in green hairy roots, activities of several antioxidant enzymes were measured. When compared with normal hairy roots, green hairy roots showed an enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Treatment with a SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate led to suppression of SOD activity in a concentration-dependent manner in green hairy roots. Interestingly, SOD-suppressed root showed three-fold enhanced caffeic acid glucoside accumulation in the soluble fraction as compared to untreated ones. While ascorbate peroxidase activity showed marginal increase in green hairy roots, a decrease in the activities of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase were observed. SDS-PAGE of crude protein profile from green hairy roots showed a distinct band, which was absent in normal hairy roots. MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis of the extracted protein confirmed it as the large subunit of RuBisCO. RT-PCR based expression analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase showed enhanced transcript levels in green hairy roots as compared to normal hairy roots, whereas reverse trends were observed with the transcripts accumulation for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. These findings corroborate with the in vitro BADH activities in hairy roots, and thus indicate an important role of this stress enzyme in combating photo-oxidative stress in green hairy roots upon continuous light exposure. PMID:24331434

  3. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  4. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome ...

  5. Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

  6. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  7. Carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) colonization by Alternaria spp. and effect of fungicide spray on their population

    OpenAIRE

    Survilienė, Elena; Valiuškaitė, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In 2003–2005, at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture research was carried out to establish Alternaria dauci incidence in carrots (Daucus sativus Röhl.) during vegetation, and root damage by Alternaria radicina during storage. Resistance of 21 carrot cultivars to alternaria leaf blight (A. dauci) was established in natural infection conditions. In stored roots black rot (A. radicina) made up to 12% of all identified rots. The biological efficiency of fungicides Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobi...

  8. Influence of technical processing units on polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Jinjin

    2013-12-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation) on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices was investigated. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices varied with different processes. Five polyphenolic acids were identified in fresh carrot juice, and the predominant compound was chlorogenic acid. Compared with fresh carrot juice, blanching and enzyme liquefaction could result in the increase of the total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals (DPPH) and Fe(2+)-chelating capacity (FC), whereas pasteurisation could result in the decrease of the TPC and the antioxidant activity in DPPH and FC. Meanwhile blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation showed little influence on the antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation protection. The antioxidant activities in DPPH and FC increased with increasing concentration while no correlation between lipid peroxidation protection and polyphenols concentration. Polyphenols still retained high antioxidant activity after the processes, which have potential health benefits for consumers. PMID:23870871

  9. The carrot genome sequence brings colors out of the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-05-27

    The genome sequence of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is the first completed for an Apiaceae species, furthering knowledge of the evolution of the important euasterid II clade. Analyzing the whole-genome sequence allowed for the identification of a gene that may regulate the accumulation of carotenoids in the root. PMID:27230684

  10. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

  11. Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing collections of Daucus genetic resources have recently been significantly enriched in the germplasm originating from the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Central Asia and Northern Africa. The need for thorough evaluation and valorization of these resources is urgent, as they can provide a...

  12. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  13. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method. PMID:22428130

  14. Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Oregon Flora Project is to serve as a comprehensive resource for the vascular plants of Oregon that grow without cultivation, and to foster effective use of this knowledge by all citizens. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots occurring ...

  15. Chemical ecology of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.): laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Martin James

    2004-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae F.) is an important pest of the cultivated carrot (Daucus carota) and other crop species in the family Apiaceae, since the larvae burrow into and feed on the developing roots. Current P. rosae control relies heavily upon the use of chemical insecticides, but these are inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical ecology of P. rosae, particularly with regard to long range attractant and repellent semiochemicals suitable for incorporation into ...

  16. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied thre...

  17. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L...

  18. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

  19. Chemical characterization of leaves of organically grown carrot Dacus carota L. in various stages of development for use as food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Wihby Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, street markets and vegetable distributors discard vegetable leaves and stems, including those of carrot (Dacus carota L.. Seeking to reduce the waste of vegetable parts, this study characterized chemically the leaves of organically grown carrot in three stages of development to determine the best time for their removal and consumption as food. The leaves were dehydrated in an oven at 70 °C for 43 hours and analyzed for chemical composition, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, fatty acid composition, and also calcium (Ca, sodium (Na, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, and copper (Cu contents. The analyses indicated 100 days of development as the ideal stage for the removal and consumption of carrot leaves with good antioxidant activity requiring only 63.78 ± 0.5 mg.L-1 methanol leaf extract to inhibit 50% of the concentration of the free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrilidrazil, and total protein and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3/LNA contents of 18.23% ± 2.8 and 876.55 ± 20.62 mg.100 g-1 of dry matter, respectively.

  20. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growth and cytology of carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue suspension cultures were subjected to 0.5-40 krad of gamma irradiation. Callus fresh weight was significantly increased and dry weight slightly increased by low doses (0.5 and 1 krad). Cells size increased at all doses. Cell number and colony-forming ability decreased. There was a negative correlation between radiation dose and mitotic index, and a positive correlation between dose and mitotic abnormalities (multipolar separations, lagging chromosomes, and bridges). Frequency of prophase was increased, and ana phase and telophase were reduced. Tissue culture conditions increased the incidence of aneuploidy and polyploidy in comparison to carrot root tips. Aneuploidy in tissue cultures was decreased and polyploidy was increased by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation stimulated shoot formation at 1 krad, and inhibited shoot formation at high doses (20-40 krads). The frequency of abnormal plants (albinos, and plants with no roots or deformation of leaves) regenerated from carrot cell cultures was increased by gamma irradiation. (authors). 30 refs., 3 figs

  1. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  2. Técnicas de mineralización para la determinación de macronutrientes en muestras de raíz de zanahoria (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, María Rosa; Eyherabide, Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    Con el objeto de determinar la metodología más adecuada para la mineralización de muestras de raíz de zanahoria (Daucus carota L) se emplearon 5 técnicas por vía seca, que se compararon con el método estándar (vía húmeda). El ensayo se condujo bajo un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con 5 repeticiones. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la evaluación de P y Ca, con respecto a los valores del método estándar, pero sí en la evaluación del contenido de K, calcinando a temp...

  3. Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota) Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Yendi I Melquíades; Clara López; Marta E Rosas

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros). Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 ºC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. S...

  4. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

  5. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.;

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... were used for foliar application. Only selenomethionine was detected in the carrot leaves. The identity of selenomethionine contained in carrot roots and leaves was successfully confirmed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS....

  6. RENDIMIENTO DE 12 HÍBRIDOS COMERCIALES DE ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota L. EN EL CAMPO Y EN LA PLANTA DE EMPAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richmond-Zumbado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 12 híbridos comerciales de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. en Cot de Oreamuno, Cartago, Costa Rica, con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento en el campo y la planta de empaque, de junio a octubre del 2007. Los híbridos evaluados fueron: Bangor F1, Big Sur, Bolero F1, Concerto F1 (VAC 03 F1, XCR3688, Esperanza, Nandrin F1, Napoli F1, S-505, Spearhead, Trinity y Sirkana. Se obtuvo el número y peso de las raíces de los híbridos comerciales clasificadas en raíces totales, comerciales y diferentes variables de rechazo; en el campo y en la planta de empaque. Los híbridos con el mayor rendimiento comercial en campo y en planta empacadora, en orden decreciente, fueron: Bangor F1, Esperanza, Concerto F1, Nandrin F1 y Sirkana. Los materiales con menor rechazo en campo fueron Nandrin F1, Sirkana y Bangor F1, y en planta empacadora fueron: Big Sur, Sirkana, Napoli F1, Bolero F1 y XCR3688. Las principales causas de rechazo de la zanahoria en el campo y en la planta empacadora fueron: raíces bifurcadas, con rajadura, raíz pequeña y tamaño jumbo.

  7. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was us...

  8. Effect of Different Packaging Density on the Fermentation Quality of Daucus carota Seedings Silage%不同封装密度对胡萝卜苗青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁婉; 刘子瑜; 董翔; 许庆方; 孙江; 许佳瑞

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different packaging density on the quality, nutrient content and ammonia nitrogen content of Daucus carota seedings fermented silage. The Daucus carota seedings were packaged to ferment with high density (486.0 kg/m3), moderated density (428.4 kg/m3) and low density (300.3 kg/m3), respectively. After 330 d fermentation, the samples were collected and tested. While pH value and ammonia nitrogen content of Daucus carota seedings silage fermented with low packaging density were significantly lower than those of silage fermented with high packaging density (P<0.05), the crude protein content of silage fermented with low packaging density was higher than that of silage fermented with high and moderate packaging density. Based on the of comprehensive evaluation of fermentation quality, nutrient content and ammonia nitrogen content, the 300.3 kg/m3 was recommended as preferred packaging density of Daucus carota seedings fermented silage.%为了探讨不同封装密度对胡萝卜苗青贮发酵品质、养分及氨态氮含量的影响,以高(486.0 kg/m3)、中(428.4 kg/m3)、低(300.3 kg/m3)3种封装密度桶装密封青贮胡萝卜苗,青贮330 d后取样进行分析。结果表明,低密度胡萝卜苗青贮与高密度胡萝卜苗青贮相比,其pH值和氨态氮含量都显著降低(P<0.05);且低密度组胡萝卜苗青贮粗蛋白含量高于其他2组。从胡萝卜苗青贮发酵品质、养分及氨态氮含量综合评定,胡萝卜苗青贮的最佳封装密度应选在低密度(300.3 kg/m3左右)。

  9. DcE2F, a functional plant E2F-like transcriptional activator from Daucus carota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albani, D; Mariconti, L; Ricagno, S;

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells the progression of the cell cycle through G(1)/S transition and S phase is under the control of the pRB/E2F regulatory pathway. The E2F transcription factors are key activators of genes coding for several regulatory proteins and for enzymes involved in nucleotide and DNA synthesis....... In this report we have detected the presence of E2F-like DNA binding activities in carrot nuclear extracts, and we have isolated a carrot cDNA (DcE2F) encoding a plant E2F homologue. The DcE2F gene is expressed in proliferating cells and is induced during the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle......, transactivation assays have revealed that DcE2F is a functional transcription factor that can transactivate, together with a DP partner, an E2F-responsive reporter gene in both plant and mammalian cells....

  10. Different responses to UV-B enhanced solar radiation in radish and carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), plants with underground storage organs grown in the field, were exposed to either ambient (UVA) or 20 % UV-B (UVE) enhanced solar radiation till their root yield stage. In radish, UVE produced a significant increase in shoot and root fresh mass (FM), increase in the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids, and total proteins per unit FM, Hill reaction rate, and root yield. In contrast, carrot responded negatively to UVE showing a loss in the above parameters. (author)

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel cis-acting sequences regulating root-specific gene from Daucus carota L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GUO Chang-an; REN Haibo; CHEN Fan

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins are ubiquitous channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water across cell membranes. Most of aquaporins are represent in more than one tissues, but some of them performed highest in roots. They are belived to participate in water transport. DcRB7, a member of the aquaporin family, was isolated from somatic embryos of carrot and identified as a homologous gene of TobRB7. Further studies showed that the expression of DcRB7 was particular in carrot root. To investigate the transcription regulation of DcRB7, a 650-bp upstream sequence of DcRB7 was isolated by inverse PCR, and was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene. After the recombined vectors were transformed into tobacco, the expression pattern was performed by histochemical staining and the quantitative analysis of GUS activity. The results indicated that the cis-acting element of DcRB7 gene directs GUS expression not only as root-specific but also as drought inducible.

  12. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewers yeast autolysate

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC; MAJA VUKASINOVIC; JOSIP BARAS; MARICA RAKIN

    2004-01-01

    The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot juice (Daucus carota L.) and different content of brewers yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewers yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed bet...

  13. An eco-metabolomic study of host plant resistance to Western flower thrips in cultivated, biofortified and wild carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Cristofori, Gabriele; van Steenis, Rosalinda; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2013-09-01

    Domestication of plants and selection for agronomic traits may reduce plant secondary defence metabolites relative to their ancestors. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable. Recently, carrot was developed as a functional food with additional health-promoting functions. Biofortified carrots contain increased concentrations of chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant. Chlorogenic acid is involved in host plant resistance to Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), one of the key agri- and horticultural pests worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate quantitative host plant resistance to thrips in carrot and to identify candidate compounds for constitutive resistance. As such we explored whether cultivated carrot is more vulnerable to herbivore attack compared to wild carrot. We subjected a set of 14 biofortified, cultivated and wild carrot genotypes to thrips infestation. We compared morphological traits and leaf metabolic profiles of the three most resistant and susceptible carrots using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In contrast to our expectation, wild carrots were not more resistant to thrips than cultivated ones. The most thrips resistant carrot was the cultivar Ingot which is known to be tolerant against carrot root fly (Psila rosae). Biofortified carrots were not resistant to thrips. Plant size, leaf area and number of leaf hairs did not differ between resistant and susceptible carrots. The metabolic profiles of the leaves of resistant carrots were significantly different from those of susceptible carrots. The leaves of resistant carrots contained higher amounts of the flavanoid luteolin, the phenylpropanoid sinapic acid and the amino acid β-alanine. The negative effect of these compounds on thrips was confirmed using in-vitro bioassays. Our results have potential implications for carrot breeders. The natural variation of metabolites present in cultivated carrots can be used for improvement of

  14. Alterations in Co2 fixation enzymes, Phosphatase Activity and Endogenous Phytohormones in P-deficient Callus induced from phloem of carrot (Daccus Carota) Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carrot callus liquid medium culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of P-deficiency on cellular responses separate from the whole plant response. Carrot (Daccus carota L.) callus was induced from the secondary phloem of the tap root. When explants were supplied with one-tenth the amount of Pi supplied to control explants (40 ppm), the concentration of P in callus was reduced by about 68% in a period of three weeks. This reduction in callus P was correlated with 48% reduction in callus fresh and dry weights. This effect was mediated through a reduction in cell number/callus by 48%. Meanwhile, the cell number/mg f.wt. of callus tissue was not affected in P-deficient treatment comparing to P-sufficient one, which might refer to a direct role of P-deficiency on the reduction of cell division. Although total N and soluble protein concentrations were not affected in P-deficient callus, chlorophyll concentration was reduced. In addition higher activity of acid phosphatase was obtained in P-deficient tissue reaching about 41% over its activity in P-sufficient callus which in turn could increase recycling process of P to spare available P for the newly formed cells. This was supported by the higher value of P utilization efficiency (d.wt. produced per unit P taken up) obtained from P-deficient callus

  15. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  16. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  17. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species. PMID:25572939

  18. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  19. Residual tembotrione and atrazine in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Amanda F; Carneiro, Gabriella D P; Guimarães, Fernanda A R; Dos Reis, Marcelo R; Silva, Daniel V; Rocha, Bruno H; Souza, Matheus F; Sediyama, Tocio

    2016-07-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable crop that is grown throughout the year across various regions of Brazil in rotation or in succession to other cultures. Herbicide residual effect has emerged as a concern, because of the possibility of carryover. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tembotrione and atrazine residues - in mixture and isolated - on carrot planted in succession to corn. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with five replications. Treatments consisted of tembotrione (50.4 g ha(-1)), tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (50.4 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (100.8 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), and atrazine (2.00 L ha(-1)) applied eight months before carrot seeding, plus a control treatment with no herbicide application. Investigated variables were shoot dry mass, productivity, and classification of carrot roots. The presence of atrazine and tembotrione decreased dry mass in the area, and only tembotrione reduced total root productivity. Thus, there is a carryover effect to tembotrione application that reduces the dry matter accumulation of shoot and total productivity, and an atrazine + tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)) mixture reduces the total productivity after application of these herbicides to soil. PMID:27052932

  20. 野胡萝卜花挥发油成分分析及生物活性研究%Study on Constituents and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Umbels of Daucus Carota Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美; 邵邻相; 徐玲玲; 成文召; 高海涛; 丁晴

    2012-01-01

    To analyse constituents and determine the biological activity of the volatile oil from umbels of daucus carota linn. , chemical constituents was analyzed by GC/MS, the vitality of bacteria was assayed with nephelometry method and the vitality of cancer cell was evaluated by MTT assay. 31 compositions were identified and the mian compound was β -bisabolene accounting for 63. 06% of the total oil. The inhibition rate of the oil against acinetobacter baumanii for 24 h was 33. 12% at high concentration of 30 g/L. The IC50 of the oil on hepatocellular carcinoma HuH7 cells for 6,12,24 h were 122. 99,132. 25 ,46. 20 mg/L and the IC50 on human lung cancer cell line NCI - H446 were 244.82,113. 13,61.76 mg/L. The mian constituents of volatile oil from umbels of daucus carota linn, were terpenes such as β - bisabolene and the oil had antibacterial and anticancer activities.%分析野胡萝卜花挥发油的成分及检测其生物活性.采用GC/MS分析野胡萝卜花挥发油的成分,比浊法检测细菌活性,MTT法检测细胞活力.从野胡萝卜花挥发油中鉴定出31种化合物,以β-红没药烯为主要成分,占到63.06%.高质量浓度(30 g/)的野胡萝卜花挥发油作用鲍曼不动杆菌24h的抑制率为33.12%.野胡萝卜花挥发油作用人肝癌HuH7细胞6、12、24h的IC50分别是122.99、132.25、46.20 mg/L,作用人肺癌NCI-H446细胞6、12、24 h的IC50是244.82、113.13、61.76 mg/L.野胡萝卜花挥发油主要成分是B-红没药烯等萜类化合物,具有抗菌抑癌的作用.

  1. 胡萝卜AP2/ERF-B1亚族两个转录因子基因的克隆及其非生物胁迫响应分析%Isolation and Analysis of Expression Proifles under Abiotic Stress Treatments of Two AP2/ERF-B1 Group Transcription Factor Genes fromDaucus carota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 王枫; 谭国飞; 徐志胜; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    AP2/ERF是植物中普遍存在的一类重要转录因子,参与植物整个生命周期的生长发育和逆境信号转导。本研究以胡萝卜(Daucus carota)‘黑田五寸’为试验材料,基于其转录组和基因组数据,检索和拼接获得胡萝卜AP2/ERF家族2个转录因子基因序列g39811和g47170。采用RT-PCR方法,分别从‘黑田五寸’中克隆DcERF-B1-1(g39811)和DcERF-B1-2(g47170)转录因子基因。序列分析显示,胡萝卜DcERF-B1-1和DcERF-B1-2转录因子基因分别含有630个和594个开放阅读框,分别编码209和197个氨基酸;均含有相对保守的AP2结合域,具有典型的植物AP2/ERF类转录因子特征。从氨基酸组成成分、理化性质、亲水性/疏水性和三级结构上分析显示,胡萝卜DcERF-B1-1和DcERF-B1-2转录因子亲水性大于疏水性,其氨基酸序列可能属于亲水性蛋白。空间结构分析显示,它们都具有1个α螺旋和3个β折叠。进化树分析显示,二者均属于AP2/ERF家族转录因子中ERF亚族的B1组。实时定量荧光PCR显示,在低温、干旱、盐胁迫的条件下, DcERF-B1-2转录因子比DcERF-B1-1转录因子对逆境的响应更大;在高温的条件下, DcERF-B1-1转录因子比DcERF-B1-2转录因子对逆境的响应更大。%AP2/ERF is an important family of transcription factors in higher plant, which encoded proteins in-volved in the development and signal transduction of abiotic/biotic resistance in higher plant. Theg39811 and g47170 gene sequences, which encoding two AP2/ERF transcription factors, were isolated based on transcrip-tome and genome sequence data of carrot (Daucus carota). TheDcERF-B1-1 (g39811) andDcERF-B1-2 (g47170) genes were cloned by RT-PCR method using cDNA as template from carrot cultivar ‘Heitianwucun’. Then, nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequence, phylogenetic tree, and molecular modeling were predicted and analyzed. Sequence analysis indicated that the length of

  2. Development and preservation of a cocktail beverage produced from Carrot (Daucus carrota), Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Mango (Mangifera indoca L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot is known to have the potential of providing vital nutrition as well as health and well-being to consumers. In this study, carrot juice was envisaged as a good vehicle for spreading its nutraceutical benefits. The study was then designed in two parts: (a) Survey to establish the beverage consumption pattern in the Anyaa-Sowutuom District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and (b) Carrot juice formulation and optimisation. The survey was conducted by administering a questionnaire to volunteer adult consumers. To develop an acceptable carrot juice beverage, pineapple juice and mango juice were included as components to improve taste and flavour respectively. A constrained, simplex centroid mixture design for three components was employed to optimise the proportions of the components in the final product based on sensory attributes. Chemical analyses as well as shelf stability studies were conducted for the optimised beverage preserved by chemicals and gamma radiation. Data obtained from the survey revealed that juices were very popular among consumers. The choice of a particular beverage was dependent on nutrition, taste and colour. Contour plots generated from sensory data of the products were overlaid to determine the optimum ratios of the components of the cocktail beverage. The optimised product consisted of 50-52% Carrot, 18-20% Pineapple and 28-30% Mango. Analysis of the beverage revealed 223 mg/100ml Potassium, 3.92 mg/100ml Pro-vitamin A (Beta carotene) and 43 mg/100ml vitamin C. After 8 weeks of storage 71% Pro-vitamin A was retained even under relatively higher doses (2.5kGy) of gamma radiation. The microbial quality of the beverage was good under all conditions. (au)

  3. Identification of Somatic Hybrids Between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot%人参与胡萝卜体细胞杂交杂种愈伤的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林阅兵; 张颖; 王义; 王昱; 张美萍

    2012-01-01

    Kinship relations of Panax ginseng are relatively far from Daucus carrot.Good traits of medicinal plants such like output qualith etc controlled by multiple gene through part of the gene transfer does not reflect all the material basis of the plants.Both of the parents to nuclear genes and cytoplasmic may be involved recombination in gene fusion events to propduce large amounts of a variety of individual genetic variation. Somatic hybrids between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot by Electric fusion,screening for group of somatic cell hybrids,to obtain new germplasm. Foster innovation of variety achieve the purpose of improved species.We obtained 8 pieces of hybrid calli clone from the 25 calli clone systems after fusion, and identificated them through the morphology, cytology, isezyme, SDS-PAGE and other methods. We analyzed the index of physiological, biochemical and active ingredients of the hybrids, the results showed that the 8 hybrid calli contained Panax ginseng saponin, the contents of the 5 calli in them were higher than the ginseng calli, and the contents of 2 calli were 1.4 times of the ginseng calli. These indicated that the secondary metabolites contents of ginseng were increased by somatic cell hybridization of ginseng and carrot, the heterosis were reflected preliminarily.%贵重中药人参与胡萝卜亲缘关系较远,药用植物的优良性状如产量、品质等均由多基因控制,通过部分基因转移不能反映中药的全部物质基础.由于双亲的核基因和胞质基因都参与了融合事件,因而会发生核基因和胞质基因的重组,产生大量多样化的遗传变异个体,筛选获得的体细胞杂种群,可进一步获得我们所期望的新的种质资源,培育创新品种,达到改良物种的目的。用电容合法对人参与胡萝卜进行体细胞融合,对融合再生的25块杂种愈伤从形态学,细胞学,同工酶电泳,SDS-PAGE电泳进行鉴定分析。结果表明有8块为

  4. Plants as biofactories: glyphosate-induced production of shikimic acid and phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrot tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2012-11-14

    The use of plants to produce chemical compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications has intensified in recent years. In this regard, genetic engineering is the most commonly used tool to generate crop lines with enhanced concentrations of desirable chemicals. However, growing genetically modified plants is still limited because they are perceived as potential biological hazards that can create an ecological imbalance. The application of postharvest abiotic stresses on plants induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative to genetic modification. The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots ( Daucus carota ) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by ∼1735 and ∼5700%, respectively. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of stressed carrot tissue as a biofactory of SA and PC. PMID:23101679

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from the Fruits of Daucus carota against Mosquitoes%野胡萝卜果实精油对蚊幼虫的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦巧慧; 彭映辉; 何建国; 熊国红; 扶巧梅

    2011-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from fruits of Daucus carota against Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was investigated by immersion method and the main compounds of the essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.LC50 values of the essential oil against the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus and C.pipiens quinquefasciatus at 24 h were 67.87 μg·mL-1 and 34.12 μg·mL-1,respectively.Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil,including the main component α-Pinene(54.72%),followed by β-bisabolene(11.35%) and β-asarone(10.14%).Six active compounds were quantitatively determined,including α-pinene(up to 577.46 mg·mL-1 in the oil),myrcene(80.26 mg·mL-1),limonene(28.95 mg·mL-1),β-caryophyllene(24.38 mg·mL-1),β-pinene(11.59 mg·mL-1) and γ-terpinen(2.33 mg·mL-1).The results indicated that the essential oil showed higher larvicidal activity against mosquitoes than many other plant essential oils which have been documented.It might be considered as a potential source for production of efficient and environment-friendly mosquito larvicide.%采用浸液法研究了野胡萝卜Daucus carota果实精油对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus和致倦库蚊Culexpipiens quinquefasciatus幼虫的毒杀活性;利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对精油的主要成分进行了定性、定量分析。结果发现,野胡萝卜果实精油毒杀白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊4龄幼虫的24h LC50值分别为67.87μg.mL-1和34.12μg.mL-1;精油中共含有34种化合物,相对含量最高的是α-蒎烯(54.72%),其次为β-红没药烯(11.35%)和β-细辛脑(1

  6. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    OpenAIRE

    German Rivera; Alejandro Esquivel; Rafael Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the patho...

  7. 胡萝卜栽培技术及其食用推广%Carrot Cultivation Techniques and Its Edible Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍小松; 李军民; 吴家全; 肖健

    2010-01-01

    @@ 胡萝卜(carrot)为伞形花科(Umbelliferae),胡萝卜属、野胡萝卜种(胡萝卜变种)、能形成肥大肉质根的二年生草本植物.学名Daucus carota L.var.sativaDC,别名红萝卜、黄萝卜、番萝卜、丁香萝卜,胡芦菔金,赤珊瑚、黄根等.染色体数2n=2x=18.

  8. Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of 32P and 14C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 14C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both 32P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

  9. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  10. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  11. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  12. Cultivation of carrot and its use as fooder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important winter crop and used as vegetable as well as fodder for livestock. It is cultivated in temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Carrot is cultivated in all provinces of Pakistan. It is a cool-climate crop and develops normally in a wide range of temperatures. Root-growth is fastest at temperatures between 15 degree C and 18 degree C; carrot plant is biennial and completes its life-cycle in two years. It needs light soil, which has well manured. It grows in two ways i.e on ridges and on flat beds. Seed is planted about 1.25 to 2 cm deep, keeping row-distance 30 to 60 cm. Carrot requires abundant and well- distributed supply of water.. The weed-control during the early stage of growing-season is essential. The yields are about 20,000 to 30,000 kg per hectare. Higher yields can be obtained by using advanced agronomic practices. (author)

  13. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota) ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) E CENOURA (Daucus carota) PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    M ASTAÍZA; L RUÍZ; Elizalde, A.

    2010-01-01

    La pasta de sémola es un alimento de consumo masivo, pero el valor biológico de su proteína es bajo, dada la deficiencia de Usina en la proteína del trigo. Al complementar la sémola con harina de quinua y zanahoria, se mejora la calidad de la proteína por ser la quinua muy rica en Usina y se incrementa el contenido de fibra soluble y vitamina A con la adición de zanahoria. Este estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la Etapa I se elaboraron y analizaron pastas enriquecidas con harina integra...

  14. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Rivera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the pathogenicity tests a gradient of resistance was shown varying from a very high level at periderm to a low level at the xylem parenchyma.  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,  Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium tricinctum, F. nivale, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp., all penetrated directly throught the periderm and also infected the other tissues. Geotrivhum candidum Rhizopus stolonifer . Verticillium sp., Penicillium so., and Candida sp. did no intect the periderm, but were pathogenic  to the pericyclic, phloem, and xylem parenchyma. Phoma sp. and Mucor sp. only infected phloem and xylem parenchyma.

  15. Increased Nicotiana tabacum fitness through positive regulation of carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways promoted by Daucus carota lycopene β-cyclase (Dclcyb1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J C; Cerda, A; Simpson, K; Lopez-Diaz, I; Carrera, E; Handford, M; Stange, C

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoids, chlorophylls and gibberellins are derived from the common precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). One of the enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis is lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene into β-carotene. In carrot, Dclcyb1 is essential for carotenoid synthesis in the whole plant. Here we show that when expressed in tobacco, increments in total carotenoids, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels occur. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency is enhanced in transgenic lines. Interestingly, and contrary to previous observations where overexpression of a carotenogenic gene resulted in the inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins, we found raised levels of active GA4 and the concommitant increases in plant height, leaf size and whole plant biomass, as well as an early flowering phenotype. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of the key carotenogenic genes, Ntpsy1, Ntpsy2 and Ntlcyb, as well as those involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll (Ntchl), gibberellin (Ntga20ox, Ntcps and Ntks) and isoprenoid precursors (Ntdxs2 and Ntggpps) was observed. These results indicate that the expression of Dclcyb1 induces a positive feedback affecting the expression of isoprenoid gene precursors and genes involved in carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways leading to an enhancement in fitness measured as biomass, photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid/chlorophyll composition. PMID:26893492

  16. Environ: E00455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00455 Daucus ... carota fruit Crude drug Pinene [CPD:C06077], (-)-Limonene [CPD:C00521], Ducol, Car ... cetaldehyde [CPD:C00084], Tiglic acid [CPD:C08279] Daucus ... carota [TAX:4039] Apiaceae (carrot family) Daucus ... t plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00455 Daucus ... carota fruit ...

  17. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  18. Provitamin a activity of Brazilian carrots: leaves and roots, raw and cooked and their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo Almeida-Muradian

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine through carotenoid analysis, the provitamin A value of two carrots (Daucus carota L. cultivars (Brasilia and Beta3, leaves and roots, raw and submitted to two ways of cooking: boiling and microwave. Proximate analysis results are also presented for a better characterization of these vegetables (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fiber and total carbohydrates. The main carotenoids sources of provitamin A in this vegetable, both in leaves or roots was β-carotene and α-carotene. α-carotene shows half of the provitamin A value of β-carotene. Samples of the Brasilia cultivar presented the better provitamin A value both for leaves and roots. The results for raw samples of the Brasilia cultivar were 464.48 RE/100g for leaves and 606.42 RE/100g for roots. There were no significant losses of provitamin A with the boiling or microwave cooking methods used.

  19. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work compares the effect of γ-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G1 phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G2 phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G1 phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture

  20. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  1. Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Ma, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot. PMID:25403331

  2. Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Del C Rodríguez, Silvia; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2011-06-22

    Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ∼287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (∼349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots. PMID:21553806

  3. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  4. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  5. Sensory Quality of Orange, Purple and Yellow Carrots Stored under Controlled Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of long-term storage of carrot (Daucus carota L. roots under normal and controlled atmosphere (CA on their sensory quality and soluble solids content was investigated. Carrot cultivars of orange (‘Nebula’, purple-orange (‘Purple Haze’ and yellow (‘Mello Yello’ colour of the roots were stored for 6 months at 0-1oC, under controlled atmosphere (CA of gas composition 5% CO2+10% O2, 2% CO2+5% O2, 5% CO2+5% O2 and at normal atmosphere. Sensory quality was evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis method. Roots of ‘Nebula’ showed the best overall quality under normal atmosphere, although CA resulted in higher firmness and crunchiness. Roots of ‘Purple Haze’ showed the best quality under 5% CO2+5% O2 or 5% CO2+10% O2. Storage in these CA variants resulted in higher sweetness, juiciness, crunchiness and firmness. Roots of ‘Mello Yello’ showed the smallest differences in quality under CA variants. Storage of carrots in CA did not result in off-flavour or off-odour. CA-stored roots showed higher soluble solids content.

  6. Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Clotault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus, a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history.

  7. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5′-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial β-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in β-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of β-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of β-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667958

  8. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, N; Uchimiya, H

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5'-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial beta-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of beta-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of beta-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. PMID:16667958

  9. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca2+. These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca2+ regulation

  10. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  11. Vybrané charakteristiky z biologie významných druhů z čeledi miříkovitých

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorová, Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the germination of cultural and weed variety of selected species of the family Apiceae. There were selected species: Daucus carota and Pastnaca sativa. For this research were selected three stocks of Carrot: Daucus carota -- wild, Daucus carota -- seeded from stored root in the garden - variety Olympus and Daucus carota -- originated from the propagation crop species -- variety Cider. For Pastinaca sativa were selected two populations: Pasti...

  12. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds, and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary metabolites when plants are

  13. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds, and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary metabolites when plants are

  14. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBecerra-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid and secondary (phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary

  15. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their patholo...

  16. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  17. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA GELLING AGENTS ON ROOT BIOMASS AND IN VITRO VA-MYCORRfflZAL SYMBIOSIS OF CARROT WITH GIGASPORA MARGARITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI VERMA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study with Ri-TDNA transformed roots of carrot (Daucus carota was carried out to evaluate the role of macro-elements contributed as impurities in the gelling agent (phytagel over and above those present in the minimal (M medium. Production of root biomass was taken as a measure to quantify the influence of macro-elements added to the minimal medium. The levels of phosphorus when adjusted to 1.19 mg/1 and 1.09 mg/l, lead to dry root biomass production at par with the control. Attempts made to lower the amount of impurities in phytagel by de-ionization using different alkalies, proved NaOH to give the best results in terms of relatively high amount of root biomass. In an in vitro dual culture system with carrot as host and Gigaspora margarita as the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, phytagel impurities helped to produce maximum number of infection units and auxiliary cells when phytagel was added to the minimal medium.

  18. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiration rate of storage processed carrots at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigberto Antonio Spagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um fluxo contínuo de ar. O teor de CO2 e etileno foi medido por um cromatógrafo a gás. A taxa de respiração para as cenouras fatiadas foi mais alta do que para os produtos inteiros. Os valores da energia de ativação obtidos para as cenouras fatiadas e inteiras foi de 69,82 kJmol-1 e 54,60 kJmol-1, respectivamente. A produção de etileno foi insignificante para as cenouras durante os 14 dias de armazenamento.The carrot is one of the most popular vegetables from minimally processed vegetables. It is commercialized in many different ways: shreds, slices, sticks and baby carrots. The aim of this work is to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed carrots. They were in storage at temperatures of 1 °C, 5 °C and 11 °C, and 90% RH. The respiration rate was determined using continuous humidification airflow and measuring the CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph connected to a microcomputer. The respiration rates of the minimally processed carrots showed a higher respiration rate than for the whole products. The activation energy values calculated for the minimally processed carrots corresponded to 69.82 kJmol-1 for the whole products. The ethylene production for the carrots remained insignificant throughout the 14 days of storage.

  19. Geographical Distribution of Wild Daucus Species in the Natural Grasslands of the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Argentina, three wild carrot species have been described: Daucus montanus Umb. & Bonpl. ex Schult., D. montevidensis Link ex Sprengel and D. pusillus Michx. There is a discrepancy among authors about the distinctive morphological traits of the last two species; thus, it is difficult to ascertain...

  20. Stereoselective reductions of chalcones using biocatalyst – Daucus carota

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    Wender A. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysis is an important area in terms the organic synthesis, where many of its features can be used to induce stereoselective synthesis of important pharmaceutical intermediates and several commercially available products. However, catalysts to induce asymmetry are not available to all, due to its high cost and reactions restrictions. Recent studies indicate that the use of vegetables available in our everyday can be an alternative to investigate its effectiveness in some stereoselective reduction with economic important and ecological implications. From the previously synthesized compound 1 was carried out methodological study aimed stereoselective reduction to its respective alcohol saturated with the intention of using it as a building block in the synthesis of compounds with activity from an methodology efficient and convergent.

  1. Interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de cenoura Weed interference in carrot yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.A. Soares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (Daucus carota, foi realizado um experimento no período de julho a outubro de 2007, em Mossoró-RN. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis períodos de controle de plantas daninhas, em que a cultura da cenoura permaneceu livre da competição com essas plantas, por meio de capinas, a partir da emergência: 0-12, 0-24, 0-36, 0-48, 0-60 e 0-72 dias (testemunha mantida no limpo. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade comercial de raízes, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez total (AT, vitamina C e pH de raízes. A produtividade comercial de raízes de cenoura foi alterada pela convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas, a qual respondeu a capinas até os 40 e 37 DAE, tolerando-se perdas de produtividade de 5 e 10%, respectivamente, em relação ao tratamento mantido no limpo durante todo o ciclo. Os teores de SS e de vitamina C não foram influenciados pela interferência das plantas daninhas, ao passo que a maior convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas resultou em acidez total e pH das raízes mais elevados e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez total.This work aimed to evaluate weed interference in yield and quality of carrots (Daucus carota. An experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were composed of six periods of weed control (0-12, 0-24, 0-36, 0-48, 0-60 and 0-72 days after emergence (DAE. The characteristics evaluated were: yield of commercial roots, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, vitamin C, TSS/TTA ratio and pH of roots. The commercial root yields decreased with weed interference, with weed control being required until 36 DAE. Root TSS rates and vitamin C did not vary with weed interference. The presence of

  2. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Junko [Kyoto Univ., Agricultural Chemistry Dept., Kyoto (Japan); Ozeki, Yoshihiro [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Biotechnology Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuichi [Kyoto Univ., Botany Dept., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5` - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author).

  3. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

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    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.

  4. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5' - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author)

  5. Microscopia electrônica de inclusões citoplas máticas e alterações celulares associadas ao vírus do mosaico da cenoura Electron microscopy of cytoplasmic inclusion and cell modification associated with carrot mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. B. Camargo

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de secções ultrafinas de tecidos foliares de cenoura (Daucus carota L. e coentro (Coriandrum sativumL. infetados pelo vírus do mosaico da cenoura (VMC revelaram a ocorrência de inclusões em forma de bandas densas no citoplasma. Exames mais detalhados dessas bandas revelaram serem elas constituídas pela justaposição de lamelas delgadas (10-15m¼ de espessura, as quais parecem eventualmente desprender-se e formar outros tipos de inclusão, como as de perfil circular e em forma de catavento, comumente associadas à infecção provocada por vírus do grupo Y da batata. Ocasionalmente, partículas do VMC foram observadas nas proximidades dessas inclusões. As dimensões das bandas densas atingiram até 0,l-0,2¼ x 3-4¼, visíveis mesmo em exames ao microscópio convencional. Além da ocorrência dessas inclusões, pôde também ser observada a presença de grande número de vesículas no citoplasma, aparentemente associadas a uma atividade do complexo de Golgi.A virus, inducing mosaic and malformation of carrot leaves (Daucus carota L., was found in Piedade, SP. It was termed carrot mosaic virus (CMV, and is both mechanically and aphid transmitted. Morphologically it belongs to the potato virus Y group (15m¼ x 740m¼. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections of leaf tissues from carrot or coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. infected with CMV demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, usually in the form of dense bands. They could reach sizes up to 0.2¼ x 4¼ and were detectable even under light microscopic examination. These bands, at higher magnification, showed to be built up of thin lamella (10-15m¼ thick, closely apposed. Occasionally individual or group of lamella appeared to loose from the bands, producing other type of profile, such as pin wheels and rings. CMV particles were sometimes observed in the vicinity of these inclusions, often laying parallel to their surface. These

  6. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura em função do espaçamento entre fileiras Periods of weed interference in carrot in function of spacing between rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, cultivada em dois espaçamentos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 x 14, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação de dois espaçamentos (15 x 6 cm e 20 x 6 cm e sete períodos iniciais de controle ou convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 dias após a emergência. Os períodos críticos de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 19 a 36 e 18 a 42 dias após emergência da cultura, respectivamente para os espaçamentos de 15 x 6 cm e 20 x 6 cm entre fileiras. O menor espaçamento entre fileiras resultou na redução do período crítico de prevenção à interferência das plantas daninhas em sete dias. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo reduziu a produtividade de cenoura em até 96%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in carrot (Daucus carota cultivated in two spacings (15 x 6 cm and 20 x 6 cm. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block in a 2 x 14 factorial scheme, with two repetitions. The treatments consisted in the combination of the two spacings and seven initial periods of control or coexistence of the culture with the weeds( 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 days after emergence. The critical periods of weed interference prevention (CPWIP were from 19 to 36 and 18 to 42 days after crop emergence, respectively, for spacing rows from 15 x 6 cm to 20 x 6 cm. The shortest spacing between the rows resulted in the reduction of the critical period of weed interference prevention in carrot in seven days. Weed interference throughout the crop cycle reduced crop yield up to 96%.

  7. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  8. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  9. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cenoura classificadas por tamanho Physiological quality of carrot seeds classified by size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir José dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de sementes de cenoura (Daucus carota L. com alta qualidade está restrita à elevada heterogeneidade na maturação fisiológica, pois produz sementes em épocas diferentes e de tamanhos variados. A classificação de sementes de cenoura por tamanho pode ser uma boa alternativa para a melhoria da qualidade fisiológica. Para discriminar lotes de sementes por qualidade fisiológica, bem como identificar testes que forneçam uma estimativa do desempenho de sementes classificadas por tamanho, desenvolveu-se um experimento com três lotes de sementes de cenoura das cultivares 'Brasília' e 'Alvorada', sendo obtidos seis tratamentos distintos, dados pela combinação das duas cultivares com os lotes de tamanhos: médio, grande e extragrande. Nas cultivares 'Alvorada' e 'Brasília', apesar de não haver influência do tamanho das sementes na percentagem de germinação e no comprimento de parte aérea e total de plântulas, houve diferença significativa, além da massa seca de plântulas e do peso das sementes, para o comprimento de raiz, mostrando que essa variável foi a mais sensível para diferenciar lotes pelo vigor. Assim, os lotes de sementes menores mostraram inferioridade na qualidade fisiológica em relação às sementes maiores, justificando a classificação de sementes por tamanho.The acquisition of carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds with high quality is restricted to the high heterogeneity at physiological maturity, because it produces seeds at different times and sizes. The classification of carrot seed by size can be a good alternative for improving the physiological quality. To differentiate seed lots by physiological quality, and identify tests that provide an estimate the performance of seed classified by size, it was developed an experiment with three seed lots of carrot cultivars 'Alvorada' and 'Brasília'. It was obtained six different treatments, given by combination of the two cultivars, which had medium, large and

  10. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  11. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a protoplastization (dilution) respons ... ACCC); see also S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus ... carota (carrot) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  12. Main: L4DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L4DCPAL1 S000503 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L4 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a UV-B responsive element; L4 contains ... ; see also S000492 (BoxL core of DC PAL); L4; PAL; Daucus ... carota (carrot) AATCTCCAACCA ...

  13. Carrot seed germination and vigor in response to temperature and umbel orders Germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura em resposta a temperatura e ordens de umbela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Sousa Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may influence carrot (Daucus carota L. crop establishment. High temperatures (35 - 40°C, for instance, may delay or inhibit carrot seed germination in the field and so compromise the stand establishment. Carrot seeds from superior umbel orders usually have better physiological quality than those of lower umbel orders. These seeds from superior umbel orders may also show a better performance in adverse conditions. In addition, seeds from different ages show differences in vigor, which affect the stand establishment, mainly under adverse conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the germination at high temperatures and the carrot seed vigor of different umbel orders of 'Brasília', as well as the different 'Alvorada' seed lots. Preliminarily, 'Brasilia' seeds were incubated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 36°C. Also, seeds from the primary, secondary and tertiary umbel orders harvested separately from a basic seed production field and seeds from lots harvested in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed to the following tests: germination at 20°C (optimum and 35°C (adverse, accelerated aging, cold test, seedling emergence in greenhouse and mass of 100 seeds. High temperatures reduced carrot seed germination. Seeds germinated better at 20°C than 35 or 36ºC. Seeds from primary and secondary orders, as well as less aged seed lots, had higher vigor and germination at high temperature.Vários fatores podem influenciar no estabelecimento da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Altas temperaturas (35 - 40°C, por exemplo, podem retardar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de cenoura no campo, comprometendo assim o estabelecimento de plântulas. Sementes oriundas de umbelas de ordem superior geralmente apresentam melhor qualidade fisiológica do que aquelas de menor ordem. Estas sementes podem apresentar uma melhor performance no campo, principalmente sob condições adversas. Lotes de sementes armazenados por diferentes per

  14. Isolation of carrot plant lines with altered carotene contents from gamma irradiated explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary vitamin A is mainly obtained from carotenes of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the major sources of carotene. Carrot cultivars have been obtained mainly through classical breeding, and genetic selection has permitted the creation of new varieties with high carotene contents. The fact that in several crops agronomically important mutants/variants have been generated by in vitro culture techniques prompted us to combine gamma irradiation and in vitro somatic embryogenesis to obtain regenerants with variations in carotene content in carrot. To test the effect of gamma rays on somatic embryogenesis and on the carotene level, aseptically germinated seedlings of 8 carrot varieties were exposed to 5; 10 and 500 Gy before culturing petiole segments on LN1 medium. Non-irradiated petioles produced calli with somatic embryos, while irradiated explants reacted differently according to radiation dose. After 4 weeks of culture on LN1 medium, petiole segments of different varieties irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy gave more callus with embryos than those with non-irradiated segments. However, after the subculture on LN medium, the development of embryos into plantlets was rare. It was also noted that after irradiation with 5 Gy, the petiole segments gave voluminous calli. Further, in variety 'Chantenay', the irradiated calli were deep orange while non-irradiated calli were green. However, embryo formation was not observed in these calli. This orange coloration suggests an appreciable synthesis of carotene in the calli. Gamma rays, probably produced cell lines with different colors and carotene content. Of the 8 cultivars tested, normal plantlets of 3 varieties were regenerated from somatic embryos irradiated with 10 Gy, and were transferred to greenhouse to develop roots. For each assay, the carotene analysis was carried out on 2 roots, and compared with plants produced from non-irradiated somatic embryos. Carotene level in the plants, derived from

  15. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  16. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  17. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of wild carrot oil extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebaby, Wassim Nasri; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Smith, Kikki Bodman-; Karam, Marc Christoph; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2013-05-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea) is used in traditional medicine in Lebanon and in different regions throughout the world. The present study investigates the in vitro anticancer activities of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) on four human cancer cell lines as well as its in vitro antioxidant activity. DCOE was extracted from the dried umbels with 50:50 acetone-methanol. The oil extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for its antioxidant properties in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating assay (FIC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anticancer activity of the oil extract against human colon (HT-29, Caco-2) and breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion method and the WST-1 cell proliferation assay. DCOE exhibited antioxidant activity in all assays used. The FRAP value was 164 ± 5.5 µmol FeSO4 /g, and the IC50 values for DPPH and FIC assays were 2.1 ± 0.03 mg/ml and 0.43 ± 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. Also, DCOE demonstrated a significant increase in cell death and decrease in cell proliferation. The effect of DCOE on the cell lines exhibited time and dose-dependent responses. The present study established that DCOE possesses both antioxidant and promising anticancer activities. PMID:22815230

  18. Metodologias de inoculação de Rhizoctonia solani na cultura da cenoura Inoculation methodology of Rhizoctonia solani in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cabral Corrêa de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani pode causar diferentes tipos de doenças em cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Para a avaliação de métodos de controle geralmente se utiliza inoculação artificial. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, ajustar uma concentração de inóculo de R. solani (AG-4 no cultivo de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições sendo a unidade experimental um vaso de 3L com 40 sementes. Como substrato, utilizou-se solo/areia (3:1. Os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 sendo, 4 densidades de inóculo (9; 18; 36; 72; mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo e 3 métodos de infestação artificial (incorporados a todo o solo; incorporados na superfície; contato direto com as sementes e uma testemunha adicional. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de crescimento a 20(0C, com fotoperíodo de 12 h. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente do 8º ao 30º dia após a semeadura, registrando-se o estande e o número de plântulas com tombamento. Analisou-se o índice de velocidade de emergência, porcentagem média de tombamento pré e pós emergência. A densidade de 72 mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo incorporado na superfície foi o método mais eficiente.Rhizoctonia solani may cause different diseases in carrot (Daucus carota L.. To test control methods, artificial inoculation is generally employed. This work aimed to adjust a methodology to inoculate R. solani (AG-4 in carrot. A randomized block outline with five replicates was used, with an experimental unit of a 3L-pot with 40 seeds and a substact composed by a mixture of soil/sand (3:1 v/v. Treatments were those in a factorial experiment 4 x 3, with 4 inoculum densities (9; 18; 36; 72 mg of inoculum.kg-1 of soil and three forms of artificial infestation (incorporated to the substract as a whole; incorporated on the surface; with direct contact with seeds and an additional control. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber at 20(0C and a 12h photoperiod. The

  19. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura (Daucus carota L. , planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS e o convencional e analisar a composição centesimal da cenoura in natura. O teor de β-caroteno obtido pela extração por EFS e por convencional foi de 2.457 e 2.455 µg/100g, respectivamente. Os valores médios encontrados para a matéria-seca da cenoura foram de: matéria-seca = 8,9%; extrato etéreo = 0,29%; cinzas = 8,11%; fibra bruta = 14,57%, proteína bruta = 6,4%, extrato não nitrogenado = 6,3% e valor calórico = 27,7kcal. Conclui-se que a extração de carotenóides em cenoura pelo fluido supercritico é uma técnica de separação viável, pois este fluido é inerte, não deixa resíduo final e não gera resíduo ambiental. Pelos teores encontrados conclui-se também que as cenouras são boas fontes de fibras, apresentam alto teor de umidade e baixo teor de gorduras, cinzas e valor calórico.The carrot (Daucus carota L. is a plant of the Umbelliferae family. It produces an aromatic and edible root, and is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in Brazil. It represents the main source of plant-origin, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially α and β-carotene, and is also a great source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and minerals. This study aimed to evaluate two methods of extraction of β-carotene, supercritical fluid (SFE and conventional, and to examine the proximate composition of the carrot in nature. The contents of β-carotene obtained by SFE and by conventional extraction were 2,457 and 2,455 µg/100g, respectively. The average values found

  20. Association of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' with the Psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) is a serious pest of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in northern and central Europe. Carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in 2008. Symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple ...

  1. Cyanidin and malvidin in aqueous extracts of black carrots fermented with Aspergillus oryzae prevent the impairment of energy, lipid and glucose metabolism in estrogen-deficient rats by AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kang, Suna; Jeong, Do-Youn; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Park, Jae Jung; Yun, Ho Sik

    2015-03-01

    Black carrots (Daucus carota L.) are rich in anthocyanins which contribute many health benefits, but are limited by bioavailability and instability when exposed to oxygen, heat and light. Fermenting black carrots may improve the stability, absorption and bioactivity of its anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether and by what mechanisms the long-term consumption of unfermented black carrot extract (BC) and its extracts fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum (BCLP) or Aspergillus oryzae (BCAO) might prevent menopausal symptoms including impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deficient animals with diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed four different high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin (OVX-control), 2 % BC, 2 % BCLP, or 2 % BCAO for 12 weeks. Sham rats were fed high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin. The contents of total anthocyanins increased in BCAO compared to BC and BCLP, whereas the contents of cyanidin-3-rutinosides, malvidin-3,5-diglycosides and delphine-3-glucoside were lower and cyanidin and malvidin were much higher in BCLP and BCAO than BC. Fat mass and weight gain were lower in descending order of OVX-control > BC and BCLP > BCAO due to increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. However, BC, BCLP and especially BCAO all normalized HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in OVX rats. OVX increased serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, but BC, BCLP and BCAO significantly prevented the increases. BCAO markedly decreased hepatic triglyceride levels by increasing gene expressions of CPT-1 and PPAR-α, which are involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreasing mRNA expressions of FAS and SREBP-1c, which are associated with fatty acid synthesis. This was related to increased pAMPK → pACC signaling and improved hepatic insulin signaling (pAkt → pFOXO-1). Cyanidin and malvidin markedly decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing CPT-1 and

  2. Control carrot fly

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The larva of the carrot fly, Psila rosae, may in some umbelliferous plants cause significant damage. The insect is mainly in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, but also in some subtropical areas. Everywhere in the Netherlands where carrots are grown, is degradation. In the Netherlands organic growers seem well with the carrot fly problem to go, the number of reports of harm and disapproval is not too bad. With smart cultivation measures, the problems are manageable and, underst...

  3. Hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots in Danish carrot fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bjørn, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that wild carrots may pollute the seed crops of cultivated carrots, but whether cultivated carrots can also disperse pollen and seed, and thereby introduce genes into wild carrot populations, is only little described. In Denmark, there is no commercial seed production of carrots...... seeds. Pollen and seed dispersal from fields into wild carrot populations is probably rather frequent in Denmark. A closer inspection of the morphology of flowering plants indicate that some of these (2-60%) are bolters of pure cultivar origin, as indicated primarily by orange root colour. The remainder...... frequencies of bolters with white roots in different carrot cultivars tested in the field...

  4. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4-4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics. PMID:26675114

  5. Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 217-224. ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * heavy metal * monoxenic culture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

  6. Zhodnocení vlivu UV záření a ozónu na posklizňové změny mrkve

    OpenAIRE

    Martincová, Věra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how it will affect the general harvest carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) UV radiation and ozone selected parameters carrots or development of pathogens during storage. After harvesting carrots general, the roots of both varieties (Afalon F1 and Cortina F1) from both production systems (ecological and integrated) transported to the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture (CUA in Prague). In untreated carrots were determined before storage: n...

  7. Pembuatan Tepung Wortel serta Penetapan Kadar Protein dan Lemak

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Evi Ekayanti

    2016-01-01

    Carrot(Daucus carota L.) isone which a vegetablefrequently often to consumptionincluding raw engulfed or jus and usually with other vegetable. One of alternatif to grow up carrot consumption make to carrot flour can be make variation food healthy. In this study sample obtained from village of Cinta Rakyat , Berastagi, Medan. The purpose of this study is to carrot flour manufacturing and determined of protein concentration using kjedahl and fat using extraction method with soxhlet. The mil...

  8. Carrots for dessert

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2010-01-01

    Carrots for dessert is the title of a section of the paper `On polynomial-like mappings' by Douady and Hubbard. In that section the authors define a notion of dyadic carrot fields of the Mandelbrot set M and more generally for Mandelbrot like families. They remark that such carrots are small when the dyadic denominator is large, but they do not even try to prove a precise such statement. In this paper we formulate and prove a precise statement of asymptotic shrinking of dyadic Carrot-fields around M. The same proof carries readily over to show that the dyadic decorations of copies M' of the Mandelbrot set M inside M and inside the parabolic Mandelbrot set shrink to points when the denominator diverge to infinity.

  9. Release of somatic embryogenic potential from excised zygotic embryos of carrot and maintenance of proembryonic cultures in hormone-free medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Excised zygotic embryos, mericarps ("seeds") and hypocotyls of seedlings of cultivated carrot Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes were evaluated for their ability to generate somatic embryos on a semisolid hormone-free nutrient medium. Neither intact zygotic embryos nor hypocotyls ever produced somatic embryos. However, mericarps and broken zygotic embryos were excellent sources for somatic embryo production (response levels as high as 86%). Somatic embryo formation was highest from cotyledons, but was also observed on isolated hypocotyls and root tips of mature zygotic embryos. On media containing unreduced nitrogen, somatic embryo formation led to the generation of vigorous cultures comprised entirely of somatic embryos at various stages of development which in turn proliferated still other somatic embryos. However, a medium was devised which when 1-5 mM NH4+ was the sole nitrogen source, led only to a proliferation of globular proembryos. Sustained subculturing of these proembryos at 2-3 week intervals enabled establishment of highly uniform cultures in which no further development into more mature stages of embryonic development occurred. These have been maintained, without decline, as morphogenetically competent proembryonic globules for over ten months. A basal medium containing from 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source appears not to be inductive to somatic proembryo formation. Instead, such a medium is best thought of as permissive to the expression of embryogenically determined cells within zygotic embryos. By excising and breaking or wounding zygotic embryos, constituent cells are probably released from positional or chemical restraints and thus are able to express their innate embryogenic potential. Once a proembryonic culture is established, this medium containing 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source provides a nonpermissive environment to the development and growth of later embryonic stages, but it does allow the continued formation and

  10. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R. [Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Lab. de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, 62 - Calais (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  11. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  12. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  13. OPTIMASI PROSES PEMANASAN PADA PEMBUATAN CHIPS WORTEL KAYA KAROTENOID MENGGUNAKAN RENPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhardi 1)

    2011-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) contains carotenoid pigment in the form of vitamin A of about 12.000 S.I/100 gram. Epidemiology studies show that carotenoid has many benefits for health. Carotenoid is affected by temperature during thermal process. Therefore carrot processing must be controlled to minimize carotenoid destruction during process. The aims of this research were to optimize temperature processing, time, and ratio of carrot-tapioca flour. It was assumed that carotenoid destruction can b...

  14. Carrot yellow leaf virus is associated with carrot internal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ian P; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  15. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Mehtap

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs, will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1% were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs, with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these

  16. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof;

    2014-01-01

    carrot because of the poisonous effects. The resin from species of Thapsia has been used in traditional medicine and included in European pharmacopoeias, and several species contain biologically important sesquiterpene lactones such as thapsigargin. Accordingly, Thapsia has for decades been subject...

  17. The Carrot Is Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 It is winter.The rabbit is very hungry.He goes out to look for food.A while later,he finds two carrots.He's very happy."It is so cold," the rabbit says to himself, "The monkey must be hungry.I'll give her one."

  18. Carrot and stick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2013-01-01

    Defects are considered a lack of product quality and represent an economic loss. Since 1986, systems or initiatives applying a carrot-or-stick approach have been implemented in the Danish construction sector to improve the quality of buildings. The initiatives range from mandatory solutions to more...

  19. Conservação de cenouras 'Brasília' tratadas com cera Storage of 'Brasília' carrot treated with waxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Caron

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de cera sobre a conservação pós-colheita de cenoura (Daucus carota L. cv Brasília: Citrosol A, Citrosol M, Citrosol AK, Citrosol Papaya, Bentevi sem diluição, Bentevi com diluição 1:3 em água, Bentevi com diluição 1:6, Fruit Wax sem diluição, Fruit Wax com diluição 1:3, Fruit Wax com diluição 1:6, Stafresh, Megh Wax sem diluição, Megh Wax com diluição 1:3 e Megh Wax com diluição 1:6. Cenouras sem cera serviram de controle. Após os tratamentos, as raízes foram colocadas em condições ambientais, em temperatura de 26ºC e umidade relativa de 70%. Foram determinadas a perda de matéria fresca, a pressão de turgescência (método da aplanação, a incidência de podridão e a aparência após dois, quatro, seis e oito dias de conservação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado com quinze tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída de dez raízes. Citrosol A, M e AK provocaram 100% de podridão aos 2 dias de armazenamento. Até o 8º dia, os menores percentuais de podridão foram observados em cenouras tratadas com Stafresh (7,5% e Bentevi 1:3 (8,75%. A perda de matéria fresca foi alta durante o experimento, sendo que apenas Stafresh e Bentevi pura promoveram alguma proteção contra esta perda. A elevada desidratação promoveu baixos valores de pressão de turgescência em todos os tratamentos, exceto para Stafresh, onde foram verificados maiores valores de pressão de turgescência até o sexto dia. Apenas StaFresh manteve a qualidade das raízes até 8 dias a 26ºC. Para as demais ceras não foram observados benefícios na conservação das raízes, considerando as poucas diferenças significativas em relação ao controle.The effect of treatments with several waxes in the postharvest preservation of carrot 'Brasília' was evaluated, using Citrosol A, Citrosol M, Citrosol AK, Citrosol Papaya, Bentevi undiluted, Bentevi with dilution 1

  20. Recent advance in carrot genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been an effort towards the development of genomic resources in carrot. The number of available sequences for carrot in public databases has increased recently. This has allowed the design of SSRs markers, COS markers and a high-throughput SNP assay for genotyping. Additiona...

  1. Genomics and genetic improvement of carrot pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The color of carrots was an important attribute during its domestication as a root crop. Modern carrot researchers continue to include color as a major breeding attribute so that the carotene content of U.S. carrots is 70% higher today than 30 years ago. Carrot breeding stocks have been developed wi...

  2. PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

  3. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ian P.; Anna Skelton; Roy Macarthur; Tobias Hodges; Howard Hinds; Laura Flint; Palash Deb Nath; Neil Boonham; Adrian Fox

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses ...

  4. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  5. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  6. Correlações fenotípica, genética aditiva e ambiental em cenoura Phenotypic, additive genetic and environmental correlations in carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Siqueira

    1993-01-01

    ízes comerciáveis (PC e produção total (PT. Finalmente, discute-se a participação relativa dos efeitos de ambiente e genéticos na correlação fenotípica.Since development of commercial varieties involves simultaneous selection for various traits, previous knowledge of their interrelationships may also be fundamental to the breeder as the strategies to be adopted. The objective of this research was to estimate phenotypic, additive genetic and environmental correlations for a number of traits of agronomic interest in carrot (Daucus carota L. cultivar Campinas, grown during the fall-winter and spring-summer seasons at the Experiment Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This germplasm, originated from the "Seção de Hortaliças" (IAC, presents, besides a high level of resistance to Alternaria dauci, a large variation for root shape and a tendency to early bolting, stimulated by low temperatures and/or long photoperiods during the crop vegetative stage. Data were obtained by evaluating 102 half-sib progenies on a randomized block design experiment with four and three replications, respectively, for the fall-winter and spring-summer planting dates. Phenotypic (rF, additive genetic (rA and environmental (rE correlations were estimated by covariance analyses between pairs of characters, in both planting dates. The phenotypic and additive genetic correlations were negative only for pairs of characters involving percentage of early flowering (EF or percentage of defective roots, while the correlations were high (>0.5 for most of the pairs of characters in both planting dates. Selection for percentage of cylindric marketable roots will lead to reduction in EF as well as increases in marketable root yield and total root yield in both planting. This research further presents a discussion of the relative participation of environmental and genetic effects in the phenotypic correlation.

  7. Radappertization of minimally processed carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of this work was to obtain shelf-stable irradiated carrots. It was evaluate the effect of high-doses (radappertization) of gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) on minimally processed carrots cv. Nantes. Before irradiation carrots were blanched, vacuum packaged in polyethylene film (52 μm) and frozen (-80 deg C) prior to and during radiation processing. Used doses were 10, 20 and 30 kGy. After irradiation the carrot bags were kept at room conditions (25 - 28 deg C and RH 60-80 %) for 90 days period. Physical-chemical characteristics and microorganism population were determined at 1, 30 60 and 90 days after radiation process. Radappertization decreased total soluble solids (TSS), hardness and color. Radiation was responsible for reduction of 15,5% of total carotenoids content. By the other hand the storage period was responsible for 35 % losses. pH was not affected by radiation nor by storage period. Complete sterilization was achieved with doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy. Radappertization affected negatively the sensorial characteristics of flavor, color and general appearance. Through sensorial analysis was possible to evaluate that polyethylene seal was inadequate for the purpose because allowed photo-chemical reactions in the carrots during the storage period. The metallized film kept best appearance of the irradiated carrots after 90 days storage. (author)

  8. Viruserkrankungen in Möhren - gegenwärtige Probleme und verfügbare Nachweismethoden

    OpenAIRE

    Fittje, Susanne; Menzel, Dr. Wulf; Saucke, Dr. Helmut; Vetten, Dr. Heinrich-Josef

    2005-01-01

    An apparently new virus disease of carrots (Daucus carota) has gained increasing importance in Germany. The complex of symptoms consisting of leaf reddening, plant stunting, hairy and rat tailed roots is thought to be caused by viral infections. Particularly the main carrot growing areas in Lower Saxony are adversely affected. In field surveys in 2003 about 30 % symptomatic plants were observed with average weight losses of about 30 %. In severe cases symptom-related yield reduction was estim...

  9. Produção comercializável e teores de Cu e Zn em cenoura em decorrência da ação residual de fósforo e composto de lixo em solo sob cerrado Marketable yield and contents of Cu and Zn in carrot as influenced by residual phosphate and urban compost in a cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel V. de Mesquita Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1997, em condições de campo um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro distrófico argiloso sob cerrado de Brasília, para avaliar o efeito residual das aplicações em anos anteriores, a lanço de doses de fósforo (superfosfato triplo, e de composto de lixo na produção de cenoura (Daucus carota, cv. Brasília, assim como nos teores de cobre e zinco em raízes frescas. Aproveitou-se o mesmo delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições, no mesmo campo experimental dos experimentos anteriores distribuídos num esquema fatorial 3 x 5 incluindo-se 3 níveis de fósforo (0; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 5 níveis de composto de lixo (0; 20; 40; 60 e 80 t ha-1. A colheita foi realizada aos 90 dias após o plantio. A análise estatística dos dados de produção total de raízes revelou efeito residual da adubação dos últimos dois anos em linear e quadrático altamente significativo (pA field experiment was conducted on a clayey Yellow Red Oxisol to evaluate the residual effect of the application of phosphorus and urban waste compost of the previous two years on the root production of carrot cv. Brasília. The soil of the previous experiment design used a factorial consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0; 400 and 800 kg ha-1, applied as triple superphosphate combined with five levels of urban waste compost (0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 t.ha-1, was arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Carrot plants were harvested 90 days after planting. After the harvest, a linear and quadratic effect for phosphorus and urban waste compost (p<0,01 was observed. The linear interaction P x quadratic urban compost was highly significant (p<0,01. The maximum root total production was 26.5 t.ha-1 corresponding to 18.5 t ha-1 of marketable yield, estimated by the calculated doses of 762.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 53.2 t ha-1 of urban waste compost according to the function: Y(PROD = 4.541143 + 4.0088 x 10-2 P2O5 + 2

  10. Storage Diseases of Carrots and Management

    OpenAIRE

    TÜLEK, Senem; DOLAR, F. Sara

    2011-01-01

    As conclusions of the worldwide studies a lot of detrimental organisms pest and fungal diseases that are seen pre- harvest and post-harvest, period on carrots, are described and methods are suggested for control and prevention of diseases. Carrots are stored for a long time after harvest and fungal agents cause considerable losses due to improper storage conditions in carrot stores. These agents and diseases caused by their; Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea), Black Root Rot Carrots (Chalara elega...

  11. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  12. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  13. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  14. Effect of zinc on the uptake of various elements into carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ZnCl2 on the uptake of Be, Na, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Rh, Cs and lanthanoids (Ce, Pm, Gd and Lu) by carrot (Daucas carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) was investigated. Uptake was measured using a multitracer technique which enables to acquire information about various elements under identical conditions. The amount of uptake of Rb, Cs, Sr, Mn and Co, into roots decreased with increasing concentration of ZnCl2. On the other hand, little effect was observed for the uptake of Be, Se, Rh and lanthanoids. These results suggest that Rb, Cs, Sr, Mn and Co competed antagonistically with Zn for the binding sites of carriers in the roots, while there was no influence on the uptake of the other elements. Uptake of Se was not influenced by Cl added as ZnCl2. It is concluded, therefore, that carrot can distinguish Se from Cl based on the physicochemical differences between these two anion species. (author)

  15. Influência da desidratação na recuperação da firmeza e na brotação em cenoura Dehydration, firmness and carrot sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADONAI GIMENEZ CALBO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Raízes de cenoura Daucus Carota L. Brasília recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de desidratação com emprego de ventilação forçada a 25 ± 2 °C. Sob teores relativos de água inferiores a 0,95 a firmeza dependente da pressão celular, medida com a técnica da aplanação, ficou reduzida a praticamente zero, ao passo que as raízes do tratamento controle tiveram firmeza acima de 7,0 kgf cm-2. Após o armazenamento em sacos plásticos de polietileno de baixa densidade, durante 67dias a 5 ± 2 °C, as raízes que tiveram seu teor relativo de água reduzido a menos de 0,75 recuperaram a firmeza em mais de 60% da turgescência inicial do controle, além de apresentarem brotação. A recuperação da firmeza ocorreu sem absorção de água, visto que o armazenamento em embalagens de plástico diminuiu mas não anulou a transpiração. Essa recuperação da firmeza e a posterior brotação contrariou a expectativa inicial de que as raízes murchas não brotariam. Duas hipóteses foram postuladas para explicar esses resultados: a primeira seria o envolvimento de um processo de redistribuição de água na raiz; a segunda, a redução do volume do órgão, de acordo com a teoria coesiva do encolhimento celular. A favor da primeira hipótese pesou a formação de pequenas lacunas lisógenas distribuídas a partir do centro do cilindro vascular. O volume total dessas cavidades lisógenas corresponderia a uma quantidade de água aparentemente inferior a 2% do volume da raiz, a qual seria insuficiente para explicar a recuperação da firmeza em raízes que perderam mais de 20% de seu conteúdo de água. Fica a possibilidade de haverem outras causas não percebidas de redistribuição de água ou que, de fato, a presumida redução plástica do volume das células - de acordo com a teoria coesiva do encolhimento celular - tenha ocorrido.'Brasília' carrot roots (Daucus carota L. have been exposed to different dehydration levels

  16. Looking for ecological control of carrot psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Nissinen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The results suggest that a one-week trap replacement period, which is the current practise in carrot psyllid monitoring, is too long at the early growth stages of carrot. Regardless of the oviposition (laying of eggs) preference for a certain carrot cultivars, the possibility of a functional push-pull control strategy based on limonene seems unlikely, since the repellent effect of limonene could not be verified. Further field studies with possible repellent compounds, such as winter host vola...

  17. Uptake of short half-life radionuclides, 28Mg, 43K and 47Ca, in carrot studied by the multitracer technique. Feasibility of utilization of the radionuclides in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of the radionuclides with short half-lives, such as 24Na, 28Mg, 43K and 47Ca, and the effect of stable Ca on their uptake in carrot (Daucas carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) was investigated by the multitracer technique. These radionuclides were produced by a fragmentation reaction of Ti in a 135 MeV/nucleon 12C beam accelerated by the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron. This study shows that these radionuclides in a multitracer can be utilized in environmental research. (author)

  18. Optimization of flat plate drying of carrot pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot pomace is a co-product of the carrot juice and cut-carrot industry; it has high nutritional value but is currently underutilized. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize carrot pomace. However, optimum conditions for the dryer inlet temperature, product dwell time, c...

  19. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis, NAA, a high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer was used to determine the concentration of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W, and Zn in Cumin, coriander, carrots, and Daucus carota (Umbelliferae Family), alfalfa, Kidney bean, Phaseolus sativus, Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, lentil, and fenugreek (Legumirosae Family). Multielement determination technique on destructive and nondestructive samples was followed. This method is simple, precise and sensitive to 17 trace elements. (author)

  20. Biocatalytic reductions by plant tissue - Green alternative to alcohol production

    OpenAIRE

    Gašo-Sokač, Dajana; Nujić, Marija; Bušić, Valentina; Habuda-Stanić, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The use of biocatalysts for the industrial synthesis of chemicals has been attracting much attention as an environmental friendly synthetic method. Various plants, such as apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), potato (Solanum tuberosum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were used as biocatalysts. Enzymes that plants produce are able to perform reactions under mild conditions (pH and temperature), with remarka...

  1. Quantitative proteomics by 2DE and MALDI MS/MS uncover the effects of organic and conventional cropping methods on vegetable products

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming aims to be environmentally sound, but the question as to whether organic cropping brings more nutritional benefits to farmers and consumers than the conventional cropping needs still to be answered. To gain insights into the molecular effects of organic farming we used proteome analysis to analyze cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var ‘capitata’) and carrot (Daucus carota var. ‘sativus’) Our aim was to identify the metabolic pathways that are affected by different cropping regimes...

  2. Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Rakin Marica B.; Baras Josip K.; Vukašinović Maja S.

    2005-01-01

    The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) juice and carrot (Daucus carota L) juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 has ...

  3. The socio-economic importance of the Apiales

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood, Vernon H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Apiales, the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) is by far the most important family, both economically and socially. Although it includes the carrot (Daucus carota), one of the world’s leading root crops, and other widely consumed vegetables such as parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), celery and celeriac (Apium graveolens), the family is perhaps best known for its remarkable diversity of culinary herbs, flavourings, condiments and spices, such as parsley, dill, coriander, anise, chervil, caraway, and...

  4. The incidence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in ready‐to‐eat vegetables in South‐Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayeoba, Titilayo A.; Atanda, Olusegun O.; Obadina, Adewale O.; Bankole, Mobolaji O.; Adelowo, Olawale O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready‐to‐eat (RTE) vegetables: (Cucumber, Cucumis sativas; Cabbage, Brassica olerecea; Carrot, Daucus carota; Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum; Lettuce, Lactuca sativa) in six states in South‐Western Nigeria. A total of 555 composite samples were collected from 30 traditional markets within the states and only 244 L. monocytogenes species were isolated by standard methods. The incidence of L. monocytogenes was low and not ...

  5. Effect of Intercropping Bulb Onion and Vegetables on Purple Blotch and Downy Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Olubayo; J.H. Nderitu; S.M. Gachu; J.W. Muthomi; R.D. Narla

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effectiveness of vegetable intercrops in the management of downy mildew (Peronospora destrutor) and purple blotch (Alternaria porri) of bulb onion. Vegetable intercrops evaluated, were carrot (Daucus carota), spider plant (Cleome gynandra) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgarisHowever, further studies are necessary to determine the optimal spatial arrangements of onion and vegetable intercrops in foliar disease management.

  6. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of root and shoot, these embryoids can grow out into complete plantlets.In Chapter 2 we describe an optimized method to produce completely desiccation tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota ) embryoids. Usi...

  7. in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sablayrolles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13 uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg-1 dry matter in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg-1 dry matter for carrot sample (2 g dry matter with good recoveries rate (>90%. Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%.

  8. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid-liquid par......Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  9. Keeping carrots quality during storage by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh carrots were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated carrots was stored at ambient temperature (20-25 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator temperature (5± 1 degree C). The results indicated that the sprouting of carrots were completely inhibited by radiation dose of 0.2 KGy either at ambient temperature or cold storage, while the non-irradiated samples started to sprout after 2 and 4 weeks of storage at ambient temperature and cold storage respectively. Furthermore, samples treated with gamma rays showed lower values of weight loss compared to the untreated ones during storage. Concerning storage temperature, it was found that the rate of weight loss during storage was higher at ambient temperature than in refrigerator. Micro-organisms were greatly affected by gamma rays, their counts were found to be decreased by increasing irradiation dose as compared with the control sample. Moreover, during storage period, refrigerated samples showed lower bacterial and molds counts than samples stored at ambient temperature. On the other hand, it was also observed that irradiated samples at the higher dose i.e. 1.0 KGy stored either at ambient temperature or in refrigerator showed higher bacterial and molds counts than unirradiated ones. The lowest dose (0.1 KGy) had no effect on carotene and sugars contents of carrots while increasing the dose above 0.2 KGy led to gradual decrease in carotene contents and gradual increase in total soluble sugars contents of the samples with increasing the irradiation dose compared with the nonirradiated ones. The results proved that gamma irradiation dose of 0.2 Gy was effective for sprout inhibition of carrots and increase their shelf-life to 10 weeks at ambient temperature without adverse effects on carotene and sugars contents of treated carrots

  10. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time of...

  11. EFEITO DA IRRADIAÇÃO IONIZANTE g NA QUALIDADE PÓS-COLHEITA DE CENOURAS (Daucus carota L. cv. NANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Keila S. Cople

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da irradiação gamasobre as características físicas e químicas pós-colheita da cenoura da cultivar Nantes. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF, 1991 realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. Sabe-se, ainda que, a cenoura representa uma das melhores fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta caroteno na dieta. As cenouras foram tratadas com a irradiação ionizante gama, fonte de Césio, nas doses de 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 e 1.0kgy, atendendo a dose máxima permitida pela FDA (1995. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo-controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT, perda de peso, firmeza, cor, carotenóides totais, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C e voláteis. A análise de variância (tratamento estatístico F de Fisher dos resultados obtidos mostrou que não houve diferença significativa ao nível de 5% entre os tratamentos e o grupo controle nas diversas análises realizadas, exceto na diferença total de cor, onde houve uma diminuição da mesma com o aumento da dose de irradiação; na acidez total titulável e na relação SST/ATT devido ao decréscimo dos ácidos orgânicos que geralmente ocorrem após a colheita. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.

  12. Utilización de un secadero solar en el proceso de deshidratación de zanahoria (Daucus Carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Se pretendió supervisar el comportamiento del aire caliente dentro de una cámara de secado, resultado del calentamiento del aire entrante del medio ambiente por efecto de la radiación solar, utilizando sensores de temperatura ubicados de forma distribuida en la cámara de secado y en su exterior. Luego se realizó un proceso de secado de zanahoria en láminas, supervisado mediante sensores de temperatura y humedad relativa, evaluando el comportamiento del aire caliente en el interior del seca...

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    OpenAIRE

    Jeswin Philip; Sheila John; Priya Iyer

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueou...

  14. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs) e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) and conventional methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado; Leonardo da Silva Patto; Denise Alvarenga Rocha; Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A cenoura (Daucus carota L. ), planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS) e o convencio...

  15. Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of carrot allergy in three different regions of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Skamstrup Hansen, K; Sastre, J;

    2012-01-01

    Carrot is a frequent cause of food allergy in Europe. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of carrot allergens for diagnosis of carrot allergy in Spain, Switzerland and Denmark.......Carrot is a frequent cause of food allergy in Europe. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of carrot allergens for diagnosis of carrot allergy in Spain, Switzerland and Denmark....

  16. De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DNA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorizzo Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Results Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence of a mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA. Sequence similarity with a retrotransposon element suggests a possibility that a transposon-like event transferred this sequence into the plastid genome. Conclusions This study confirmed that whole genome sequencing is a practical approach for de novo assembly of higher plant mitochondrial genomes. In addition, a new aspect of intercompartmental genome interaction was reported providing the first evidence for DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. The approach used here could be used more broadly to sequence and assemble mitochondrial genomes of diverse species. This information will allow us to better understand intercompartmental interactions and cell evolution.

  17. The Big Carrot: High Stake Incentives Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical demonstration of high stakes incentives in relation to religious practice. It shows that, when both positive (carrot) and negative (stick) incentives are available, the former are more effective than the latter. Specifically, it is shown that beliefs in heaven are much more relevant than beliefs in hell when estimating the production of religious commodities (church-attendance and praying equations).

  18. Fruit morphological descriptors as a tool for discrimination of Daucus L. germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological diversity of a Daucus L. germplasm collection maintained at the National Gene Bank of Tunisia was assessed using fourteen morphological descriptors related to mature fruits. Quantification of variability for each character was investigated using the standardized Shannon-Weaver Diversit...

  19. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Daucus (Apiaceae) determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae) comprises species from around the world, covering a wide climatic range, and showing great morphological plasticity. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genome size variability in the collection o...

  20. Vegetables of temperate climates: Carrot, parsnip and beetroot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots, parsnips and beets are horticultural root crops eaten around the world. These root vegetables have a long shelf-life when kept in cold storage. Among them are sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, and other colorful pigments that provide antioxidant activity. Carrots come in many color...

  1. Development of EST based markers for exploiting the carrot genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae family and a major source of provitamin A in the human diet. Breeding and genetic studies are ongoing to improve quantitative and qualitative traits. However, carrot molecular resources are relatively underdeveloped, hampering progress...

  2. Detection and prediction of post harvest carrot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is the most important outdoor vegetable crop in Norway with a market value of NOK 675 million in 2010. Because demand for carrots is year-round but the growing season is short, the crop is typically stored after harvest for as long as 6 months. Diseases that develop during low temperature sto...

  3. SE-ENRICHMENT OF CARROT AND ONION VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kapolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H; Hillestrøm, Peter; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selenium accumulation in carrot and onion plants using foliar application by sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the Se species biosynthesised by onion and carrot plants. The results were used to prepare for production of 77Se enriched plants for an ongoing human absorption study.

  4. The effect of temperature on phenolic content in wounded carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cong; Li, Jing; Jin, Peng; Li, Xiaoan; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yonghua

    2017-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play important roles in biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrots. This study has gone further to understand the effects of storage temperature on phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. The results indicated that both increased wounding intensity and higher storage temperature promoted the generation of ROS and enhanced phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. Moreover, treatment with ROS inhibitor inhibited ROS generation, suppressed the activities of key enzymes in phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, C4H; 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, 4CL) and restrained phenolics accumulation in shredded carrots confirming previous reports. In contrast, treatment with ROS elicitor promoted ROS generation, enhanced the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL, and induced phenolics accumulation. Thus, our results confirmed that ROS are essential for mediating wound-induced phenolics accumulation in carrots and suggested that increase temperature enhanced the accumulation of phenolics through inducing ROS generation. PMID:27542457

  5. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  6. New insights into domestication of carrot from root transcriptome analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, J.; Lammers, Y.; Strasburg, J.L.; Schidlo, N.S.; Ariyurek, Y.; Jong, de T.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding the molecular basis of domestication can provide insights into the processes of rapid evolution and crop improvement. Here we demonstrated the processes of carrot domestication and identified genes under selection based on transcriptome analyses. Results - The root transcr

  7. Development and quality evaluation of honey based carrot candy

    OpenAIRE

    Durrani, Anisa Musarath; P.K. Srivastava; Verma, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Candy was prepared with 3 different combinations of honey and carrot by using 750 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T1), 1,000 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T2) and 1,250 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T3). To establish the best product, sensory evaluation was done on 9-point Hedonic scale. T1 was found to be most preferred candy. Further the T1 candy was assessed for overall quality during storage at room temperature (25–30 °C) for 6 months. Candy can be preserved safely for 6 months in both glass and LDPE p...

  8. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah Amel; El Amine Dib Mohammed; Djabou Nassim; Allali Hocine; Tabti Boufeldja; Muselli Alain; Costa Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muri...

  9. Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, R.M.; Malcata, F. X.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

  10. Losses of bioactive polyacetylenes during minimal processing of carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Koidis, Anastasios; Rawson, Ashish; Osorio, Teresa; Brunton, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Vegetables of the Apiaceae plant family such as carrots, parsnip, celery and parsley,contain in minor quantities, a group of bioactive aliphatic C17-polyacetylenes (falcarinol,falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3- acetate). Recent studies have highlighted important biologicalfunctions in vitro and in vivo (animal studies) although the beneficial effect in humannutrition attributable to an increased in polyacetylenes diet are yet to be confirmed(Lund, 1990).Carrots not only contain relatively high pol...

  11. Physical Weed Control in Organic Carrot in Sicily (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, A.; Raffaelli, M.; M. Fontanelli; C. Frasconi; Ginanni, M.; Lulli, L.

    2008-01-01

    Weeds are the major biotic factor that negatively affects organic carrot yield. As a matter of fact, weeds can reduce carrot growth from early stages to harvest because of the low competitive attitude of this vegetable. Innovative and conventional crop and weed managements were compared in an experiment carried out on farm in the Catania Plain (Sicily, Italy) in 2005-2006. Innovative planting pattern, operative machines (rolling harrow, flaming machine, precision hoe) and crop management incr...

  12. EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2008-12-01

    EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

  13. Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L juice and carrot (Daucus carota L juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 has shown better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748.

  14. Effect of different cooking methods on structure and quality of industrially frozen carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciulli, Maria; Ganino, Tommaso; Carini, Eleonora; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Alessandro; Chiavaro, Emma

    2016-05-01

    The effect of boiling, steaming and microwaving on microstructure, texture and colour of raw and industrially frozen carrots was investigated. The raw carrots, after cooking, showed dehydrated and separated cells with swollen walls. The carrots subjected to blanching, freezing and followed by frozen storage exhibited marked tissue damages indicating deep oriented fissures. Cooking caused cellular dehydration and separation in the tissue, with the same intensity between raw and frozen carrots and independently from the cooking treatment applied. Among different cooking methods, microwaving showed better retention of the initial texture and colour quality for both raw and frozen carrots. On the other hand, the steamed carrots revealed the highest degree of softening and colour differences from the control for both raw and frozen carrots, despite the worst tissue conditions were observed for the boiled carrots. PMID:27407211

  15. Exogenous gibberellin altered morphology, anatomic and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in carrot root and shoot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guang-Long; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and expansion during plant growth and development. Carrot is a root plant with great value and undergoes obvious alteration in organ size over the period of plant growth. However, the roles of gibberellins in carrot remain unclear. Results To investigate the effects of gibberelliins on the growth of carrot, we treated carrot plants with gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) or paclobutrazol (a gibberellin inhibitor). The results found that GA3 dramatically...

  16. First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Associated with Psyllid-Infested Carrots in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in commercial carrot fields in Lower Saxony, Germany in September 2014. The fields were infested with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the infection rate was about 50...

  17. Incidence and severity of cavity spot of carrot as affected by pigmentation, temperature, and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials to determine the effect of carrot pigmentation and weather parameters on cavity spot of carrot (CS) were conducted in the Holland/Bradford Marsh region of Ontario between 2002 and 2009. Twenty three colored carrots from the USDA-ARS breeding program at the University of Wisconsin (5) an...

  18. The effect of gamma rays on carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of several doses (5-400 Gy) of gamma rays from a 137Cs source were studied on several biological indices in carrots. Doses higher than 50 Gy reduced the wet weight of the cells in the suspension medium whereas the doses of 5 and 10 Gy affected the wet weight positively and to a lesser extent the dry weight. This may be due to higher water absorption of the irradiated cells since their number was less than that of the control. The different doses did not affect the chromosome number of the cells but reduced the cell division rates. At doses higher than 200 Gy no singel cell was recorded as dividing after two days of irradiation. A week later, however, the cells seemed to have recovered some ability for division, but with an increase of prophase stage in mitosis and also in the mitotic division abnormalities. Cells irradiation with 10 Gy caused the cells to differentiate and to form somatic embryos due to halting the effect of 2,4-D hormon. Higher doses, however, prohibited or reduced cells differentiation, probably due to higher mitotic division abnormalities. Nevertheless, it has been possible to attain mature plants from all treatments except for the 400 Gy. The low doses of 5 and 10 Gy, contrary to the higher ones, affected positively the speed of seed germination, increased the plant height, and also increased the root weight. 11 refs. (author)

  19. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g, and (ii the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g. Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity.

  20. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  1. Variation in Content of Carotenoids and Vitamin C in Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MATĚJKOVÁ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrots are the most popular and wide-spread of all root vegetables, and are the principal source of carotenoids in human diet. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between cultivars and the effect of storage regarding the carotenoid and vitamin C content in carrots. Six carrot cultivars were used in this study, ranging from early to late ones. Observed carotenoid content ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 134 mg kg-1. Significantly higher levels of carotenoids were found in late and moderately late cultivars in comparison to early ones. Vitamin C content in these cultivars ranged from 54 mg kg-1 to 132 mg kg-1. Significantly higher contents of vitamin C were also found in the late cultivars. 30-day storage resulted in a significant reduction in vitamin C content, on average of 47%. There was also a reduction in the carotenoids content, but to a lesser extent, on average of 11%.

  2. Microbial population of shredded carrot in modified atmosphere packaging as related to irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shredded carrots in modified atmosphere packaging were treated with low-dose irradiation of 0.5 kGy in order to determine whether additional reduction of microbial population would be achieved for carrots previously treated with chlorine. Commercially prepared shredded carrots treated with irradiation had a mean microbial population of 1300 CFU/g at the expiration date (9 days after irradiation) compared with 87,000 CFU/g for nonirradiated, chlorinated controls. Oxygen content of the headspace gas and ethanol content of the carrots were not significantly affected. Irradiation appears to be a suitable technology for shredded carrots

  3. Quality of grated carrot (var. Nantes) packed under vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Ada MCN; Ferreira, João FFC; Silva, Ângelo MM; Almeida, Gonçalo N; Morais, Alcina MMB

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grated carrot (variety Nantes) was evaluated throughout 10 days of storage in two different atmospheres: air and vacuum at 2 ◦C. The parameters of quality were microbiological and physico-chemical. Sensory evaluation of vacuum-packed grated carrots was performed after the microbiology study. The objective was to study the use of a vacuum for preservation of this type of product. The use of a vacuum was sufficiently promising with respect to the capacity to extend the shel...

  4. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by Carrot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of Copper(II), Zinc(II), and Chromium (III) from wastewater by carrot residues was investigated to evaluate cation exchange capacity. The effects of solution P H and co-ions were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibria were initially rapidly established, and then decreased markedly after 10 min. Column experiments were carried out in a glass column filled with carrot residues to evaluate the metal removal capacity. The influences of the feed concentration and feed rate were also studied in order to compare the dynamic capacity for metal binding in different feed concentrations

  5. An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Anna; Návesník, Jakub; Jičínská, Jaroslava; Černohorský, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    Conventionally-, organically- and self-grown carrots available across the Czech market were characterised based on their elemental, nitrate and dry matter content (218 samples, 20 parameters) in order to assess the quality of the carrots and address the question whether organic also means better. The results were compared with information describing the elemental composition of carrots published previously, recommended daily intakes, and legislative limits for contaminants in food. Significant differences in the amounts of Na, K, S, Al, Mn, Ni, As and Cd were observed between conventional and organic carrots. From the perspective of inter-element interactions, and the origin of these, a principal components analysis of the datasets found no significant differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots. For the consumer, it is valuable to know there are no differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots, and no potential harm arising from heavy metal contamination. Based on our data, carrots are an excellent source of potassium. PMID:26304343

  6. Expression and mapping of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin gene expression has been extensively studied in leaves, fruits and flowers of numerous plants. Little, however, is known about anthocyanin accumulation in roots, or in carrots or other Apiaceae. We quantified expression of six anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (...

  7. Improving Classroom Behavior: The Carrot and the Stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, Barbara K.; Busch, Suzanne G.

    A set of practical behavior change techniques for improving young children's classroom behavior are briefly discussed. Techniques are classified and discussed under two general categories: those that reduce frequency of behaviors ("sticks") and those that increase their frequency ("carrots"). Included under "sticks" are techniques such as ignoring…

  8. Temporal Characterization of Carrot Broth-Enhanced Real-Time PCR as an Alternative Means for Rapid Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Prenatal Anorectal and Vaginal Screenings ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Erik; Napierala, Maureen; Munson, Kimber L.; Culver, Anne; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of overnight carrot broth culture using the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay (carrot broth-enhanced PCR) yields increased sensitivity compared to that of carrot broth culture alone for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. We investigated the prospect of reducing the carrot broth incubation time prior to PCR performance. In vitro experimentation demonstrated that carrot broth-enhanced PCR nominally detected 10 CFU S. agalactiae after 4 h of carrot broth incubation with competitive flora....

  9. Use of ionizing radiation to ensure the safety of pre-cut fresh vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of D10 values for two Escherichia coli strains (an ATTC and a wild type), Listeria innocua, and a non toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was carried out in different vegetal products. The studied products -celery (Apium graveolens), cabbage (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), carrots (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and two mixed salads (Toscana, containing chopped iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), red cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. rubra) and shredded carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Four Seasons, a mixture of chopped romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia), iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), Butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceae) - were minimally processed. The effect of irradiation with 5 D10 doses on the natural microflora and on the sensory characteristics, during refrigerated storage, of the non inoculated products, was also studied. After irradiating with 5 D10 doses, a considerable reduction in the initial contamination of the studied vegetables was obtained. No significant variation of the microbiological counts of the irradiated products was observed during the refrigerated storage, while in the non-irradiated samples a progressive increase up to 3.5 logs in some vegetables was observed. In general, no significant changes in the sensory parameters were observed after irradiation and during seven days storage at refrigeration temperature (4 deg. C). (author)

  10. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  11. Vitamin C content and sensorial properties of dehydrated carrots blanched conventionally or by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Cristina Soria, A; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Carrasco, J Atanasio; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2013-01-15

    Vitamin C content and sensorial properties have been evaluated in air-dried carrots previously subjected to different ultrasound (US) or conventional blanching pretreatments. In addition, mass spectral fingerprints obtained by the Headspace ChemSensor System have been evaluated for the first time for classification of carrots according to their processing. Conventional blanching treatments at high temperature gave rise to carrots with retention of vitamin C in the range 37.5-85%, whereas carrots blanched conventionally at 60°C and by US-probe at temperatures up to 60 and 70°C showed vitamin C retention values lower than 4%. Regarding sensorial analysis of rehydrated carrots, US-pretreated samples presented acceptable quality, and no statistically significant differences with respect to conventionally blanched carrots, were detected. In spite of this, differentiation of samples processed under comparable intensity conditions and/or with similar composition was possible from their mass spectral fingerprints after chemometric data analysis. PMID:23122127

  12. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required drying time can be quite long. Therefore, using solar and hot-air dryers, which are far more rapid, providing uniformity and hygiene are inevitable for industrial food drying processes. Aim: This paper presents a kinetic study of convective drying without pre-treatment of carrot. The effects of the temperature of the drying agent, the speed of the drying agent and the thickness of the kinetics of drying the sample of carrots were investigated. Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out with the aid of an installation for drying food products, that is capable of ensuring the temperature of the drying agent (air in the range of +25 ... +125 °C. The drying process was conducted at temperature of 45 °C in first hour of process, 2 hours at 55 °C, and 3 hours at 60 °C. The air velocity was setup  at 1.0 - 2.5 m/s. Carrots were divided into segments of a thickness of 0.4 cm. Two mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental data. Results: The drying rate increases with temperature and decreases with the sample diameter. The Page model is given better prediction than the Henderson and Pabis model and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of carrot slices. Conclusions: The most important characteristics of carrot required for simulation and optimization of the drying were studied. The values of calculated effective diffusivity for drying at 45, 55 and 60oC of air temperature and 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m

  13. CHANGES IN THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF CARROT ROOTS DUE TO BACTERIAL SOFT ROT

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Parthiban; V. Prakasam; Prabakar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is a rich source of nutrients. The carrot contains carotene and lycopene, which gives bright color to the roots. The quality of the carrots was assessed based on the carotene, lycopene and other biochemical constituents like sugars, starch and protein. To study the effect of various isolates of the Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora on the above biochemical constituents, the pathogens were inoculated and the contents were analyzed separately at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days after inoculation. The...

  14. Host-parasite Relationship of Carrot Cultivars and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the 15 carrot cultivars tested were moderate to good hosts to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1, whereas all except Orlando Gold were nonhosts or poor hosts for M. chitwoodi race 2. All carrot cultivars were good hosts for M. hapla. The plant weights of the carrot cultivars Red Cored Chantenay and Orlando Gold infected with either race of M. chitwoodi were significantly less than uninoculated checks in pots. Under field microplot conditions, however, detrimental effects on quality were rar...

  15. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    Kow-Jen Duan; Bo-Hong Jiang; Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus . Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase TM 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% ( w / v ) carrot pomace; the c...

  16. Evaluation the Sensory and Probiotics Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Carrot Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen R. Pop; Cătălina Topan; Ancuţa M. Rotar; Cristina Semeniuc; Liana Salanţă

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of carrot juice. Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of carrot juice at different levels (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%) on sensory properties and the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 24 % carrot juice significantly improve...

  17. The Content of Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity Varies with Carrot Origin and Root Color

    OpenAIRE

    Leja, Maria; Kamińska, Iwona; Kramer, Maike; Maksylewicz-Kaul, Anna; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    The contents of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities were assessed in a carrot collection comprising 35 cultivars, landraces and breeding populations. The accessions originated from various world regions and they represented Eastern and Western carrot gene pools. In two-year field trial carrot roots of orange, red, yellow, white and purple color were cultivated, freeze-dried and analyzed for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and UV/Vis assay. Radical scavenging activit...

  18. Health biomarkers in a rat model after intake of organically grown carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maja M.; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich; Watzl, Bernhard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic food is perceived as being of better quality and healthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if an intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two consecutive years would influence various biomarkers of health in a rat model. All rats were fed a diet with 40% carrot content. The carrots were grown under conventional (C), “minimalisti...

  19. Researches concerning nitrates and nitrites accumulation in carrots, along of the vegetation stages

    OpenAIRE

    Monica NEGREA; Aurel LAZUREANU; Alexa ERSILIA; Alina BULMAGA

    2008-01-01

    The presented paper deals with the determination of nitrates and nitrites content in carrots, in different vegetation stages of the carrot culture. High nitrates and nitrites concentration in vegetables is mainly due to excessive nitrogen content in the soil system, thus deteriorating the nutritional and hygienic values of products and complicating the processing and storage. The determination was tested on carrot samples assayed from an experimental field set up near Timisoara. In experiment...

  20. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Characterization of the carrot defect in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, J.; Henry, A.; McNally, P. J.; Bergman, J. P.

    2010-05-01

    Characterization of the epitaxial defect known as the carrot defect was performed in thick 4H-SiC epilayers. A large number of carrot defects have been studied using different experimental techniques such as Nomarski optical microscopy, KOH etching, cathodoluminescence and synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. This has revealed that carrot defects appear in many different shapes and structures in the epilayers. Our results support the previous assignment of the carrot defect as related to a prismatic stacking fault. However, we have observed carrot defects with and without a visible threading dislocation related etch pit in the head region, after KOH etching. Polishing of epilayers in a few μm steps in combination with etching in molten KOH and imaging using Nomarski optical microscope has been used to find the geometry and origin of the carrot defects in different epilayers. The defects were found to originate both at the epi-substrate interface and during the epitaxial growth. Different sources of the carrot defect have been observed at the epi-substrate interface, which result in different structures and surfaces appearance of the defect in the epilayer. Furthermore, termination of the carrot defect inside the epilayer and the influence of substrate surface damage and growth conditions on the density of carrot defects are studied.

  2. Effects of ionization and nitrous oxide on grated carrot respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two treatments (nitrous oxide and irradiation) have been applied on grated carrots to reduce the respiratory crisis induced by wounding. Nitrous oxide inhibited cytochrome c oxidase; but, it neither diminished O2 consumption of the tissues, nor modified atmospheres in a favourable way for conservation of grated carrots, stored in plastic bags (in the conditions chosen for this study). On the contrary, irradiation inhibited simultaneously the respiratory crisis and the ethylene production, both induced by wounding. This behaviour led to a lower consumption of sugars in irradiated tissues and to the generation of atmospheres, which were better adapted to the conservation needs (it was necessary to use plastic film with high permeability). Finally, an applied study demonstrated that irradiation, by permitting a less denaturing preparation than industrial process, allowed the conservation of produces with a better quality (nutritional, sensory and microbiological). Biochemical analyses have been validated by sensory analyses

  3. Interdisciplinary cantilever physics: Elasticity of carrot, celery, and plasticware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.

    2014-05-01

    This article presents several simple cantilever-based experiments using common household items (celery, carrot, and a plastic spoon) that are appropriate for introductory undergraduate laboratories or independent student projects. By applying Hooke's law and Euler beam theory, students are able to determine Young's modulus, fracture stress, yield stress, strain energy, and sound speed of these apparently disparate materials. In addition, a cellular foam elastic model is introduced—applicable to biologic materials as well as an essential component in the development of advanced engineering composites—that provides a mechanism to determine Young's modulus of the cell wall material found in celery and carrot. These experiments are designed to promote exploration of the similarities and differences between common inorganic and organic materials, fill a void in the typical undergraduate curriculum, and provide a foundation for more advanced material science pursuits within biology, botany, and food science as well as physics and engineering.

  4. Studies in utilization of fertilizer and soil nitrogen by carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments were conducted to determine the extent of fertilizer N utilization by carrots, using double-labelled 15N-ammonium nitrate. The degree of soil N utilization was also studied. The residual effect of nitrogen in the individual variants was determined in spinach grown as succeeding crop. Under the experimental conditions, N utilization was highest at high water supply (100 % of water capacity). Due to the daily rhythm of pot watering to approximately 100 % of water capacity, gas exchange (air and oxygen) was ensured as well, providing optimum growth conditions. At medium nitrogen rates (12.5 g N/m2), carrots took up 44.5 % of the fertilizer N on sand and 54.5 % on loess soil. When water supply decreased to 70 % of the water capacity, utilization of fertilizer N declined to 26 % on sand and 43.8 % on loess soil. Spinach grown as succeeding crop took up more soil N than fertilizer N. (author)

  5. 利用改进的cDNA RDA技术分离胡萝卜(Daucus carota L.)体细胞胚根发育相关的基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁丰秋; 张雷; 黄美娟; 吴乃虎

    2000-01-01

    根据链霉亲和素与生物素之间的结合作用及磁性吸附分离的原理,发展出改进的cDNA代表性差式分析(representational difference analysis,RDA)技术,并用来检测在调控和解调控培养12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中特异表达的基因.结果显示,在解调控12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中,存在4条特异表达的cDNA片段,命名为NR-1,NR-2,NR-3和NR-4.将这些片段分别克隆在pBS噬菌粒载体中.DNA序列同源性比较表明,片段NR-3和NR-4分别与植物的DnaJ和木质葡聚糖内转糖基化酶(xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase)的编码基因有很高的同源性,而片段NR-2中有一段序列与LEA蛋白(late embryogenesis abundant proteins)基因有一定的同源性.NR-1则可能来自新基因.用32P标记NR-1作探针,与cDNA片段群体进行杂交证实,从解调控12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中克隆到一种与胚根发育相关的新基因序列.Southern杂交表明,此基因在胡萝卜基因组中可能以单拷贝或低拷贝的形式存在.

  6. COST OF PROCESSING CARROT PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Breinling, Jim; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" carrot management strategies found in west central Michigan. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management strategies and calculate their expected cost and profit. This flexibility provides a decision aid to search for systems that generate higher net ret...

  7. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  8. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Rai Aneja; Romika Dhiman; Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal; Vikas Kumar; Manpreeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juic...

  9. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu; Ioan Tenu; Petru Carlescu; Vasile Dobre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required ...

  10. Seed Germinability of 23 Crop Species After a Decade of Storage in the National Genebank of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin-xiong; CHEN Xiao-ling; GUO Ying-he

    2005-01-01

    Seed viability of 18 576 accessions of 23 crops was monitored. After 10-12 years' storage in National Crop Genebank of China (NCGC), more than 96.12% of the accessions maintained high germination percentage (>85%). The germination of 95 accessions, accounting for 0.51% of the total, declined significantly from above 80% to below 70%. For each crop of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa DC.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cotton (Gossypium sp. L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), the mean monitored germination percentage declined significantly as a whole, of which carrot and lettuce seeds lost viability more rapidly. Seed initial germination percentage and pre-storage environments affect subsequent seed viability in storage.

  11. Performance of carrot genotypes at two Jequitinhonha Valley sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antônio Mendes Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful commercial use of carrot depends on the choice of cultivars that are well-adapted to soil and climate conditions at the cultivation site and on good consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of carrot cultivars grown in autumn-winter in two towns with different climatic characteristics, in the High Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil. The experiments were conducted on the Rio Manso farm, in the town of Couto de Magalhães de Minas and on Campus JK at UFVJM, in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Six carrot cultivars (Brasília, Nantes, Kuronan, Esplanada, Planalto and Tornado were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The following morpho-agronomic characteristics were evaluated 100 days after sowing: shoot height, root length, root dry matter, total dry matter, harvest index, commercial yield and total yield root. The most suitable cultivars in Diamantina were Planalto, Tornado and Kuronan, and the cultivatar Planalto was the best suited to Couto de Magalhães de Minas. The agronomic performance of the cultivars was higher in Couto de Magalhães de Minas for the majority of the study variables, resulting in a higher total yield and commercial root yield. The climatic and soil conditions of Diamantina induced flowering in most cultivars, causing a loss to the commercial yield in autumn-winter cultivation.

  12. Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction as alternative technique to Hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabti Boufeldja; Allali Houcine; Desjobert Jean-Marie; Djabou Nassim; El Amine Dib Mohammed; Muselli Alain; Costa Jean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditionally, the essential oil of aromatic herbs is obtained using hydrodistillation (HD). Because the emitted volatile fraction plays a fundamental role in a plant's life, various novel techniques have been developed for its extraction from plants. Among these, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) can be used to obtain a rapid fingerprint of a plant's headspace. Daucus crinitus Desf. is a wild plant that grows along the west coast of Algeria. Only a single st...

  13. Inheritance and mapping of Mj-2, a new source of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) resistance in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes limit carrot production around the world by inducing taproot forking and galling deformities that render carrots unmarketable. In warmer climates, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita are most prevalent. In F2 and F3 progeny from the cross between an Asian carrot resistant to M....

  14. Morphological characteristics, anatomical structure, and gene expression: novel insights into gibberellin biosynthesis and perception during carrot growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Long Wang; Fei Xiong; Feng Que; Zhi-Sheng Xu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are considered potentially important regulators of cell elongation and expansion in plants. Carrot undergoes significant alteration in organ size during its growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying gibberellin accumulation and perception during carrot growth and development remain unclear. In this study, five stages of carrot growth and development were investigated using morphological and anatomical structural techniques. Gibberellin levels in l...

  15. Biological characterization and complete genomic sequence of Carrot thin leaf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host range of a cilantro isolate of Carrot thin leaf virus (CTLV-Cs) was determined to include 15 plant species. The virus was also transmitted to 9 of 11 tested apiaceous species by aphids. Complete genomic sequences of CTLV-Cs and a carrot isolate of CTLV were determined. Their genomic sequenc...

  16. Cloning and characterization of DcLEA1, a new member of carrot LEA gene family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yiming; DIAO Fengqiu; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Meijuan; WU Naihu

    2005-01-01

    Using a modified cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) method, a LEA gene fragment was isolated from the regulated carrot somatic embryo, which was used as the probe to screen the cDNA library of the regulated carrot somatic embryo and the genomic library constructed by the method of altering osmotic pressure. Sequence analysis showed that it is homologous to LEA gene family and designated as DcLEA1 (GenBank number: AF308739), a new member of the carrot LEA gene family. Its transcription region contains 5′ UTR, two exons, one intron and 3′ UTR region; its coding region is 480 bp long, coding for 159 amino acids and one stop codon. Northern hybridization indicated that DcLEA1 gene was not expressed in the adult carrot but expressed at high levels in the regulated carrot somatic embryo. In carrot somatic embryo which had been deregulated for 12 hours, the expression levels dropped rapidly; with the prolongation of deregulation, the radicle of carrot somatic embryo began to stretch, and the expression level of DcLEA1 gene increased. This phenomenon is similar to the expression pattern of LEA gene in the course of dormancy and germination of the seed; thus suggesting that the sucrose regulation-deregulation system of the carrot somatic embryo can be used to mimic plant seed dormancy and germination and can also be used to study the molecular mechanisms of these two biological processes.

  17. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  18. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  19. Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioavailability of anthocyanins from juiced purple carrots was investigated through a human feeding study. Ten healthy adults consumed three doses of purple carrot juice, and bioavailability was assessed by appearance of anthocyanins in plasma for 8 hours after the dose. Doses were 50 mL, 150 mL, ...

  20. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  1. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J.-P.; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  2. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  3. New carrot microsatellites – linkage mapping, diversity analysis and transferability to other apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 300 new microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from genomic sequences of carrot. Efforts to map these markers and evaluate their usefulness in diversity studies are underway. In one F2 carrot population, a total of 51 polymorphic markers, including 37 codominan...

  4. Beyond Carrots and Sticks: Toward a Transformative Model of Division I Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Sandy Hatfield

    2012-01-01

    The old expression about the carrot and the stick, which refers to the application of reward and punishment to induce action, dates back to the days when pack mules were used for transportation. The mules would move toward carrots that dangled just ahead of them--and move all the faster because they feared drivers with sticks behind them. In 2012,…

  5. Some microbiological, histopathological and biochemical changes in the broiler chicken fed carrot leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count

  6. Evaluation the Sensory and Probiotics Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Carrot Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of carrot juice. Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of carrot juice at different levels (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% on sensory properties and the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 24 % carrot juice significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of 107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-days shelf life. The yogurt with 24% carrot juice was the most appreciated (7.07 points, followed by the classic yogurt (6 points, yogurt with 8% (5.28 points and yogurt with16% carrot juice (5.5 points.

  7. Assessing the Likelihood of Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum to Carrot by Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, Joseph E; Mustafa, Tariq; Fisher, Tonja W; Sengoda, Venkatesan G; Horton, David R

    2016-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important Solanaceae and Apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. This bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and to Apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica. Five haplotypes of Lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, whereas the other three are associated with carrot and celery crops and carrot psyllids. Little is known about cross-transmission of Lso to carrot by potato psyllids or to potato by carrot psyllids. Thus, the present study assessed whether potato psyllid can transmit Lso to carrot and whether Lso haplotypes infecting solanaceous species can also infect carrot and lead to disease symptom development. In addition, the stylet probing behavior of potato psyllid on carrot was assessed using electropenetrography (EPG) technology to further elucidate potential Lso transmission to Apiaceae by this potato insect pest. Results showed that, while potato psyllids survived on carrot for several weeks when confined on the plants under controlled laboratory and field conditions, the insects generally failed to infect carrot plants with Lso. Only three of the 200 carrot plants assayed became infected with Lso and developed characteristic disease symptoms. Lso infection in the symptomatic carrot plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay and Lso in the carrots was determined to be of the haplotype B, which is associated with solanaceous species. EPG results further revealed that potato psyllids readily feed on carrot xylem but rarely probe into the phloem tissue, explaining why little to no Lso infection occurred during the controlled laboratory and field cage transmission trials. Results of our laboratory and field transmission studies, combined with our EPG results, suggest

  8. Researches concerning nitrates and nitrites accumulation in carrots, along of the vegetation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica NEGREA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the determination of nitrates and nitrites content in carrots, in different vegetation stages of the carrot culture. High nitrates and nitrites concentration in vegetables is mainly due to excessive nitrogen content in the soil system, thus deteriorating the nutritional and hygienic values of products and complicating the processing and storage. The determination was tested on carrot samples assayed from an experimental field set up near Timisoara. In experimental field, to the carrot culture was administrated different doses of fertilizers (NPK and the samples for analysis were assayed in different phases of vegetation. The obtained results indicated that the highest level of nitrate in carrots was found to the variant b3 (N150P90K90 in experimental field, who was above maximum limit allowed (LMA. Maximum limit allowed for nitrates in carrots, in accordance with ORDER No. 293/640/2001-1/2002 regarding security and quality conditions for vegetables and fresh fruits for human consumption is 400 ppm. For all other samples of carrots the nitrates level was below of LMA. The nitrite content grows in case of fertilizer administration during the whole vegetation stages of the plant. In variant N150P90K90 the nitrite content was above (LMA in carrot samples in all stages of vegetation. The nitrite content in carrots should not exceed 1-2 ppm. Nitrate and nitrite content in carrots was done with the help of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC in the Laboratory for the Measurement of Residues of the Department of Agro-techniques of the U.S.A-V.M.B in Timisoara.

  9. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  10. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P5 cfu/g, 3.0x102 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially

  11. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  12. Expression of a Carrot Antifreeze Protein Gene in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinyu; Shen Xin; Lu Cunfu

    2003-01-01

    The recombinant expression vectorpET43. lb-AFP, which contains full encoding region of a carrot 36 kD antifreeze protein (AFP) gene was constructed. The recombinant was transformed into expression host carrying T7 RNA polymerase gene (DE3 lysogen) and induced by 1 mmol. L-1 IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside) to express 110 kD polypeptide of AFP fusion protein.The analysis of product solubility revealed that pET43. 1b-AFP was predominately soluble, and the expressed amount reached the maximum after the IPTG treatment for 3 h.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazghelichi, Tayyeb; Kianmehr, Mohammad Hossein; Aghbashlo, Mortaza [Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 33955-159, Pakdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the energy and exergy analyses of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 C, BD (bed depths) of 30, 60, and 90 mm and square-cubed carrot dimensions of 4, 7, and 10 mm. The effects of drying variables on energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The energy utilization and energy utilization ratio varied between 0.105-1.949 kJ/s and 0.074-0.486, respectively. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency were found to be in the range of 0.206-1.612 kJ/s and 0.103-0.707, respectively. The results showed that small particles, deep beds and high inlet air temperatures increased energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, and exergy loss due to high value of heat and mass transfer. Also, the exergy efficiency had maximum value when higher drying air temperature, larger CS (cube size) and shorter BD were used for drying experiment. (author)

  14. Kinetic of softening of carrot by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw carrots were diced into 9.5 mm cubes, and subjected to gamma radiation between an array of Co60 pencils. A series of doses ranging from 0 to approximately 50 kGy was given. A plot of log (extrusion force) versus dose showed two distinct regions; the first is a rectilinear plot with a steep negative slope for doses up to about 15 kGy. The second is also a rectilinear plot with a shallow negative slope beyond 15 kGy. Sixty-seven percent of the firmness is lost with the first 15 kGy but only 4% of the firmness is lost with the highest 15 kGy increase in dose. This two-stage softening rate curve is consistent with the model of two first-order kinetic rate processes and is qualitatively similar to that for thermal softening of carrot. The term “radiation firmness” is proposed to describe the amount of firmness that is resistant to degradation by irradiation

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the energy and exergy analyses of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 oC, BD (bed depths) of 30, 60, and 90 mm and square-cubed carrot dimensions of 4, 7, and 10 mm. The effects of drying variables on energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The energy utilization and energy utilization ratio varied between 0.105-1.949 kJ/s and 0.074-0.486, respectively. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency were found to be in the range of 0.206-1.612 kJ/s and 0.103-0.707, respectively. The results showed that small particles, deep beds and high inlet air temperatures increased energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, and exergy loss due to high value of heat and mass transfer. Also, the exergy efficiency had maximum value when higher drying air temperature, larger CS (cube size) and shorter BD were used for drying experiment.

  16. Effects of ethylene on gene expression in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate ethylene effects on expression of genetic information, cDNA clones corresponding to ethylene-induced carrot root mRNAs were constructed and isolated. RNA dot blot analysis showed that for the three clones studied peak cytosolic mRNA prevalence occurred at 21 hours of treatment followed thereafter by rapid messenger decay. DNA filter excess hybridization to in vitro synthesized nuclear RNA showed that the ethylene-induced mRNA increase is engendered by transcription of previously quiescent genes. The kinetics and magnitude of changes in mRNA prevalence parallel changes in transcriptional activity; therefore, the ethylene effect is primarily at the level of the transcription. In vivo pulse labelling with [35S]-methionine showed that between 18 and 27 hours of ethylene treatment a 2.5 fold increase in translational efficiency occurred for one message studied. The resulting protein is the predominant protein synthesized in carrots treated with ethylene for 27 hours. Thus, ethylene exerts multiple regulatory controls on the expression of genetic information

  17. Caron-14-trifluralin residues in soil and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence and movement of 14C-trifluralin and its metabolites were studied in sandy loam soil under outdoor conditions. Uptake by carrots of the herbicide from the treated soil was also investigated. The bulk of the 14C residues was present in the upper 0-7.5 cm layer during the growing period. The non-extractable 14C residues increased with time. Downward movement of the 14C-trifluralin, or its degradation products, was not observed at significant concentrations. After 4 months, 2.7 and 6.1% of the initially applied radioactivity were found in the form of metabolites, designated TR-1 and TR-2, respectively, in the combined soil samples from the three depths. The metabolites TR-4 and TR-1, as well as trace amounts of the metabolite TR-21, were present in the form of soil bound 14C residues. Most of the radioactivity was located in the peel of the carrots. The pulp contained 14C residues of TR-1 and TR-2 (0.010 and 0.004 ppm, respectively). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Navneet; Sarkar, B. C.; Sharma, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10−9 to 4.64 ×...

  19. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI, gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0, while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0 with coefficient of variance (CV of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

  20. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  1. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2012-02-01

    Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10(-9) to 4.64 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for drying carrot pomace. The activation energy value was 23.05 kJ/mol for the whole falling rate period. PMID:23572823

  2. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  3. Studies on causes of rising the nitrate content in carrots before harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was confirmed that large nitrogen amounts in the soil may cause the nitrate content in carrot roots to rise before harvest when conditions are unfavourable, that is e.g., when the weather is cool, humid and cloudy over a longer period of time or when the carrot leaves died off or were removed before harvest. Experiments with 15N-nitrate showed that rising nitrate content in the roots are not caused by a translocation of nitrate from the leaves to the roots. The production of low-nitrate carrots requires to avoid excessive and late nitrogen application and to grow carrots, particularly those used later on for infant food, on low nitrogen soils. Phytosanitary measures should be taken to prevent premature dying back of the leaves caused by pests. (author)

  4. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  5. Influence of pre-treatment on some physical-chemical properties of dried carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Sério, Susana; Correia, Paula; Barroca, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Carrot is the most commonly used vegetable for human nutrition and is an excellent source of β-carotene, vitamin A and potassium, and contains cholesterol-lowering pectin, vitamin C, vitamin B6, thiamine, folic acid, and magnesium. Carrots are highly seasonal and abundantly available at particular times of the year. For extending the availability of this root, several preservation processes can be used, but convective drying is one of the most important since it not only extends...

  6. Biochemical and physiological analysis in carrot seeds from different orders of umbels

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Marcelo Coelho Sekita; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias; Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In carrot seed production, harvesting of the umbels is generally staggered, or sometimes the whole plant is harvested with the umbels at different stages of maturation; in that case, there is a risk of harvesting immature seeds and of losses due to natural dehiscent, or to physiological deterioration as a result of unfavourable environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes related to the maturation of 'Planalto' carrot seeds from...

  7. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria recovered from natural fermentation of beet root and carrot Kanji

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, J. J.; Radhika, M.; Roshini, P. T.; Raksha, M. A.; H.S. Murali; Batra, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the fermentation of vegetables to improve nutritive value, palatability, acceptability, microbial quality and shelf life of the fermented produce. The LAB associated with beetroot and carrot fermentation were identified and characterized using different molecular tools. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) provided similar DNA profile for the 16 LAB strains isolated from beetroot and carrot fermentation while repetitive ...

  8. Development of Job’s tears ice cream recipes with carrot juice and pumpkin paste

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2011-01-01

    Carrot juice and pumpkin paste were used as ingredients in Job’s tears ice cream. Carrot juice or pumpkin paste added at 50% was equally preferred by 100 consumers compared to the original Job’s tears ice cream. The new types of ice cream were lower in antioxidant capacity and higher in total phenolic content but could still be considered as potential antioxidant products. Purchase intent was significantly increased (p

  9. Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Jalali, Ali; MOMAYYEZI, MAHDIEH; Bazm, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the incidence and mortality being higher in men than in women. Various studies have shown that eating carrots may play a major role in the prevention of gastric cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between carrot consumption and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like...

  10. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bélair, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those followi...

  11. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt added of “caviar” of carrot by children

    OpenAIRE

    Richtier Gonçalves Cruz; Henrique Silvano Arruda; Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida; Virgínia Souza Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed investigated to the preparation of yogurt with addition of “caviar” carrot and realize carried out sensory analysis of acceptance by children from elementary school. The “caviar” was prepared using the spherification technique with sodium alginate and added to the beaten-type yogurt without pulp addition at the ratio of one portion of the carrot for one portion of yogurt. Were conducted microbiological analyses and subsequently the sensory evaluation with children. The microb...

  12. Influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot plants on the regeneration in the tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of chronic irradiation of tobacco and carrot donor plants on the regeneration processes in vitro has been studied. The plants were grown on the soil containing different concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90. The morphogenesis intensity was decreased after irradiation of the tobacco plants by the dose of 0,5 Gy and the carrot plants by the dose of 0.07-0.4 Gy

  13. Effect of Plant Age and Longidorus africanus on the Growth of Lettuce and Carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiang; Ploeg, Antoon T.

    2001-01-01

    Needle nematodes, Longidorus africanus, were added to carrot and lettuce seedlings in a range of inoculum levels and at various times after seeding. The effects of inoculum density and delayed inoculation on plant growth were analyzed according to Seinhorst's damage function. Growth of both lettuce and carrot was severely affected by L. africanus, but delaying nematode inoculation until 10 days after seeding significantly increased estimated minimum yields in both crop species. Tolerance leve...

  14. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. PMID:25367889

  15. A two stage model describes radiation softening of carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of food continues to be a subject of considerable scientific interest even though its commercial use is still small. A limiting factor in irradiation of horticultural crops is the softening it causes in fruit or vegetable tissue. Doses above about 1 kGy (100 krad) render the product unacceptably soft. Vegetable tissue is also softened greatly during thermal processing. Thermal softening of vegetable occurs in two stages: a rapid first-order process, followed by a second slow first-order process. To better understand the softening problem we studied the kinetics of radiation softening of raw carrot tissue using modern texture measuring equipment and compared it with the kinetics of thermal softening. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Herbicide contamination in carrot grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food safety and security is a burning issue of the time whereas vegetable production is an important aspect of agriculture. Use of herbicides for vegetable production is very common in Pakistan but no proper procedure has been planned to keep optimal level of doses of herbicide under permissible limit. To estimate the pesticide residues, samples from the leading carrot producing sites were collected along with the samples from the market. The samples were processed using standard procedures and qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was concluded that all the samples were contaminated with S-metolachlor in the range of 0.45 to 0.73 mg kg-1 which was above the permissible limit (0.40 mg kg-1). (author)

  17. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  18. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  19. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP3, PP3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP3) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  20. Influence of carrot pomace powder on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatica Kohajdová; Jolana Karovičová; Michaela Jurasová

    2012-01-01

    Background.Vegetable by-products are considered as good sources of dietary fibre and other biologically important compounds. Moreover, they are inexpensive and are available in large quantities. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition and hydration properties of dietary fibrerich carrot pomace powder. The impact supplementation of carrot pomace at different levels (replacing of fine wheat flour with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of carrot pomace) on farinographic properties of whe...

  1. Morphological Characteristics, Anatomical Structure, and Gene Expression: Novel Insights into Cytokinin Accumulation during Carrot Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Long Wang; Sheng Sun; Guo-Ming Xing; Xue-Jun Wu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins have been implicated in normal plant growth and development. These bioactive molecules are essential for cell production and expansion in higher plants. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the process of plant growth. However, cytokinin accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth have not been elucidated. To address this problem, carrot plants at five stages were collected, and morphological and anatomical character...

  2. Requerimientos hídricos de la zanahoria (D. carota L.) durante tres etapas de su desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa; Germán Eduardo Cely-Reyes; Edilson Emilio Neira-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    La zanahoria (D. carota L.) es uno de los principales productos del departamento de Boyacá, participa con 1093 ha, especialmente en los municipios de Ventaquemada, Samacá y Tunja. Los híbridos Chantenay tienen en Ventaquemada un rendimiento promedio de 20 t.ha-1, que es bajo comparado con el de la Sabana de Bogotá, de 28.1t.ha-1; las limitantes en la producción de la zona son: falta de riego, semillas de altas exigencias agronómicas (adecuada mecanización del suelo, fertilización apropiada…) ...

  3. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficien...

  4. The CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project: Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  5. Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor in the CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  6. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H. [Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences

    1996-07-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

  7. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net 14C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with 14C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net 14C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net 14C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net 14C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops

  8. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt added of “caviar” of carrot by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richtier Gonçalves Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed investigated to the preparation of yogurt with addition of “caviar” carrot and realize carried out sensory analysis of acceptance by children from elementary school. The “caviar” was prepared using the spherification technique with sodium alginate and added to the beaten-type yogurt without pulp addition at the ratio of one portion of the carrot for one portion of yogurt. Were conducted microbiological analyses and subsequently the sensory evaluation with children. The microbiological analyses showed that the product was fit for consumption. The average score in points obtained in the sensory analysis with 52 children was 6.7 (with 6.6 in males and 6.8 in females, it is that girls had higher scores (p < 0.05. The general index of acceptability to yogurt with “caviar” of carrot was 95.70%. It concludes that yogurt plus “caviar” carrot sensory was accepted because it presents high notes reflecting on their acceptability index, suggesting that this product is used as an alternative to increase the consumption of carrots by children.

  9. Effect of air velocity on kinetics of thin layer carrot pomace drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2011-10-01

    Carrot pomace is a by-product obtained during carrot juice processing. Thin layer carrot pomace drying was performed in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at the air velocity of 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 m/s at air temperatures from 60 to 75 °C. It was observed that whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The best fit model was observed on the basis of R², Chi-square and RMSE values. R² values for all the selected models were above 0.9783. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.61 × 10(-9) to 3.64 × 10(-9) m²/s. PMID:21954311

  10. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model. PMID:26703199

  11. State of the art regarding carrot fly control in practice and possibilities in the future for Western and Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2009-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae) is a major pest of umbelliferous crops, particularly in carrot production. This pest is present in temperate regions of Northern and Western Europe and also in the warm and dry climate of Central and Southern Europe. Currently, control strategies are limited and there ma

  12. Effect of UV-B light and different cutting styles on antioxidant enhancement of commercial fresh-cut carrot products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots are a rich source of antioxidants. Fresh-cut processing provides a convenient way to consume this nutritious root crop. Cutting operations induce wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase, and enhance the nutrient content of carrots by increasing t...

  13. MOLECULAR TAGGING AND SELECTION FOR SUGAR-TYPE IN CARROT ROOTS USING CO-DOMINANT, PCR-BASED MARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots storage roots accumulate free sugars. The type of sugar accumulated is conditioned by the Rs locus so that typical carrot roots (Rs/-) accumulate predominantly glucose and fructose while rs/rs plants accumulate predominantly sucrose. We recently have found rs/rs plants in one inbred line har...

  14. Transmission of different strains of Spiroplasma citri to carrot and citrus by Circulifer tenellus Baker (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot purple leaf disease (CPLD) was associated with the presence of Spiroplasma citri in 2006 in the state of Washington, USA (Lee et al. 2006). The objectives of this work were to (1) confirm S. citri as the causal agent of CPLD by fulfilling Koch’s postulates, (2) to determine whether carrot str...

  15. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  16. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP3 mobilizes Ca++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP3, Ca++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45Ca++ placed in a Ca++-free medium, and efflux determined as 45Ca++ loss from the protoplasts. IP3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45Ca++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP3-enhanced 45Ca++ efflux suggested that IP3 released Ca++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca++ activated Ca++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF PRETREATMENT CONDITIONS OF CARROTS TO MAXIMIZE JUICE RECOVERY BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. SHARMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrot juice was expressed in a hydraulic press using a wooden set up. Carrot samples pretreated at different designed combinations, using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, of pH, temperature and time were expressed and juice so obtained was characterized for various physico-chemical parameters which involved yield, TSS and water content, reducing sugars, total sugars and color (absorbance. The study indicated that carrots exposed to the different pretreatment conditions resulted in increased amount of yield than that of the control. The responses were optimized by numerical method and were found to be 78.23% yield, 0.93% color (abs, 3.41% reducing sugars, 5.53% total sugars, 6.69obrix, and 90.50% water content. All the derived mathematical models for the various responses were found to be fit significantly to predict the data.

  18. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  19. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  20. Two isoforms of plant RAD23 complement a UV-sensitive rad23 mutant in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair by nucleotide excision (NER) has been demonstrated in plant cells at the biochemical level but until now none of the molecular components of the plant NER complex has been identified. In this paper, the cloning and characterization of two isoforms of RAD23 from carrot (Daucus carota L.) are reported. It has been suggested that RAD23 in yeast is an assembly factor of the NER complex required for transcription-coupled repair as well as efficient overall genome repair. A functional assay demonstrated that both plant homologues complement the UV-sensitive phenotype of a rad23 deletion mutant of yeast. This result suggests that homologous polypeptides may catalyse NER in plants and yeast and, possibly, by a similar mechanism

  1. Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, F; Bordoni, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the modifications of antioxidant activity consequent to 3 typical home cooking practices (steaming, boiling, and microwave cooking) in fresh and home frozen vegetables. Six different vegetable species were examined: carrots (Daucus carota L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomatoes (Solanumn lycopersicum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), and yellow peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). All vegetables were conventional products and were analyzed in season to minimize differences due to agricultural practice and storage. Cooking and freezing are generally regarded as destructive to antioxidants, and this has fostered a belief among many consumers that raw vegetables are nutritionally superior to their frozen and/or cooked forms. In the current study, we provide evidence that this is not always the case. PMID:19241586

  2. Companion Cropping as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phasealous Vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six companion crops, (Tagetes spp L. (African marigold), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Brassica spp. L. kale), capsicum spp L. (chilli) and Zea mays (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips, (Frankliniella occidentals (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers for use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  3. Functional gene polymorphism to reveal species history: the case of the CRTISO gene in cultivated carrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soufflet-Freslon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carrot is a vegetable cultivated worldwide for the consumption of its root. Historical data indicate that root colour has been differentially selected over time and according to geographical areas. Root pigmentation depends on the relative proportion of different carotenoids for the white, yellow, orange and red types but only internally for the purple one. The genetic control for root carotenoid content might be partially associated with carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO has emerged as a regulatory step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and could be a good candidate to show how a metabolic pathway gene reflects a species genetic history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the nucleotide polymorphism and the linkage disequilibrium among the complete CRTISO sequence, and the deviation from neutral expectation were analysed by considering population subdivision revealed with 17 microsatellite markers. A sample of 39 accessions, which represented different geographical origins and root colours, was used. Cultivated carrot was divided into two genetic groups: one from Middle East and Asia (Eastern group, and another one mainly from Europe (Western group. The Western and Eastern genetic groups were suggested to be differentially affected by selection: a signature of balancing selection was detected within the first group whereas the second one showed no selection. A focus on orange-rooted carrots revealed that cultivars cultivated in Asia were mainly assigned to the Western group but showed CRTISO haplotypes common to Eastern carrots. CONCLUSION: The carotenoid pathway CRTISO gene data proved to be complementary to neutral markers in order to bring critical insight in the cultivated carrot history. We confirmed the occurrence of two migration events since domestication. Our results showed a European background in material from Japan and Central Asia. While confirming the introduction of European

  4. Effect of UV-C on phytoalexin accumulation and resistance to Botrytis cinerea in stored carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV-C (220-280 nm) on the accumulation of phytoalexin and resistance to Botrytis cinerea was studied in cold-stored carrots. Carrots were surface-wounded, treated with a range of UV doses and stored at 1 degree C for 25 days in lots of 22 roots. The level of the phytoalexin, 6-methoxymellein, in each lot was then assayed in the peel of eight roots. Twelve of the remaining roots were subsequently inoculated with mycelial plugs to evaluate their level of disease resistance. The elicitation of 6-methoxymellein by UV increased significantly the resistance of the roots to B. cinerea. The effect of UV in freshly harvested carrots was curvilinear, showing an optimum between 0.44 and 0.88 Merg/cm(2). However, only a linear relationship was observed with aged (stored for 4 months at 1 degree C) carrots for the same doses, suggesting a modification in the response to UV with age. Wounding was necessary for carrots kept at 1 degree C to respond to UV treatment. Neither UV nor wounding alone caused any elicitation at this temperature. Since unwounded roots could respond to UV at 20 degrees C, it is hypothesized that the level of physiological activity of the roots determines their response to UV. An increase in the physiological activity by higher temperatures or wounding would allow the elicitation process to take place. Since UV irradiation can increase the level of disease resistance in treated tissues, this treatment has potential as an alternative method for the control of post-harvest diseases in carrots

  5. Health biomarkers in a rat model after intake of organically grown carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Organic foodis perceived as beingofbetter quality andhealthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two......: This well-controlled field study demonstrated no clear influence of cultivation methods or harvest year on the nutritional quality of carrots or effect of cultivation methods on health-related biomarkers in a sensitive rat model. However, the experimental set-up and selected biomarkers could be used as...

  6. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  7. Draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov., a carrot-associated endophytic actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhu, Liying; Jiang, Ling; Xu, Xian; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Zhidong; Huang, He

    2015-09-01

    Paenibacillus dauci sp. nov., a new kind of endophytic actinobacteria, is separated from the inner tissues of carrot sample, which forms intimated associations with carrot acting as biological control agents. Here we report a 5.37-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for biological processes such as antibiotic metabolic process, antimicrobial metabolism, anaerobic regulation and the biosynthesis of vitamin B and polysaccharide. This novel strain can be a potential source of novel lead products for exploitation in the field of pharmaceutical, agriculture and industry. PMID:26484263

  8. INVESTIGATION OF ULTRASOUND WAVES ON PRETREATMENT OF OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF CARROT SLICES

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmasebi, Soheila; Mirzaee, Somaye; Kaviyani, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Mahsa; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, carrot slices were put in glucose osmotic 50% at 1, 2 and 3 hr. Ultrasound waves, frequency 40 kH power 30 w/l, passed through container of osmotic solution and carrot slices. The results revealed that significant increasing of dry matter of sample by using ultrasound waves.pre osmotic time had a significant on dry material by increasing from 1to 3 hr.sample treated by ultrasound waves lost water faster and their final dry solid was significantly more than control (without ultr...

  9. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the freshness of strawberries and carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peneau, S.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Escher, F.;

    2007-01-01

    of strawberries and carrots that varied in cultivar, as well as with time and conditions of storage. Product characteristics measured by descriptive sensory and physico-chemical analyses were related to consumer and expert panel (individual and consensus) ratings of freshness. Results showed that a...... large number of attributes contributed to the freshness of strawberries and carrots and that those were also indicators of the physiological ageing of these products. Our results suggest that consumer evaluation of fruit and vegetable freshness corresponds to an evaluation of this ageing process through...

  10. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne;

    2013-01-01

    significant changes in features during the inspection days. Discrimination by the SVM classifier supported these results. Additionally, 2-sided t-tests on the predictions of the elastic-net regressions were carried out to compare our results with previous studies on fried carrots. The experimental results...

  11. Design of Carrot Harvester%胡萝卜收获机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亮; 杨华; 安红宇; 靳晓燕

    2015-01-01

    为了解决胡萝卜收获季节人工紧缺、费用昂贵的问题,结合国内胡萝卜的种植模式和农艺要求,研发设计了新型高效侧悬挂式胡萝卜收获机。该机一次完成挖掘松土、夹持输送、对齐切缨及集条放铺的工作过程,为夹持式胡萝卜收获机械的进一步研究和发展提供了借鉴。%In order to solve the carrot harvest season artificial shortage and expensive problems combined with domestic carrot planting pattern and agronomic requirements , R & D and design of a new type of high efficiency side suspension type carrot harvester .The machine to complete a dig , blessing the conveying , alignment cut tassel and set a laying process,further research and development for the clamping carrot harvest machinery and provides a reference .

  12. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.;

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...

  13. Comparison of prediction methods for the uptake of As, Cd and Pb in carrot and lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    background scenario, the NMF and other models predicted the concentrations in carrot and lettuce within the range of measured values. Regressions considering soil pH, organic matter and clay content were not superior to simple transfer factors. The transfer from air to plant is significant, at least under...

  14. Cloning and expression of DnaJ homolog in carrot somatic embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As the co-chaperone of DnaK/Hsp70 protein, DnaJ/Hsp40 protein influences the synthesis and assembly of the protein complex by regulating ATPase activity of DnaK/Hsp70 protein. By employing the modified method of cDNA representational difference analysis, a homologous fragment of DnaJ was isolated from the deregulated carrot somatic embryos, and it was further used as the probe to screen the cDNA library of carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h. As the result, DcJ1 gene, the homologous gene of DnaJ, was isolated from carrot. Sequence analysis showed that its coding region is 1257 bp, which codes 418 amino acids and comprises 3 highly-conserved characteristic domains. Southern blot analysis suggested that the DcJ1 gene seems to be a single copy in the genome, while Northern blot result indicated that DcJ1 expresses only in roots and its degree of expression changes obviously with the regulation-deregulation process. These results suggest that DcJ1 is correlated with the early development of carrot somatic embryo radicle.

  15. Metabolite fingerprinting of exudates from carrot roots grown under phosphorus stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To see if differences in the metabolite content of exudates obtained from cultured carrot roots grown in the presence and absence of phosphorus could be detected, crude samples were analyzed via Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The highly accurate masses and elemental compo...

  16. Antioxidant characterization and sensory evaluation during storage of ultraviolet-B light exposed baby carrots (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby carrot processing induces wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), enhancing its nutrient content by increasing synthesis of secondary metabolites. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure further promotes the formation of soluble phenolic compounds, significantly increasing antiox...

  17. Serum a- and b-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    b-Carotene is a predominant source of vitamin A in developing countries. Genetically selected ‘‘high carotene’’ carrots could have an impact on the vitamin A and antioxidant status of people if widely adopted. A 3 3 3 crossover study in humans (n = 10) evaluated the difference in uptake and clearanc...

  18. Bioavailability and speciation of arsenic in carrots grown in contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, H.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Carrots were grown in seven experimental plots (A-G) containing mixtures of arsenic-contaminated and uncontaminated soil at concentrations ranging from 6.5 to 917 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). The carrots harvested from plots A-D (6.5-338 mu g g(-1) arsenic in the soil mixtures) showed a gradually...... increasing depression of growth with increasing level of contamination, At the experimental plots E-G with soil arsenic concentrations above 400 mu g g(-1) no carrots developed. Whether this effect was caused by arsenic or the concomitant copper content which ranged from 11 to 810 mu g g(-1) in the soil...... mixtures is unknown. The arsenic species extracted from the soils and carrots were separated and detected using anion-exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS, In the less contaminated soils from plots A and B arsenite (As-III) was more abundant than arsenate (As-V) in the soil using 1 mmole l(-1) calcium nitrate...

  19. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    spectral images of visible and NIR bands. High dimensional feature vectors were formed from all possible ratios of spectral bands in 9 different percentiles per piece of carrot. We propose to use a multiple hypothesis testing technique based on the Benjamini-Hachberg (BH) method to distinguish possible...

  20. Inhibitory effect on foodborne pathogens by native microflora associated with fresh peeled baby carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibitory effect of fresh peeled baby carrot and associated microflora on the viability and growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas marginalis in vitro and in situ was investigated. The population of viable L. mo...

  1. Quality parameters in convective dehydrated carrots blanched by ultrasound and conventional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2013-11-01

    The effect of previous ultrasound and conventional blanching treatments on drying and quality parameters (2-furoylmethyl-amino acids -as indicators of lysine and arginine participation in the Maillard reaction-, carbohydrates, total polyphenols, protein profile, rehydration ratio, microstructure changes) of convective dehydrated carrots has been assessed. The most striking feature was the influence of blanching on the subsequent 2-furoylmethyl-amino acid formation during drying, probably due to changes in the protein structure. The highest values of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids were found in carrots conventionally blanched with water at 95°C for 5 min. However, samples previously treated by ultrasound presented intermediate values of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids and carbohydrates as compared to the conventionally blanched samples. Dried carrots previously subjected to ultrasound blanching preserved their total polyphenol content and showed rehydration properties, which were even better than those of the freeze-dried control sample. The results obtained here underline the usefulness of 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids as indicators of the damage suffered by carrots during their blanching and subsequent drying. PMID:23768402

  2. Occurrence and molecular detection of Spiroplasma citri in carrots and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2014, carrot plants in Zacatecas, Mexico, were found with yellow, brown (chlorotic), and/or purple-colored leaves, small and/or rolled leaves, and hairy, deformed, and/or small roots. Molecular diagnostics of these symptomatic plants failed to detect phytoplasmas in these samples, bu...

  3. COSII-Based Mapping and Diversity in Potato, Tomato, Sweet Potato and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presentation reports progress on a USDA NRI grant to enhance understanding of and access to the genetic diversity in wild and landrace relatives of tomato, potato, sweet potato, and carrot, and contribute to the same for other euasterid plant species. This is being done with Conserved Or...

  4. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  5. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice, shalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and anti...

  6. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed. PMID:26498966

  7. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  8. Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in head to eat carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of g radiation on the total carotenoids, α and β-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (α and β-carotene). According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The carotenoid stability varies largely during the stages of processing and storage, depending upon structure, temperature, oxygen availability, light exposure, humidity content, water activity and acid, metal anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant presence. The minimally processed carrots in this experiment were manually peeled, rinsed, cutted into diskis, packaged under 5% O2 / 10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air), g ionizing radiation treatments was carried out with a 137Cs source, of 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 and 1,0kGy doses, and shelf-stored at 5°C for 24 days. Total carotenoids quantification was by 449nm spectrophotometer. Determination of a and β-carotenes was made by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The different treatments and control group were, too, evaluated by analysing of colour and volatiles, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy with solid phase microextration (CG-MS/SPME), for study the significant carotenoids losses during the process

  9. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC...

  10. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Clarification of Blended Carrot-orange Juice and Improvement of its Carotene Content

    OpenAIRE

    Karangwa Eric; H. Khizar; L. Rao; D.S. Nshimiyimana; M.B.K. Foh; L. Li; S.Q. Xia and X.M. Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the processing parameters for the clarification of blended carrot-orange juice using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and to improve the carotene content. The blended carrot-orange juice was treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L enzyme at different concentrations (0.04- 0.12%), pH (2.5-5), reaction temperature (40-60ºC) and time (70-110 min). The effect of these independent variables on clarity, turbidity, and viscosity of the carrot-orange juice was evaluate...

  11. Effect of Antifreeze Peptide Pretreatment on Ice Crystal Size, Drip Loss, Texture, and Volatile Compounds of Frozen Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Charles H Z; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2016-06-01

    Ice crystal formation is of primary concern to the frozen food industry. In this study, the effects of antifreeze peptides (AFPs) on ice crystal formation were assessed in carrot during freezing and thawing. Three synthetic analogues based on naturally occurring antifreeze peptides were used in this study. The AFPs exhibited modification of ice crystal morphology, confirming their antifreeze activity in vitro. The ability of the synthetic AFPs to minimize drip loss and preserve color, structure, texture, and volatiles of frozen carrot was evaluated using the techniques of SEM, GC-MS, and texture analysis. The results prove the potential of these AFPs to preserve the above characteristics in frozen carrot samples. PMID:27138051

  12. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  13. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Suzy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galvao, Natascha S.; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHB556 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB556 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11514-1 VHB556P (Link to Original ... ase, complete cds. 32 3e-04 5 AB177648 |AB177648.1 Daucus ... carota DcPA 2 mRNA for plasma membrane H+-ATPase, ... complete sequence. 46 0.068 1 AB177651 |AB177651.1 Daucus ... carota DcPA 5 mRNA for plasma membrane H+-ATPase, ...

  15. Inhibitory effect of chitosan on growth of the fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and sclerotinia rot of carrot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; ZUO Jin-hua; WANG Qian; NA Yang; GAO Li-pu

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of chitosan on a common fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the control effect on sclerotinia rot of carrot were investigated. Mycelial growth and fungal biomass were strongly inhibited by chitosan. Using propidium iodide stain combined with lfuorescent microscopy, the plasma membrane of chitosan-treated S. sclerotiorum mycelia was observed to be markedly damaged. Concomitantly, protein leakage and lipid peroxidation was also found to be signiifcantly higher in chitosan-treated mycelia compared to the control. Chitosan provided an effective control of sclerotinia rot of carrot, with induction of activity of defense-related enzymes including polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase. These data suggest that the effects of chitosan on sclerotinia rot of carrot may be associated with the direct damage to the plasma membrane and lipid peroxidation of S. sclerotiorum, and the elicitation of defense response in carrot.

  16. (1)H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals a Pedoclimatic Metabolic Imprinting in Ready-to-Drink Carrot Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alberta; Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Capuani, Giorgio; Delfini, Maurizio; Aureli, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2016-06-29

    Carrots are usually consumed in their native form or processed into many different products. Carrot juice is a popular beverage consumed throughout the world and is attracting increasing attention due to its nutritional value, being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Ready-to-drink carrot juices produced in the same factory were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The juices were made from carrot roots of the same cultivar grown in three different geographical areas in Italy. More than 30 compounds have been identified and quantified, and the data was subjected to univariate ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Clear geographical-dependent clustering was observed, and the metabolic profiles were related to the different pedoclimatic conditions. The proposed phytoprofiling approach could be employed on an industrial scale to evaluate finished products involving different sites of supply of the raw material, thus improving both the quality and uniformity of the juices. PMID:27281439

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions in the life-cycle of carrots and tomatoes. Methods, data and results from a study of the types and amounts of carrots and tomatoes consumed in Sweden. With arable land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika

    1997-03-01

    Methods, data and results from an assessment of the arable land use and some greenhouse gas emissions during part of the life-cycle of the consumed carrots and tomatoes in Sweden during 1992-1993 are presented in the report. The life-cycle was delineated to transportation, storage, farm production and production of fertilizers. Carrots from six countries and tomatoes from four countries were analyzed. The study is reported with full transparency. The results are presented as the use of arable land (in m{sup 2}) and as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in g CO{sub 2} equivalents) required to sustain current Swedish consumption patterns of carrots and tomatoes. Emissions per kg of consumed tomato were 10 times higher than for carrots. Emissions from carrots were lowest when they were produced within or close to Sweden, while the opposite was the case for tomatoes. The key issues in the life-cycle of the analyzed carrots and tomatoes are identified and discussed. The general conclusions are that storage may be a key issue for vegetables with a long durability and adapted to a northern European climate. For vegetables with short durability, the key issue may be transportation if they are not adapted to a northern European climate but still cultivated in the open. The key issue for vegetables with a short durability may be energy requirements during farm production if the vegetables are not adapted to a northern European climate and therefore cultivated under glass. 3 figs, 57 tabs

  18. 胡萝卜火腿肠生产工艺%Processing technology of carrot ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌喜; 董玲娟

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of carrot ham sausage was introduced in this paper, and this new product could satisfy people with carrot nutrition and enrich the meat market.%介绍了胡萝l、火腿肠的加工工艺,产品满足人们对胡萝卜的营养需要,丰富了肉制品市场的种类。

  19. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT) can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose). 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl) galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the a...

  20. Involvement of a vitronectin-like protein in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot suspension culture cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, V T; Matthysse, A G

    1992-01-01

    Infections of dicotyledonous plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens result in the formation of crown gall tumors. Attachment of the bacteria to plant host cells is required for tumor formation. Human vitronectin and antivitronectin antibodies both inhibited the binding of A. tumefaciens to carrot cells. Wild-type bacteria are able to bind radioactive vitronectin; nonattaching mutants showed a reduction in the ability to bind vitronectin. The binding of biotype 1 A. tumefaciens to carrot cells or...

  1. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz Mehtap; Manin Sylvie; Chung Sang-Min; Cavagnaro Pablo F; Ali Aamir; Alessandro Maria S; Iorizzo Massimo; Senalik Douglas A; Simon Philipp W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of l...

  2. Influence of carrot pomace powder on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.Vegetable by-products are considered as good sources of dietary fibre and other biologically important compounds. Moreover, they are inexpensive and are available in large quantities. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition and hydration properties of dietary fibrerich carrot pomace powder. The impact supplementation of carrot pomace at different levels (replacing of fine wheat flour with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of carrot pomace on farinographic properties of wheat dough and qualitative and sensory characteristics of wheat rolls were also evaluated. Material and methods. Chemical analyses included determination of moisture, ash, fat, proteins and total dietary fibre. Hydration properties such as water holding, water retention and swelling capacity were also de- termined. Rheological parameters of carrot pomace powder incorporated wheat doughs were determined by farinograph.Wheat rolls were evaluated for their qualitative (volume, cambering and sensory characteristics. Results.Carrot pomace powder was found as good source of total dietary fibre and showed high values of hydration properties. Incorporation of this by-product to wheat dough influences farinographic characteristics (increasing of water absorption, dough development time and dough stability, decreasing of mixing tolerance index of dough and qualitative parameters of final products (decreasing of loaf volume and cambering. From the sensory evaluation resulted that loaves incorporated with carrot pomace powder up to 3% were the most acceptable for assessors. Conclusions. Carrot pomace powder can be considered as suitable functional ingredient for wheat rolls. Enrichment wheat flour with low concentrations of carrot pomace powder (1 and 3% not only increases nutrition value of products but also did not have significantimpact on their quality and sensory acceptability.

  3. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  4. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  5. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  6. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidorn, Christian; Jöhrer, Karin; Ganzera, Markus; Schubert, Birthe; Sigmund, Elisabeth Maria; Mader, Judith; Greil, Richard; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    A dichloromethane extract of root celery yielded falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxydiol, and the new polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol. The structure of the new compound was established by one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR, mass spectrometry, and optical rotation data. Nonpolar extracts of roots and bulbs of carrots, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip were investigated for their content of polyacetylenes by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). All five species contained polyacetylenes, although carrots and fennel only in minor amounts. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the four polyacetylenes against five different cell lines was evaluated by the annexin V-PI assay. Falcarinol proved to be the most active compound with a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2, with an IC(50) of 3.5 micromol/L. The possible chemopreventive impact of the presented findings is discussed briefly. PMID:15796588

  7. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    -crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields in...... warmer regions of the world. To test whether hybrids are formed and survive in wild Danish populations, and whether prolonged hybridization has led to introgression of cultivar genes, we collected leaf material from adult individuals growing close to carrot fields and analysed their genotypic composition...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  8. Optimization of the carrot leaf dehydration aiming at the preservation of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vivian de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrot leaf dehydration conditions in air circulation oven were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM for minimizing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic (LNA, 18:3n-3. The optimized leaf drying time and temperature were 43 h and 70 ºC, respectively. The fatty acids (FA were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column; FA were identified with standards and based on equivalent-chain-length. LNA and other FA were quantified against C21:0 internal standard. After dehydration, the amount of LNA, quantified in mg/100 g dry matter of dehydrated carrot leaves, were 984 mg.

  9. Polyphosphoinositides are present in plasma membranes isolated from fusogenic carrot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusogenic carrot cells grown in suspension culture were labeled 12 hours with myo-[2-3H]inositol. Plasma membranes were isolated from the prelabeled fusogenic carrot cells by both aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning and Renografin density gradients. With both methods, the plasma membrane-enriched fractions, as identified by marker enzymes, were enriched in [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2). An additional [3H]inositol-labeled lipid, lysophosphatidylinositol monophosphate, which migrated between PIP and PIP2 on thin layer plates, was found primarily in the plasma membrane-rich fraction of the fusogenic cells. This was in contrast to lysophosphatidylinositol which is found primarily in the lower phase, microsomal/mitchrondrial-rich fraction

  10. NUTRIENT DEMAND BY THE CARROT CROP IS INFLUENCED BY THE CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Filomena Batista Almeida Aquino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers must carefully choose the cultivar to be grown for a successful carrot crop. The yield potential of the cultivar may influence nutrient demand and should be known to plan for fertilization application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cultivar effect on carrot yield and on the nutrient content and quantities allocated to leaves and roots. Three experiments were set up in two crop seasons in Rio Paranaíba, MG, Brazil. In the first season, typical summer, 10 summer cultivars were sown. In the second season, summer-winter (transition, two experiments were set up, one with summer cultivars and the other with winter cultivars. The treatments consisted of the carrot cultivars distributed in randomized blocks with four replications. Fresh and dry matter of the roots and leaves was quantified. Yield was calculated based on fresh matter of the roots. The nutrient content in leaves and roots was determined at the time of harvest. These contents and the dry matter production of roots and leaves were used to calculate nutrient uptake and export. The greatest average for total and commercial yield occurred in the crop under summer conditions. Extraction of N and K for most of the cultivars in the three experiments went beyond the amounts applied through fertilizers. Thus, there was contribution of nutrients from the soil to obtain the yields observed. However, the amount of P taken up was considerably less than that applied. This implies that soil P fertility will increase after cropping. The crop season and the cultivars influenced yield, nutrient content in the leaves and roots, and extraction and export of nutrients by the carrot crop.

  11. Enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues using carrot and celeriac enzymes system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues catalyzed by carrot and celeriac was performed in moderate conversions and excellent enantiomeric excesses.The steric factors and electronic effects of the substituents at the aromatic ring were found to significantly affect the efficiency of the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone analogues,while they had a little effect on the enantioselectivity of acetophenone analogues reduction.It was also found that the conversions of acetophenone anal...

  12. Investigating the role of pectin in carrot cell wall changes during thermal processing: A microscopic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Albert; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Palmero, Paola; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cell wall integrity upon thermal treatment were assessed in carrot cells using novel microscopic approaches using Congo red and different cell wall polysaccharide specific probes (JIM7, LM10, LM11, LM15, LM21, LM22 and CBM3a). Strong thermal processing induced an increased accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses by Congo red and the specific probes, except galactomannan, which detection was not affected by the thermal processing. Detection of pectin by JIM7 disappeared upon t...

  13. Root growth and soil nitrogen depletion by onion, lettuce, early cabbage and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2001-01-01

    Experiments examining root growth, the utilization of N and the effect of green manures were carried out on four vegetable crops. Large differences were observed both in rooting depth penetration rates, and in final rooting depth and distribution. Onion had a very low depth penetration rate, carrot an intermediate rate, and lettuce and cabbage showed high rates. A combination of depth penetration rates and duration of growth determined rooting depth at harvest. Therefore, lettuce, which had a...

  14. DcSto: carrot Stowaway-like elements are abundant, diverse, and polymorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated nine families of Stowaway-like MITEs in the carrot genome, named DcSto1 to DcSto9. All of them were AT-rich and shared a highly conserved 6 bp-long TIR typical for Stowaways. The copy number of DcSto1 elements was estimated as ca. 5,000 per diploid genome. We observed preference for ...

  15. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Bhimanagouda S; Stamatikos Alexis; Foroudi Shahrzad; Potter Andrew S; Deyhim Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers i...

  16. Predictive value of the sulfidoleukotriene release assay in oral allergy syndrome to celery, hazelnut, and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Weber, J M; Vieths, S; Wüthrich, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients sensitized to birch pollen frequently suffer from a food allergy to plant foods such as celery, carrots, or hazelnut. One of the main manifestations of birch pollen-related food allergy is the oral allergy syndrome. Skin tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations are poor predictors of such reactions when assessed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a cellular test based on leukotriene release...

  17. Mechanism of Column and Carrot Sprites Derived from Optical and Radio Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.; Cummer, S. A.; McHarg, M. G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lightning current moment waveforms observed simultaneously with high-speed video records of a column and a carrot sprite event are incorporated in a plasma fluid model to provide quantitative explanation of these two distinct morphological classes of transient luminous events. We first modeled the spatial and temporal variations of the large-scale lightning quasi-static electric field at sprite altitudes. The ability of this field to produce carrot or column sprites is then evaluated using a time integral of the reduced electric field dependent ionization frequency ∫vi(E/N)dt, with exp(∫vi(E/N)dt) representing the total number of free electrons produced by a single seed electron through ionization. For the studied two events, modeling results indicate that in the upper atmosphere these integral values never exceed 18, which is the minimum value required for the initiation of sprite streamers from single seed electrons according to the Raether-Meek criterion. It is therefore suggested that the presence of electron inhomogeneities in the lower ionosphere is a necessary condition for the initiation of sprite streamers. Moreover, the initiation of upward negative streamers is a necessary morphological attribute of carrot sprites. Streamer simulations using a two-step simulation technique demonstrated that upward negative streamers can be initiated in the carrot sprite event at altitudes where the strength of the lightning electric field is large, represented by a minimum value ~10 of the integral. By contrast, in the column sprite event, the integral values in the entire upper atmosphere are smaller than ~10 and the streamer simulations indicate that only downward positive streamers can be produced.

  18. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meriem El Kolli; Hocine Laouer; Hayet El Kolli; Salah Akkal; Farida Sahli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the essential oils (EO) composition, antimicrobial and antioxi-dant power of a local plant, Daucus gracilis (D. gracilis). Methods: The aerial parts of D. gracilis were subjected to hydro distillation by a Cle-venger apparatus type to obtain the EO which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and screened for antimicrobial activity against five bacteria and three fungi by agar diffusion method. The mechanism of action of the EO was determined on the susceptible strains by both of time kill assay and lysis experience. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar macro-dilution and micro-dilution methods. Anti-oxidative properties of the EO were also studied by free diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power techniques. Results: The EO yielded 0.68 (v/w). The chemical analysis presented two dominant constituents which were the elemicin (35.3%) and the geranyl acetate (26.8%). D. gracilis EO inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus and Proteus mirabilis significantly with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 17.15 mg/mL by the agar dilution method and 57.05 mg/mL and 114.1 mg/mL, respectively by liquid micro-dilution. A remarkable decrease in a survival rate as well as in the absorbance in 260 nm was recorded, which suggested that the cytoplasm membrane was one of the targets of the EO. The EO showed, also, important anti-oxidative effects with an IC50 of 0.002 mg/mL and a dose-dependent reducing power. Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  19. Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction as alternative technique to Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabti Boufeldja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, the essential oil of aromatic herbs is obtained using hydrodistillation (HD. Because the emitted volatile fraction plays a fundamental role in a plant's life, various novel techniques have been developed for its extraction from plants. Among these, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME can be used to obtain a rapid fingerprint of a plant's headspace. Daucus crinitus Desf. is a wild plant that grows along the west coast of Algeria. Only a single study has dealt with the chemical composition of the aerial part oils of Algerian D. crinitus, in which isochavicol isobutyrate (39.0%, octyl acetate (12.3%, and β-caryophyllene (5.4% were identified. Using GC-RI and GC-MS analysis, the essential oils and the volatiles extracted from separated organs of D. crinitus Desf. were studied using HS-SPME. Results GC-RI and GC-MS analysis identified 72 and 79 components in oils extracted using HD and in the volatile fractions extracted using SPME, respectively. Two types of essential oils were produced by the plant: the root oils had aliphatic compounds as the main component (87.0%-90.1%, and the aerial part oils had phenylpropanoids as the main component (43.1%-88.6%. HS-SPME analysis showed a more precise distribution of compounds in the organs studied: oxygenated aliphatic compounds were well represented in the roots (44.3%-84.0%, hydrocarbon aliphatic compounds were in the leaves and stems (22.2%-87.9%, and phenylpropanoids were in the flowers and umbels (47.9%-64.2%. Moreover, HS-SPME allowed the occurrence of isochavicol (29.6 - 34.7% as main component in D. crinitus leaves, but it was not detected in the oils, probably because of its solubility in water. Conclusions This study demonstrates that HD and HS-SPME modes could be complimentary extraction techniques in order to obtain the complete characterization of plant volatiles.

  20. Effects of coatings on storability of carrot under evaporative coolant system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different coatings were developed from the mucilage of Cactus and their effects were investigated on the quality and storability of carrot fruits. The four experimental coatings were: Pure mucilage extracts (ME, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml glycerol (MEG, Mucilage extract mixed 5ml soy oil ( MESO, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml olive oil(MEOO the addition of oil served as plasticizer. The following parameters were measured: weight loss, ascorbic acid content, pH, firmness and microbial qualities. Four hundred and eighty (480 carrot were arranged randomly into five treatments, the control (untreated and four coating treatments were stored for seven weeks under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS. Prior to storage, the carrot samples were surface sterilized using 100mg/L sodium hypochlorite. Results showed that Cactus mucilage was effective in extending the shelf-life of carrotwhen compared to untreated control in the following order: MESO>MEOO>MEG>ME>Control. Results revealed that coatings hindered the growth of microorganisms significantly