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Sample records for carriers study design

  1. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [BIMF/Soft Matter Electron Microscopy, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Mariani, Paolo [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60100 Ancona (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ruokolainen, Janne [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma (Italy); Trezza, Viviana [Department of Science, Roma Tre University, 00146 Roma (Italy); Nastruzzi, Claudio, E-mail: nas@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in rats of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) encapsulating rimonabant (RMN) as prototypical cannabinoid antagonist. A study was conducted in order to optimize NLC production by melt and ultrasonication method. NLCs were prepared by alternatively adding the lipid phase into the aqueous one (direct protocol) or the aqueous phase into the lipid one (reverse protocol). RMN-NLCs have been characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). Reverse NLCs were treated with polysorbate 80. RMN release kinetics have been determined in vitro by dialysis method. In vivo RMN biodistribution in rats was evaluated after intranasal (i.n.) administration of reverse RMN-NLC. The reverse protocol enabled to prevent the lost of lipid phase and to achieve higher RMN encapsulation efficacy (EE) with respect to the direct protocol (98% w/w versus 67% w/w). The use of different protocols did not affect NLC morphology and dimensional distribution. An in vitro dissolutive release rate of RMN was calculated. The in vivo data indicate that i.n. administration of RMN by reverse NLC treated with polysorbate 80 increased RMN concentration in the brain with respect to the drug in solution. The nanoencapsulation protocol presented here appears as an optimal strategy to improve the low solubility of cannabinoid compounds in an aqueous system suitable for in vivo administration. - Highlights: • Rimonabant (RMN) can be encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). • Nanoencapsulation improves RMN solubility in a stable physiologic aqueous formulation. • RMN is released in vitro from NLC by a controlled dissolutive release modality. • I.n. administration leads to higher RMN concentration in the brain with respect to plasma. • NLC increases RMN concentration in the brain with respect to

  2. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Contado, Catia; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia; Trezza, Viviana; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in rats of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) encapsulating rimonabant (RMN) as prototypical cannabinoid antagonist. A study was conducted in order to optimize NLC production by melt and ultrasonication method. NLCs were prepared by alternatively adding the lipid phase into the aqueous one (direct protocol) or the aqueous phase into the lipid one (reverse protocol). RMN-NLCs have been characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). Reverse NLCs were treated with polysorbate 80. RMN release kinetics have been determined in vitro by dialysis method. In vivo RMN biodistribution in rats was evaluated after intranasal (i.n.) administration of reverse RMN-NLC. The reverse protocol enabled to prevent the lost of lipid phase and to achieve higher RMN encapsulation efficacy (EE) with respect to the direct protocol (98% w/w versus 67% w/w). The use of different protocols did not affect NLC morphology and dimensional distribution. An in vitro dissolutive release rate of RMN was calculated. The in vivo data indicate that i.n. administration of RMN by reverse NLC treated with polysorbate 80 increased RMN concentration in the brain with respect to the drug in solution. The nanoencapsulation protocol presented here appears as an optimal strategy to improve the low solubility of cannabinoid compounds in an aqueous system suitable for in vivo administration.

  3. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  4. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  5. The Use of Synthetic Carriers in Malaria Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Powles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine research has been ongoing since the 1980s with limited success. However, recent improvements in our understanding of the immune responses required to combat each stage of infection will allow for intelligent design of both antigens and their associated delivery vaccine vehicles/vectors. Synthetic carriers (also known as vectors are usually particulate and have multiple properties, which can be varied to control how an associated vaccine interacts with the host, and consequently how the immune response develops. This review comprehensively analyzes both historical and recent studies in which synthetic carriers are used to deliver malaria vaccines. Furthermore, the requirements for a synthetic carrier, such as size, charge, and surface chemistry are reviewed in order to understand the design of effective particle-based vaccines against malaria, as well as providing general insights. Synthetic carriers have the ability to alter and direct the immune response, and a better control of particle properties will facilitate improved vaccine design in the near future.

  6. DESIGN OF WAVELET PACKET BASED MODEL FOR MULTI CARRIER MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHIR NARAYAN MOHANTY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In current scenario Multi-Carrier modulation (MCM is considered an effective technique for both wire and wireless communications. It divides the entire bandwidth into several parallel sub-channels. This splitting is by dividing the transmit data into several parallel low-bit-rate data streams and then to modulate the carrierscorresponding to those sub-channels. Though MCM technique uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM model, it is very sensitive to Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO, that leads to a severedistortion in subcarrier orthogonality and causes inter channel interference (ICI. In this paper, Wavelet Packet Transform is designed for the model of MCM as a novel alternative to the most exiting Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technique, because of its time frequency representation and lower side lobes intransmitted signals, that reduces inter carrier interference (ICI, and inter symbol interference (ISI. Performance analysis is investigated for such model. Simulation results show a significant enhancement in terms of spectral efficiency.

  7. 77 FR 14012 - Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission's Wireless Telecommunications and... Telecommunications Carrier (ETC) Designation from the Commission for participation in Mobility Fund Phase I...

  8. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  9. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  10. Research on Energy Efficiency Design Index for Sea-going LNG Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Yanyun Yu; Guan Guan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  11. The design of monitoring communication system Based on Power line carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The design of the power line carrier communication system was introduced in this paper,DSP was adopted as the hardware platform to complete the core task.DSP sending terminal delivered the collecting data to the DSP receiving terminal through the power line carrier, and the DSP receiving terminal send the data to PC through a serial port.The design improved the power line carrier communication system and the data transmission became faster and more reliable.The experiment results showed that the PER of the receiving data is less than 0.4%, which satisfied the power line carrier communication requirement Our design is feasible and effective.

  12. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  13. Optimal dimension design of a hatch cover for lightening a bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Um Tae-Sub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the increase of the operating cost and material cost of a ship due to the change of international oil price, a demand for the lightening of the ship weight is being made from various parties such as shipping companies, ship owners, and shipyards. To satisfy such demand, many studies for a light ship are being made. As one of them, an optimal design method of an existing hull structure, that is, a method for lightening the ship weight based on the optimization technique was proposed in this study. For this, we selected a hatch cover of a bulk carrier as an optimization target and formulated an optimization problem in order to determine optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover for lightening the bulk carrier. Some dimensions representing the shape of the hatch cover were selected as design variables and some design considerations related to the maximum stress, maximum deflection, and geometry of the hatch cover were selected as constraints. In addition, the minimization of the weight of the hatch cover was selected as an objective function. To solve this optimization problem, we developed an optimization program based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP using C++ programming language. To evaluate the applicability of the developed program, it was applied to a problem for finding optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover of a deadweight 180,000 ton bulk carrier. The result shows that the developed program can decrease the hatch cover’s weight by about 8.5%. Thus, this study will be able to contribute to make energy saving and environment-friendly ship in shipyard.

  14. Biomimetics: From Bioinformatics to Rational Design of Dendrimers as Gene Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Márquez-Miranda

    Full Text Available Biomimetics, or the use of principles of Nature for developing new materials, is a paradigm that could help Nanomedicine tremendously. One of the current challenges in Nanomedicine is the rational design of new efficient and safer gene carriers. Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers are a well-known class of nanoparticles, extensively used as non-viral nucleic acid carriers, due to their positively charged end-groups. Yet, there are still several aspects that can be improved for their successful application in in vitro and in vivo systems, including their affinity for nucleic acids as well as lowering their cytotoxicity. In the search of new functional groups that could be used as new dendrimer-reactive groups, we followed a biomimetic approach to determine the amino acids with highest prevalence in protein-DNA interactions. Then we introduced them individually as terminal groups of dendrimers, generating a new class of nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics studies of two systems: PAMAM-Arg and PAMAM-Lys were also performed in order to describe the formation of complexes with DNA. Results confirmed that the introduction of amino acids as terminal groups in a dendrimer increases their affinity for DNA and the interactions in the complexes were characterized at atomic level. We end up by briefly discussing additional modifications that can be made to PAMAM dendrimers to turned them into promising new gene carriers.

  15. Biomimetics: From Bioinformatics to Rational Design of Dendrimers as Gene Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Varas-Concha, Ignacio; Almonacid, Daniel Eduardo; González-Nilo, Fernando Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics, or the use of principles of Nature for developing new materials, is a paradigm that could help Nanomedicine tremendously. One of the current challenges in Nanomedicine is the rational design of new efficient and safer gene carriers. Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are a well-known class of nanoparticles, extensively used as non-viral nucleic acid carriers, due to their positively charged end-groups. Yet, there are still several aspects that can be improved for their successful application in in vitro and in vivo systems, including their affinity for nucleic acids as well as lowering their cytotoxicity. In the search of new functional groups that could be used as new dendrimer-reactive groups, we followed a biomimetic approach to determine the amino acids with highest prevalence in protein-DNA interactions. Then we introduced them individually as terminal groups of dendrimers, generating a new class of nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics studies of two systems: PAMAM-Arg and PAMAM-Lys were also performed in order to describe the formation of complexes with DNA. Results confirmed that the introduction of amino acids as terminal groups in a dendrimer increases their affinity for DNA and the interactions in the complexes were characterized at atomic level. We end up by briefly discussing additional modifications that can be made to PAMAM dendrimers to turned them into promising new gene carriers. PMID:26382062

  16. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccard, Matthieu [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Koswatta, Priyaranga [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Holman, Zachary [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-04-06

    "The first step towards building a high-efficiency solar cell is to develop an absorber with few recombination-active defects. Many photovoltaic technologies have already achieved this (monocrystalline Si, III-V materials grown on lattice-matched substrates, perovskites, polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS); those that have not (a-Si:H, organics) have been limited to low open-circuit voltage. The second step is to develop contacts that both inhibit surface recombination and allow for low-resistance collection of either only electrons or only holes. For most photovoltaic technologies, this step is both more difficult and less explored than the first, and we are unaware of a prescribed methodology for selecting materials for contacts to solar cells. We elucidate a unified, conceptual understanding of contacts within which existing contacting schemes can be interpreted and future contacting schemes can be imagined. Whereas a split of the quasi-Fermi levels of holes and electrons is required in the absorber of any solar cell to generate a voltage, carriers are eventually collected through a metallic wire in which no such quasi-Fermi-level split exists. We define a contact to be all layers between the bulk of the absorber and the recombination-active interface through which carriers are extracted. The quasi-Fermi levels must necessarily collapse at this interface, and thus the transition between maximal quasi-Fermi-level splitting (in the absorber) and no splitting occurs entirely in the contact. Depending on the solar cell architecture, the contact will usually extend from the surface of the absorber to the surface of a metal or transparent conductive oxide layer, and may include deposited or diffused doped layers (e.g., as in crystalline and thin-film Si cells) and heterostructure buffer layers (e.g., the CdS layer in a CdTe device). We further define a passivating contact as one that enables high quasi-Fermi-level splitting in the absorber (large “internal” voltage

  17. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  18. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  19. 47 CFR 54.209 - Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers. 54.209 Section 54.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Service Support § 54.209 Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications...

  20. Program and Portfolio Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis: A Case Application to Carrier Strike Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Program and Portfolio Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis A Case Application to Carrier Strike Group Design Parker D. Vascik...Analysis: A Case Application to Carrier Strike Group Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...for Affordability • Case Application: Carrier Strike Group (CSG) seari.mit.edu 2 May 13-14, 2015 THE CHALLENGE OF DESIGN UNDER

  1. Implementation of quality by design principles in the development of microsponges as drug delivery carriers: Identification and optimization of critical factors using multivariate statistical analyses and design of experiments studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoska Crcarevska, Maja; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Sibinovska, Nadica; Mladenovska, Kristina; Slavevska Raicki, Renata; Glavas Dodov, Marija

    2015-07-15

    Microsponges drug delivery system (MDDC) was prepared by double emulsion-solvent-diffusion technique using rotor-stator homogenization. Quality by design (QbD) concept was implemented for the development of MDDC with potential to be incorporated into semisolid dosage form (gel). Quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQA) were defined and identified, accordingly. Critical material attributes (CMA) and Critical process parameters (CPP) were identified using quality risk management (QRM) tool, failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). CMA and CPP were identified based on results obtained from principal component analysis (PCA-X&Y) and partial least squares (PLS) statistical analysis along with literature data, product and process knowledge and understanding. FMECA identified amount of ethylcellulose, chitosan, acetone, dichloromethane, span 80, tween 80 and water ratio in primary/multiple emulsions as CMA and rotation speed and stirrer type used for organic solvent removal as CPP. The relationship between identified CPP and particle size as CQA was described in the design space using design of experiments - one-factor response surface method. Obtained results from statistically designed experiments enabled establishment of mathematical models and equations that were used for detailed characterization of influence of identified CPP upon MDDC particle size and particle size distribution and their subsequent optimization.

  2. Enriching the Tactical Network Design of Express Service Carriers with Fleet Scheduling Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, W.J.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; van Dam, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Express service carriers provide time-guaranteed deliveries of parcels via a network consisting of nodes and hubs. In this, nodes take care of the collection and delivery of parcels, and hubs have the function to consolidate parcels in between the nodes. The tactical network design problem assigns n

  3. Enriching the tactical network design of express service carriers with fleet scheduling characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, W.J.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Dam, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Express service carriers provide time-guaranteed deliveries of parcels via a network consisting of nodes and hubs. In this, nodes take care of the collection and delivery of parcels, and hubs have the function to consolidate parcels in between the nodes. The tactical network design problem assigns n

  4. Chlorogenic acid stabilized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of atorvastatin: formulation, design and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saba; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed; Narang, R S; Narang, Jasjeet K

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at developing an optimized oral nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation of poorly soluble atorvastatin Ca (AT Ca) and assessing its in vitro release, oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity. In this study, chlorogenic acid, a novel excipient having synergistic cholesterol lowering activity was utilized and explored in NLC formulation development. The drug-loaded NLC formulations were prepared using a high pressure homogenization technique and optimized by the Box-Behnken statistical design using the Design-Expert software. The optimized NLC formulation was composed of oleic acid and stearic acid as lipid phase (0.9% w/v), poloxamer 188 as surfactant (1% w/v) and chlorogenic acid (0.05% w/v). The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and % drug entrapment efficiency of optimized NLC were 203.56 ± 8.57 nm, 0.27 ± 0.028 and 83.66 ± 5.69, respectively. In vitro release studies showed that the release of drug from optimized NLC formulations were markedly enhanced as compared to solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and drug suspension. The plasma concentration time profile of AT Ca in rats showed 3.08- and 4.89-fold increase in relative bioavailability of developed NLC with respect to marketed preparation (ATORVA® tablet) and drug suspension, respectively. Pharmacodynamic study suggested highly significant (**p chlorogenic acid integrated NLC.

  5. STUDY ON IMMOBILIZED THERMOLYSIN WITH CELLULOSE AS CARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoGuoliang; ZhuoRenxi; 等

    1996-01-01

    With cellulose as carrier,immobilized thermolysin HE I and HE Ⅱ were prepared by diazo coupling or glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction.Using casein as a substrate,the activity recovery of immobilized thermolysin HE I and HE Ⅱ reach 34.5% and 29%,respectively.Some factors which affect the activity of the immobilized thermolysin such as temperature,medium pH,EDTA and calcium acetate were studied.At the same time,the thermal stability and storage stability of the immobilized thermolysin were also investigated.

  6. Risk Assessment for Natural Gas Hydrate Carriers: A Hazard Identification (HAZID Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyoung Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea transport of natural gas in the form of hydrate pellets is a new technological approach. Introducing new technologies bears raises the possibility of introducing unknown risks or—in case of alternatives for already existing technical solutions—higher risk, either human-, environmental-, or property-related. The option of gas transport by natural gas hydrate pellets has been introduced within the Korean joint research project. One key task was the safety evaluation of the novel natural gas hydrate carrier (NGH carrier developed in the project. The aim of this work was to support and assess the risk aspects of the development to ensure that the risk level for the newly developed concept is as low as for existing competing concepts, especially LNG carriers. The NGH carrier is based on the concept of the self-preservation effect and thereby preserves NGH in the form of pellets at atmospheric pressure and temperatures lower than −20 °C. In order to identify all the possible hazards in the system and then enhance the system safety, a Hazard Identification (HAZID study was conducted. As a result of the HAZID, 80 identified hazards in total were explored and ranked in terms of risk index for the semi-quantitative risk evaluation. Among the hazards identified, three hazards were found to have unacceptable risk level and twenty eight to have acceptable but ALARP risk level. Regarding the hazards with unacceptable risk or ALARP risk, additional safety actions and recommendations for risk control were discussed and proposed in a SAFETY ACTION REGISTER, which would be considered and utilized by designers when developing the detailed system design in the future. In conclusion, the overall safety level of the NGH carrier is considered acceptable. However, it was found that a few external hazards associated with extremely harsh weather could be critical threats to the system. Relevant safety actions against them, therefore, must be provided in the

  7. 电动载运车的设计研究%Design Research on Electric carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文涛; 王莹

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, city surrounding industrial park logistics transportation development is rapid, cargo carrier also will increase rapidly. causing logistics place of the traffic jams and transport vehicles surge cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new kind of electric carrier design plan, the "one car two carrying" improved design, realization carriage body length size free expansion, make, a car carrier have "light and medium" truck load capacity interchangeable function. For carrier manufacturing development provides new breakthrough point.%现今,城市周边的工业园区物流运输发展迅速,货物载运车也随之增加迅猛 ,造成物流场所的交通拥堵和运输车辆猛增造成环境污染. 针对此问题,本文提出一项新型电动载运车的设计方案,采用“一车两载运”改良设计, 实现载运车体长度尺寸自由伸缩,使之,一辆载运车拥有“轻型与中型”货车载重容量互换的功能,为载运车制造业发展提供了新突破点.

  8. Evaluation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions as carriers for UV-filters: characterization, in vitro penetration and photostability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Damiani, Elisabetta; Offerta, Alessia; Rizza, Luisa; Tirendi, Giorgia Giusy; Tarico, Maria Stella; Curreri, Sergio; Bonina, Francesco; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele

    2014-01-23

    The increased awareness of protection against UV radiation damages has led to a rise in the use of topically applied chemical sunscreen agents and to an increased need of innovative carriers designed to achieve the highest protective effect and reduce the toxicological risk resulting from the percutaneous absorption of these substances. In this paper, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE) were formulated to optimize the topical application of different and widespread UVA or UVB sun filters (ethyl hexyltriazone (EHT), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), bemotrizinol (Tinosorb S), octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO)). The preparation and stability parameters of these nanocarriers have been investigated concerning particle size and zeta potential. The release pattern of the sunscreens from NLC and NE was evaluated in vitro, determining their percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of the sunfilters once formulated in NLC or NE. From the results obtained, when incorporated in NLC, the skin permeation abilities of the sun filter were drastically reduced, remaining mainly on the surface of the skin. The photostability studies showed that EHT, DHHB and Tinosorb S still retain their photostability when incorporated in these carriers, while OMC and AVO were not photostable as expected. However, no significant differences in terms of photoprotective efficacy between the two carriers were observed.

  9. Application of DPD in the design of polymeric nano-micelles as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shamsara, Jamal

    2016-05-01

    Developing new drug carrier systems are of a great importance in the treatment approach for a wide range of diseases. The simulation techniques can be valuable for decreasing the time and cost of developing novel drug carriers. Among the simulation methods there are a vast number of studies using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for the prediction of different aspects of polymeric nano-micelles for encapsulating drugs. Here, we reviewed the results of the studies employing DPD for the simulation of drug loading and release in different polymeric micelles carriers. In some cases the simulation results were compared with the experimental results by the authors that were demonstrated the reliability of the DPD predictions.

  10. Co-encapsulating nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal application: from experimental design to the molecular detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, C; Almeida, J; Gonçalves, L M; Almeida, A J; Sousa, J J; Pais, A A C C

    2013-05-10

    Co-encapsulation of drugs directed at commonly associated diseases provides a convenient means for administration, especially if transdermally delivered. In this work, a comprehensive study for the co-encapsulation of drugs with a differential lipophilicity, olanzapine and simvastatin, and their transdermal delivery in a formulation containing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) is presented. Focus is given to the evaluation of a strategy in which NLC and chemical permeation enhancers are combined. It comprises in vitro, in silico and cellular viability approaches. The optimization and rationalization of the systems are carried out using a two-step factorial design. It is shown that the external medium in the NLC dispersion strongly influences permeation. It is also seen that the use of NLC determines a synergistic effect with selected permeation enhancers, thus promoting marked flux enhancement ratios (48 and 21, respectively for olanzapine and simvastatin) relative to the drugs in solution. The developed formulations can be considered non-irritant. A correlation between enhancer positioning in a lipid bilayer, partially governed by a H-bonding phenomenon, and enhancement effect is suggested from molecular dynamics studies and experimental observations.

  11. Mitochondrial glutamate carriers from Drosophila melanogaster: biochemical, evolutionary and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetti, Paola; Cappello, Anna Rita; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Carrisi, Chiara; Martello, Emanuela; Caggese, Corrado; Dolce, Vincenza; Capobianco, Loredana

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are members of a family of transport proteins that mediate solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Two isoforms of the glutamate carriers, GC1 and GC2 (encoded by the SLC25A22 and SLC25A18 genes, respectively), have been identified in humans. Two independent mutations in SLC25A22 are associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. In the present study we show that two genes (CG18347 and CG12201) phylogenetically related to the human GC encoding genes are present in the D. melanogaster genome. We have functionally characterized the proteins encoded by CG18347 and CG12201, designated as DmGC1p and DmGC2p respectively, by overexpression in Escherichia coli and reconstitution into liposomes. Their transport properties demonstrate that DmGC1p and DmGC2p both catalyze the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Computational approaches have been used in order to highlight residues of DmGC1p and DmGC2p involved in substrate binding. Furthermore, gene expression analysis during development and in various adult tissues reveals that CG18347 is ubiquitously expressed in all examined D. melanogaster tissues, while the expression of CG12201 is strongly testis-biased. Finally, we identified mitochondrial glutamate carrier orthologs in 49 eukaryotic species in order to attempt the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the glutamate carrier function. Comparison of the exon/intron structure and other key features of the analyzed orthologs suggests that eukaryotic glutamate carrier genes descend from an intron-rich ancestral gene already present in the common ancestor of lineages that diverged as early as bilateria and radiata.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study of dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Bellotti, Enrico, E-mail: bellotti@bu.edu [ECE Department, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Rd, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sub-picosecond dynamics of photo-excited carriers in GaN. In the theoretical model, interaction with an external ultrafast laser pulse is treated coherently and to account for the scattering mechanisms and dephasing processes, a generalized Monte-Carlo simulation is used. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We study the effect of different scattering mechanisms on the carrier densities. In the case that the excitation energy satisfies the threshold for polar optical scattering, phonon contribution is the dominant process in relaxing the system, otherwise, carrier-carrier mechanism is dominant. Furthermore, we present the temperature and pulse power dependent normalized luminescence intensity. The results are presented over a range of temperatures, electric field, and excitation energy of the laser pulse. For comparison, we also report the experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN samples. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experiment in normalized luminescence intensity results. Therefore, we show that we can explain the dynamics of the photo-excited carriers in GaN by including only carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions and a relatively simple two-band electronic structure model.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-12-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sub-picosecond dynamics of photo-excited carriers in GaN. In the theoretical model, interaction with an external ultrafast laser pulse is treated coherently and to account for the scattering mechanisms and dephasing processes, a generalized Monte-Carlo simulation is used. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We study the effect of different scattering mechanisms on the carrier densities. In the case that the excitation energy satisfies the threshold for polar optical scattering, phonon contribution is the dominant process in relaxing the system, otherwise, carrier-carrier mechanism is dominant. Furthermore, we present the temperature and pulse power dependent normalized luminescence intensity. The results are presented over a range of temperatures, electric field, and excitation energy of the laser pulse. For comparison, we also report the experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN samples. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experiment in normalized luminescence intensity results. Therefore, we show that we can explain the dynamics of the photo-excited carriers in GaN by including only carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions and a relatively simple two-band electronic structure model.

  14. Design and Performance of Sampled Data Loops for Subcarrier and Carrier Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Design parameters and resulting performance are presented for the sampled data analogies of continuous time phase locked loops of second and third order containing perfect integrators. Expressions for noise equivalent bandwidth and steady state errors are given. Stability and gain margin are investigated using z plane root loci. Finally, an application is presented for Voyager subcarrier and carrier tracking under the dynamics of the encounters with Uranus and Neptune. For carrier tracking, loop bandwidth narrow enough for satisfactory loop signal to noise ratios can be achieved using third order loops without rate aiding, whereas second order loops would require aiding. For subcarrier tracking, third order loops can be used when the sampling rate is limited to approximately once per second, as in the Baseband Assembly, whereas second order loops sufficiently wide to track the dynamics have stability problems at that sampling rate.

  15. Design of novel nano-carriers for multi-enzyme co-localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Feng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design novel nano-structured carriers and strategies to co-localize multiple enzymes to mimic the functionalities of MECs. In order to achieve this goal, distinct approaches for enzyme co-localization were developed and evaluated. Specifically, we investigated different polymeric nano-carriers, both flexible and rigid, as platforms for co-localization, as well as distinct enzyme attachment techniques using model enzyme systems using glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase to control the spatial arrangement of the multiple enzymes on the nanocarriers. This platform technology can be potentially used to co-localize various enzyme systems and its broad applicability will be tested using the sclareol biosynthesis process to control the formation of products through the formation of MECs with multiple enzymes NgCPS and sSsSS to regulate the pathway of reactive intermediate to enhance the final product conversion rate.

  16. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  17. Design of mine-used DC carrier telephone based on STM32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufan; Zhou, Hui; Zhan, Minhua; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abide by the design principles of mine intrinsically safe circuit, according to the need of underground communication in coal mine, the paper proposed a design scheme of DC carrier telephone which can dial. The design circuit of the telephone is introduced in detail. The telephone's voice signals are generated by the microphone. After enlarged then the voice signals are modulated to frequency signals by LM567 chip. The frequency signals are coupled by transformer and then transmitted by 12V DC power supply line to the other voice terminals. In the voice terminal the signals are demodulated by LM567 demodulation circuit and enlarged by LM386, then, the amplified audio signals are output from a speaker. The dialing circuit is designed based on the STM32 MCU. The dial information is transmitted to the other telephone terminals by CAN bus. The measured distance calls is greater than 2000m, volume is larger than 85dB, good results.

  18. Tunable Ultrafast Photon Source and Imaging System for Studying Carrier Dynamics in Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Tunable ultrafast photon source and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices This project enabled the acquisition of a...and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices Report Title This project enabled the acquisition of a optical parametric...carrier dynamics in graphene devices As discussed below the focus of this DURIP project was on understanding the interaction between electrons, holes

  19. Carrier-phonon interactions in hybrid halide perovskites probed with ultrafast anisotropy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Jasmine P. H.; Richter, Johannes M.; Price, Michael B.; Credgington, Dan; Deschler, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to their excellent semiconductor properties and solution processability. For this reason, much attention has recently been focused on understanding photoexcited charge-carrier generation and recombination in these materials. Conversely, very few studies have so far been devoted to understanding carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering mechanisms in these materials. This is surprising given that carrier scattering mechanisms fundamentally limit charge-carrier motilities and therefore the performance of photovoltaic devices. We apply linear polarization selective transient absorption measurements to polycrystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid halide perovskite films as an effective way of studying the scattering processes in these materials. Comparison of the photo induced bleach signals obtained when the linear polarizations of the pump and probe are aligned either parallel or perpendicular to one another, reveal a significant difference in spectral intensity and shape within the first few hundred femtoseconds after photoexcitation.

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of kinetics of photoexcited carriers in wide band gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory; Wraback, Michael; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the subpicosecond kinetics of photo-excited carriers in the wide band gap semiconductors GaN and ZnO. In the theoretical model, interaction with a photo-excitation laser pulse is treated coherently and a generalized Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for scattering and dephasing. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. For comparison, experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN and ZnO samples are performed over a range of temperatures and excitation powers.

  1. Design of a nanostructured lipid carrier intended to improve the treatment of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marina Pinheiro,1,* Ricardo Ribeiro,1,* Alexandre Vieira,1,* Fernanda Andrade,2 Salette Reis1 1IUCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This work aimed to design, develop, and characterize a lipid nanocarrier system for the selective delivery of rifabutin (RFB to alveolar macrophages. Lipid nanoparticles, specifically nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC, were synthetized by the high-shear homogenization and ultrasonication techniques. These nanoparticles were designed to exhibit both passive and active targeting strategies to be efficiently internalized by the alveolar macrophages, traffic to the acidified phagosomes and phagolysosomes, and release bactericidal concentrations of the antituberculosis drug intracellularly. NLC that could entrap RFB were prepared, characterized, and further functionalized with mannose. Particles’ diameter, zeta potential, morphology, drug% entrapping efficiency, and drug release kinetics were evaluated. The mannose coating process was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared. Further, the cytotoxicity of the formulations was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in A549, Calu-3, and Raw 264.7 cells. The diameter of NLC formulations was found to be in the range of 175–213 nm, and drug entrapping efficiency was found to be above 80%. In addition, high storage stability for the formulations was expected since they maintained the initial characteristics for 6 months. Moreover, the drug release was pH-sensitive, with a faster drug release at acidic pH than at neutral pH. These results pose a strong argument that the developed nanocarrier can be explored as a promising carrier for safer and more efficient management of tuberculosis by exploiting the pulmonary route of

  2. Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

  3. Intact working memory in non-manifesting LRRK2 carriers--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Helmich, Rick C; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; van Nuenen, Bart F L; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Gurevich, Tanya; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Marder, Karen; Bressman, Susan; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Giladi, Nir; Hendler, Talma; Mirelman, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinsonism. Non-manifesting carriers of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene were found to have lower executive functions as measured by the Stroop task. This exploratory study aimed to assess whether the cognitive impairment in non-manifesting carriers is specific for executive functions or includes other cognitive domains such as working memory. We recruited 77 non-manifesting first-degree relatives of Parkinson's disease patients (38 carriers). A block-design fMRI N-back task, with 0-back, 2-back and 3-back conditions, was used in order to assess working memory. Participants were well matched on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, digit span, age, gender and Beck Depression Inventory. The task achieved the overall expected effect in both groups with longer reaction times and lower accuracy rates with increasing task demands. However, no whole-brain or region-of-interest between-groups differences were found on any of the task conditions. These results indicate that non-manifesting carriers of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene have a specific cognitive profile with executive functions, as assessed by the Stroop task, demonstrating significant impairment but with working memory, as assessed with the N-back task, remaining relatively intact. These finding shed light on the pre-motor cognitive changes in this unique 'at risk' population and should enable more focused cognitive assessments of these cohorts.

  4. A STUDY ON HOT-CARRIER-INDUCED GATE OXIDE BREAKDOWN IN PARTIALLY DEPLETED SIMOX MOSFET'S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongxia; Hao Yue; Zhu Jiangang

    2002-01-01

    The hot-carrier-induced oxide regions in the front and back interfaces are systematically studied for partially depleted SOI MOSFET's. The gate oxide properties are investigated for channel hot-carrier effects. The hot-carrier-induced device degradations are analyzed using stress experiments with three typical hot-carrier injection, i.e., the maximum gate current, maximum substrate current and parasitic bipolar transistor action. Experiments show that PMOSFET's degradation is caused by hot carriers injected into the drain side of the gate oxide and the types of trapped hot carrier depend on the bias conditions, and NMOSFET's degradation is caused by hot holes. This paper reports for the first time that the electric characteristics of NMOSFET's and PMOSFET's are significantly different after the gate oxide breakdown, and an extensive discussion of the experimental findings is provided.

  5. Infrared spectroscopic study of carrier scattering in gated CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwangnam; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Wonki; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Hwang, E. H.; Choi, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured Drude absorption of gated CVD graphene using far-infrared transmission spectroscopy and determined the carrier scattering rate (γ ) as a function of the varied carrier density (n ). The n -dependent γ (n ) was obtained for a series of conditions systematically changed as (10 K, vacuum) → (300 K, vacuum) → (300 K, ambient pressure), which reveals that (1) at low-T, charged impurity (=A /√{n } ) and short-range defect (=B √{n } ) are the major scattering sources which constitute the total scattering γ =A /√{n }+B √{n } , (2) among various kinds of phonons populated at room-T , surface polar phonon of the SiO2 substrate is the dominantly scattering source, and (3) in air, the gas molecules adsorbed on graphene play a dual role in carrier scattering as charged impurity center and resonant scattering center. We present the absolute scattering strengths of those individual scattering sources, which provides the complete map of scattering mechanism of CVD graphene. This scattering map allows us to find out practical measures to suppress the individual scatterings, the mobility gains accompanied by them, and finally the ultimate attainable carrier mobility for CVD graphene.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) II Appendix II to Subpart A of Part 1139 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) Line No....

  7. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohet, Richard M; Goldgar, David E; Easton, Douglas F

    2007-01-01

    oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort study (IBCCS), a retrospective cohort of 1,593 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was analyzed with a weighted Cox regression analysis. Results We found an increased risk...... was found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers that current use of oral contraceptives is associated with risk of breast cancer more strongly than is past use, as is found in the general population. However, duration of use, especially before first full-term pregnancy, may be associated with an increasing risk...

  8. Molecularly designed lipid microdomains for solid dispersions using a polymer/inorganic carrier matrix produced by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Camille; Schönenberger, Monica; Teleki, Alexandra; Kuentz, Martin

    2016-02-29

    Amorphous solid dispersions have for many years been a focus in oral formulations, especially in combination with a hot-melt extrusion process. The present work targets a novel approach with a system based on a fatty acid, a polymer and an inorganic carrier. It was intended to adsorb the acidic lipid by specific molecular interactions onto the solid carrier to design disorder in the alkyl chains of the lipid. Such designed lipid microdomains (DLM) were created as a new microstructure to accommodate a compound in a solid dispersion. Vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic force microscopy as well as electron microscopic imaging were employed to study a system of stearic acid, hydroxypropylcellulose and aluminum magnesium silicate. β-carotene was used as a poorly water-soluble model substance that is difficult to formulate with conventional solid dispersion formulations. The results indicated that the targeted molecular excipient interactions indeed led to DLMs for specific compositions. The different methods provided complementary aspects and important insights into the created microstructure. The novel delivery system appeared to be especially promising for the formulation of oral compounds that exhibit both high crystal energy and lipophilicity.

  9. Should we screen BRCA1 mutation carriers only with MRI? A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, I.-M.; Winter-Warnars, G.A.O.; Mann, R.M.; Hooning, M.J.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 mutation carriers are offered screening with MRI and mammography. Aim of the study was to investigate the additional value of digital mammography over MRI screening. BRCA1 mutation carriers, who developed breast cancer since the introduction of digital mammography between January 2003 and Marc

  10. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for... Internet Association's Consumer Code for Wireless Service will satisfy this requirement. Other commitments.... In doing so, the Commission shall consider the benefits of increased consumer choice, and the...

  11. Towards high charge carrier mobilities by rational design of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Denis; Ruehle, Victor; Baumeier, Bjoern; Vehoff, Thorsten; Lukyanov, Alexander; Kremer, Kurt [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Marcon, Valentina [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lennartz, Christian [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The role of material morphology on charge carrier mobility in partially disordered organic semiconductors is discussed for several classes of materials: derivatives of hexabenzocoronenens, perylenediimides, triangularly-shaped polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and Alq{sub 3}. Simulations are performed using a package developed by Imperial College, London and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (votca.org). This package combines several techniques into one scheme: quantum chemical methods for the calculation of molecular electronic structures and reorganization energies; molecular dynamics and systematic coarse-graining approaches for simulation of self-assembly and relative positions and orientations of molecules on large scales; kinetic Monte Carlo and master equation for studies of charge transport.

  12. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  13. Optimized Carrier Tracking Loop Design for Real-Time High-Dynamics GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Roncagliolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier phase estimation in real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers is usually performed by tracking loops due to their very low computational complexity. We show that a careful design of these loops allows them to operate properly in high-dynamics environments, that is, accelerations up to 40 g or more. Their phase and frequency discriminators and loop filter are derived considering the digital nature of the loop inputs. Based on these ideas, we propose a new loop structure named Unambiguous Frequency-Aided Phase-Locked Loop (UFA-PLL. In terms of tracking capacity and noise resistance UFA-PLL has the same advantages of frequently used coupled-loop schemes, but it is simpler to design and to implement. Moreover, it can keep phase lock in situations where other loops cannot. The loop design is completed selecting the correlation time and loop bandwidth that minimize the pull-out probability, without relying on typical rules of thumb. Optimal and efficient ways to smooth the phase estimates are also presented. Hence, high-quality phase measurements—usually exploited in offline and quasistatic applications—become practical for real-time and high-dynamics receivers. Experiments with fixed-point implementations of the proposed loops and actual radio signals are also shown.

  14. Comparative study of hydrogen and methanol as energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Anna

    1998-06-01

    This report has been written with the purpose to compare hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline, as energy carriers for new energy systems in the future. This energy system must satisfy the demands for sustainable development. The report focuses on motor vehicle applications. A few different criteria has been developed to help form the characterisation method. The criteria proposed in this thesis are developed for an environmental comparison mainly based on emissions from combustion. The criteria concerns the following areas: Renewable resources, The ozone layer, The greenhouse effect, The acidification, and Toxic substances. In many ways, hydrogen may seem as a very good alternative compared with gasoline and diesel oil. Combustion of hydrogen in air results in water and small amounts of oxides of nitrogen. In this report, hydrogen produced from renewable resources is investigated. This is necessary to fulfill the demands for sustainable development. Today, however, steam reforming of fossil fuels represent 99% of the hydrogen production market. Problem areas connected with hydrogen use are for instance storage and distribution. Methanol has many advantages, while comparing methanol and gasoline, like lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, limited emissions of carbon dioxide and no sulphur content. Methanol can be produced from many different resources, for example natural gas, naphtha, oil, coal or peat, and biomass. To meet demands for sustainable production, methanol has to be produced from biomass Examination paper. 32 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  16. The Scope of Design Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yin; Ren Wenying

    2007-01-01

    This article trys to discuss the scope of design studying in two fields.Firstly, design has three meanings: wide design, art design and industrial design.Secondly, design studying has five contents: cultural, philosophical, methodological, produced and marketable trends.

  17. "Contagious love": a qualitative study of the couple relationships of ten AIDS carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Doron; Noa, Teichner; Adi, Grey; Yehudit, Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative study in this article portrays the couple relationship among AIDS carriers, based on Sternberg's triangular love theory (involving domains of intimacy, passion and commitment). The central study hypothesis is that certain components of the Sternberg model will be more significant than others among the AIDS carrier population. The study was conducted on ten AIDS carriers aged 21-37 who had experienced a couple relationship. Six men and four women participated; most of them were in a romantic couple relationship of homosexual orientation.The interviewees answered a questionnaire that included the three domains-- intimacy, passion and commitment--in the personal interview technique. The interview focused on interviewee's attitude towards his/her relationship with a partner, as he/she understood it. The findings of the study focus on relevant content that was gathered from the interviews and these portray a limited view of couple patterns in the world of AIDS carriers. The study reveals two major findings regarding the carrier's desires: On the one hand, the carrier describes a powerful need for a stable, permanent relationship--from the diagnosis of AIDS and throughout the subsequent years. On the other hand, the carrier also expresses powerful sexual desires that are not necessarily limited to a permanent partner. Thus passion is the dominant among the three domains.The intimacy domain is mainly affected by disclosure of the disease and the joint coping that follows.The findings are discussed in the context of the romantic internalized model theory and Sternberg's triangular love theory.

  18. Design of a dual nanostructured lipid carrier formulation based on physicochemical, rheological, and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorino, Carla [University of Coimbra, Centro de Estudos Farmaceuticos (CEF), Faculty of Pharmacy (Portugal); Alves, Luis; Antunes, Filipe E. [University of Coimbra, Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Sousa, Joao J. [University of Coimbra, Centro de Estudos Farmaceuticos (CEF), Faculty of Pharmacy (Portugal); Pais, Alberto A. C. C., E-mail: pais@qui.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The synergy between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and chemical penetration enhancers provides the basis for a promising strategy to effectively deliver drugs through the skin. In the present work, focus is given to the study of the interaction of limonene, ethanol, and Carbopol Ultrez{sup Registered-Sign} 10NF, as the gelling agent, with a co-encapsulating NLC dispersion, containing both olanzapine and simvastatin. The analysis is based on rheological, mechanical, and physicochemical properties. The nanoparticle size ranged from 130 to 400 nm, depending on the system considered. The inclusion of carbopol resulted in a considerable increase in the NLC particle size, which was attributed to carbomer bridging nanoparticles, resulting in some particle aggregation. Rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of the neat carbopol hydrogel was reduced by the enhancers and to a higher extent by the presence of NLC. A more apolar medium can be pointed out as a general explanation, while a polymer/nanoparticle hydrophobic interaction coupled with surfactant/polymer H-bonding provides the rationale for the NLC effect. The inclusion of enhancers and a carbomer largely contributed to the physicochemical stability of the NLC formulation, as revealed by the low transmission profiles and more negative zeta potential values.

  19. Studies on mechanism of enhanced dissolution of albendazole solid dispersions with crystalline carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the mechanism of drug release from solid dispersions of albendazole, giving special emphasis to particle size of the drug in solid dispersions. Solid dispersions were prepared using three different carriers, mixing ratios and methods in an attempt to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of albendazole. The mechanism of enhanced dissolution was investigated by a novel dissolution technique as an adjunct to phase solubility study, wettability test, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The solubility of albendazole was greater with albendazole-poloxamer 407 system, while polyethylene glycol dispersions showed predominant wettability. Physical mixtures showed enhanced dissolution compared with the pure drug, due to improved wetting and solubilization of drug in the diffusion layer offering carrier-rich microenvironment. Preparation of solid dispersion further improved the dissolution compared to the physical mixture, owing to increased surface area for mass transfer, thermodynamically enhanced dissolution of a higher energy amorphous form from the carrier, in addition to improved wetting and solubilization. All carriers showed comparable degree of drug particle size reduction, whereas mixing ratio and method of preparation substantially affected the particle size. Intermolecular association of drug with the carrier led to inhibition of drug recrystallization.

  20. Exposure to diagnostic radiation and risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations : retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Andrieu, Nadine; Easton, Douglas F.; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Cardis, Elisabeth; Nogues, Catherine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Paterson, Joan; Manders, Peggy; van Asperen, Christi J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Hauptmann, Michael; Goldgar, David; Rookus, Matti A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Design Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK). Setting Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, Participants 1993 femal

  1. Study of LO-phonon decay in semiconductors for hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, Hugo; Vidal, Julien; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of phonon decay is of crucial importance when studying basic properties of semiconductors, since they are closely related to Raman linewidth and non-equilibrium-hot-carriers cooling. The latter indeed cools down to the bottom of the conduction band within a picosecond range because of electron-phonon interaction. The eventual emitted hot phonons then decay in few picoseconds. The hot carriers cooling can be slowed down by considering the decay rate dependence of phonon on conservation rules, whose tuning may reduce the allowed two-phonon final states density. This is of direct interest for the third generation photovoltaic devices that are Hot Carrier Solar Cells (HCSC), in which the photoexcited carriers are extracted at an energy higher than thermal equilibrium. One of the HCSC main challenges then is to find an absorber material in which the hot phonons has a relaxation time longer than the carriers cooling time, so that we can expect the electron to ``reabsorb'' a phonon, slowing down the electronic cooling. HCSC yield is ultimately limited by LO phonon decay, though. In this work, we present theoretical results obtained from ab initio calculations of phonon lifetime in III-V and IV-IV semiconductors through a three-phonon process. Common approximations in the literature are questioned. In particular, we show that the usual ``zone-center approximation'' is not valid in some specific semiconductors. The analysis allows to correctly investigate phonon decay mechanisms in bulk and nanostructured materials.

  2. Design and data analysis 1 study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give the reader guidance in evaluating different study designs used in medical research for better scientific quality, reliability and validity of their research. This article explains three main types of study designs with understanding examples. Care and caution with skills and experience needed to design suitable studies and appropriate design coupled with reliable sampling techniques and appropriate statistical analysis, supported by clear objectives with decent communication of the findings, are essential for good research.

  3. Time Resolved Studies of Carrier Dynamics in III -v Heterojunction Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Duncan James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Picosecond time-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study transient processes in Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As/InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and in bulk Ga_{.47}In _{.53}As and GaSb. To facilitate the experimental studies, apparatus was constructed to allow the detection of transient luminescence with 3ps time resolution. A frequency upconversion technique was employed. Relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As by optic phonons has been investigated, and, at carrier densities ~3 times 10^{18}cm ^{-3} is found to be a considerably slower process than simple theory predicts. The discrepancy is resolved by the inclusion of a non-equilibrium population of longitudinal optic phonons in the theoretical description. Slow energy loss is also observed in a 154A MQW under similar conditions, but carriers are found to relax more quickly in a 14A MQW with a comparable repeat period. The theory of non-equilibrium mode occupation is modified to describe the case of a MQW and is found to agree with experiment. Carrier relaxation in GaSb is studied and the importance of occupation of the L _6 conduction band valley in this material is demonstrated. The ambipolar diffusion of a photoexcited carrier plasma through an InP capping layer was investigated using an optical time-of-flight technique. This experiment also enables the efficiency of carrier capture by a Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As quantum well to be determined. A capture time of 4ps was found.

  4. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz and a TCXO clock.

  5. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenfei; Lin, Tao; Niu, Xiaoji; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-10-01

    In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz) with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz) and a TCXO clock.

  6. Application of Box-Behnken design for optimization of formulation parameters for nanostructured lipid carriers of candesartan cilexetil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal P Thakkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with development and optimization of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs of candesartan cilexetil (CC for improving its oral bioavailability. From solubility and lipid-water partition studies of CC in various lipids, glyceryl monostearate (GMS and glyceryl monocaprylate were selected as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively. NLCs were formulated by hot melt-emulsification-ultrasonication method. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the independent variables, lipid: drug ratio (X1, solid lipid: liquid lipid ratio (X2 and surfactant concentration (X3. Different batches were prepared and evaluated for responses, particle size (Y1, zeta potential (Y2 and % entrapment efficiency (Y3. Response surface plots and perturbation plots were constructed to study the effect of factors on responses. The optimized formulation containing X1 - 22.47:1, X2 - 7.23:1 and X3 - 1.97% was prepared and evaluated. Observed values for Y1, Y2, and Y3 were found to be closer to the predicted values thus validating the optimization method. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of pure drug, GMS and lyophilized drug loaded NLCs indicated complete miscibility of drug into lipids. The release of CC from the NLCs conducted in artificial gastric fluid (pH 1.2 was much higher than in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8. The formulated NLCs were found to be more stable at refrigerated condition (5°C ± 3°C as compared with room temperature (25°C ± 2°C/60% RH% ± 5% RH. The use of design approach helped to identify critical formulation parameters in CC loaded NLCs preparation.

  7. Theoretical Study of Carrier Mobility in Two-Dimensional Tetragonal Carbon Allotrope from Porous Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Gao; Hui Xiang; Bo Xu; Yi-Dong Xia; Jiang Yin; Zhi-Guo Liu

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of two-dimensional tetragonal carbon allotrope (T-CA) from porous graphene is investigated by first-principles calculations.T-CA can be constructed from divacancy and Stone-Thrower-Wales defects from graphene.T-CA is a direct semiconductor with a band gap of 0.4 eV at Γ point.T-CA possesses a high carrier mobility of the order of 104 cm2 V-1s-1.As our study demonstrates,T-CA has potential applications for next-generation electronic materials.

  8. Rational design of broad spectrum antibacterial activity based on a clinically relevant enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Johannes; Chang, Andrew; Shah, Sonam; Lu, Yang; Liu, Li; Pan, Pan; Hirschbeck, Maria W; Tareilus, Mona; Eltschkner, Sandra; Yu, Weixuan; Cummings, Jason E; Knudson, Susan E; Bommineni, Gopal R; Walker, Stephen G; Slayden, Richard A; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Tonge, Peter J; Kisker, Caroline

    2014-06-06

    Determining the molecular basis for target selectivity is of particular importance in drug discovery. The ideal antibiotic should be active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic organisms with a minimal effect on human targets. CG400549, a Staphylococcus-specific 2-pyridone compound that inhibits the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), has recently been shown to possess human efficacy for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, which constitute a serious threat to human health. In this study, we solved the structures of three different FabI homologues in complex with several pyridone inhibitors, including CG400549. Based on these structures, we rationalize the 65-fold reduced affinity of CG400549 toward Escherichia coli versus S. aureus FabI and implement concepts to improve the spectrum of antibacterial activity. The identification of different conformational states along the reaction coordinate of the enzymatic hydride transfer provides an elegant visual depiction of the relationship between catalysis and inhibition, which facilitates rational inhibitor design. Ultimately, we developed the novel 4-pyridone-based FabI inhibitor PT166 that retained favorable pharmacokinetics and efficacy in a mouse model of S. aureus infection with extended activity against Gram-negative and mycobacterial organisms.

  9. Tailor-Made Enzyme Carriers: Preparation and Use of Adsorbents Specifically Designed to Immobilize Allosteric Enzymes in Activated Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The enzyme immobilization has experienced substantial growth in the recent past and an ever increasing amount of study has been reported on various aspects of immobilized enzymes. In most of these investigations, catalytic activities are found to be diminished as compared to the enzyme free in solution. Approach: Hydrophobic adsorbents were prepared containing L-leucine or citric acid, two positive allosteric effectors, for bovine liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3 and heart mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 , respectively. Results: Immobilized preparations of these well-defined allosteric enzymes indicated improved catalytic activities as compared with those involving use of the adsorbents without these activators. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is concluded that the regulatory proteins are Furthermore; they retain their natural capacity for undergoing the conformational transitions needed for enhanced catalytic activities. Adsorptive immobilization of these two allosteric proteins in activated conformation may serve as useful models in relation to design strategies for preparation of tailor-made enzyme carriers.

  10. A Comparative Study on Evaluating the Service Quality Attributes based on Kano Model: A Case of Low-cost Carrier and Full-service Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Hyojeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of low-cost carriers(LCC with competitive price is heating up the competition in the aviation market more, especially between low-cost carriers(LCC and full-service carriers(FSC. Therefore, it became more important than ever to implement service differentiation strategies of each airline for securing customers and competitiveness. In this sense, the purpose of this study is to compare and assess the different expectations of the customers for airline service attributes pursued by FSCs and LCCs. Three main dimensions of airline service quality attributes (physical, human, and system service, were selected and this study clarified the service quality attributes of each airline carrier using Kano Model. Data were collected from Korean passengers who experienced both LCCs and FSCs for international or domestic flights. As results, this study demonstrated several differences in airline service quality attributes between FSCs and LCCs, which imply that each airline needs to adopt differential strategies to be more competitive. In particular, most physical-related attributes for FSCs were a ‘must-be’ dimension while the majority of attributes for LCCs was clarified ‘one-dimensional’ attribute. The current study also presented implications to be helpful in developing the quality of service and establishing marketing strategies for improvement in customer satisfaction.

  11. Existing Design Trends for Tankers and Bulk Carriers - Design Changes for Improvement of the EEDI in the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Lützen, Marie

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity is the primary one, a proposal...

  12. Studies of the ADP/ATP carrier of mitochondria with fluorescent ADP analogue formycin diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, C; Klingenberg, M

    1979-06-05

    The ADP/ATP carrier was studied by a fluorescent substrate, formycin diphosphate which is the only fluorescent ADP analogue to bind. Its low quantum yield, short decay time and spectral overlap with tryptophan has as yet prevented its wider use. By incorporating fluorescent acceptors of formycin diphosphate fluorescence, anthracene-maleimide and vinylanthracene, into the membrane, these difficulties were circumvented. Only bound formycin diphosphate transfers energy to the probes so that the secondary emission of these probes is a measure for membrane-bound formycin diphosphate. The fluorescent transfer is inhibited by ADP, bongkrekate and carboxyatractylate whether added before or after incubation of formycin diphosphate showing that only binding to the adenine nucleotide carrier is measured. It also shows directly that the earlier demonstrated ADP fixation by bongkrekate is indeed a displacement into the matrix. The fluorescence decay time of the bound formycin diphosphate is measured as 1.95 ns compared to 0.95 ns of the free formycin diphosphate, indicating that formycin diphosphate is bound at the carrier in a non-polar environment. The depolarization decay time was found to be larger than 15 ns, indicating that carrier-bound formycin diphosphate is immobile within this time period.

  13. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Elio; Varcamonti, Mario; Zanfardino, Anna; Sgambati, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Carpentieri, Andrea; Izzo, Viviana; Di Donato, Alberto; Cafaro, Valeria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids), which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200–250 mg/L). After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15–18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96–98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (P)GKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods. PMID:26808536

  14. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Pane

    Full Text Available Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids, which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200-250 mg/L. After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15-18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96-98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (PGKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods.

  15. Lightweight design technology of planet carrier for wind turbine gearbox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-bing; LIU Zhong-ming‡; ZHANG Zhi-hong₣

    2015-01-01

    Afinite element model of one-arm planet carrierwasbuilt, and influence of structuralparameters on strength and stiffness for one-arm planet carrierwasanalyzed. The stress and deformation of the round structure and the triangle structure for one-arm planet carrierwere analyzed and compared. The finite element model of the same specifications arms planet carrierwas established, and influence of the connecting slab thickness and input side plate thickness on strength and stiffness for armsplanet carrierwas analyzed. Strength, stiffness and mass for one-arm and arms planet carrier in thesame specificationswere analyzed and compared.

  16. Study of the spatial distribution of minority carrier diffusion length in epiplanar detector structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, T.; Węgrzecki, M.; Stolarski, M.; Krajewski, T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key parameters determining detection properties of silicon PIN detector structures (p+-ν-n+ or n+-ν-p+) is minority carrier diffusion length in p-n junction regions p-n (p+-ν or n+-ν). The parameter concerned strongly depends on quality of the starting material and technological processes conducted and has a significant impact on detector parameters, in particular dark current intensity. Thus, the parameter must be determined in order to optimise the design and technology of detectors. The paper presents a method for measuring the spatial distribution of effective carrier diffusion length in silicon detector structures, based on the measurement of photoelectric current of a non-polarised structure illuminated (spot diameter of 250 μm) with monochromatic radiation of two wavelengths λ1 = 500 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 0.9 μm) and λ2 = 900 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 33 μm). The value of diffusion length was determined by analysing the spatial distribution of optical carrier generation and values of photoelectric currents.

  17. Charge Carrier Conduction Mechanism in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haowei; Wang, Yishan; He, Bo; Li, Weile; Sulaman, Muhammad; Xu, Junfeng; Yang, Shengyi; Tang, Yi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-07-20

    With its properties of bandgap tunability, low cost, and substrate compatibility, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are becoming promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Additionally, solution-processed organic, inorganic, and hybrid ligand-exchange technologies have been widely used in PbS CQDs solar cells, and currently the maximum certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9% has been reported by passivation treatment of molecular iodine. Presently, there are still some challenges, and the basic physical mechanism of charge carriers in CQDs-based solar cells is not clear. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a monitoring technology for current by changing the frequency of applied alternating current voltage, and it provides an insight into its electrical properties that cannot be measured by direct current testing facilities. In this work, we used EIS to analyze the recombination resistance, carrier lifetime, capacitance, and conductivity of two typical PbS CQD solar cells Au/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO and Au/PbS-EDT/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO, in this way, to better understand the charge carriers conduction mechanism behind in PbS CQD solar cells, and it provides a guide to design high-performance quantum-dots solar cells.

  18. Application research of a novel designed peptide as a potential carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on the application of full-sequence ionic complementary peptide, detection of the capability of half-sequence ionic complementary peptide such as drug carriers, is rarely reported. This paper presents that the half-sequence ionic complementary peptide P9 (AC-Pro- Ser-Phe-Asn-Phe-Lys-Phe-Glu-Pro-NH2) can successfully stabilize a model hydrophobic drug pyrene in the aqueous solution. Soybean lecithin vesicles were used to mimic plasma membranes. Fluorescence data show that the pyrene is presented in the crystalline form when stabilized by P9 solution, and molecularly migrated from its peptide encapsulations into the membrane bilayers when the suspension is mixed with lipidosome vesicles. Slower release was observed when thicker coating was applied onto pyrene, which could be to control the wall thickness coating the cargo, and consequently the release rate. The result indicated that P9, with half-sequence ionic complement, may serve as a hydrophobic compounds carrier.

  19. Application research of a novel designed peptide as a potential carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN LiPing; ZHANG HangYu; LUO HanLin; ZHAO XiaoJun

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on the application of full-sequence ionic complementary paptide, detection of the capability of half-sequence ionic complementary peptide such as drug carri-ers, is rarely reported. This paper presents that the half-sequence ionic complementary peptide P9 (AC-Pro- Ser-Phe-Asn-Phe-Lys-Phe-Glu-Pro-NH2) can successfully stabilize a model hydrophobic drug pyrene in the aqueous solution. Soybean lecithin vesicles were used to mimic plasma membranes. Fluorescence data show that the pyrene is presented in the crystalline form when stabilized by P9 so-lution, and molecularly migrated from its peptide encapsulations into the membrane bilayers when the suspension is mixed with lipidosome vesicles. Slower release was observed when thicker coating was applied onto pyrene, which could be to control the wall thickness coating the cargo, and consequently the release rate. The result indicated that P9, with half-sequence ionic complement, may serve as a hydrophobic compounds carrier.

  20. A STUDY ON BIOPOLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES AS AN EFFECTIVE CARRIER FOR ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anita Margret* and S. Aishwarya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery is the most essential feature in drug administration facility and the design of Nanosystems makes the action more consistent an appropriate. Polymer nano particles bind efficiently to the drug and disperse the drug proficiently into the system. The efficacy of many drugs is often limited by their potential to reach the site of therapeutic action. In most cases (conventional dosage forms, only a small amount of administered dose reaches the target site, while the majority of the drug distributes throughout the rest of the body in accordance with its physicochemical and biochemical properties. Therefore, developing a drug delivery system that optimizes the pharmaceutical action of a drug while reducing its toxic side effects in vivo is a challenging task. This study focuses on the preparation and characterization of biopolymeric alginate and chitosan nanoparticles for encapsulating the antidepressant drug Venlafaxine XR and analyzing it as an effective drug carrier and delivery system. The study reports a method to predict the encapsulation efficiency of chitosan as an effective biopolymer. The profiles of FTIR’s spectra reveal the entrapment of chitosan, alginate and Venlafaxine XR. A comparative analysis was done by isolating chitosan from mushrooms and with that of commercially obtained chitosan. The distinct peak values enumerate the similarity in both the chitosans assayed. The binding affinity for the compounds chitosan and Alginate proves to be good and binding energy was found to be 0.21K Cal/mol. The Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of the two compounds chitosan and alginate satisfied all the necessary parameters of LIPINSKI’S rule of five. It was observed that strong electrostatic interaction exists in the nanoparticles. Quantification of the drugs in a nano scale improves the dispersal and absorption rate of the drug. Entrapment of the drug venlafaxine XR is also significant because depression is nowadays

  1. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  3. A study on indirect radiolabeling of IgG with carrier free 188Re

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    188Re labeled monoclonal antibodies are potential candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy. S-Bz-MAG3 as a bifunctional chelating agent was used for labeling of IgG with carrier free 188Re by pre-radiolabeling of the chelating approach. The conjugation conditions were optimized. The stability of 188Re-MAG3-IgG in vitro was high. The results may be useful to the studies of 188Re labeled MAbs for radioimmunotherapy.

  4. [Comparative study of the Candida albicans genotypes isolated from immunocompromised patients and health carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnovale, S; Elias Costa, M R; Relloso, S; Negroni, R; Negroni, M B; Iovannitti, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Candida albicans strain genotype isolates from oral cavity of immunocompromised patients due to different immunologic impairments with apparently normal carriers. Four populations were studied: 1) HIV positive hospitalized patients, 2) HIV negative immunocompromised patients (leukemia, lymphoma, organ transplant recipients), 3) drug addicts prior to AIDS pandemia in Argentina, 4) apparently normal carriers. DNA extracted was digested with the enzyme Eco RI, electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose membrane and hybridized with the 27A probe labelled with 32P. The comparison between the profiles obtained permitted the differentiation of 16 genotypes. The distribution of the strains led to the conclusion that: a) all the isolated strains from AIDS patients were closely related and distributed in only three genotypes (1, 3, 11); b) a major genetic relationship between the isolates from AIDS patients and HIV negative immunocompromised patients was observed; c) strains from carriers showed a minor genetic similarity with those obtained from AIDS patients; d) characteristic profiles belonging to any of the studied groups were not found; e) significant genomic changes have not been observed during the last twenty years.

  5. A designed amphiphilic peptide containing the silk fibroin motif as a potential carrier of hydrophobic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghan Zhou; Juan Lin; Jing Wang; Feng Li; Fushan Tang; Xiaojun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The amphiphilic peptide is becoming attractive as a potential drug carder to improve the dissolvability of hydrophobic drugs in an aqueous system; thus, facilitating drug uptake by target cells. Here, we report a novel designed amphiphilic peptide, Ac-RADAGAGA-RADAGAGA-NH_2, which was able to stabilize pyrene, a hydrophobic model drug we chose to study in aqueous solution. This designed peptide formed a colloidal suspension by encapsulating pyrene inside the peptide-pyrene complex. Egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) ves-icles were used to mimic cell bilayer membranes. We found that pyrene was released from the peptide coating into the EPC vesicles by mixing the colloidal suspension with EPC vesicles, which was followed by steady fluorescence spectra as a function of time. A calibration curve for the amount of pyrene released into the EPC vesicles at a given time was used to determine the final concentration of pyrene released into the lipid vesicles from the peptide-pyrene complex. The release rate of the peptide pyrene complex was calculated to quan-tify the transfer of pyrene into EPC vesicles.

  6. Design of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum as a biodegradable carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahammed, Nawaz; Gowda, D V; Deshpande, Rohan D; Thirumaleshwar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Present work was aimed at designing of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum (BFG) by emulsification method using sodium-tri-meta phosphate as a cross-linking agent for treatment of colon cancer using 5-fluorouracil as model drug. Stirring speed was found to be 1,000 rpm for about 5 h to be optimal to obtain reproducible microspheres. It was found that there is an increase in particle size as polymer concentration is increased whereas a reduction in particle size was observed as there is increase in stirring speed. Cross-linked BFG microspheres were successfully prepared by emulsification method. Optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 2 % w/w. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the drug-loaded microspheres were non-aggregated and in spherical shape. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy studies showed that drug and excipients are compatible. Release studies showed that drug release was more profound in cecal medium induced with enzymes causing degradation of the cross linked BFG than that of the release showed in simulated intestinal fluid. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in the drug content and physical appearance of microspheres.

  7. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  8. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichota DM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deise Michele Tichota,1 Ana Catarina Silva,2,3 José Manuel Sousa Lobo,2 Maria Helena Amaral2 1Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology/Centre of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal Abstract: Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection, argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration. Keywords: argan oil, nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC, hydrogels, skin hydration 

  9. Study of Contemporary Jewelry Design Emotional Expression Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-hui Gong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the society, people gradually realize the importance of design, design also has played a more and more important role in the life.More and more people are willing to choose the design work with unique emotions.Designers gives the new concept of life into the jewelry through the material, color, craft technique, etc. Jewelry as emotional carrier, can better deliver humanistic ideas behind the design in silence.This paper studies the emotional expression skills of contemporary jewelry design.

  10. Species dependent studies of no-carrier-added {sup 93m}Mo: A green method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Swadesh, E-mail: swadeshchem@rediffmail.co [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The present paper reports a combination of radioanalytical and green methodology for the ultra-trace scale speciation of molybdenum. The differential attitude of iron-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) and chitosan biopolymers towards no-carrier-added {sup 93m}Mo radionuclide was studied to develop environmentally sustainable speciation methodology in ultra-trace scale. The affinity of {sup 93m}Mo towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of chitosan. Species information was obtained by comparing the adsorption profile of {sup 93m}Mo on Fe-CA and chitosan biopolymer with the software code CHEAQS PRO program. From the experimental results it is concluded that no-carrier-added {sup 93m}Mo radionuclide form mononuclear species instead of polynuclear species in aqueous solution. Use of biodegradable, non-toxic biopolymer makes this method a step forward towards green chemistry.

  11. Study of carrier dynamics and radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, I. Lin; Wu, Yuh-Renn [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Singh, Jasprit [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we have applied the Monte Carlo method to study carrier dynamics in InGaN quantum well. Vertical and lateral transport and its impact on device radiative efficiency is studied for different In compositions, dislocation densities, temperatures, and carrier densities. Our results show that the non-radiative recombination caused by the defect trapping plays a dominating role for higher indium composition and this limits the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). For lower indium composition cases, carrier leakage plays some role in the mid to high injection conditions and carrier leakage is strong in very high carrier density in all cases. Our results suggest that reducing the trap density and QCSE are still the key factors to improve the IQE. The paper examines the relative roles of leakage and non-radiative processes on IQE. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Fragile X syndrome: a pilot proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in premutation carriers

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2012-08-30

    AbstractPurposeThere is increasing evidence that neurodevelopmental differences in people with Fragile X syndrome (FraX) may be explained by differences in glutamatergic metabolism. Premutation carriers of FraX were originally considered to be unaffected although several recent reports demonstrate neuroanatomical, cognitive, and emotional differences from controls. However there are few studies on brain metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX.MethodsWe used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare neuronal integrity of a number of brain metabolites including N-Acetyl Aspartate, Creatine + Phosphocreatinine, Choline, myoInositol, and Glutamate containing substances (Glx) in 17 male premutation carriers of FraX and 16 male healthy control individuals.ResultsThere was no significant between-group difference in the concentration of any measured brain metabolites. However there was a differential increase in N-acetyl aspartate with aging in premutation FraX individuals compared to controls.ConclusionsThis is the first 1 H-MRS study to examine premutation FraX individuals. Although we demonstrated no difference in the concentration of any of the metabolites examined between the groups, this may be due to the large age ranges included in the two samples. The differential increase in NAA levels with aging may reflect an abnormal synaptic pruning process.

  13. DETERMINING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL PLANNING POLICIES FOR AN AUTO CARRIER – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was done to assist a local auto carrier company with tactical operational planning. The objective of the planning process is to maximise the number of vehicles delivered while being on time and adhering to staff and maintenance schedule constraints.

    We investigated the feasibility of allowing part of the fleet to roam the closed spatial network, as opposed to the traditional assignment of the complete fleet to fixed routes. We developed decision-making rules for roaming and fixed-to-route auto carriers, and evaluated the quality of these proposed rules, in combination with different fleet compositions, using discrete event simulation and four performance measures.

    We found that the auto carrier company should adopt a tactical operations policy where at least 50% of the fleet is allowed to roam, while roaming auto carriers pick vehicles to transport according to specific rules.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is gedoen om ’n plaaslike motorvervoer-onderneming te help met taktiese bedryfsbeplanning. Die doelwit van die beplanningsproses is om die aantal voertuie wat betyds afgelewer word te maksimeer met inagneming van personeel- en instandhoudingbeperkings. Ons het die moontlikheid dat ’n deel van die vragmotorvloot swerwend in die geslote ruimtelike roete-network moet opereer, ondersoek. Dit is in teenstelling met die tradisionele vaste toedeling van vragmotors aan roetes. Besluitnemingreëls vir swerwende en vaste-roete vragmotors is ontwikkel, en die gehalte van die reëls is met diskrete simulasie en vier prestasiemaatstawwe evalueer.

    Ons het bevind dat die vervoeronderneming ’n bedryfsbeleid behoort te aanvaar wat toelaat dat ten minste 50% van die vloot swerf, terwyl hierdie swerwende vragmotors voertuie volgens spesifieke reëls by oplaaipunte moet kies.

  14. A pilot study to determine whether health care professionals perceive stigma in heterozygote carrier identification and disclosure decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Alexander; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2011-08-01

    We conducted an empirical pilot study to assess the attitudes of health care professionals (HCPs) to the personal identification of heterozygote carrier status for two autosomal recessive conditions (cystic fibrosis and a hemoglobinopathy) and for an X-linked disorder (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) using the Health Orientation Scale (HOS) and a modified HIV Stigma Scale. Attitudes towards carrier identification of children were also assessed. Three hundred and ten of 742 (42%) eligible HCPs fully or partly completed the survey. As measured with the HOS and the modified HIV scale, respondents had a more negative reaction to the hypothetical discovery of being a carrier for an autosomal recessive genetic condition that was less likely given their self-identified ancestry. Female respondents had a more negative reaction on both scales to being a carrier for an X-linked disorder than men thought their partners would feel. However, the differences found on the HOS and modified HIV scale are small and their clinical relevance unknown. Fifty-seven percent of respondents agreed that parents should tell their children to keep their carrier status private with many (44%) agreeing that children who learn that they are carriers may suffer from a decrease in self-esteem. The vast majority of respondents would inform immediate family members and HCPs of their carrier status, but would be unlikely to share this information with neighbors or employers. Further study is needed to develop a heterozygote genetic carrier stigma scale.

  15. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  16. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  17. Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, D.

    2007-12-28

    This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2p{sub z} confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data. The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 {mu}m and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements. Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. By varying the carrier

  18. Quality by Design (QbD)-enabled development of aceclofenac loaded-nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs): An improved dermatokinetic profile for inflammatory disorder(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj K; Sharma, Gajanand; Singh, Bhupinder; Nirbhavane, Pradip; Tyagi, Rajeev K; Shukla, Rahul; Katare, O P

    2017-01-30

    Present study was designed to prepare and characterize aceclofenac loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) employing Quality by Design (QbD)-oriented approach. The NLCs were evaluated for their transdermal penetration potential and stability. Aceclofenac loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared & characterized, by employing Quality by Design (QbD)-oriented approach and further evaluated for transdermal penetration potential and stability. Different lipids and surfactants were chosen to prepare NLCs using microemulsion method as critical material attributes (CMAs). A 3(3) factorial design was used for optimization of NLCs, and evaluating them for different critical quality attributes (CQAs), viz. particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, in vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency. The effect of CMAs such as lipids, oil: lipid ratio and concentration of surfactants on CQAs viz. drug entrapment efficiency and particle size were systematically evaluated to optimize NLCs. The optimized NLCs were further incorporated into carbopol gel and characterized for texture and rheology profile followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluations. The optimized ACE-NLCs were found to be spherical, nanometric in size with higher drug loading and entrapment efficiency. Results of the in vitro drug release study showed that the developed formulation followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model showing Fickian diffusion. The release was biphasic i.e., initial burst release followed by sustained drug release upto 48h. The optimized NLCs-based gel formulation showed superior texture, rheological profile and showed better cell uptake efficiency on hyperkeratinocytic cells (HaCaT cell lines) with higher ex vivo skin permeability efficiency vis-à-vis marketed formulation. In conclusion, dermatokinetic modeling and pharmacodynamic study using carrageenan induced edema mice suggests that aceclofenac loaded NLCs hydrogel may provide a better delivery alternative to target

  19. BWID System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  20. BWID System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Rationally designed nanocarriers for intranasal therapy of allergic rhinitis: influence of carrier type on in vivo nasal deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallam MA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marwa Ahmed Sallam, Hala Mahmoud Helal, Sana Mohamed Mortada Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop a locally acting nasal delivery system of triamcinolone acetonide (TA for the maintenance therapy of allergic rhinitis. The effect of encapsulating TA in different nanocarriers on its mucosal permeation and retention as well as in vivo nasal deposition has been studied. A comparative study was established between polymeric oil core nanocapsules (NCs, lipid nanocarriers such as nanoemulsion (NE, and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. The elaborated nanocarriers were compared with TA suspension and the commercially available suspension “Nasacort®”. The study revealed that NC provided the highest mucosal retention, as 46.14%±0.048% of the TA initial dose was retained after 24 hours, while showing the least permeation through the nasal mucosa. On the other hand, for TA suspension and Nasacort®, the mucosal retention did not exceed 23.5%±0.047% of the initial dose after 24 hours. For NE and NLC, values of mucosal retention were 19.4%±0.041% and 10.97%±0.13%, respectively. NC also showed lower mucosal irritation and superior stability compared with NE. The in vivo nasal deposition study demonstrated that NC maintained drug in its site of action (nasal cavity mucosa for the longest period of time. The elaborated polymeric oil core NCs are efficient carriers for the administration of nasally acting TA as it produced the least permeation results, thus decreasing systemic absorption of TA. Although NCs have been administered via various routes, this is the first study to implement the polymeric oil core NC as an efficient carrier for localized nasal drug delivery. Keywords: allergic rhinitis, nanocapsules, triamcinolone acetonide, nasal mucosa, nasal deposition

  2. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  3. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichota, Deise Michele; Silva, Ana Catarina; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Amaral, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection), argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration).

  4. Bifosfonatos (BFs como transportadores osteotrópicos no planejamento de fármacos dirigidos Bisphosphonates as osteotropic carriers for designing site-directed drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Fioravanti Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy involving bone tissue diseases is difficult, calling for the design of specific drugs. The present paper is a brief review of a new site-directed system termed ODDS (osteotropic drug delivery system, based on a latenciation process, using bisphosphonates as bone carriers. This is an important tool for the rational prodrug design for obtaining selective drugs.

  5. Design of Wireless Communication Systems -- Issues on Synchronization, Channel Estimation and Multi-Carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tufvesson, Fredrik

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with certain aspects in the design of wireless communications systems. It is focused on problems related to the mobile or wireless channel: synchronization, channel estimation and design of wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) systems. There is a short introduction to the field of wireless systems and a deeper review of pervious work and the state of the art in each of the research fields. Throughout the thesis the goal has been to analyze the problems ana...

  6. Centri-voltammetric study with amberlite XAD-7 resin as a carrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anik Kirgöz, Ulkü; Tural, Hüseyin; Nil Ertaş, F

    2005-01-15

    Centri-voltammetry is a novel method, which allows combining the advantages of centrifugation and voltammetry. The method offers a practical way for application of coprecipitation in trace analysis allowing direct voltammetric scan hence prevents the loss of the analyte, which usually is the case for other preconcentration techniques. The performance of the method was successfully tested using trace amounts of Pb(2+) ions in aqueous solution in a vessel specially designed to be compatible to both centrifugation and voltammetry. XAD-7 resin was used as the carrier material and the parameters related to the carrier material and medium characteristics as well as the centrifugation settings were investigated. The sensitivity of the method was found comparable to that of stripping techniques and the detection limit for lead ions was calculated as 5.2 x 10(-9)M with mercury coated gold sphere electrode. The precision of the method depends on the configuration of the working electrode and better reproducibility was obtained with mercury coated plate electrodes (R.S.D. 3.3%, n = 6).

  7. Experimental study and design on high dynamic GNSS receiver using adaptive optimal bandwidth for carrier tracking loop%高动态GNSS接收机载波跟踪环自适应最优带宽设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐康华; 武成锋; 杜亮; 何晓峰

    2014-01-01

    对于大多数高动态接收机,通常采用2阶FLL辅助的3阶PLL环路结构,由于存在FLL环路,导致跟踪精度的下降。针对卫星接收机的动态性能和信号载波功率噪声密度比,在综合考虑接收机跟踪环路中的各种误差源(热噪声、晶振误差、动态牵引误差等)的基础上,采用自适应最优带宽技术,设计一种适用于高动态的3阶PLL载波跟踪环。采用基于GPS数字中频信号的数字仿真和GNSS信号源对所设计的自适应最优带宽进行了验证,验证结果表明:在加速度为30g、过程中存在加加速度为30g/s的高动态情况下,采用18 Hz 3阶PLL不能对信号进行跟踪,而采用所设计的自适应最优带宽的3阶PLL环可以对信号进行可靠的跟踪;同时,和固定带宽接收机比较,所设计载波跟踪环环路能够跟踪50g的高动态Compass卫星信号,而采用固定带宽接收机失锁,并且定位精度优于1 m(2σ),测速精度优于0.2 m/s(2σ)。%For most GNSS receiver designs in high dynamic application, a second-order FLL aided 3rd order PLL is usually adopted as carrier tracking loop. Based on GNSS receiver dynamics and carrier power-to-noise density, the structure of GNSS receiver 3rd order PLL tracking loop for high dynamic applications was designed by using the adaptive optimal bandwidth method and taking the tracking errors(such as thermal noise, oscillator phase noise, dynamic stress error) into account. According to the designed adaptive optimal bandwidth method of the 3rd order PLL tracking loop, the digital simulation and test based GNSS simulator were performed. Simulation results show that on the condition of 30g line-of-sight acceleration and 30g/s jerk high dynamics, the designed adaptive optimal bandwidth method can track GNSS signal well, but when using the 18 Hz fixed-bandwidth 3rd order PLL, carrier tracking lock will be lost. When using the GNSS simulator, test results show that

  8. Maintenance and resupply in the unpressurized environment - Design and operational concepts for the Space Station Freedom logistics carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creps, Gary M.; Ernst, Steven A.; Crawford, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    A significant percentage of the maintenance tasks for Space Station Freedom are anticipated to be conducted in the unpressurized environment. The maintenance concept for this environment essentially involves the removal and replacement of relatively large orbital replacement units (ORUs). Major constraints will be the on-orbit availability of both crew time and spare ORUs. The challenge presented to the program will be the performance of unpressurized cargo resupply that provides maximum cargo-carrying capability (mass and volume) and flexibility (type and quantity), while minimizing the impact to maintenance task times. The design of the logistics carriers is a critical component for successful resupply and maintenance operations, and to the success of Space Station Freedom.

  9. Advances in studies of phospholipids as carriers in skin topical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:This article provides an overview of characteristics of phospholipids,the characteristics and influential factors of liposome and microemulsion as carriers for skin delivery of drugs,and the latest advances of the phospholipids carriers in transdermal delivery systems.The perspective is that phospholipids carriers may be capable of a wide range of applications in the transdermal defivery system.

  10. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  11. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  12. Design, formulation and optimization of novel soft nano-carriers for transdermal olmesartan medoxomil delivery: In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Mohd; Ahad, Abdul; Aqil, Mohd; Imam, Syed Sarim; Sultana, Yasmin; Ali, Asgar

    2016-05-30

    Olmesartan is a hydrophobic antihypertensive drug with a short biological half-life, and low bioavailability, presents a challenge with respect to its oral administration. The objective of the work was to formulate, optimize and evaluate the transdermal potential of novel vesicular nano-invasomes, containing above anti-hypertensive agent. To achieve the above purpose, soft carriers (viz. nano-invasomes) of olmesartan with β-citronellene as potential permeation enhancer were developed and optimized using Box-Behnken design. The physicochemical characteristics e.g., vesicle size, shape, entrapment efficiency and skin permeability of the nano-invasomes formulations were evaluated. The optimized formulation was further evaluated for in vitro drug release, confocal microscopy and in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The optimum nano-invasomes formulation showed vesicles size of 83.35±3.25nm, entrapment efficiency of 65.21±2.25% and transdermal flux of 32.78±0.703 (μg/cm(2)/h) which were found in agreement with the predicted value generated by Box-Behnken design. Confocal laser microscopy of rat skin showed that optimized formulation was eventually distributed and permeated deep into the skin. The pharmacokinetic study presented that transdermal nano-invasomes formulation showed 1.15 times improvement in bioavailability of olmesartan with respect to the control formulation in Wistar rats. It was concluded that the response surfaces estimated by Design Expert(®) illustrated obvious relationship between formulation factors and response variables and nano-invasomes were found to be a proficient carrier system for transdermal delivery of olmesartan.

  13. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGa/GaN multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay...... of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well...

  14. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, H. P.; Turchinovich, D.; Cooke, D. G.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2009-11-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model.

  15. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porte, H P; Turchinovich, D; Cooke, D G; Jepsen, P Uhd, E-mail: hpor@fotonik.dtu.d [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersteds Plads 343, DK 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model.

  16. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetic studies of linalool-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhao, Yingying; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Xu, Ximing

    2016-10-01

    Context Linalool (LL) is associated with numerous pharmacological activities. However, its poor solubility usually results in poor bioavailability, and further limited its applications. Objective To reduce volatilization and improve bioavailability of LL, linalool-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (LL-NLCs) were prepared. Materials and methods LL-NLCs were prepared using high-pressure homogenization method and optimized via response surface methodology-central composite design, followed by characterization, including particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and in vitro release study. Rats were administered 300 mg × kg (-) (1) LL with each preparation (LL-NLCs or LL) via oral gavage. Results LL-NLCs had a PS of 52.72 nm with polydispersity index of 0.172, and ZP of -16.0 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading gave 79.563 and 7.555%, respectively. The cumulative release of LL from free LL reached 51.414% at 180 min, while LL from LL-NLCs was 15.564%. All the pharmacokinetics parameters of LL-NLCs were better than those of LL, including Cmax (from 1915.45 to 2182.45 ng × mL (-) (1)), AUC0-t (from 76003.40 to 298948.46 ng × min × mL (-) (1)) and relative bioavailability (393.34%). The t1/2, MRT and tmax of LL-NLCs (110.50, 146.66 and 60 min) were also longer than that of LL (44.72, 45.66 and 40 min). Discussion and conclusion LL-NLCs were for the first time prepared and its oral administration in rats thoroughly investigated. LL-NLCs exhibited sustained release effect and increased absorption of LL. Therefore, these findings might provide a potential possibility for clinical application of LL.

  17. Comparison of pharmaceutical formulations: ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to study drug-carrier interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Andrew V; Biggart, Gordon D; Hale, Carwyn R; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-11-10

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has been used in combination with UV detection to study the release of a model poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, when formulated with selected drug carriers. Firstly, formulations of indomethacin and nicotinamide in varying weight ratios were studied since novel tablet dosage forms containing multi-drugs are of industrial interest. The in situ spectroscopic imaging measurements of the dissolving tablets showed that as the loading of indomethacin was increased, the rate of drug release changed from one that expressed first-order drug release to one which showed zero-order drug release. Two drug release mechanisms have been identified from the recorded spectroscopic images and UV dissolution profiles. To further validate these mechanisms, specific formulations containing the model drug and two other excipients, urea and mannitol, were studied. The formulations with urea showed similar first-order release, indicative of the drug-carrier interactions. Whereas, the indomethacin/mannitol formulations showed a zero-order release curve explained by disintegration of the tablet. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging provided highly chemically specific information as well as the spatial distribution of the components during the dissolution process which has demonstrated the potential of this combined analytical setup to determine the mechanisms of drug release.

  18. Lipid nanoparticles as carrier for octyl-methoxycinnamate: in vitro percutaneous absorption and photostability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Blasi, Paolo; Schoubben, Aurelie; Perrotta, Rosario; Tarico, Maria Stella; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC) as potential carriers for octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC). The release pattern of OMC from SLN and NLC was evaluated in vitro, determining its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of OMC-loaded lipid nanoparticles. From the obtained results, ultrasonication method yielded both SLN and NLC in the nanometer range with a high active loading and a particle shape close to spherical. Differential scanning calorimetry data pointed out the key role of the inner oil phase of NLC in stabilizing the particle architecture and in increasing the solubility of OMC as compared with SLN. In vitro results showed that OMC, when incorporated in viscosized NLC dispersions (OMC-NLC), exhibited a lower flux with respect to viscosized SLN dispersions (OMC-SLN) and two reference formulations: a microemulsion (OMC-ME) and a hydroalcoholic gel (OMC-GEL). Photostability studies revealed that viscosized NLC dispersions were the most efficient at preserving OMC from ultraviolet-mediated photodegradation.

  19. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors.

  20. Biochemically altered human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted delivery of primaquine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars K; Harisa, Gamal El-Din I; Maqboul, Ahmad; Abdel-Hamid, Magdi; Neau, Steven H; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human erythrocytes as a carrier for targeted drug delivery of primaquine (PQ). The process of PQ loading in human erythrocytes, as well as the effect of PQ loading on the oxidative status of erythrocytes, was also studied. At PQ concentrations of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/mL and an incubation time of 2 h, the ratios of the concentrations of PQ entrapped in erythrocytes to that in the incubation medium were 0.515, 0.688, 0.697 and 0.788, respectively. The maximal decline of erythrocyte reduced glutathione content was observed at 8 mg/mL of PQ compared with native erythrocytes p erythrocytes was increased in comparison with unloaded cells. Electron microscopy revealed spherocyte formation with PQ carrier erythrocytes. PQ-loaded cells showed sustained drug release over a 48 h period. Erythrocytes were loaded with PQ successfully, but there were some biochemical as well as physiological changes that resulted from the effect of PQ on the oxidative status of drug-loaded erythrocytes. These changes may result in favorable targeting of PQ-loaded cells to reticulo-endothelial organs. The relative impact of these changes remains to be explored in ongoing animal studies.

  1. AURKA F31I Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: A CIMBA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Fergus J.; Sinilnikova, Olga; Vierkant, Robert A; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Coupier, Isabelle; Hughes, David; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Baynes, Caroline; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Schmutzler, Rita; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Horst, Jurgen; Schaefer, Dieter; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ilyushik, Eduard; Glendon, Gordon; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Borg, Ake; Backenhorn, Katja; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Greene, Mark H.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine; Domchek, Susan; Wagner, Theresa; Garber, Judy E.; Szabo, Csilla; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Olson, Janet E.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lindor, Noralane; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tommiska, Johanna; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Torres, Diana; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine; Guenard, Frederic; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Narod, Steven; Daly, Mary B.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tomlinson, Gail; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniouon, Antonis C.

    2009-01-01

    The AURKA oncogene is associated with abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy and predisposition to cancer. Amplification of AURKA has been detected at higher frequency in tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers than in sporadic breast tumors, suggesting that overexpression of AURKA and inactivation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 co-operate during tumor development and progression. The F31I polymorphism in AURKA has been associated with breast cancer risk in the homozygous state in prior studies. We evaluated whether the AURKA F31I polymorphism modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). CIMBA was established to provide sufficient statistical power through increased numbers of mutation carriers to identify polymorphisms that act as modifiers of cancer risk and can refine breast cancer risk estimates in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. A total of 4935 BRCA1 and 2241 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 11 individuals carrying both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were genotyped for F31I. Overall, homozygosity for the 31I allele was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers combined (HR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.06). Similarly, no significant association was seen in BRCA1 (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.75-1.08) or BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.67-1.29) or when assessing the modifying effects of either bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy or menopausal status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In summary, the F31I polymorphism in AURKA is not associated with a modified risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. PMID:17627006

  2. Cytotoxicity of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers containing the local anesthetic dibucaine designed for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, R. M.; da Silva, C. M. G.; Bella, T. S.; de Araújo, D. R.; Marcato, P. D.; Durán, N.; de Paula, E.

    2013-04-01

    Dibucaine (DBC) is powerful long-lasting local anesthetic, but it is also considered fairly toxic to the CNS. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have attracted attention as carriers for drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of DBC-loaded SLN and NLC against 3T3 fibroblast and HaCat keratinocyte cells. The SLN and NLC had myristyl myristate and Liponate®GC as their lipid matrices, respectively, plus a surfactant. SLN and NLC were characterized in terms in their diameter, size distribution, surface charge and DBC encapsulation efficiency. The particle size of SLN and NLC were around 234.33 and 166.62 nm, respectively. The polydispersity index was kept below 0.2 for both nanomaterials. Negative surface charges were observed for both nanoparticles, which decreased in the presence of the anesthetic. Encapsulation efficiency reached 76% and 90%, respectively, in SLN and NLC. DBC alone was found to be toxic to 3T3 and HaCat cells in culture. However, NLC and SLN loaded DBC decreased its intrinsic cytotoxic effect against 3T3 and HaCat cells. In conclusion, encapsulation of DBC in SLN and NLC decreased the in vitro toxicity of the local anesthetic, indicating the potential of these nanocarriers for clinical applications.

  3. Architecture as Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  4. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  5. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  6. The Design of Double Embedded Oil Spill Recovery System for Oil Carrier%运油船双内嵌收油机系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗江; 王世刚

    2012-01-01

    溢油回收是改善海洋环境,实现石油资源回收重复利用的有效手段。专业收油船内嵌收油机,收油能力大,但应途单一,闲置时间长,购买和维护成本太高。为了提高溢油回收船的应用效率,发挥其最大效能,对运油船和收油机一体式设计进行了研究,提出了运油船双内嵌收油机系统的设计方法、工作原理、操作方法以及应用特点,并对其进行了经济性分析,为内嵌收油机式运油船的设计提供参考,在今后的溢油回收应用中具有广阔的应用前景。%Oil spill recovery is an effective measure to improve ocean environment and realize recovery rouse of the oil resources. The professional tanker for oil spill recovery embeds the oil spill recovery machine in the middle of tanker which has the great capacity of oil spill recovery, but its application is relatively single, the idle time is long, the cost is also high. In order to improve the application efficiency of oil spill recovery tanker and maximize its effectiveness, the paper has a study for integrated design of oil carrier and oil spill recovery machine, puts forward the design method, working principle, operation method and application characteristics of double embedded oil spill recovery system for oil carrier, and also conducts the economic analysis, which provides a reference for the design of double embedded oil spill recovery system for oil carrier and will have the broad application prospect in the future of oil spill recovery application.

  7. Conductor backed and shielded multi-layer coplanar waveguide designs on LTCC for RF carrier boards for packaging PICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, Philip J.; Jezzini, Moises A.; Peters, Frank H.

    2016-05-01

    Designing photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with packaging in mind is important since this impacts the performance of the final product. In coherent optical communication applications there are a large number of DC and RF lines that need routed to connect the PIC to the outer packaging. These RF lines should be impedance matched to the devices, isolated from each other, low loss and protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) over the frequency range of interest to achieve the performance required for the application. Multilevel low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) boards can be used as a carrier board connecting the PIC to the packaging due to its good RF performance, machinability, compatibility with hermetic sealing, and ability to integrate drivers into the board. Flexibility with layer numbers enables additional layers for shielding against electromagnetic interference or increased space for routing electrical connections. In this paper the design, simulations, and measured results for a set of 4 phase matched transmission lines in LTCC that would be used with an IQ MZM are presented. The measured 3dB bandwidth for a set of four phase matched transmission lines for an IQ MZM was measured to be 19.8 GHz.

  8. Cysteine-Functionalized Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Oral Delivery of Docetaxel: A Permeability and Pharmacokinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guihua; Tang, Bo; Chao, Yanhui; Xu, Helin; Gou, Jingxin; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-07-06

    Here we report the development and evaluation of cysteine-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for oral delivery of docetaxel (DTX). The NLCs ensure high encapsulation efficiency of docetaxel, while the cysteine bound the NLCs with PEG2000-monostearate (PEG2000-MSA) as a linker, and allowed a specific interaction with mucin of the intestinal mucus layer and facilitated the intestinal transport of docetaxel. The cysteine-modified NLCs (cNLCs) had a small particle size (cysteine group on the surface of the NLCs obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cNLCs significantly improved the mucoadhesion properties compared with uNLCs. The intestinal absorption of cNLCs in total intestinal segments was greatly improved in comparison with uNLCs and docetaxel solution (DTX-Sol), and the in vivo imaging system captured pictures also showed not only increased intestinal absorption but also improved accumulation in blood. The cNLCs could be absorbed into the enterocytes via both endocytosis and passive transport. The results of the in vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the AUC0-t of cNLCs (1533.00 ng/mL·h) was markedly increased 12.3-fold, and 1.64-fold compared with docetaxel solution and uNLCs, respectively. Overall, the cysteine modification makes nanostructured lipid carriers more suitable as nanocarriers for oral delivery of docetaxel.

  9. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast an......-resolution structural studes of many membrane proteins and their complexes in solution as the analysis of SANS data for this platform is greatly simplified and allows for the application of existing data analysis tools already available for soluble proteins...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...... which can be used for SANS structural analysis of membrane proteins in solution. In combination with the D2O/H2O-based contrast variation method it is demonstrated that it is possible to prepare specifically deuterated analogues of the nanodisc, which give minimal contribution to the neutron scattering...

  10. Interdot carrier's transfer via tunneling pathway studied from photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihani, J. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semiconducteurs, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)], E-mail: jawher.rihani@crten.rnrt.tn; Sallet, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS Route de Nozay, 91 460 Marcoussis (France); Yahyaoui, N. [Unite nanoelectronique Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Elmanar 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Harmand, J.C. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS Route de Nozay, 91 460 Marcoussis (France); Oueslati, M. [Unite nanoelectronique Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Elmanar 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semiconducteurs, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2009-03-15

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs(0 0 1) substrate were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a growth temperature of 490 deg. C. Two different families of dots were observed in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image and ambiguously identified in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Temperature-dependent PL study was carried out in the 8-270 K temperature range. The integrated-PL intensity behavior of the two QDs populations was fit with the help of a rate equations model. It is found that the evolutions of the integrated-PL intensity of the two QDs population were governed by two regimes. The first one occurs in the 8-210 K temperature range and reveals an unusual enhancement of the integrated-PL intensity of the larger QDs (LQDs) class. This was attributed to the carrier supplies from the smaller QDs (SQDs) class via the tunneling process. The second one occurs in the 210-270 K temperature range and shows a common quench of the PL signals of the two QDs families, reflecting the same thermal escape mechanism of carriers.

  11. Theoretical study of deuteronated PAHs as carriers for IR emission features in the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes deuteronated PAH (DPAH+ ) molecules as a potential carrier of the 4.4 and 4.65 {\\mu}m mid infrared emission bands that have been observationally detected towards the Orion and M17 regions. Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on DPAH+ molecules to see the variations in the spectral behaviour from that of a pure PAH. DPAH+ molecules show features that arise due to the stretching of the aliphatic C-D bond. Deuterated PAHs have been previously reported as carriers for such features. However, preferred conditions of ionization of PAHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) indicates the possibility of the formation of DPAH+ molecules. Comparison of band positions of DPAH+ s shows reasonable agreement with the observations. We report the effect of size of the DPAH+ molecules on band positions and intensities. This study also reports a D/H ratio ([D/H]sc ; the ratio of C-D stretch and C-H stretch bands per [D/H]num ) that is decreasing with the increasing size of DPAH+ s. It is ...

  12. Real-time charge carrier motion in P3HT studied with Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Chloe; Zaidi, Alyina; Moscatello, Jason; Aidala, Katherine

    We have developed a technique that uses scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to study the real-time injection and extraction of charge carriers in organic semiconductor devices. We investigate P3HT (full name) in an inverted field effect transistor geometry with gold electrodes. By positioning the SPM tip at an individual location and using Kelvin probe microscopy to record the potential over time, we can record how the charge carriers respond to changing the backgate voltage while the source and drain electrodes are grounded. We see relatively fast screening for negative backgate voltages because holes are quickly injected into the P3HT film. The screening is slower for positive gate voltages, because some of these holes are trapped and therefore less mobile. We compare P3HT transistors with different fabrication procedures that are expected to change the trap distribution: no silanization of the oxide and no annealing, silanization and no annealing, and both silanization and annealing. By incrementally stepping the gate voltage, we probe different trap depths. The recorded change in potential over time is best fit by a double exponential, suggesting two physical mechanisms involved in screening. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR-0955348, and the Center for Heirarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (NSF CMMI-1025020).

  13. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008. Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs.

  14. Cr(VI) transport via a supported ionic liquid membrane containing CYPHOS IL101 as carrier: system analysis and optimization through experimental design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Vital, Xóchitl; de Gyves, Josefina

    2014-05-30

    Chromium(VI) transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system containing the commercial ionic liquid CYPHOS IL101 as carrier was studied. A reducing stripping phase was used as a mean to increase recovery and to simultaneously transform Cr(VI) into a less toxic residue for disposal or reuse. General functions which describe the time-depending evolution of the metal fractions in the cell compartments were defined and used in data evaluation. An experimental design strategy, using factorial and central-composite design matrices, was applied to assess the influence of the extractant, NaOH and citrate concentrations in the different phases, while a desirability function scheme allowed the synchronized optimization of depletion and recovery of the analyte. The mechanism for chromium permeation was analyzed and discussed to contribute to the understanding of the transfer process. The influence of metal concentration was evaluated as well. The presence of different interfering ions (Ca(2+), Al(3+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) at several Cr(VI): interfering ion ratios was studied through the use of a Plackett and Burman experimental design matrix. Under optimized conditions 90% of recovery was obtained from a feed solution containing 7mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) in 0.01moldm(-3) HCl medium after 5h of pertraction.

  15. An Exploratory Study to Determine Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Have Higher Risk of Cardiac Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Monique; Fradley, Michael; Sun, Weihong; Kim, Jongphil; Zhao, Xiuhua; Pal, Tuya; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Anthracycline-based cardiotoxicity is concerning for women with breast cancer and portends a dose-dependent risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction. Overall, the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is ≈2% of the total US population; however, BRCA-deficient mice have shown increased HF. We evaluated for the inherent risk of HF in women with BRCA mutations to determine whether treatment with anthracycline-based therapy increased this risk. We obtained results on BRCA mutation carriers regarding cancer treatment and HF, identified through the BRCA patient advocacy organization Facing Our Risk for Cancer Empowered (FORCE) and the Moffitt-based Inherited Cancer Registry. In our patient group (232 BRCA1 and 159 BRCA2 patients; 10 with both mutations), 7.7% reported HF, with similar proportions in BRCA1 versus BRCA2 carriers (7.4% and 8.2%, respectively). These proportions are significantly higher than published rates (p BRCA1 carriers and 8.2% of BRCA2 carriers reported arrhythmias. BRCA mutation carriers showed increased risk of cardiotoxicity versus the general population and an overall increased risk of cardiotoxicity from anthracycline-based therapy. Our study supports data that BRCA carriers have increased non-cancer mortality from cardiotoxicity. A prospective trial to determine HF and conduction abnormalities in this population is warranted. PMID:28157161

  16. Study design in causal models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The causal assumptions, the study design and the data are the elements required for scientific inference in empirical research. The research is adequately communicated only if all of these elements and their relations are described precisely. Causal models with design describe the study design and the missing data mechanism together with the causal structure and allow the direct application of causal calculus in the estimation of the causal effects. The flow of the study is visualized by orde...

  17. Formulation design, preparation, and in vitro and in vivo characterizations of β-Elemene- loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi F

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feng Shi,1 Gang Yang,1 Juan Ren,2 Teng Guo,1 Yan Du,1 Nianping Feng1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: In the present study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were prepared and optimized for the intravenous delivery of β-Elemene (β-E. Aqueous dispersions of NLCs were successfully prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using glycerol monostearate as the solid lipid and a mixture of Maisine 35-1 and Labrafil M1944 CS as the liquid lipid. The results revealed that the morphology of the NLCs was spheroidal. The particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency (EE for the optimized formulation were observed as 138.9 nm, –20.2 mV, and 82.11%, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of less ordered structures in the inner core of the NLC particles. Moreover, the β-E-loaded NLCs were also less irritating and less toxic compared to Elemene injection. In addition, β-E-NLCs showed a significantly higher bioavailability and anti-tumor efficacy than Elemene injection. Taken together, our data indicate that the β-E-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the intravenous delivery of β-E. Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, high-pressure homogenization, β-Elemene, venous irritation, anti-tumor efficacy

  18. Development of nanostructured lipid carriers containing salicyclic acid for dermal use based on the Quality by Design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A; Berkó, Sz; Csányi, E; Csóka, I

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our present work was to evaluate the applicability of the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology in the development and optimalization of nanostructured lipid carriers containing salicyclic acid (NLC SA). Within the Quality by Design methology, special emphasis is layed on the adaptation of the initial risk assessment step in order to properly identify the critical material attributes and critical process parameters in formulation development. NLC SA products were formulated by the ultrasonication method using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid, Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid and Cremophor RH 60® as surfactant. LeanQbD Software and StatSoft. Inc. Statistica for Windows 11 were employed to indentify the risks. Three highly critical quality attributes (CQAs) for NLC SA were identified, namely particle size, particle size distribution and aggregation. Five attributes of medium influence were identified, including dissolution rate, dissolution efficiency, pH, lipid solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and entrapment efficiency. Three critical material attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP) were identified: surfactant concentration, solid lipid/liquid lipid ratio and ultrasonication time. The CMAs and CPPs are considered as independent variables and the CQAs are defined as dependent variables. The 2(3) factorial design was used to evaluate the role of the independent and dependent variables. Based on our experiments, an optimal formulation can be obtained when the surfactant concentration is set to 5%, the solid lipid/liquid lipid ratio is 7:3 and ultrasonication time is 20min. The optimal NLC SA showed narrow size distribution (0.857±0.014) with a mean particle size of 114±2.64nm. The NLC SA product showed a significantly higher in vitro drug release compared to the micro-particle reference preparation containing salicylic acid (MP SA).

  19. DESIGN AND EVLUATION OF COLLOIDAL CARRIER SYSTEM FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF ENZYME

    OpenAIRE

    B. Srinath*, K.S. Jaganathan and K.N. Jayaveera

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of enzyme therapy through microencapsulation of serratiopeptidase (SP) in biodegradable nanoparticles of chitosan (CS). This drug has short biological half-life and thus frequent administration makes it a suitable candidate for controlled release. In this study, serratiopeptidase loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation of CS with tripolyphosphate (TPP) anions. Reversible physical cross-linking by electrostatic ...

  20. DESIGN AND EVLUATION OF COLLOIDAL CARRIER SYSTEM FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF ENZYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Srinath*, K.S. Jaganathan and K.N. Jayaveera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of enzyme therapy through microencapsulation of serratiopeptidase (SP in biodegradable nanoparticles of chitosan (CS. This drug has short biological half-life and thus frequent administration makes it a suitable candidate for controlled release. In this study, serratiopeptidase loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation of CS with tripolyphosphate (TPP anions. Reversible physical cross-linking by electrostatic interaction, instead of chemical cross-linking, has been applied to avoid the possible toxicity of reagents and other undesirable effects. The enzyme loaded particles optimized formulation was coated with sodium alginate solution to protect its release in stomach. The enzyme loaded nanoparticle formulations were characterized for by morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug release. The preliminary studies show that TPP and CS were compatible with SP. The ratio of CS to TPP has an influence on the mean particle size and when CS: TPP is 4:1 nanoparticles with smallest diameter are formed. Entrapment efficiency depends on the degree of deacetylation of chitosan. The formulation F-3.3 showed 75.22 % In-vitro drug release at 24 hours in PBS at pH7.4 and only 16.03% at 2 hr in SGF at pH 1.2. It is inferred that dissociation of the associated macromolecule from chitosan predominantly governs the release process. This dissociation is in turn, affected by the intensity of the interactions and the ionic strength of the release medium.

  1. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; den Enden, Apollonia T. Helderman-van; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful

  2. 一种基于载波聚合的切换方法的设计方案%Design scheme of switching method based on carrier aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔哲芳; 马赛

    2015-01-01

    The carriers aggregation is a key technology for LTE⁃advanced (LTE⁃A) system. The multiple carrier function needs to be supported in LTE⁃A system,which is different from the base station in LTE system which only supports single carrier switching,so a switching system which can support multiple carrier switching is needed. a scheme to support switching is pro⁃posed in this paper,according to RRC protocol. The carrier switching with carrier aggregation was realized by releasing the source SCell in the process of switching and setting up a new SCell after the switching completion. The detailed design technolog⁃ical process in the case of carrier aggregation is offered. The practical validation result is given.%载波聚合技术是LTE⁃A中的关键技术,与LTE系统中基站仅支持单一的载波切换相比,LTE⁃A中需要支持多载波的功能,因此需要一种可以支持多载波切换的方法。从RRC协议的角度出发,提出一种支持切换方案,通过在切换过程中释放源辅小区,并在切换完成后根据情况重新建立辅小区的方法,实现了带有载波聚合功能的切换,并且给出载波聚合下切换详细设计流程。最后在实际环境中对此流程进行验证,给出测试结果,实现了带有载波聚合功能的切换。

  3. A cognitive fMRI study in non-manifesting LRRK2 and GBA carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Noa; Thaler, Avner; Mirelman, Anat; Helmich, Rick C; Gurevich, Tanya; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Marder, Karen; Bressman, Susan; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Giladi, Nir

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in the GBA and LRRK2 genes account for one-third of the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Ashkenazi Jews. Non-manifesting carriers (NMC) of these mutations represent a population at risk for future development of PD. PD patient who carry mutations in the GBA gene demonstrates more significant cognitive decline compared to idiopathic PD patients. We assessed cognitive domains using fMRI among NMC of both LRRK2 and GBA mutations to better understand pre-motor cognitive functions in these populations. Twenty-one LRRK2-NMC, 10 GBA-NMC, and 22 non-manifesting non-carriers (NMNC) who participated in this study were evaluated using the standard questionnaires and scanned while performing two separate cognitive tasks; a Stroop interference task and an N-Back working memory task. Cerebral activation patterns were assessed using both whole brain and predefined region of interest (ROI) analysis. Subjects were well matched in all demographic and clinical characteristics. On the Stroop task, in spite of similar behavior, GBA-NMC demonstrated increased task-related activity in the right medial frontal gyrus and reduced task-related activity in the left lingual gyrus compared to both LRRK2-NMC and NMNC. In addition, GBA-NMC had higher activation patterns in the incongruent task compared to NMNC in the left medial frontal gyrus and bilateral precentral gyrus. No whole-brain differences were noted between groups on the N-Back task. Paired cognitive and task-related performance between GBA-NMC, LRRK2-NMC, and NMNC could indicate that the higher activation patterns in the incongruent Stroop condition among GBA-NMC compared to LRRK2-NMC and NMNC may represent a compensatory mechanism that enables adequate cognitive performance.

  4. Interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in research studies focused on male BRCA carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan; Kim, Jongphil; Xu, Yan; Friedman, Sue; Narod, Steven A; Metcalfe, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Although men and women are equally likely to carry a mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes, the clinical significance of mutations in men remains incompletely defined. We sought evaluate interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in a research study focused on men from BRCA families. Through an anonymous survey posted on the website of the BRCA patient advocacy organization, facing our risk of cancer empowered (FORCE), data was collected over a 21 month period (August 2010-June 2012) from members of BRCA families. The survey was completed by 405 individuals with known BRCA mutations, including 150 males and 232 females. The median age of survey respondents was 49 years (50 years for males and 48 years for females). Overall, 84% of survey respondents indicated prior BRCA mutation testing (95.2% females, 67.3% males). For the overall group of survey respondents, 84% (86% females, 84% males) indicated they would tell their male relatives about a research study focused on high risk men from BRCA families, and 53% (39% females, 74% males) thought that their male relatives would be interested in participating in such a study. Despite limited studies focused on men from BRCA mutation positive families, our survey suggests that both male and female family members are highly interested in focused on male BRCA mutation carriers. The importance of further studying this topic is underscored by emerging literature that suggest cancer surveillance and treatment decisions may improve outcomes in men with BRCA mutations.

  5. Signs and symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy among carriers in the Netherlands : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; Leschot, NJ; Van Essen, AJ; Brunner, HG; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; de Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Background Carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) may show muscle weakness or dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies focusing on skeletal-muscle involvement were done before DNA analysis was possible. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a population of definit

  6. Design and evaluation of lipoprotein resembling curcumin-encapsulated protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier for brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanfei; Asghar, Sajid; Xu, Yurui; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Jing; Ping, Qineng; Zhou, Jianping; Xiao, Yanyu

    2016-06-15

    Many nanoparticle matrixes have been demonstrated to be efficient in brain targeting, but there are still certain limitations for them. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing nanoparticulate systems for brain-targeted delivery, a lipoprotein resembling protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier (PS80-NLC) loaded with curcumin was constructed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo performance. Firstly, single factor at a time approach was employed to investigate the effects of various formulation factors. Mean particle sizes of ≤100nm, high entrapment efficiency (EE, about 95%) and drug loading (DL, >3%) were obtained for the optimized formulations. In vitro release studies in the presence of plasma indicated stability of the formulation under physiological condition. Compared with NLC, PS80-NLC showed noticeably higher affinity for bEnd.3 cells (1.56 folds greater than NLC) but with lower uptake in macrophages. The brain coronal sections showed strong and widely distributed fluorescence intensity of PS80-NLC than that of NLC in the cortex. Ex vivo imaging studies further confirmed that PS80-NLC could effectively permeate BBB and preferentially accumulate in the brain (2.38 times greater than NLC). The considerable in vitro and in vivo performance of the safe and biocompatible PS80-NLC makes it a suitable option for further investigations in brain targeted drug delivery.

  7. Study of high mobility carriers in Ni-doped CdO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Dakhel

    2013-10-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) doped with different amounts of nickel ion thin films have been prepared on silicon and glass substrates by vacuum evaporation technique. The effects of nickel doping on the structural, electrical, optical and optoelectronic properties of the host CdO films were systematically studied. The sample elemental composition was determined by the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method. The X-ray diffraction method was used to study the crystalline structure of the samples. It shows that some of Ni3+ ions occupy mainly locations when in interstitial positions and Cd2+-ion vacancies of CdO lattice. The bandgap of Ni-doped CdO suffers narrowing till 10–12% compared to undoped CdO. Such bandgap narrowing was studied within the framework of the available models. The electrical behaviours show that all the prepared Ni-doped CdO films are degenerate semiconductors. However, the nickel doping influences all the optoelectrical properties of CdO. Their d.c. conductivity, carrier concentration and mobility increased compared to undoped CdO film. The largest mobility of 112.6 cm2/V.s was measured for 1–2% Ni-doped CdO film. From optoelectronics point of view, Ni-doped CdO can be used in infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR–TCO) applications.

  8. Comparative study of using different materials as bacterial carriers to treat hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Zhu, Nanwen; Cao, Xinde; Jia, Jinping

    2008-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and protect the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, molecular sieve, granular porous carbon, and ferric oxide desulfurizer, immobilized with autotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron, were developed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Their corresponding bioreactors were referred to as BMS, BPC, and BFO, respectively. H(2)S loading, gas retention time, hydrogen ion, and aluminous, ferric, and ferrous iron concentrations of recycling effluents were evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis, Brauner-Emmett-Teller method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize packing materials. Results showed that the elimination capacity was in the order of BFO > BPC > BMS. This study suggested that the material characteristics progressively influenced the deodorization capacities of bioreactors. H(2)S was oxidized into elemental sulfur and oxidized sulfur species, according to differences of carriers. Furthermore, this study revealed the potential application of simultaneously treating of H(2)S under extremely acidic conditions.

  9. Reduced hippocampal volume in healthy young ApoE4 carriers: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey matter structures of 22 healthy younger ApoE4 carriers and 22 non-carriers (20-38 years. Volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and brain stem were calculated by FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST algorithm. A significant drop in volume was found in the right hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers (ApoE4+ relative to non-carriers (ApoE4-, while there was a borderline significant decrease in the volume of the left hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers. The volumes of no other structures were found to be significantly affected by genotype. Atrophy has been found to be a sensitive marker of neurodegenerative changes, and our results show that within a healthy young population, the presence of the ApoE4+ carrier gene leads to volume reduction in a structure that is vitally important for memory formation. Our results suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age. Although volume reductions were noted bilaterally in the hippocampus, atrophy was more pronounced in the right hippocampus. This finding relates to previous work which has noted a compensatory increase in right hemisphere activity in ApoE4 carriers in response to preclinical declines in memory function. Possession of the ApoE4 allele may lead to greater predilection for right hemisphere atrophy even in healthy young subjects in their twenties.

  10. Asthma and COPD in cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T carriers. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  11. Study on the share ratio between a service provider and two carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xin; XU Jun-jie; XIN Zhan-hong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the premise of obtaining optimal revenue, a mathematical model about operation strategies of service provider (SP) in duopoly telecom market was established in this article. In consideration of complexities, the model was transformed from a tri-game to two-party game model under four hypotheses. Nash equilibrium solution between SP and two carriers was proposed with detailed analyses. The value ranges under different cases provided a reference for carriers and SP while deciding share ratios.

  12. Anomalous carrier dynamics in bilayer graphene in presence of mechanical strain: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enamullah

    2016-05-01

    One of the optical response of charge carriers in bilayer graphene, anomalous Rabi oscillation is investigated theoretically in presence of mechanical strain. Rabi oscillation in extreme non-resonance regime is known as anomalous Rabi oscillation, has been predicted theoretically in single layer graphene by new technique known as asymptotic rotating wave approximation. In this article, we have shown a strong dependence of anomalous Rabi oscillations of charge carriers on the mechanical strain near the vanishing point of conduction and valance band.

  13. A Study on HBsAg Carrier Rate of Children under Age Five in Danzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Hu; Dui-Liu Li; Yuan-Gui Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To learn the state of HBsAg carrier after implementing vaccine hepatitis B immunization program for children in Danzhou, and providing a scientific basis for the development of the hepatitis B vaccination strategies.Methods:A combination of stratified sampling and mechanical sampling method was carried out, the authors surveyed vaccine immunization history with hepatitis B in these children who were born from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, then collected blood 3 mL and detected HBsAg carrier status by ELISA from these surveyed children.Results:250 children were included in the survey, the 24 h of birth Hepatitis B vaccine coverage rate in urban, rural newborns was 97.6% and 93.6%, respectively, hepatitis B vaccine three-pin vaccination rate for the whole vaccination course were 100%, only two children from rural area HBsAg carrier was positive, and their positive carrier rate was 0.8%, below 1%. Two HBsAg-positive carrier children from rural area and their families were under epidemiological survey, with discovery that their mothers were carriers of HBsAg, considered as mother to child transmission.Conclusions:Strengthen propaganda promotion to expand knowledge of Hepatitis B and to improve neonatal hepatitis B vaccine 24 h of the first dose timely rate, and standardize hepatitis B vaccine three-pin qualified vaccination rate for the whole vaccination course in children. Take effective measures to improve PMTCT rate, it can reduce child carrier rate of hepatitis B surface antigen, and take effective measures to improve PMTCT rates, it will reduce children carrier rate of HBsAg.

  14. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  15. Mesoporous silica as a carrier for topical application: the Trolox case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, L; Ugazio, E; Sapino, S; Iliade, P; Miletto, I; Berlier, G

    2012-08-28

    As part of a recent research effort aimed at employing mesoporous materials for controlled drug delivery, this paper presents MCM-41 as a carrier for topical application, using Trolox as a model unstable guest molecule. The complexes between Trolox and MCM-41 were prepared by employing different inclusion procedures, varying solvent, method and pretreatment of the silica matrix. The objectives of this study were to determine Trolox loading, analyze its integrity and availability after immobilization on mesoporous silica, evaluate MCM-41 influence on Trolox photodegradation and establish whether the preparation method significantly influences complex properties. The characterization analyses (XRD, TGA, DSC and FTIR) confirmed the hydrogen-bonding interaction and Trolox structure preservation. Gas-volumetric analysis showed a consistent decrease in surface area and in pore volume and diameter with respect to bare MCM-41 indicating that Trolox was mainly located within mesopores. In vitro diffusion tests showed a slower release of Trolox after inclusion in the MCM-41 matrix; at the same time UV irradiation studies highlighted an increased photostability for the complex particularly in O/W emulsion. Moreover the radical scavenging activity of Trolox was maintained after immobilization. In all cases, differences were observed in all tested samples, suggesting that results could be optimized by modifying the inclusion procedure and by improving the guest loading.

  16. 舰载机机舰适配性体系研究%Study on Adaptation System of Carrier-based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭润兆; 段卓毅; 李小卫

    2014-01-01

    针对固定翼舰载机和采用弹射装置的大型航母,分析了舰载机与航母之间的约束接口关系,提出了较为完整的舰载机机舰适配性研究框架。该体系框架涵盖了量化的机舰适配性设计要素,为舰载机的全程研制提供了指导和依据。%In Based on the ifxed wing carrier-based aircraft and large carrier with catapult, the constraint interface between aircrafts and carrier is analyzed and a carrier-based aircraft adaptation system architecture is proposed. This system architecture, which involves quantized adaptation design factors, provides guidance and basis for the carrier-based aircraft design.

  17. Longitudinal carrier landing system design for UAV based on TECS|H∞%基于TECS|H∞的无人机纵向着舰系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 袁锁中

    2011-01-01

    Focused on longitudinal automatic carrier landing for unmanned aerial vehicle, total energy control technique was employed to develop longitudinal carrier landing system. In virtue of requirements of velocity equaled to constant and restrained longitudinal wind disturbance for longitudinal automatic carrier landing system, H∞ control theory, based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) , was used to the design of the longitudinal carrier landing system. The resulting H∞ output feedback controller was presented. The automatic landing system for Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was simulated, and simulation result showed that decoupling control for velocity and flight path was achieved through coordinating elevator and throttle effects, and requirement of carrier landing and restrained longitudinal wind disturbance and excellent robustness was achieved by specifications of the design.%针对无人机纵向自动着舰,运用总能量控制系统建立无人机纵向自动着舰系统,根据纵向着舰导引系统速度为常数且具有抑制纵向风干扰的要求,设计基于线性矩阵不等式的H∞输出反馈控制器,通过对所设计的先锋无人机的纵向自动着舰导引系统仿真表明:通过升降舵和油门的协调控制,实现了速度和航迹的解耦控制,且该设计能满足着舰要求,能有效地抑制纵向风干扰的影响,具有良好的鲁棒性能.

  18. Baseline results from the UK SIGNIFY study: a whole-body MRI screening study in TP53 mutation carriers and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saya, Sibel; Killick, Emma; Thomas, Sarah; Taylor, Natalie; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Rothwell, Jeanette; Benafif, Sarah; Dias, Alexander; Mikropoulos, Christos; Pope, Jenny; Chamberlain, Anthony; Gunapala, Ranga; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Tomkins, Susan; Cook, Jackie; Barwell, Julian; Wiles, Vicki; Limb, Lauren; Eccles, Diana; Leach, Martin O; Shanley, Susan; Gilbert, Fiona J; Hanson, Helen; Gallagher, David; Rajashanker, Bala; Whitehouse, Richard W; Koh, Dow-Mu; Sohaib, S Aslam; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2017-01-16

    In the United Kingdom, current screening guidelines for TP53 germline mutation carriers solely recommends annual breast MRI, despite the wide spectrum of malignancies typically seen in this group. This study sought to investigate the role of one-off non-contrast whole-body MRI (WB MRI) in the screening of asymptomatic TP53 mutation carriers. 44 TP53 mutation carriers and 44 population controls were recruited. Scans were read by radiologists blinded to participant carrier status. The incidence of malignancies diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers against general population controls was calculated. The incidences of non-malignant relevant disease and irrelevant disease were measured, as well as the number of investigations required to determine relevance of findings. In TP53 mutation carriers, 6 of 44 (13.6, 95% CI 5.2-27.4%) participants were diagnosed with cancer during the study, all of which would be considered life threatening if untreated. Two were found to have two primary cancers. Two participants with cancer had abnormalities on the MRI which were initially thought to be benign (a pericardial cyst and a uterine fibroid) but transpired to be sarcomas. No controls were diagnosed with cancer. Fifteen carriers (34.1, 95% CI 20.5-49.9%) and seven controls (15.9, 95% CI 6.7-30.1%) underwent further investigations following the WB MRI for abnormalities that transpired to be benign (p = 0.049). The cancer detection rate in this group justifies a minimum baseline non-contrast WB MRI in germline TP53 mutation carriers. This should be adopted into national guidelines for management of adult TP53 mutation carriers in addition to the current practice of contrast enhanced breast MRI imaging.

  19. Carrier dynamics and design optimization of electrolyte-induced inversion layer carbon nanotube-silicon Schottky junction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchao; Seol, Gyungseon; Rinzler, Andrew G.; Guo, Jing

    2012-03-01

    Carrier dynamics of the electrolyte-induced inversion layer carbon nanotube-silicon Schottky junction solar cells is explored by numerical simulations. Operation mechanisms of the solar cells with and without the electrolyte-induced inversion layer are presented and compared, which clarifies the current flow mechanisms in a solar cell with an induced inversion layer. A heavily doped back contact layer can behave as a hole block layer. In addition to lowering contact resistance and surface recombination, it is particularly useful for improving carrier separation in an electrolyte-induced inversion layer solar cell or a metal-insulator-semiconductor grating solar cell.

  20. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERGSON Christiane Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5% were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8% had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  1. Studies of poly-L-lysine-starch nanoparticle preparation and its application as gene carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Suyao; LIU; Xuanming; TONG; Chunyi; LIU; Jun; TANG; D

    2005-01-01

    Anion starch nanoparticle (StNP) with a diameter of 50 nm was prepared in water-in-oil microemulsion, with soluble starch as raw materials and POCl3 as crosslinking agent. PLL-StNP was prepared by linking poly-L-lysine (PLL) on the surface of StNP. At the same time, the size of PLL-StNP and its stability in aqueous solution were checked by AFM. The analysis of plasmid DNA binding, DNase I enzymatic degradation, toxicity and transfection were done. We discovered that PLL-StNP may be used as non-virus nanoparticle gene carrier. And we developed the method of preparing PLL-StNP gene carrier and used it in cell transfection. As non-virus gene carrier, PLL-StNP has some advantages, such as large load of DNA, high transfection efficiency, low cell toxicity and biodegradability.

  2. Structural Studies of Metalloprotein Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structural Studies of Metalloprotein Design 6. AUTHOR(S) David W. Christianson 5. FUNDING NUMBERS N00014-96-1-0288 7...0288 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David W. Christiansen INSTITUTION: University of Pennsylvania GRANT TITLE: Structural Studies of Metalloprotein

  3. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  4. Charge carrier motion in disordered conjugated polymers: a multiscale ab-initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    We developed an ab-initio multiscale method for simulation of carrier transport in large disordered systems, based on direct calculation of electronic states and electron-phonon coupling constants. It enabled us to obtain the never seen before rich microscopic details of carrier motion in conjugated polymers, which led us to question several assumptions of phenomenological models, widely used in such systems. The macroscopic mobility of disordered poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer, extracted from our simulation, is in agreement with experimental results from the literature.

  5. Analysis of the Panamax bulk carrier charter market 1989-1994 in relation to the design characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Bartelds, M.

    1995-01-01

    Panamax bulk carriers form the largest homogeneous shiptype-group in the world fleet. The H. Clarkson database contained in 1994, 834 of these ships, in a dead-weight range of 50.000-76.000 tons. The dimensions of panamax vessels are restricted by the dimensions of the locks of the Panama Canal, esp

  6. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmasry, F. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, S. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H., E-mail: hoht@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  7. Organic double layer element driven by triboelectric nanogenerator: Study of carrier behavior by non-contact optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-02-01

    By using optical electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) technique, we studied carrier behavior caused by contact electrification (CE) in an organic double-layer element. This double-layer sample was half suspended in the open air, where one electrode (anode or cathode) was connected with a Cu foil for electrification while the other electrode was floated. Results showed two distinct carrier behaviors, depending on the (anode or cathode) connections to the Cu foil, and these carrier behaviors were analyzed based on the Maxwell-Wagner model. The double-layer sample works as a simple solar cell device. The photovoltaic effect and CE process have been proved to be two paralleled effects without strong interaction with each other, while photoconductivity changing in the sample can enhance the relaxation of CE induced charges. By probing the carrier behavior in this half-suspended device, the EFISHG technique has been demonstrated to be an effective non-contact method for clarifying the CE effect on related energy harvesting devices and electronics devices. Meanwhile, the related physical analysis in this letter is also useful for elucidating the fundamental characteristic of hybrid energy system based on solar cell and triboelectric nanogenerator.

  8. Price rivalry in airline markets: A study of a successful strategy of a network carrier against a low-cost carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Fageda; Juan Luis Jiménez; Jordi Perdiguero

    2010-01-01

    Competition in airline markets may be tough. In this context, network carriers have two alternative strategies to compete with low-cost carriers. First, they may establish a low-cost subsidiary. Second, they may try to reduce costs using the main brand. This paper examines a successful strategy of the first type implemented by Iberia in the Spanish domestic market. Our analysis of data and the estimation of a pricing equation show that Iberia has been able to charge lower prices than rivals w...

  9. DNA transfer-a never ending story. A study on scenarios involving a second person as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Janine; Bajanowski, Thomas; Poetsch, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of DNA directly from one item to another has been shown in many studies with elaborate discussions on the nature of the DNA donor as well as material and surface of the items or surrounding features. Every DNA transfer scenario one can imagine seems to be possible. This evokes more and more intricate scenarios proposed by lawyers or attorneys searching for an explanation of the DNA of a certain person on a distinct item with impact on a crime. At court, the forensic genetic scientist has to comment on the probability of these scenarios thus calling for extensive studies on such settings. Here, the possibility of an involvement of a second person as a carrier of the donor's DNA in a variety of different scenarios including three pairs of people and two kinds of items (textiles and plastic bags) was investigated. All transfer settings were executed with and without gloves on the carrier's hands. DNA left on the items was isolated and analyzed using the Powerplex® ESX17 kit. In 21 out of 180 samples, all alleles of the donor DNA could be obtained on the second item (12%), on eight samples, the donor's DNA was dominant compared to all other alleles (38% of samples with complete donor profile). Additionally, 51 samples displayed at least more than half of the donor's alleles (28%). The complete DNA profile of the carrier was found in 47 out of 180 samples (42 partial profiles). In summary, it could be shown that a transfer of donor DNA from epithelial cells through a carrier to a second item is possible, even if the carrier does not wear gloves.

  10. Design of in situ dispersible and calcium cross-linked alginate pellets as intestinal-specific drug carrier by melt pelletization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulaini, Harjoh; Wong, Tin Wui

    2011-06-01

    Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and loss of multiparticulate characteristics such as aggregation in acidic medium, thereby promoting oral dose dumping. This study aimed to design sustained-release dispersible alginate pellets through rapid in situ matrix dispersion and cross-linking by calcium salts during dissolution. Pellets made of alginate and calcium salts were prepared using a solvent-free melt pelletization technique that prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed such a reaction to occur only in dissolution phase. Drug release was remarkably retarded in acidic medium when pellets were formulated with water-soluble calcium acetate instead of acid-soluble calcium carbonate. Different from calcium salt-free and calcium carbonate-loaded matrices that aggregated or underwent gradual erosion, rapid in situ solvation of calcium acetate in pellets during dissolution resulted in burst of gas bubbles, fast pellet breakup, and dispersion. The dispersed fragments, though exhibiting a larger specific surface area for drug dissolution than intact matrix, were rapidly cross-linked by Ca(2+) from calcium acetate and had drug release retarded till a change in medium pH from 1.2 to 6.8. Being dispersible and pH-dependent in drug dissolution, these pellets are useful as multiparticulate intestinal-specific drug carrier without exhibiting dose dumping tendency of a "single-unit-like" system via pellet aggregation.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities in a follow-up study on carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrum, S. M. Schade; Hoogerwaard, E. M.; Dekker, L.; Standaar, T. S.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; van Essen, A. J.; Leschot, N. J.; Wilde, A. A. M.; de Haan, R. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiac involvement has been reported in carriers of dystrophin mutations giving rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The progress of these abnormalities during long-term follow-up is unknown. We describe the long-term follow-up of dilated cardio

  12. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Research on the Design of Hydraulic Cylinder of Exoskeleton Load Carrier%外骨骼负重机器人液压缸的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾镇兵; 程涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the basic composition and working principle of the exoskeleton load carrier. Then the virtual prototype of the exoskeleton load carrier is established by ADAMS, and does dynamic simulation to get driving torques of knee during walking. Finally hydraulic cylinder is designed according to the results of simulation.%首先介绍了外骨骼负重机器人的基本组成和工作原理.然后利用动力学仿真软件ADAMS建立外骨骼机器人的虚拟样机,并进行动力学仿真,获得了行走过程中膝关节的驱动力矩.最后根据仿真结果对外骨骼负重机器人驱动系统的驱动器液压缸进行设计.

  14. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  15. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    iterated several times up to the level time allowed. 1.4 Scope It is necessary to recall that the backgrounds of the Systems Engineering Design Team...landing options are as wheels, skids, parachutes, airbags and none; that is, letting it fly forever or crash. Trade studies should be done in order to

  16. 红外波长上转换器件中载流子阻挡结构的研究∗%Studies on carrier-blo cking structures for up-conversion infrared photo detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) photodetectors have been widely used in the fields of both civil and military applications such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, satellite remote sensing and missile guidance, etc. In conventional large scale focal plane array (FPA) IR imaging, the thermal mismatch between IR photodetectors and silicon readout circuits will inevitably lead to the degradation of the device performance. An up-conversion IR photodetector, which converts IR photons to short-wavelength photons for Si-CCD-based imaging, can avoid thermal mismatch caused by hybridization with silicon readout circuits, resulting in a low-cost way for large array IR imaging. The operation principle of the semiconductor up-conversion IR photodetector is based on electron transitions and carrier transportation in different functional sections including absorption section, transportation section and emission section, hence the carrier distribution in the device structure has a crucial influence on the device performance. In order to achieve low dark current, carriers are expected to be non-uniformly distributed in the up-conversion device structure. Designing and optimizing the carrier-blocking structure are usually the key issues to acquire inhomogeneous carrier distribution. In this paper, up-conversion infrared photodetectors with various hole-blocking structures are investigated both the-oretically and experimentally. Firstly the carrier distributions are calculated by self-consistently solving the Schrödinger equation, Poisson equation, current continuity equation and carrier rate equation. Then the influence of the carrier-blocking structure on the device performance is analyzed by electroluminescence measurements on the corresponding epitaxial structures. According to the theoretical and experimental results, it is found that a 2-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer can block holes effectively without hampering the electron transportation, which is necessary for the up

  17. Functionalized ionic liquid modified mesoporous silica SBA-15: a novel, designable and efficient carrier for porcine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Hu, Yi; Yu, Dinghua; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Weiming; Song, Ping

    2011-11-01

    A series of functionalized ionic liquid modified mesoporous silicas SBA-15 (FIL-SBA) were synthesized by modulating the loading and cation/anion ratio of the functionalized ionic liquid (FIL). The prepared materials FIL-SBA were used as a novel carrier system to immobilize porcine pancreas lipase (PPL). Enzymatic activity and reusability of the immobilized enzyme were investigated using the triacetin hydrolysis reaction. The combined advantages of the nano-sized pore diameter, large surface area and high pore volume of SBA-15, and the tunable properties of the FIL for enzymes immobilized in FIL-SBA gave a maximum improvement of 570% in relative activity, with 63% retention of initial activity after five cycles of use. Carriers and immobilized enzymes were characterized using nitrogen adsorption, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). It was shown that the introduction of FIL influenced the catalytic behavior of PPL significantly by changing the structure and surface properties of the carriers.

  18. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA in 107,611 pregnant women during the period 2005-2009: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common neuromuscular autosomal recessive disorder. The American College of Medical Genetics has recently recommended routine carrier screening for SMA because of the high carrier frequency (1 in 25-50 as well as the severity of that genetic disease. Large studies are needed to determine the feasibility, benefits, and costs of such a program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009. A three-stage screening program was used: (1 pregnant women were tested for SMA heterozygosity; (2 if the mother was determined to be heterozygous for SMA (carrier status, the paternal partner was then tested; (3 if both partners were SMA carriers, prenatal diagnostic testing was performed. During the study period, a total of 2,262 SMA carriers with one copy of the SMN1 gene were identified among the 107,611 pregnant women that were screened. The carrier rate was approximately 1 in 48 (2.10%. The negative predictive value of DHPLC coupled with MLPA was 99.87%. The combined method could detect approximately 94% of carriers because most of the cases resulted from a common single deletion event. In addition, 2,038 spouses were determined to be SMA carriers. Among those individuals, 47 couples were determined to be at high risk for having offspring with SMA. Prenatal diagnostic testing was performed in 43 pregnant women (91.49% and SMA was diagnosed in 12 (27.91% fetuses. The prevalence of SMA in our population was 1 in 8,968. CONCLUSION: The main benefit of SMA carrier screening is to reduce the burden associated with giving birth to an affected child. In this study, we determined the carrier frequency and genetic risk and provided carrier couples with genetic services, knowledge, and genetic counseling.

  19. The Study Of Charge Carrier Transport On The Calamitic Liquid Crystals `` 5, 5'-Di-(Alkyl-Pyridin-Yl) - 2' Bithiophenes''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Naresh; Pokhrel, Chandra; Ellman, Brett; Getmanenko, Yulia; Twieg, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The hole and electron mobilities in both types of calamitic liquid crystals C9 [5,5'-Di-(5-n-nonyl-pyridin-2-yl)-2,2'-bithiophenes] and C10 [5,5'-Di-(5-n-decyl-pyridin-2-yl)-2,2'-bithiophenes] were studied. The charge carrier mobilities were strongly electric field dependent. The mobilities decreased continuously with increase in the electric field up to a certain value, after which it became constant. Both types of charge carrier mobilities are independent of the temperature over our temperature range. The qualitative feature of our results could be tentatively explained by the Monte--Carlo modeling proposed by H Bassler. However, the results require further study for better understanding.

  20. Colloidal carriers of isotretinoin for topical acne treatment: skin uptake, ATR-FTIR and in vitro cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Aslı; Özhan, Gül; Güngör, Sevgi; Erdal, M Sedef

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is the chronical, multifactorial and complex disease of the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. The main goal of the topical therapy in acne is to target the drug to epidermal and deep dermal regions by minimizing systemic absorption . Isotretinoin, a retinoic acid derivative, is the most effective drug in acne pathogenesis. Because systemic treatment may cause many side effects, topical isotretinoin treatment is an option in the management of acne. However, due to its high lipophilic character, isotretinoin tends to accumulate in the upper stratum corneum, thus its penetration into the lower layers is limited, which restricts the efficiency of topical treatment. Microemulsions are fluid, isotropic, colloidal drug carriers that have been widely studied as drug delivery systems. The percutaneous transport of active agents can be enhanced by microemulsions when compared with their conventional formulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microemulsions as alternative topical carriers for isotretinoin with an objective to improve its skin uptake. After in vitro permeation studies, the dermal penetration of isotretinoin from microemulsions was investigated by tape stripping procedure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy provided insight about the localization of the drug in the skin. The interaction between the microemulsion components and stratum corneum lipids is studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The relative safety of the microemulsions was assessed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts using MTT viability test. The results indicate that microemulsion-based novel colloidal carriers have a potential for enhanced skin delivery and localization of isotretinoin.

  1. Studies on the crystalline lens. XXI. Bidirectional carrier-mediated transport of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI); McLean, I.W.

    1974-10-01

    Movement of lithium both into and out of cultured rabbit lenses occurs by processes that obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics as well as by a nonsaturable process. The parameters describing the kinetics of transport are evaluated on the basis of a modified version of a pump-leak hypothesis that was shown previously to account for the fluxes of other alkali metal cations. Potassium is a potent competitive inhibitor of the carrier-mediated transport of lithium into the lens. Lithium weakly inhibits the influx of potassium by a noncompetitive process. The observation that lithium is a weak inhibitor of potassium transport (Ki = 70 mM) while having a moderate affinity for its carrier (Km = 4.0 mM) suggests that more than one site may be responsible for the transport of potassium and lithium into the lens. Active transport of lithium out of the lens does not appear to involve the sodium pump, since the rate of sodium efflux is unaffected by lithium. Both influx and efflux of lithium are inhibited by ouabain (10/sup -5/ M) but not by amiloride (10/sup -4/ M) or oxytocin (20 milliunits per milliliter). Lithium displaces proportionate amounts of sodium and potassium from intracellular fluid when lenses are cultured in the presence of this cation. The nonsaturable exchange of lithium is independent of observed differences in electric potential, indicating that lithium does not permeate the lenticular membranes by simple diffusion of lithium ions, but rather as a complex with either a free anion or a carrier within the membrane. The affinity of lithium for the carrier is essentially equal to that of cesium and much lower than that for rubidium, whereas the kd of both lithium and rubidium is much higher than that for cesium. These differences indicate that a common pathway cannot be responsible for the discrimination between cations by both the pump and the leak.

  2. Study on diffusion and recombination of minority carriers by the method of photoconductive decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. H.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes an experiment relating to the diffusion of charge carriers in homogeneous semiconductor material. Diffusion theory, as outlined in this paper, is applied to deduce from measurements a quantity called the bulk lifetime of excess minority carriers: a quantity which is independent of the size, shape, and surface condition of the semiconductor sample. Because of this independence, the bulk lifetime is used as one of the characterizing quantities of semiconductor material. In performing this experiment, the student will gain a working knowledge of diffusion theory as applied to semiconductor carriers, and at the same time become acquainted with an important technique for the characterization of semiconductor material. The actual duration of involvement will depend upon the amount of setting up of equipment, sample preparation, etc., that is expected of the student. An oscilloscope of fast rise time (200-MHz bandwidth), and a xenon flash tube with pulse duration of a few microseconds (General Radio 1542-B electronic stroboscope is a proven possibility), are the major items of equipment needed.

  3. Methods for identifying Neisseria meningitidis carriers: a multi-center study in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Basta

    Full Text Available Detection of meningococcal carriers is key to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, yet no gold standard has been established. Here, we directly compare two methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs to identify meningococcal carriers.We conducted cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren at multiple sites in Africa to compare swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula (U to swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula plus one tonsil (T. Swabs were cultured immediately and analyzed using molecular methods.One thousand and six paired swab samples collected from schoolchildren in four countries were analyzed. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4-8.6% based on the results from both swabs, but the observed prevalence was lower based on one swab type alone. Prevalence based on the T swab or the U swab alone was similar (5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.7% versus 4.9% (95% CI: 3.6-6.4% respectively (p=0.6. The concordance between the two methods was 96.3% and the kappa was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50-0.73, indicating good agreement.These two commonly used methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs provide consistent estimates of the prevalence of carriage, but both methods misclassified carriers to some degree, leading to underestimates of the prevalence.

  4. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  5. Study on Additional Carrier Sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Hwang Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs. The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  6. 20.5万吨散货船的优化设计%Summarization of Optimization Design for 205,000-DWT Type Motor Bulk Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of international shipping industry,especially use of ironstone is increasing.To improve the transport ability and efficiency,increase shipping tonnage,raise economic benefits,ship-owners prefer to constructing the larger bulk carriers which are also the development trend in future.A 205,000-DWT TYPE MOTOR BULK CARRIER is maximum tonnage ship of domestic construction currently.This thesis introduce hull structure optimization design method for the first domestic 205,000-DWT bulk carrier.%随着国际航运业的快速发展,尤其是铁矿石用量的增长,为了提高运输能力和效率,增加单程运输吨位,提高经济效益,船东更倾向建造吨位大的散货船舶。大型散货船也是未来发展的趋势。20.5万吨散货船是目前国内建造的吨位最大的散货船。本文介绍了国内建造的首艘20.5万吨散货船结构优化设计方法

  7. Design of Higher Order QAM Carrier Recover Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的全数字高阶QAM载波同步设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋明; 刘海溶; 翟江辉

    2011-01-01

    在分析四相松尾环应用于QPSK载波同步的基础上,对环路进行改进,使该环路能够应用于高阶的QAM载波同步.采用System Generator以及Verilog HDL对改进后的环路进行FPGA设计验证,结果表明改进后的载波同步环路能够实现对16QAM载波锁定同步,星座图抖动小,同步时间迅速.%In this paper, the loop by analyzing the carrier recover of QPSK based on four phase loop is improved, so that the loop can be applied to the carrier recover of QAM in the higher order. What's more, the verification of FPGA design in the improved loop is done by using System Generator and Verilog HDL, the result of which indicate that the improved loop can lock 16QAM carrier, a good constellation Jitter performance, synchronous time fast.

  8. First-principle theory of high field carrier transport in semiconductors with application to the study of avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Michele

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this thesis work is twofold: to present a theoretical framework to study high-field carrier transport in semiconductor materials and to provide a deep understanding of the transport properties of GaN and HgCdTe. The validation of this model is performed by applying it to the study of Avalanche Photodiodes. The model we developed is based on Monte Carlo techniques and it includes the full details of the band structure, derived from the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM), and a numerically calculated impact ionization transition rate based on a wave-vector dependent dielectric function. The nonpolar carrier-phonon interaction is treated within the framework of the rigid pseudoion (RPI) approximation using ab initio techniques to determine the phonon dispersion relation. The calculated phonon scattering rates are consistent with the electronic structure and the phonon dispersion relation thus removing adjustable parameters such as deformation potential coefficients. Band-to-band carrier tunneling has been treated by solving the time-dependent multiband Schroedinger equation. The multiband description predicts a considerable increase of the impact ionization coefficients compared with simulations not considering tunneling. Specifically, the present model has been applied to the study of two distinct semiconductor materials: GaN and HgCdTe. The former is a wide bandgap while the second is a narrow bandgap semiconductor. In spite of their constantly increasing technological reliability both materials lack theoretical understanding of high-field carrier transport. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) offer an ideal environment to test and validate the model developed in this thesis work because of the large electric field involved in these devices. APDs based on both GaN and HgCdTe are investigated, consistently with the physics-based models described above. Key quantities such as gain, breakdown voltage, bandwidth and noise characteristics are estimated. The

  9. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  10. [Saarland Growth Study: sampling design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, H; Zabransky, S

    2000-01-01

    The use of reference data to evaluate the physical development of children and adolescents is part of the daily routine in the paediatric ambulance. The construction of such reference data is based on the collection of extensive reference data. There are different kinds of reference data: cross sectional references, which are based on data collected from a big representative cross-sectional sample of the population, longitudinal references, which are based on follow-up surveys of usually smaller samples of individuals from birth to maturity, and mixed longitudinal references, which are a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional reference data. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection and the resulting reference data are discussed. The Saarland Growth Study was conducted for several reasons: growth processes are subject to secular changes, there are no specific reference data for children and adolescents from this part of the country and the growth charts in use in the paediatric praxis are possibly not appropriate any more. Therefore, the Saarland Growth Study served two purposes a) to create actual regional reference data and b) to create a database for future studies on secular trends in growth processes of children and adolescents from Saarland. The present contribution focusses on general remarks on the sampling design of (cross-sectional) growth surveys and its inferences for the design of the present study.

  11. Utilizing Moist or Dry Swabs for the Sampling of Nasal MRSA Carriers? An In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Philipp; Devide, Annette; Weise, Mirjam; Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Schäffler, Holger; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the quantitative bacterial recovery of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal screenings by utilizing dry or moistened swabs within an in vivo and an in vitro experimental setting. 135 nasal MRSA carriers were each swabbed in one nostril with a dry and in the other one with a moistened rayon swab. Quantitative bacterial recovery was measured by standard viable count techniques. Furthermore, an anatomically correct artificial nose model was inoculated with a numerically defined suspension of MRSA and swabbed with dry and moistened rayon, polyurethane-foam and nylon-flocked swabs to test these different settings and swab-materials under identical laboratory conditions. In vivo, quantities of MRSA per nostril in carriers varied between 107 colony forming units, with a median of 2.15x104 CFU. However, no statistically significant differences could be detected for the recovery of MRSA quantities when swabbing nasal carriers with moist or dry rayon swabs. In vitro testing confirmed the in vivo data for swabs with rayon, polyurethane and nylon-flocked tips, since pre-moistening of swabs did not significantly affect the quantities of retrieved bacteria. Therefore, pre-moistening of swabs prior to nasal MRSA sampling provides no advantage in terms of recovering greater bacterial quantities and therefore can be omitted. In addition, this situation can be mimicked in an in vitro model, thereby providing a useful basis for future in vitro testings of new swab types or target organisms for screening approaches. PMID:27626801

  12. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  13. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  14. Interfacial Study To Suppress Charge Carrier Recombination for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Mitul, Abu Farzan; Wang, Qi; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Iefanova, Anastasiia; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng; Kumar, Mukesh; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-12-09

    We report effects of an interface between TiO2-perovskite and grain-grain boundaries of perovskite films prepared by single step and sequential deposited technique using different annealing times at optimum temperature. Nanoscale kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement shows that charge transport in a perovskite solar cell critically depends upon the annealing conditions. The KPFM results of single step and sequential deposited films show that the increase in potential barrier suppresses the back-recombination between electrons in TiO2 and holes in perovskite. Spatial mapping of the surface potential within perovskite film exhibits higher positive potential at grain boundaries compared to the surface of the grains. The average grain boundary potential of 300-400 mV is obtained upon annealing for sequentially deposited films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicate the formation of a PbI2 phase upon annealing which suppresses the recombination. Transient analysis exhibits that the optimum device has higher carrier lifetime and short carrier transport time among all devices. An optimum grain boundary potential and proper band alignment between the TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and the perovskite absorber layer help to increase the overall device performance.

  15. An analytical study on the carrier-phase linear combinations for triple-frequency GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Yang, Yuanxi; He, Haibo; Guo, Hairong

    2017-02-01

    The linear combinations of multi-frequency carrier-phase measurements for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are greatly beneficial to improving the performance of ambiguity resolution (AR), cycle slip correction as well as precise positioning. In this contribution, the existing definitions of the carrier-phase linear combination are reviewed and the integer property of the resulting ambiguity of the phase linear combinations is examined. The general analytical method for solving the optimal integer linear combinations for all triple-frequency GNSS is presented. Three refined triple-frequency integer combinations solely determined by the frequency values are introduced, which are the ionosphere-free (IF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (IFS0), the geometry-free (GF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (GFS0) and the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GFIF) combination. Besides, the optimal GF, IF, extra-wide lane and ionosphere-reduced integer combinations for GPS and BDS are solved exhaustively by the presented method. Their potential applications in cycle slip detection, AR as well as precise positioning are discussed. At last, a more straightforward GF and IF AR scheme than the existing method is presented based on the GFIF integer combination.

  16. Preparation and in vivo toxicity study of solid lipid microparticles as carrier for pulmonary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Gustin, Pascal; Gavini, Elisabetta; Roland, Isabelle; Delattre, Luc; Evrard, Brigitte

    2004-03-10

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration. Compritol (5.0% wt/wt) SLM dispersions were prepared by rotor-stator homogenization, at different surfactant concentrations and emulsification times. The SLM were characterized, in terms of morphology and size, after lyophilization and sterilization by autoclaving process. In vivo assessment was carried out in rats by intratracheal instillation of either placebo or SLM dispersion, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for cytological analysis. Mean particle size of 4 to 5 microm was achieved using 0.3% and 0.4% (wt/wt) of emulsifier (Poloxamer 188) and emulsification times of 2 and 5 minutes. The particles showed spherical shape and smooth surface. The morphology of microparticles, the size, and the size distribution were not substantially modified after lyophilization and sterilization. Total cell counts showed no significant differences between placebo and SLM 0.5% or 2.5% groups. Regarding cytology, percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages did not significantly differ between groups. These results suggest that a single intratracheal administration of the SLMs does not induce a significant inflammatory airway response in rats and that the SLMs might be a potential carrier for encapsulated drug via the pulmonary route.

  17. An analytical study on the carrier-phase linear combinations for triple-frequency GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Yang, Yuanxi; He, Haibo; Guo, Hairong

    2016-08-01

    The linear combinations of multi-frequency carrier-phase measurements for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are greatly beneficial to improving the performance of ambiguity resolution (AR), cycle slip correction as well as precise positioning. In this contribution, the existing definitions of the carrier-phase linear combination are reviewed and the integer property of the resulting ambiguity of the phase linear combinations is examined. The general analytical method for solving the optimal integer linear combinations for all triple-frequency GNSS is presented. Three refined triple-frequency integer combinations solely determined by the frequency values are introduced, which are the ionosphere-free (IF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (IFS0), the geometry-free (GF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (GFS0) and the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GFIF) combination. Besides, the optimal GF, IF, extra-wide lane and ionosphere-reduced integer combinations for GPS and BDS are solved exhaustively by the presented method. Their potential applications in cycle slip detection, AR as well as precise positioning are discussed. At last, a more straightforward GF and IF AR scheme than the existing method is presented based on the GFIF integer combination.

  18. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engageme......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking.......The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement...

  19. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  20. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  1. Femtosecond Studies Of Excited Carrier Energy Relaxation And Intervalley Scattering In GaAs and AlGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W. Z.; LaGasse, M. J.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Zysset, B.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    1988-08-01

    We report the investigation of excited carrier scattering, energy relaxation, and intervalley scattering in GaAs and AlGaAs. Pump and continuum probe absorption saturation measurements provide evidence for femtosecond transient nonthermal carrier distributions and permit a measurement of carrier cooling processes. Measurements performed using a tunable femotsecond laser allow an investigation of intervalley scattering.

  2. Study of carrier recombination transient characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN dependent on layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gaubas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers of different thickness have been examined in order to clarify a role of surface recombination, to separate an impact of radiative and non-radiative recombination and disorder factors. The microwave probed –photoconductivity (MW-PC and spectrally resolved photo-luminescence (PL transients were simultaneously recorded under ultraviolet (UV light 354 nm pulsed 500 ps excitation. The MW-PC transients exhibited the carrier decay components associated with carrier decay within micro-crystals and the disordered structure on the periphery areas surrounding crystalline columns. Three PL bands were resolved within PL spectrum, namely, the exciton ascribed UV-PL band edge for hν>3.3 eV, blue B-PL band for 2.5 < hν < 3.0 eV and yellow Y-PL band with hν < 2.4 eV. It has been obtained that intensity of UV-PL band increases with excitation density, while intensity of B-PL band is nearly invariant. However, intensity of the Y-PL increases with reduction of the excitation density. The Y-PL can be associated with trapping centers. A reduction of UV excitation density leads to a decrease of the relative amplitude of the asymptotic component within the MW-PC transients and to an increase of the amplitude as well as duration of the yellow spectral band (Y-PL asymptotic component. Fractional index α with values 0.5 < α < 0.8 was evaluated for the stretched-exponent component which fits the experimental transients determined by the disordered structure ascribed to the periphery areas surrounding the crystalline columns.

  3. Bombarding Cancer: Biolistic Delivery of therapeutics using Porous Si Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilony, Neta; Tzur-Balter, Adi; Segal, Ester; Shefi, Orit

    2013-08-01

    A new paradigm for an effective delivery of therapeutics into cancer cells is presented. Degradable porous silicon carriers, which are tailored to carry and release a model anti-cancer drug, are biolistically bombarded into in-vitro cancerous targets. We demonstrate the ability to launch these highly porous microparticles by a pneumatic capillary gene gun, which is conventionally used to deliver cargos by heavy metal carriers. By optimizing the gun parameters e.g., the accelerating gas pressure, we have successfully delivered the porous carriers, to reach deep targets and to cross a skin barrier in a highly spatial resolution. Our study reveals significant cytotoxicity towards the target human breast carcinoma cells following the delivery of drug-loaded carriers, while administrating empty particles results in no effect on cell viability. The unique combination of biolistics with the temporal control of payload release from porous carriers presents a powerful and non-conventional platform for designing new therapeutic strategies.

  4. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  5. Amidated pectin/sodium carboxymethylcellulose microspheres as a new carrier for colonic drug targeting: Development and optimization by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Hytham H; El-Gibaly, Ibrahim; Soliman, Ghareb M; Mohamed, Fergany A; El-Sayed, Ahmed M

    2016-11-20

    The colon is a promising site for drug targeting owing to its long transit time and mild proteolytic activity. The aim of this study was to prepare new low methoxy amidated pectin/NaCMC microspheres cross-linked by a mixture of Zn(2+) and Al(3+) ions and test their potential for colonic targeting of progesterone. A 2(4) factorial design was carried out to optimize the preparation conditions. High drug entrapment efficiency (82-99%) was obtained and it increased with increasing drug concentration but decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Drug release rate was directly proportional to the microsphere drug content and inversely related to Al(3+) ion concentration. Drug release was minimal during the first 3h but was significantly improved in the presence of 1% rat caecal contents, confirming the microsphere potential for colonic delivery. The microspheres achieved >2.3-fold enhancement of colonic progesterone permeability. These results confirm the viability of the produced microspheres as colon-targeted drug delivery vehicle.

  6. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  7. French aircraft carrier design using virtual reality%虚拟现实技术在法国航母设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雷

    2013-01-01

    A French virtual-reality simulation software named GASPAR is described.This software was developed in order to simulate different configurations of the French Navy' s future aircraft carrier and test their viability.Two supporting libraries upon which the software GASPAR is built is introduced,then the structure and use of the software follows.Finally,some results that the software has validated about the aircraft carrier design are given.%介绍法国开发的一款虚拟现实仿真软件GASPAR.该软件用于仿真法国海军未来航母的各种配置并测试它们的生存能力.首先介绍GASPAR软件的两大基础库,以及该软件的构成和用法,最后给出该软件在航母设计验证中的典型应用.

  8. 数字调制器载波产生电路的FPGA设计%Design of Digital Modulator Carrier Producing Circuit Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷能芳

    2011-01-01

    The common approach to implement Digital Modulator Carrier producing circuit on FPGA is based on a lookup table, which requires a huge volume of ROM to achieve high resolution. This paper porposes a pipelined architecture for implementation of digital modulator carrier on FPGA, which, based on CORDIC algorithm, can save considerable hardware resources and improve the speed performance as well. The system was implemented in EP1C12Q240C8, and the hardware practical test was done by embedded logic analyzer SignalTap Ⅱ of Quartus Ⅱ. The correctness and feasibility of this design is verified by practical test result.%数字调制器载波产生电路的FPGA实现通常都是基于查找表的方法,为了达到高精度要求,需要耗费大量的ROM资源去建立庞大的查找表.文中提出了一种基于流水线CORDIC算法的实现方案,可有效地节省FPGA的硬件资源,提高运算速度.电路在FPGA芯片EPIC12Q240C8上实现,并通过QuartusⅡ嵌入式逻辑分析仪SignalTapⅡ对硬件进行了实时测试,测试结果验证了设计的正确性及可行性.

  9. Block-copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polylysine as a carrier of organic iodine: design of long-circulating particulate contrast medium for X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Gazelle, G S; Wolf, G L; Torchilin, V P

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain small, polymer-stabilized particulate carriers for organic iodine to serve as a contrast agent for X-ray computed tomography (CT) an attempt was made to design a carrier based on polymeric micelles. Here we describe the synthesis of an iodine-containing amphiphilic block-copolymer which can micellize in aqueous solutions. The two blocks of the copolymer consisted of methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol) and poly[epsilon,N-(triiodobenzoyl)-L-lysine]. Upon dispersion in water, the block copolymer formed particles with average diameter 80 nm and iodine content up to 44.7%. The particles start to dissociate to the individual polymeric chains in the concentration range of 0.05-0.5 microM in water at 23 degrees C. Upon intravenous injection at 250 mg of iodine/kg (570 mg of the agent/kg) in rabbits the medium demonstrated exceptional 24 hr half-life in the blood substantiating corona/core structure of the particles with PEG chains protecting the iodine-containing core. The possible use of these particulates as contrast medium for X-ray computed tomography is discussed.

  10. Study of road dust magnetic phases as the main carrier of potentially harmful trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourliva, Anna; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Aidona, Elina

    2016-05-15

    Mineralogical and morphological characteristics and heavy metal content of different fractions (bulk, non-magnetic fraction-NMF and magnetic fraction-MF) of road dusts from the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) were investigated. Main emphasis was given on the magnetic phases extracted from these dusts. High magnetic susceptibility values were presented, whereas the MFs content of road dust samples ranged in 2.2-14.7 wt.%. Thermomagnetic analyses indicated that the dominating magnetic carrier in all road dust samples was magnetite, while the presence of hematite and iron sulphides in the investigated samples cannot be excluded. SEM/EDX analyses identified two groups of ferrimagnetic particles: spherules with various surface morphologies and textures and angular/aggregate particles with elevated heavy metal contents, especially Cr. The road dusts (bulk samples) were dominated by calcium, while the mean concentrations of trace elements decreased in the order Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > V > Sn > As > Sb > Co > Mo > W > Cd. MFs exhibited significantly higher concentrations of trace elements compared to NMFs indicating that these potentially harmful elements (PHEs) are preferentially enriched in the MFs and highly associated with the ferrimagnetic particles. Hazard Index (HI) obtained for both adults and children through exposure to bulk dust samples were lower or close to the safe level (=1). On the contrary, the HIs for the magnetic phases indicated that both children and adults are experiencing potential health risk since HI for Cr was significantly higher than safe level. Cancer risk due to road dust exposure is low.

  11. Study of Mg Powder as Catalyst Carrier for the Carbon Nanotube Growth by CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using magnesium powder as catalyst carrier for carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapor deposition, which may pave a new way to in situ fabricate CNT/Mg composites with high CNT dispersion, was investigated for the first time. The fabrication process of the catalyst supported on Mg powder involves the preparation of colloid by a deposition-precipitation method, followed by calcination and reduction. The results show that the interaction between catalyst and support plays an important role for the catalytic property of the catalyst. Ni alloyed with Mg shows no activity for the decomposition of methane. The introduction of Y in Ni/Mg catalyst can promote the reaction temperature between Ni and Mg and thus enhance the activity of the catalyst. A large amount of carbon nanotubes (CNTs with an average diameter of 20 nm was obtained using Ni/Y/Mg catalyst at 450∘C, while only a few short CNTs were obtained using Ni/Mg catalyst due to the low activity of the catalyst at lower temperature.

  12. Photoemission study of fluorination atmospheric pressure plasma processes on EPDM: Influence of the carrier and fluorinating gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L., E-mail: lidia.martinez@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC) Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Huttel, Y. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC) Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Verheyde, B.; Vanhulsel, A. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Roman, E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC) Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Fluorination plasma treatments at atmospheric pressure were used to modify the surface composition of EPDM elastomer. In this study, two different precursors (CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6}) and two carrier gases (He and Ar) were used for the surface modification of EPDM elastomer. The surface modifications were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have observed a strong influence of the gas selection on the extent of the surface modification induced with these treatments. In general terms, the use of CF{sub 4} generates a higher concentration of fluorine in the elastomer surface. On the other hand, the use of He as carrier gas also increases the effectiveness of the modification process. The fluorine uptake varies between 2 and 13%, although the formation of fluorine-containing functional groups was detected when the amount of fluorine on the surface exceeded 7%. After all treatments, an important oxygen uptake was observed, with amounts three or four times higher than the untreated elastomer.

  13. ACSA: Conference book: Design Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duin, L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning has been undergoing large changes in the training and research program mes. These changes followon from the signals received from professional practice, but above all from the desire of staff and students to design prog

  14. Carrier redistribution between different potential sites in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells studied by near-field photoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Marcinkevičius, S.

    2014-09-15

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at different excitation powers was applied to study nanoscale properties of carrier localization and recombination in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) emitting in violet, blue, and green-yellow spectral regions. With increased excitation power, an untypical PL peak energy shift to lower energies was observed. The shift was attributed to carrier density dependent carrier redistribution between nm-scale sites of different potentials. Near-field PL scans showed that in (202¯1) QWs the in-plane carrier diffusion is modest, and the recombination properties are uniform, which is advantageous for photonic applications.

  15. Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-09-01

    Organometal-halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells--which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output--by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p-n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. Combining the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  16. A study on the use of the BioBall® as a biofilm carrier in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masłoń, Adam; Tomaszek, Janusz A

    2015-11-01

    Described in this study are experiments conducted to evaluate the removal of organics and nutrients from synthetic wastewater by a moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor using BioBall® carriers as biofilm media. The work involving a 15L-laboratory scale MBSBBR (moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor) model showed that the wastewater treatment system was based on biochemical processes taking place with activated sludge and biofilm microorganisms developing on the surface of the BioBall® carriers. Classical nitrification and denitrification and the typical enhanced biological phosphorus removal process were achieved in the reactor analyzed, which operated with a volumetric organic loading of 0.84-0.978gCODL(-1)d(-1). The average removal efficiencies for COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were found to be 97.7±0.5%, 87.8±2.6% and 94.3±1.3%, respectively. Nitrification efficiency reached levels in the range 96.5-99.7%.

  17. A Triple Network Connectivity Study of Large-Scale Brain Systems in Cognitively Normal APOE4 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Li, Qing; Yu, Xinyu; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jiacai; Reiman, Eric M.; Yao, Li; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN), has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis (ICA) and Bayesian network (BN) approach. Our findings indicated altered within-network connectivity that suggests future cognitive decline risk, and preserved between-network connectivity that may support their current preserved cognition in the cognitively normal APOE4 allele carriers. The study provides novel sights into our understanding of the risk factors for AD and their influence on the triple network model of major psychopathology. PMID:27733827

  18. Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Luther, Joseph M; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M

    2015-09-28

    Organometal-halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells-which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output-by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p-n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. Combining the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  19. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs based on a community cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Z; Li, D; Wang, A; Su, H; Shao, Z; Zhang, J; Ji, Z; Gao, J; Choi, B C K; Yan, Y

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is an atypical serological pattern in HBV infection. There is no epidemiological characteristics of this serological pattern in the community and there is controversy over the molecular mechanisms underlying this pattern. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with HBsAg and anti-HBs in a longitudinal community cohort study. The prevalence of this atypical serological pattern was 2.93% (122/4169) in HBsAg-positive populations. The prevalence progressively increased with age from 40 to 70 years old. The rate of HBeAg positive and detectable HBV DNA were both significantly higher in carriers with this pattern than in carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (26/122 verse 598/4047, P = 0.046; 86/122 verse 275/529,P anti-HBs, 14.81% of the carriers lost their anti-HBs. Viral sequencing showed that carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs had higher numbers of residue changes within the S gene than carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (2.42 verse 1.33 changes per 100 residues, P anti-HBs is a unique serological pattern which may be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcome and may be related to HBsAg immune variants which have genotypic heterogeneity.

  1. 18,X,Y aneuploidies and transmission electron microscopy studies in spermatozoa from five carriers of different reciprocal translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Moretti; Nicola Antonio Pascarelli; Valentina Giannerini; Michela Geminiani; Cecilia Anichini; Oiulia Collodel

    2009-01-01

    We analysed ejaculated spermatozoa from five infertile men with different balanced reciprocal translocations to contribute to the study of meiotic segregation of chromosomes 18, X and Y and also to evaluate sperm morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Conventional lymphocyte karyotype analyses highlighted dif-ferent reciprocal balanced translocations: t(12; 13), t(4;9), t(X;8), t(8; 10) and t(3; 16). Semen analysis was performed by light and TEM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed directly on sperm nuclei using centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X and Y. The carriers of the balanced reciprocal translocations considered in the pres-ent study showed a very similar pattern of sperm pathologies: diffused presence of apoptosis and immaturity. All patients showed meiotic segregation derangements, highlighted by the presence of sperm diploidies and sex chro-mosome disomies particularly related to the failure of the first meiotic division. However, an increased incidence of chromosome 18 aneuploidy was detected in spermatozoa from t(X;8) and t(8;10) carriers. We have also reported values from sex chromosomes such as t(X;8), although the X chromosome was involved in translocation. Since pa-tients with reciprocal translocations and spermatogenetic impairment are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm in-jection cycles, the study of sperm parameters, and particularly of the level of aneuploidy rates, would provide better information for couples at risk and would contribute to the data in the literature for a better understanding of the ef-fects of chromosomal rearrangement on the whole meiotic process and, in particular, on chromosomes not involved in translocation.

  2. Costs, effects, and savings of screening for cystic fibrosis gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Verzijl, JG; Verheij, JBGM; Kooij, L; Tijmstra, T; ten Kate, LP; Habbema, JDF

    1998-01-01

    Study objective-Evaluating the costs, effects, and savings of several strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene carrier screening. Design-A general model for evaluating prenatal, preconceptional, school, and neonatal carrier screening was constructed. For prenatal and preconceptional screening, two s

  3. The Design of Intelligent Office System Based on Power Line Carrier%基于电力载波的智能办公系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小丹

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of cutting the cost and taking ful advantage of exsiting electic power line,It had designed with the system of intel igent ofifce automation based on PLC (Power Line Carrier).The system assumes ring topology logical y base on server program,implementing communication with various devices expediently.According to the condition of netting in,the system turns out physical y bustopology.Base on BWP20 Electric Power Carrier Module,the hardware modulate the data which from the upper computer to power line by FSK(Frequency Shift Keying),and demodulate the data which from the power line to upper computer.The software of the system is based on Visual C++developing platform,mainly accomplish the session and ifle transfer.The system accomplishes the prospective function,and It has higher application value.%为了降低成本,利用已有的电力输送线路设计了一个基于电力载波技术的智能办公系统。该系统依托服务器程序,逻辑上呈现为星形拓扑,根据入网情况,物理结构上呈现出总线拓扑结构。系统硬件基于BWP20电力载波模块,将需要传输的数据调制,经电力线传输,并解调完成数据传输。系统软件基于Visual C++开发平台,完成简单的文字传输和文件传输等功能。经测试,系统实现了预期的功能,有较高的应用价值。

  4. Optical properties and effect of carrier tunnelling in CdSe colloidal quantum dots: A comparative study with different ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Syamanta Kumar; Kim, Tae Soo; Oh, Eunsoon; Challa, Kiran Kumar; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2012-09-01

    We studied both cw and time-resolved photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots capped with chemical ligands. For the trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe/ZnS QDs, both the luminescence intensity and lifetime were found to be increased with increasing temperatures, which can be explained by the thermal activation of the carriers trapped at shallow trapping centers. After the ligand exchange into 3-mercaptopropionic acid, the non-radiative recombination rate was increased and the luminescence efficiency was decreased at room temperature. When the QDs were employed in photovoltaic devices, photocurrent was found to be increased after the ligand exchange. The improved photocurrents observed in photovoltaic devices can be explained by the improved tunnelling probability between the neighbouring QDs.

  5. Optical properties and effect of carrier tunnelling in CdSe colloidal quantum dots: A comparative study with different ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamanta Kumar Goswami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied both cw and time-resolved photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots capped with chemical ligands. For the trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe/ZnS QDs, both the luminescence intensity and lifetime were found to be increased with increasing temperatures, which can be explained by the thermal activation of the carriers trapped at shallow trapping centers. After the ligand exchange into 3-mercaptopropionic acid, the non-radiative recombination rate was increased and the luminescence efficiency was decreased at room temperature. When the QDs were employed in photovoltaic devices, photocurrent was found to be increased after the ligand exchange. The improved photocurrents observed in photovoltaic devices can be explained by the improved tunnelling probability between the neighbouring QDs.

  6. Femtosecond study of the interplay between excitons, trions, and carriers in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płochocka, P; Kossacki, P; Maślana, W; Cibert, J; Tatarenko, S; Radzewicz, C; Gaj, J A

    2004-04-30

    We study the absorption by neutral excitons and positively charged excitons (trions) following a femtosecond, circularly polarized, resonant pump pulse. Three populations are involved: free holes, excitons, and trions, all exhibiting transient spin polarization. In particular, a polarization of the gas of free holes is created by the formation of trions. The evolution of these populations is described, including spin flip and trion formation. We evaluate the contributions of phase space filling and spin-dependent screening. We propose a new explanation of the oscillator strength stealing phenomena observed in doped quantum wells, based on the screening of neutral excitons by charge carriers. We have also found that binding holes into charged excitons excludes them from the interaction with the rest of the system, so that oscillator strength stealing is partially blocked.

  7. Preparation, characterization and thermal studies of polymer inclusion cellulose acetate membrane with calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benosmane, Nadjib [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Guedioura, Bouzid [Division reacteur/Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria, CRND, BP 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Hamdi, Safouane Mohammed [Laboratoire de Biochimie-Purpan, Institut Federatif de Biologie, CHU Toulouse 330, avenue de Grande-Bretagne - F-31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Hamdi, Maamar [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Boutemeur, Baya, E-mail: bayakheddis@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-20

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system with cellulose acetate polymer as support and calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers has been developed. Special attention was paid to PIM characterization using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red study, X-ray scattering and thermogravimetric analyses. The efficiency of the membrane transport was optimized as a function of pH, stirring speed, aqueous phases and membrane composition. The results suggested that the transport mechanism is a counter-transport of protons, the mechanism was mainly controlled by the diffusion of the complex formed in the membrane core. Analysis of lead(II) transport through these PIMs was performed. It was found that calix[4]resorcinarenes containing membranes were flexible, resistant and heterogeneous without plasticizer addition.

  8. Turkish female immigrants' intentions to participate in preconception carrier screening for hemoglobinopathies in the Netherlands: An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Elderen (Thérèse); D. Mutlu; J. Karstanje; J. Passchier (Jan); A. Tibben (Arend); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Preconception carrier screening for hemoglobinopathies (HbPs) is debated in the Netherlands. Objectives: Intentions to participate in preconception carrier screening for HbPs as well as informed reproductive options were assessed in 109 Turkish female immigrants. Method: Part

  9. Age at menarche and menopause and breast cancer risk in the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang-Claude, J.; Andrieu, N.; Rookus, M.A.; Brohet, R.M.; Antoniou, A.C.; Peock, S.; Davidson, R.; Izatt, L.; Cole, T.; Nogues, C.; Luporsi, E.; Huiart, L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Osorio, A.; Eyfjord, J.; Radice, P.; Goldgar, D.E.; Easton, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early menarche and late menopause are important risk factors for breast cancer, but their effects on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are unknown. METHODS: We assessed breast cancer risk in a large series of 1,187 BRCA1 and 414 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2

  10. Pulsed DEMO design assessment studies

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, T N

    2013-01-01

    Now that ITER is under construction, interest is increasing in the specification and design of the successor machine, a Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO), which in Europe is coordinated by the EFDA Power Plant Physics and Technology programme. This paper summarises the work carried out for EFDA in 2011-2012 on design issues pertinent to a pulsed version of DEMO, intended to be implemented with little or no extrapolation of technology available today. The work was carried out by the Euratom Fusion Associations CCFE, CEA, CRPP, ENEA and KIT, and in addition to a review of recent relevant literature addressed systems code analyses (pulse length vs. size), erosion of plasma facing components, thermomechanical fatigue in the blanket and first wall, a range of energy storage issues, and fatigue life improvements in Nb3Sn CICC superconductors.

  11. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  12. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  13. Deep level study of Mg-doped GaN using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Amano, Hiroshi; Monemar, Bo; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Deep levels in Mg-doped GaN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), undoped GaN grown by MOCVD, and halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE)-grown GaN have been studied using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority charge carrier transient spectroscopy on Schottky diodes. One hole trap, labeled HT1, was detected in the Mg-doped sample. It is observed that the hole emission rate of the trap is enhanced by increasing electric field. By fitting four different theoretical models for field-assisted carrier emission processes, the three-dimensional Coulombic Poole-Frenkel (PF) effect, three-dimensional square well PF effect, phonon-assisted tunneling, and one-dimensional Coulombic PF effect including phonon-assisted tunneling, it is found that the one-dimensional Coulombic PF model, including phonon-assisted tunneling, is consistent with the experimental data. Since the trap exhibits the PF effect, we suggest it is acceptorlike. From the theoretical model, the zero field ionization energy of the trap and an estimate of the hole capture cross section have been determined. Depending on whether the charge state is -1 or -2 after hole emission, the zero field activation energy Ei 0 is 0.57 eV or 0.60 eV, respectively, and the hole capture cross section σp is 1.3 ×10-15c m2 or 1.6 ×10-16c m2 , respectively. Since the level was not observed in undoped GaN, it is suggested that the trap is associated with an Mg related defect.

  14. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutation R501X and 2282del4 carrier status is associated with fissured skin on the hands: results from a cross-sectional population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Ross-Hansen, K; Johansen, J D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Filaggrin metabolites act as osmolytes and are important for skin hydration. Carriers of filaggrin loss-of-function mutations have a higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis and dry skin. There is also evidence to suggest that filaggrin mutations increase the risk of hand eczema in atopic...... individuals. In our clinic, we have observed a distinct phenotype of hand eczema in patients with filaggrin mutation carrier status characterized by fissured dermatitis on the dorsal aspects of the hands and with only sparse involvement of the palmar aspects including fine scaling Objective: To investigate...... whether filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are associated with skin fissures on the hands and/or fingers in the general population. Design: Participants of a population based study were questioned about skin symptom and genotyped for filaggrin mutation, patch tested for nickel allergy and skin prick...

  15. Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Stellmach, Joachim; Rothe, Mark-Antonius; Reich, Christoph; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Pristovsek, Markus; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    The effects of the heterostructure design on the injection efficiency and external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-B light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. It was found that the functionality of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N:Mg electron blocking layer is strongly influenced by its aluminum mole fraction x and its magnesium doping profile. By comparing LED electroluminescence, quantum well photoluminescence, and simulations of LED heterostructure, we were able to differentiate the contributions of injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency to the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs. For the optimized heterostructure using an Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N:Mg electron blocking layer with a Mg to group III ratio of 4% in the gas phase the electron leakage currents are suppressed without blocking the injection of holes into the multiple quantum well active region. Flip chip mounted LED chips have been processed achieving a maximum output power of 3.5 mW at 290 mA and a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.54% at 30 mA.

  16. Study on Professional Process of Bra Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明菊; 徐朝晖

    2001-01-01

    The process of bra design in the underwear industry is studied. Several important aspects of the process were identified: sizing, fabric selection, pattern development and grading, the use of CAD system, fitting and wear trials. Although the design process relies heavily on the expertise and experience of designers, the modern technology such as CAD can facilitate and optimize the design process, and the fitting process on life models is essential for the underwear design. The differences between domestic underwear companies and foreign major ones mainly lie at the lack of dress form specially used for underwear design, lack of CAD/CAM or not making full use of them, and most of all, lack of the professional bra designers or even skillful pattern designers. The prospects and future model of bra design process were also elaborated in this paper.

  17. Design of Carrier Wave Leakage Hardware Trojan%载波泄漏型硬件木马芯片设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海涛; 刘洁

    2012-01-01

    针对集成电路在初始设计和后续生产等环节中存在的安全隐患,设计一种泄密型硬件木马芯片,使芯片能够在进行加密的同时将密钥传送出来.研究芯片硬件木马实现的基本方法,在现有的商用FPGA平台上植入木马,通过载波的方式泄露密钥.结果表明:该设计能在使用者毫不知情的情况下,利用硬件攻击获取秘密信息.对于进一步认识芯片硬件木马攻击实现机理,警示集成电路芯片安全具有一定的作用.%Aiming at the safety danger of initial design and subsequent production of integrated circuit, design a secret leakage hardware Trojan chip, and chip encrypts and sends secret key at the same time. The thesis researches the basic method of the chip hardware Trojan realization. Implement Trojan in business FPGA platform, and leak secret key through carrier wave. The result shows that the design can use hardware attack to acquire secret information when users don't know anything about this. It is important to realize the implement mechanism and raise the attention to IC security.

  18. A study of the formulation design of acoustically active lipospheres as carriers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-You; Hung, Chi-Feng; Liao, Mei-Hui; Chien, Chih-Chen

    2007-08-01

    Acoustically active lipospheres (AALs) were prepared using perfluorocarbons and coconut oil as the cores of inner phase. These AALs were stabilized using coconut oil and phospholipid coatings. A lipophilic antioxidant, resveratrol, was the model drug loaded into the AALs. AALs with various percentages of perfluorocarbons and oil were prepared to examine their physicochemical and drug release properties. Co-emulsifiers such as Brij 98 and Pluronic F68 (PF68) were also incorporated into AALs for evaluation. AALs with high resveratrol encapsulation rates ( approximately 90%) were prepared, with a mean droplet size of 250-350nm. The AALs produced with perfluorohexane as the core material had larger particle sizes than those with perfluoropentane. Resveratrol in these systems exhibited retarded drug release in both the presence and absence of plasma in vitro; the formulations with high oil and perfluorocarbon percentages showed the lowest drug release rates. The addition of PF68 slightly but significantly reduced resveratrol delivery from the AALs. Ultrasound treatment of 1MHz produced an increase in the drug release from the systems, illustrating the drug-targeting effect of the combination of AALs and ultrasound.

  19. Fluorescence studies of a silane gel to be applied as a carrier in optical sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Miller; Stanislaw Wysocki; Donata Józwik

    2005-01-01

    Results of fluorescence studies on the degree of pyrene and aminopyrene elution from a silane gel by water and ethanol are discussed in the paper. The studies were carried out for gels obtained on glass plates that differed in composition. Silane monomers: TEOS—tetraethylorthosilane, APTES—3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, GPTMS—3-glycidoxypropylmethoxysilane, PDMS—polydimethylsilane, TMAOH—tetraethylammonium hydroxide, water and ethanol were used. A fluorophore was trapped in the gel either phys...

  20. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D. P.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additio

  1. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Pankratz, V.S.; Fredericksen, Z.; Tarrell, R.; Karaus, M.; McGuffog, L.; Pharaoh, P.D.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Dunning, A.M.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C.; Frost, D.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Houdayer, C.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Hooning, M.J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Spurdle, A.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Singer, C.F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Dressler, C.; Fink, A.; Szabo, C.I.; Zikan, M.; Foretova, L.; Claes, K.; Thomas, G.; Hoover, R.N.; Hunter, D.J.; Chanock, S.J.; Easton, D.F.; Antoniou, A.C.; Couch, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additio

  2. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Intakhab; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of duloxetine (DLX) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with DLX solution pharmacodynamically following intranasal administration. The study was further conducted to estimate DLX concentration in brain and blood. DLX was administered to albino Wistar rats either intranasally or orally in solution form (DLX solution) or encapsulated in NLC (DLX-NLC). These were evaluated in-vivo for pharmacodynamic studies for depression by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test. Intranasal DLX-NLC treatment exhibited improved behavioural analysis results (swimming, climbing, and immobility) than the DLX solution after 24 h of study. Furthermore, DLX-NLC significantly increased the total swimming and climbing time when compared with control and significantly reduced the immobility period. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated improved locomotor activity when compared with DLX solution. Amount of DLX was quantified in blood and brain after the forced swimming test. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated higher concentration in brain compared with DLX solution. Thus, intranasal DLX-NLC was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  3. 基于协调版共同结构规范的18万吨散货船结构设计%Structure design of 180 000 t bulk carrier hull based on harmonised common structural rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石义静; 赵仲秋; 周忠辉; 姜旭

    2015-01-01

    The current 180 000 t bulk carrier designed by CSDC is redesigned according to the harmonised common structural rules (CSR-H), which has been proposed by IACS in January, 2014. The increment of structural weight in cargo hold region that meets the requirements of CSR-H is calculated by CA stage 1 and CSR-H Bulk Check stage 2 programs of American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), as well as the ifnite element analysis. Firstly, it compares the requirements of bulk carriers in CSR-H with those in common structural rules (CSR), and analyzes the impact effect of the new requirements in CSR-H on the design of bulk carriers. Secondly, it studies the new requirements of the grillage and scantlings in CSR-H from the rule calculations of each transverse section in the cargo hold region, and analyzes the reason that each structure differs from the structure following with CSR. Lastly, it evaluates the yielding strength and the buckling strength of all cargo hold region by the direct calculation, and compares the scantlings calculated by the requirements of CSR-H with those calculated by the requirements of CSR.%根据IACS2014年1月推出的CSR-H,对目前CSDC设计的18万吨散货船进行符合CSR-H设计。分别运用美国船级社的CA Stage 1程序和CSR-H Bulk Check Stage 2程序进行规范计算和有限元计算,给出满足CSR-H要求的货舱区结构重量对于CSR规范的增加量。主要内容如下:一、比较CSR-H与CSR对散货船要求的差异,分析CSR-H对散货船设计的影响。二、对货舱区各个横剖面进行规范计算,研究CSR-H对板材和型材尺寸的新要求,分析各结构部位与满足CSR船型结构存在差异的原因。三、应用直接计算法对全船货舱区进行屈服和屈曲强度评估,比较基于CSR-H要求的计算结果与CSR要求结构尺寸存在的差异。

  4. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  5. Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, J L; Benet-Martínez, V; Garolera, J

    2001-09-01

    This research argues that the meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands, can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. Relying on a combined emic-etic approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to examine how symbolic and expressive attributes associated with commercial brands are structured and how this structure varies across 3 cultures. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a set of "brand personality" dimensions common to both Japan and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, and Sophistication), as well as culture-specific Japanese (Peacefulness) and American (Ruggedness) dimensions. Studied 3 and 4, which extended this set of findings to Spain, yielded brand personality dimensions common to both Spain and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication), plus nonshared Spanish (Passion) and American (Competence and Ruggedness) dimensions. The meaning of these brand personality dimensions is discussed in the context of cross-cultural research on values and affect, globalization issues, and cultural frame shifting.

  6. The Causes of Churn in the Telecommunication Industry: A Single, Exploratory Case Study on Kenyan Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This single explorative case study investigated the causes of churn in the telecommunication industry in Kenya, narrowed down to include only the capital city of Nairobi. The question of this dissertation was split into three sub-questions. The first sub-question investigated the behavioral patterns of customers causing churn. The second…

  7. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Study of carrier dynamics in a-Si from optical and optoelectronic properties; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenky kaihatsu. Amorphous silicon no koden tokusei to sono carrier dynamics no kogakuteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamakawa, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on an optical study of optoelectronic properties of amorphous silicon and its carrier dynamics. Studies have been performed on elucidation of the optoelectronic conversion mechanism in an a-Si film p-i-n junction system and the relationship of the mechanism with the optoelectronic properties. In the studies, optically induced defect level distribution was evaluated by using the modulated optical current spectroscopy, and confirmation was made on model forecast and qualitative agreement, such as large increase in neutral defect levels in association with beam irradiation. In research on elucidation of a film forming mechanism for a-Si based alloys, and material property control, a high-sensitivity reflective infrared spectroscopy was used to observe mechanisms such as treatments and processes given in device fabrication. In research on optical and optoelectronic properties of an s-Si alloy thin film by using the modulated spectroscopy, a new evaluation technology dealing with amorphous semiconductors was developed. The technology separately evaluates carrier migration factors of electrons and holes by combining polarization angle dependence of electro-absorption signals with hole migration measurements. 4 figs.

  8. Cross-Layer Design of an Energy-Efficient Cluster Formation Algorithm with Carrier-Sensing Multiple Access for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buratti Chiara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new energy-efficient scheme for data transmission in a wireless sensor network (WSN is proposed, having in mind a typical application including a sink, which periodically triggers the WSN, and nodes uniformly distributed over a specified area. Routing, multiple access control (MAC, physical, energy, and propagation aspects are jointly taken into account through simulation; however, the protocol design is based on some analytical considerations reported in the appendix. Information routing is based on a clustered self-organized structure; a carrier-sensing multiple access (CSMA protocol is chosen at MAC layer. Two different scenarios are examined, characterized by different channel fading rates. Four versions of our protocol are presented, suitably oriented to the two different scenarios; two of them implement a cross-layer (CL approach, where MAC parameters influence both the network and physical layers. Performance is measured in terms of network lifetime (related to energy efficiency and packet loss rate (related to network availability. The paper discusses the rationale behind the selection of MAC protocols for WSNs and provides a complete model characterization spanning from the network layer to the propagation channel. The advantages of the CL approach, with respect to an algorithm which belongs to the well-known class of low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH protocols, are shown.

  9. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  10. In vivo functional genomic studies of sterol carrier protein-2 gene in the yellow fever mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Maklokova, Vilena I; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi H; Lan, Que

    2011-03-18

    A simple and efficient DNA delivery method to introduce extrachromosomal DNA into mosquito embryos would significantly aid functional genomic studies. The conventional method for delivery of DNA into insects is to inject the DNA directly into the embryos. Taking advantage of the unique aspects of mosquito reproductive physiology during vitellogenesis and an in vivo transfection reagent that mediates DNA uptake in cells via endocytosis, we have developed a new method to introduce DNA into mosquito embryos vertically via microinjection of DNA vectors in vitellogenic females without directly manipulating the embryos. Our method was able to introduce inducible gene expression vectors transiently into F0 mosquitoes to perform functional studies in vivo without transgenic lines. The high efficiency of expression knockdown was reproducible with more than 70% of the F0 individuals showed sufficient gene expression suppression (mosquitoes.

  11. In vivo functional genomic studies of sterol carrier protein-2 gene in the yellow fever mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient DNA delivery method to introduce extrachromosomal DNA into mosquito embryos would significantly aid functional genomic studies. The conventional method for delivery of DNA into insects is to inject the DNA directly into the embryos. Taking advantage of the unique aspects of mosquito reproductive physiology during vitellogenesis and an in vivo transfection reagent that mediates DNA uptake in cells via endocytosis, we have developed a new method to introduce DNA into mosquito embryos vertically via microinjection of DNA vectors in vitellogenic females without directly manipulating the embryos. Our method was able to introduce inducible gene expression vectors transiently into F0 mosquitoes to perform functional studies in vivo without transgenic lines. The high efficiency of expression knockdown was reproducible with more than 70% of the F0 individuals showed sufficient gene expression suppression (<30% of the controls' levels. At the cohort level, AeSCP-2 expression knockdown in early instar larvae resulted in detectable phenotypes of the expression deficiency such as high mortality, lowered fertility, and distorted sex ratio after induction of AeSCP-2 siRNA expression in vivo. The results further confirmed the important role of AeSCP-2 in the development and reproduction of A. aegypti. In this study, we proved that extrachromosomal transient expression of an inducible gene from a DNA vector vertically delivered via vitellogenic females can be used to manipulate gene expression in F0 generation. This new method will be a simple and efficient tool for in vivo functional genomic studies in mosquitoes.

  12. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Su, L. Q.; Kon, J.; Gfroerer, T.; Wanlass, M. W.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-05-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  13. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos

    2013-01-01

    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  14. On the design of satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2008-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  15. Multi-Imagery Exploitation Configuration Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    A124 88? MULTI-IMAGERY ENPLOITRTION CONFIGURATION DESIGN STUDY 1/2 (U) HARRIS CORP MEL8OURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS DIV T E TIMOTHY ET...DESIGN STUDY 212 (U) HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS DIV T E TIMOTHY ET AL. NOV 82 RRDC-TR-82-33 UNCLASSIFIED F31692-Si-C-8095 F

  16. Photoconductive study and carrier dynamics of vertically aligned GaAs nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xia; Bimu Yao; Zhenyu Lu; Pingping Chen; Tianxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Single wire devices are generally fabricated to study the electrical and photoelectric behaviors of semiconductor nanowires (NWs);however detriment or contamination can hardly be avoided during manipulation of NWs under focused ion and electron beams. This could not be a trivial factor for III-V NWs which are candidates for high efficiency solar energy harvesting and sensitive photodetection. In this study an alternative way to probe the photoconductive property of individual epitaxial GaAs NWs is presented. For the sample preparation, a uniform spin-coated layer of polymer was selected to be the supporting medium for the vertically aligned NWs structure;then the adequate thinning and polishing of the sample exposed the NW tip and also achieved the required height of NW. An external power adjustable laser was introduced as the excitation source, and the dark and photoconductive current-voltage properties of individual NW were measured by the conductive atomic force microscopy. The typical Schottky style photoconductive behavior was observed in the vertically aligned GaAs NW, and its photoresponsivity has been found to be much higher than that of the reported for single NW photodetector. Finally, a numerical model based on the experimental setup was established to simulate the photoelectric behavior of individual NW. The minority hole lifetime has been found to dominate the photoconductive current-voltage properties of NW under the positive sample bias, and can be derived from the quantitative fitting of experimental photo-IV curves.

  17. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  18. The Study of Lipid-Based Nanodis as a Novel Carrier for Hydrophobic Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Jang, Hyunsook; Huang, Yike; Wang, Yong

    2013-03-01

    Monodispersed nanodiscs can be self-assembled in an aqueous mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho- (1'-rac-glycerol) (sodium salt)(DPPG) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (ammonium salt) (PEGylated DSPE). The stability of discs and the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG), including molecular chain length and concentration, on the disc morphology are characterized by dynamic light scattering, negative staining transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering. Fluorescent Spectroscopy is used to study the loading capacity of a hydrophobic dye, Nile red entrapped in the nanodiscs. The exchanging of Nile red between discs will be correlated with the release of hydrophobic molecule. In-vitro studies indicate that the non-specific binding of these Nile-red loaded nanodiscs to the CCRF-CEM cells is greatly reduced upon the addition of PEGylated DSPE. The system has a potential application of delivering hydrophobic molecules. The incorporation of targeting molecules with the nanodiscs is also investigated. PI

  19. Mix-infection of S. Typhi and ParaTyphi A in Typhoid Fever and Chronic Typhoid Carriers: A Nested PCR Based Study in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Kumar, Gopal; Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Shukla, Vijay K; Kumar, Kailash; Singh, Tej Bali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Enteric fever is a systemic disease caused by Salmonella organism such as serotypes Typhi and ParaTyphi A, B, C. Salmonella ParaTyphi A contributes more than 50% of all the enteric fever cases and it has recently been projected as an emerging pathogen. Materials and Methods: The present study was aimed to detect Salmonella Typhi and ParaTyphi A in urine, blood and stool specimens collected from cases of enteric fever (110), chronic typhoid carriers (46) and healthy controls (75) to explore the possibility of mixed infection by nested PCR. A new nested PCR primer was designed targeting putative fimbrial protein (stkG) gene which is one of the fimbrial gene families to Salmonella ParaTyphi A and for S. Typhi already reported primers targeting flagellin (fliC) gene. Results: Large volume of urine specimens (15 ml) was found to be the best for detection of Salmonella serotypes. The urine sample was found to have mixed-infection by both the serotypes in 40.9% of the cases but lower in blood (27.3%) and stool (13.6%). Conclusion: The present study concludes that occurrence of mixed infection may be quite frequent in typhoid and chronic typhoid carriers’ individuals, although the reported recent rise in ParaTyphi A incidence may not be real. PMID:25584217

  20. 一种新型低压载波抄表系统的设计%A New Design of Low Voltage Carrier Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆辉; 王治超

    2011-01-01

    低压载波抄表系统以其高效、便捷的智能化管理,得到日益广泛的应用。低压载波抄表系统用现有的低压电力线作为传输介质,不必另外架设通信电缆,能够大大节省系统的运行成本。在分析低压抄表系统原理及实现方法的基础上,提出一种采用新型芯片的集中器的设计。这种自动抄表系统,大大提高了抄表成功率,实现了数据的实时采集与远程控制,解决了传统抄表技术的根本性问题。%With the excellence of great efficiency and cortvenience,the low voltage power fine carrier communication automatic meter reading system is applied more and more widely. The system uses low power line as corresponding medium to transmit information,there is no need to set up communication cable and save the system operating cost. On the basis of analyzing the principles and methods of traditional meter Reading System ,the design of a concentrator designed by new technology chip was provided. The system can improve the rate of reading meters, achieve real-time acquisition and centralizes control of data, and solve the essential problem for the technology of traditional meter reading system.

  1. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N’Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:26703572

  2. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affiba Florance Kouassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb. Three-dimensional (3D models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB entry code: 4U0J, the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp. First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94, which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4. Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.

  3. Design of the dynamic safety management system for the confidential carrier based on RFID%基于RFID技术的涉密载体动态安全管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 佘新荷; 张石状

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses on the situation of the management of confidential carrier,and analyzes the carrier management of the existence of the security hidden danger, and puts forward the dynamic safety management system for confidential carrier design scheme. The system contains confidential carrier identification, safety, borrowing and the examination and approval, dynamic tracking, query and destroyed. The system realizes the total life cycle management of confidential carrier. For being handled, the system has a very good reference value and practical significance.%针对当前涉密载体的管理现状,详细分析了涉密载体管理过程中存在的安全隐患,并基于RFID技术和数据库技术,提出了涉密载体动态安全管理系统设计方案.该系统包含涉密载体的电子标识、库存安全、借用审批、动态跟踪、动用查询和销毁六个子系统,可实现涉密载体的全生命周期管理.对涉密载体管理单位有着非常好的参考价值和现实意义.

  4. Statistical design and evaluation of biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    We review biostatistical aspects of biomarker studies, including design and analysis issues, covering the range of settings required for translational research-from early exploratory studies through clinical trials.

  5. Transfer kinetics from colloidal drug carriers and liposomes to biomembrane models: DSC studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Sarpietro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of bioactive molecules by different delivery systems has been studied. We have proposed a protocol that takes into account a system that is able to carry out the uptake of a bioactive molecule released during the time, resembling an in vivo-like system, and for this reason we have used biomembrane models represented by multi-lamellar and unilamellar vesicles. The bioactive molecule loaded delivery system has been put in contact with the biomembrane model and the release has been evaluated, to consider the effect of the bioactive molecule on the biomembrane model thermotropic behavior, and to compare the results with those obtained when a pure drug interacts with the biomembrane model. The differential scanning calorimetry technique has been employed. Depending on the delivery system used, our research permits to evaluate the effect of different parameters on the bioactive molecule release, such as pH, drug loading degree, delivery system swelling, crosslinking agent, degree of cross-linking, and delivery system side chains.

  6. A case study about the transformation of a traditional carrier in a logistic provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sperandio Milan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Logistics operation outsourcing has become a regular practice for many companies strategy. As result, the use of specialized services provided by logistic operators appears as a way to increase company’s competitiveness. In order to respond to this need and add value to services offered, many cargo transport companies have changed their business to logistic operators. Thus, this article presents an analysis related to the organization, adaptation and evolution of a traditional cargo transport company to become a logistic operator. A qualitative-exploratory methodology, implemented by means a single case study, was used to develop this research. To data collection, in depth individual interviews were done, with a semi-structured approached. In addition, data were used from direct observation and documental research. The techniques used to analyze the results are understood by content analysis. As result of the transformation process, the organization increased its competitiveness, by value aggregation to its services and looking for long term relationship with its customers. Also, optimization of available and existing resources and quality improvement of provided services were perceived by company during the transformation process. The company transformation into a logistic operator reflected in greater credibility and expansion of the services offered, resulting in billing and profitability increase and a differential against the competitors.

  7. Studies on electrophoretically deposited nanostructured barium titanate systems and carrier transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-06-01

    We report on the development of nanostructured barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) films on ~200-μm-thick Ag substrates by employing a cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique, where solid-state-derived BT nanoparticles are used as the starting material. Structural, morphological and compositional analyses of the as-synthesized BT nanoparticles and films were performed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy studies. The synthesized nano-BT system has an average crystallite size of ~8.1 nm and a tetragonality ( c/ a) value ~1.003. To reveal current transport mechanism, the BT films possessing microporous structures and surrounded by homogeneously grown islands were assessed in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) conformation. The forward current conduction was observed to be purely thermionic up to respective voltages of ~1.4 and 2.2 V as for the fresh and 3-day aged samples. On the other hand, direct tunneling (DT)-mediated Ohmic feature was witnessed at a comparatively higher voltage, beyond which Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FN) dominates in the respective MIM junctions. The magnitude of current accompanied by FN process was observed to be stronger in reverse biasing than that of forward biasing case. The use of microporous BT films can offer new insights as regards regulated tunneling events meant for miniaturized nanoelectronic elements/components.

  8. Design study for asteroidal exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carl; Blissit, Jim; Jarrett, Dave; Sanner, Rob; Yanagawa, Koji

    1985-08-01

    A systematic approach to asteroidal exploitation for the 1990 to 2010 time frame is presented as an initial step toward expanding the use of space beyond the space station by providing a source of lower cost materials. With only a limited amount of information known about the asteroids, reconnaissance and exploration phases to determine the exact locations and compositions of several earth-approaching asteroids are required. Earth-based telescopes are used to locate and study the asteroids, while unmanned probes will return samples of asteroidal material to earth for analysis. After these phases are completed, the retrieval of a 35,000 metric ton piece of the asteroid Anteros is undertaken. A cargo transporter uses magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjets outbound and a mass-driver using asteroidal material inbound. A crew ship uses ion engines. Low thrust trajectories are used for both spacecraft. A materials processing facility will manufacture propellant pellets and retrieve non-propellant materials for spacecraft use. The cost is 1/10th that to transport the same materials from earth to high earth orbit. The project will cost 25 percent less if done in conjunction with a lunar and Martian base.

  9. Evaluation of chromosome 6p22 as a breast cancer risk modifier locus in a follow-up study of BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary;

    2012-01-01

    Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differe...

  10. Brain delivery of valproic acid via intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers: in vivo pharmacodynamic studies using rat electroshock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Eskandari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharareh Eskandari1, Jaleh Varshosaz1, Mohsen Minaiyan2, Majid Tabbakhian11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The treatment of brain disorders is one of the greatest challenges in drug delivery because of a variety of main barriers in effective drug transport and maintaining therapeutic concentrations in the brain for a prolonged period. The objective of this study was delivery of valproic acid (VPA to the brain by intranasal route. For this purpose, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication and characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading percentage, and release. Six groups of rats each containing six animals received drug-loaded NLCs intraperitoneally (IP or intranasally. Brain responses were then examined by using maximal electroshock (MES. The hind limb tonic extension:flexion inhibition ratio was measured at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-minute intervals. The drug concentration was also measured in plasma and brain at the most protective point using gas chromatography method. The particle size of NLCs was 154 ± 16 nm with drug-loading percentage of 47% ± 0.8% and drug release of 75% ± 1.9% after 21 days. In vivo results showed that there was a significant difference between protective effects of NLCs of VPA and control group 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after treatment via intranasal route (P < 0.05. Similar protective effect was observed in rats treated with NLCs of VPA in intranasal route and positive control in IP route (P > 0.05. Results of drug determination in brain and plasma showed that brain:plasma concentration ratio was much higher after intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA than the positive control group (IP route. In conclusion, intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA provided a better protection

  11. RAD51 135G-->C modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from a combined analysis of 19 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Simard, Jacques; Léoné, Mélanie; Dumont, Martine; Neuhausen, Susan L; Struewing, Jeffery P; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Barjhoux, Laure; Hughes, David J; Coupier, Isabelle; Belotti, Muriel; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Wagner, Theresa; Lynch, Henry T; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Garber, Judy E; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Narod, Steven A; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Godwin, Andrew; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Baynes, Caroline; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; Daly, Peter A; Dorkins, Huw; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Spurdle, Amanda B; Chen, Xiaoqing; Waddell, Nicola; Cloonan, Nicole; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufmann, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Galore, Gilli; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Raskin, Leon; Andrulis, Irene L; Ilyushik, Eduard; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Greene, Mark H; Prindiville, Sheila A; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Zikan, Michal; Szabo, Csilla I; Kilpivaara, Outi; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hamann, Ute; Durocher, Francine; Arason, Adalgeir; Couch, Fergus J; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2007-12-01

    RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA-repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G-->C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G-->C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25-2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83-1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91-1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39-7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G-->C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5' UTR. Thus, 135G-->C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  12. RAD51 135G→C Modifies Breast Cancer Risk among BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from a Combined Analysis of 19 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Antonis C. ; Sinilnikova, Olga M. ; Simard, Jacques ; Léoné, Mélanie ; Dumont, Martine ; Neuhausen, Susan L. ; Struewing, Jeffery P. ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique ; Barjhoux, Laure ; Hughes, David J. ; Coupier, Isabelle ; Belotti, Muriel ; Lasset, Christine ; Bonadona, Valérie ; Bignon, Yves-Jean ; Rebbeck, Timothy R. ; Wagner, Theresa ; Lynch, Henry T. ; Domchek, Susan M. ; Nathanson, Katherine L. ; Garber, Judy E. ; Weitzel, Jeffrey ; Narod, Steven A. ; Tomlinson, Gail ; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. ; Godwin, Andrew ; Isaacs, Claudine ; Jakubowska, Anna ; Lubinski, Jan ; Gronwald, Jacek ; Górski, Bohdan ; Byrski, Tomasz ; Huzarski, Tomasz ; Peock, Susan ; Cook, Margaret ; Baynes, Caroline ; Murray, Alexandra ; Rogers, Mark ; Daly, Peter A. ; Dorkins, Huw ; Schmutzler, Rita K. ; Versmold, Beatrix ; Engel, Christoph ; Meindl, Alfons ; Arnold, Norbert ; Niederacher, Dieter ; Deissler, Helmut ; Spurdle, Amanda B. ; Chen, Xiaoqing ; Waddell, Nicola ; Cloonan, Nicole ; Kirchhoff, Tomas ; Offit, Kenneth ; Friedman, Eitan ; Kaufmann, Bella ; Laitman, Yael ; Galore, Gilli ; Rennert, Gad ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Raskin, Leon ; Andrulis, Irene L. ; Ilyushik, Eduard ; Ozcelik, Hilmi ; Devilee, Peter ; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G. ; Greene, Mark H. ; Prindiville, Sheila A. ; Osorio, Ana ; Benítez, Javier ; Zikan, Michal ; Szabo, Csilla I. ; Kilpivaara, Outi ; Nevanlinna, Heli ; Hamann, Ute ; Durocher, Francine ; Arason, Adalgeir ; Couch, Fergus J. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia 

    2007-01-01

    RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA–repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G→C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G→C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25–2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83–1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91–1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39–7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G→C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5′ UTR. Thus, 135G→C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:17999359

  13. Study of the Capability of Niosomes that Used Maltodextrin from Garut Starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn. as a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jufri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the entrapment ability of ampiphylic drug, chlorpheniramine maleate (CTM, by niosome. Like liposomes, niosomes is an encapsulated drug carrier that has important role in a drug release system. Niosomes and liposomes are unstable, but niosomes could be handled by proniosomes. Proniosomes in this research was prepared using the combination of maltodextrin DE 5-10 from arrowroot starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn., Span 60 and Cholesterol as non ionic surfactant in six formulas. The entrapment level of CTM depends on combination of surfactant in proniosomes, drug substance concentration and proniosomes quantity, temperature, and hydration times. Niosomes (10mM that was prepared by proniosomes in formula 3 has been hydrated at 80 oC for 2 minutes using demineralized water could entrapped 94,04%, of 1 mM CTM. The proniosomes in formula 3 was increased up to 30 mM surfactant and 10 mM CTM in niosomes, could increase the entrapment of CTM.

  14. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  15. A Novel Porous Carrier Found in Nature for Nanocomposite Materials Preparation: A Case Study of Artemia Egg Shell-Supported TiO2 for Formaldehyde Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemia egg shells have an asymptotic sized pore structure (pore diameter: 500 nm–2500 nm, which could be used as a porous carrier for the preparation of nanocomposite materials. The objective of the present study was to prepare shell-supported TiO2 using a naturally porous carrier, Artemia egg shell, and to exhibit a case study of shell-supported TiO2 for formaldehyde removal. Characterization of shell-TiO2 using SEM-EDS, TEM, and XRD proved that Artemia shell with asymptotic reduction pores (pore diameter: 500 nm–2500 nm can be used as the carrier for nanocomposite materials. Artemia egg shell-supported TiO2 in polycrystalline-like nanostructures can be used for the high efficiency removal (adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde under visible light. Our results suggest that iron, one of the shell’s components, should broaden the absorption of visible light and enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of nanotitanium dioxide under visible light. Due to their interesting absorption and formaldehyde removal qualities, Artemia egg shell, as a novel naturally porous carrier for nanocomposite materials preparation, especially in the preparation of nanocatalysts, is worthy of further study.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Investigators, kConFab; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10−8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10−8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10−8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10−4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers. PMID:23544013

  17. Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus J Couch

    Full Text Available BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer, with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20. In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38 and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38. The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4. These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.

  18. User Assemblages in Design: An Ethnographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic study of the role of users in user-centered design. It is written from the perspective of science and technology studies, in particular developments in actor-network theory, and draws on the notion of the assemblage from the work of Deleuze and Guattari. The data for this thesis derives from a six-month field study of the routine discourse and practices of user-centered designers working for a multinational microprocessor manufacturer. The central argument...

  19. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  20. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  1. A pilot study of BRCA mutation carriers' knowledge about the clinical impact of prophylactic-oophorectomy and views on fertility consultation: a single-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Skrzynia, C; Mersereau, J E

    2015-02-01

    BRCA mutation carriers will experience early surgically induced menopause following prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO). This pilot study aimed to investigate their (1) knowledge about the clinical impact of PBSO; (2) views on fertility consultation (FC)/fertility preservation (FP) treatment; and (3) difficulties in conceiving compared to non-carriers. A cross-sectional, single institution web-survey was performed at a university-based IVF center. Women aged 18-50 years who were screened for BRCA gene mutations from 2005 to 2013 were recruited via mail. Forty-one BRCA-positive and 110 BRCA-negative women completed the survey (response rate: 50 %). The knowledge about the reproductive impact of PBSO was limited, with the majority of women in this highly educated sample only identifying the correct response 64 % of the time. Among BRCA mutation carriers, 24 (59 %) had positive views about FC/FP treatments. A larger proportion of women with no children at the time of BRCA testing, and those who were non-white tended to have positive views toward FP. Women with, versus without, BRCA mutations were more likely to have difficulty in conceiving (p = 0.08). This well-educated group had limited knowledge about the reproductive clinical impact of PBSO, or the benefit of a FP before PBSO. Most women with BRCA mutations were interested in FC/FP treatment if they had not completed childbearing at the time of screening. Targeted referrals for FC at the time of BRCA screening may help women improve knowledge and allow improved decision-making about reproductive options.

  2. Mixed sensitivity design: An aerospace case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Huibert; Camacho, E.F.; Basanez, L.; Puente, de la J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The mixed sensitivity design method for multivariable linear control systems proposed in the companion paper (Kwakernaak, 2001) is applied to the design of a stability augmentation system for the longitudinal motion of a fighter airplane previously studied by Safonov and Chiang (1988). Both $H_\\inft

  3. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  4. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  5. Effects of MDM2, MDM4 and TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms on cancer risk in a cohort study of carriers of TP53 germline mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenying Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that MDM2 SNP309 and p53 codon 72 have modifier effects on germline P53 mutations, but those studies relied on case-only studies with small sample sizes. The impact of MDM4 polymorphism on tumor onset in germline mutation carriers has not previously been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 213 p53 germline mutation carriers including 168(78.9% affected with cancer and 174 who had genotypic data. We analyzed time to first cancer using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods, comparing risks according to polymorphism genotypes. For MDM2 SNP309, a significant difference of 9.0 years in the average age of cancer diagnosis was observed between GG/GT and TT carriers (18.6 versus 27.6 years, P = 0.0087. The hazards ratio was 1.58 (P = 0.03 comparing risks among individuals with GG/GT to risk among TT, but this effect was only significant in females (HR = 1.60, P = 0.02. Compared to other genotypes, P53 codon 72 PP homozygotes had a 2.24 times (P = 0.03 higher rate for time to develop cancer. We observed a multiplicative joint effect of MDM2 and p53 codon72 polymorphism on risk. The MDM4 polymorphism had no significant effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 G allele is associated with cancer risk in p53 germline mutation carriers and accelerates time to cancer onset with a pronounced effect in females. A multiplicative joint effect exists between the MDM2 SNP309 G allele and the p53 codon 72 G allele in the risk of cancer development. Our results further define cancer risk in carriers of germline p53 mutations.

  6. Associated Clinical Disorders Diagnosed by Medical Specialists in 188 FMR1 Premutation Carriers Found in the Last 25 Years in the Spanish Basque Country: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Sonia; Ibarluzea, Nekane; Maortua, Hiart; Prieto, Begoña; Rouco, Idoia; López-Aríztegui, Maria-Asunción; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) are definitely related to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (PM). Additional medical problems have also been associated with the PM, such as fibromyalgia, endocrine, and psychiatric disorders. To improve our understanding in the field, we reviewed all PM carriers and their reasons for any medical referrals from 104 fragile X families molecularly diagnosed in our laboratory and living in the Spanish Basque Country. After signing the written informed consent, we studied their electronic medical records in order to identify the disorders associated with the PM and their frequencies. We obtained clinical data in 188 PM carriers (147 women and 41 men). In women, the frequency of FXPOI (22.61%) was similar to that previously reported in PM carriers. In men, the frequency of definite FXTAS (28.57%) was lower than reported elsewhere. Furthermore, thyroid pathology was associated with the PM, the frequency of hypothyroidism being much higher in the studied region than in the general population (8.84% vs. 0.93%). Finally, we found no association with fibromyalgia or psychiatric problems. These findings represent another population contribution in this field and may be useful for the clinical management of PM carriers. PMID:27775646

  7. Developments in Clinical Practice: Follow up Clinic for BRCA Mutation Carriers: a Case Study Highlighting the "Virtual Clinic"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardern-Jones Audrey

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the need for carriers to be followed up by health professionals who understand the complexities of the BRCA syndrome. A BRCA carrier clinic has been established in London and regular follow up is an essential part of the care for families. An open door policy has been set up for patients who may meet or telephone the cancer genetic nurse specialist for support and care at any time. An example of the follow up work is discussed in the format of a case of a young woman with a BRCA1 alteration who developed a primary peritoneal cancer following prophylactic oophorectomy. This case illustrates the work of the multi-disciplinary team caring for BRCA carriers.

  8. Structure-based design and experimental engineering of a plant virus nanoparticle for the presentation of immunogenic epitopes and as a drug carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, Caterina; Circelli, Patrizia; Donini, Marcello; Aljabali, Alaa A A; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Lomonossoff, George P; Marusic, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials research for the discovery of new generation nanoparticles is one of the most active areas of nanotechnology. In the search of nature-made nanometer-sized objects, plant virus particles appear as symmetrically defined entities that can be formed by protein self-assembly. In particular, in the field of plant virology, there is plenty of literature available describing the exploitation of plant viral cages to produce safe vaccine vehicles and nanoparticles for drug delivery. In this context, we have investigated on the use of the artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) capsid both as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes and for the delivery of anticancer molecules. A dual approach that combines both in silico tools and experimental virology was applied for the rational design of immunologically active chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying immunogenic peptides. The atomic structures of wild type (wt) and chimeric VLPs were obtained by homology modeling. The effects of insertion of the HIV-1 2F5 neutralizing epitope on the structural stability of chimeric VLPs were predicted and assessed by detailed inspection of the nanoparticle intersubunit interactions at atomic level. Wt and chimeric VLPs, exposing on their surface the 2F5 epitope, were successfully produced in plants. In addition, we demonstrated that AMCV capsids could also function as drug delivery vehicles able to load the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic predictive and empirical research addressing the question of how this icosahedral virus can be used for the production of both VLPs and viral nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  9. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  10. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D P; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hooning, Maartje J; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J

    2010-07-15

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additional risk modifiers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be identified from promising signals discovered in breast cancer GWAS. A total of 350 SNPs identified as candidate breast cancer risk factors (P CAMK1D displayed the strongest associations in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P(trend) = 3.6 x 10(-4) and HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, P(trend) = 4.2 x 10(-4)), whereas rs9393597 in LOC134997 and rs12652447 in FBXL7 showed the strongest associations in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25-1.92, P(trend) = 6 x 10(-5) and HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.62, P(trend) = 1.7 x 10(-4)). The magnitude and direction of the associations were consistent with the original GWAS. In subsequent risk assessment studies, the loci appeared to interact multiplicatively for breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Promising candidate SNPs from GWAS were identified as modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Upon further validation, these SNPs together with other genetic and environmental factors may improve breast cancer risk assessment in these populations.

  11. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...

  12. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  13. 有线数字广播中高阶QAM信号的载波同步与均衡器设计%Implementation and design of equalizer and carrier recovery loop for high order QAM signals over cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马思强; 陈咏恩

    2011-01-01

    针对ITU-T J.83标准,结合有线数字广播的信道特征,提出一种适用于高阶QAM信号的载波同步与自适应均衡的联合设计方案.该方案在均衡部分采用常模数算法(CMA)和最小均方误差算法(LMS)的双模均衡算法.通过算法的切换达到快速收敛和降低均方误差(MSE)的目的;针对高阶QAM信号,载波同步环路首先选用极性判决算法,并采用带宽较大的环路滤波器系数,使环路能在短时间内进行大范围频偏捕获.然后调低环路滤波器系数,减小环路带宽,进而降低稳态抖动.环路最后切换到判决指示算法,使相位均方差降至最低.整个方案通过算法验证并在Ahera StratixⅡ系列EP2S130F1020C5型现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)上完成了布局布线.最高工作频率为90.47 MHz.%In view of the characteristics of cable channel, a joint design of adaptive equalizer and carrier recovery loop for high order QAM signals was proposed, which was suitable for ITU-T J. 83 standard. The equalizer initially operated in Constant Modulus Algorithm ( CMA) mode to compensate the channel distortion. When the eye diagram was opened, the equalizer switched to Least Mean Square ( LMS) mode to decrease the Mean Square Error ( MSE). For high order QAM signals, the carrier recovery loop initially operated in Polarity Decision Algorithm (PDA) under fast and slow modes which were set in Loop Filter (LPF) to capture the frequency offset. When the frequency offset was captured, the loop switched to Decision Direct Algorithm ( DDA) to decrease the phase jitter. The simulation studies show the good performances of this design. The whole design was synthesized under Altera Stratix II EP2S130F1020C5 FPGA. Highest clock frequency after being routed reached as high as 90.47 MHz.

  14. Novel micelle carriers for cyclosporin A topical ocular delivery: in vivo cornea penetration, ocular distribution and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Claudia; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Trubitsyn, Gregory; Torriglia, Alicia; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Cornea transplantation is one of the most performed graft procedures worldwide with an impressive success rate of 90%. However, for "high-risk" patients with particular ocular diseases in addition to the required surgery, the success rate is drastically reduced to 50%. In these cases, cyclosporin A (CsA) is frequently used to prevent the cornea rejection by a systemic treatment with possible systemic side effects for the patients. To overcome these problems, it is a challenge to prepare well-tolerated topical CsA formulations. Normally high amounts of oils or surfactants are needed for the solubilization of the very hydrophobic CsA. Furthermore, it is in general difficult to obtain ocular therapeutic drug levels with topical instillations due to the corneal barriers that efficiently protect the intraocular structures from foreign substances thus also from drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of a novel CsA topical aqueous formulation. This formulation was based on nanosized polymeric micelles as drug carriers. An established rat model for the prevention of cornea graft rejection after a keratoplasty procedure was used. After instillation of the novel formulation with fluorescent labeled micelles, confocal analysis of flat-mounted corneas clearly showed that the nanosized carriers were able to penetrate into all corneal layers. The efficacy of a 0.5% CsA micelle formulation was tested and compared to a physiological saline solution and to a systemic administration of CsA. In our studies, the topical CsA treatment was carried out for 14 days, and the three parameters (a) cornea transparency, (b) edema, and (c) neovascularization were evaluated by clinical observation and scoring. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a significant higher cornea transparency and significant lower edema after 7 and 13 days of the surgery. At the end point of the study, the neovascularization was reduced by 50% in the CsA-micelle treated

  15. [Pilot-scale study on treatment of municipal sewage by moving-bed biofilm reactor with the hydrophobically modified polyurethane cubes as biofilm carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xiao; Kong, Xiu-Qin; Feng, Quan; Lu, Hai-Tao; Wang, De-Yuan; Tang, Li-Ming; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2012-10-01

    The carrier is the key influencers in moving bed biofilm reactor( MBBR), in this paper, a pilot scale apparatus was set up for treating municipal wastewater using modified cubic polyurethane carriers. For MBBR, the capacity of 3-3.5 t x d(-1), hydraulic residence time of 7-8 h, under the condition of continuous feed water (COD:140-280 mg x L(-1), NH4+ -N:30-50 mg x L(-1), TN: 45-65 mg x L(-1), TP:2.5-4.0 mg x L(-1)), the speed of biofilm formation and removal effects of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were studied. After 140 days, the results showed that the formation of biofilm on the carrier was very quickly under 24-28 degrees C, and obtained stable treatment effect about 6 days. The COD, NH4+ -N, TN, TP average removal rates were 70%, 97%, 70%, 39%, respectively. As the temperature gradually decreased to about 12 degrees C, a high NH4+ -N removal rate (97%) could still be maintained, which indicating that the modified carrier can be achieved a high nitrification rate at low temperature.

  16. Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Diane; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J; Smith, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The planning of bioequivalence (BE) studies, as for any clinical trial, requires a priori specification of an effect size for the determination of power and an assumption about the variance. The specified effect size may be overly optimistic, leading to an underpowered study. The assumed variance can be either too small or too large, leading, respectively, to studies that are underpowered or overly large. There has been much work in the clinical trials field on various types of sequential designs that include sample size reestimation after the trial is started, but these have seen only little use in BE studies. The purpose of this work was to validate at least one such method for crossover design BE studies. Specifically, we considered sample size reestimation for a two-stage trial based on the variance estimated from the first stage. We identified two methods based on Pocock's method for group sequential trials that met our requirement for at most negligible increase in type I error rate.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A. Lee; C. Olswold (Curtis); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); P. Soucy (Penny); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); J. Dennis (Joe); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); E. Dicks (Ed); M. Kosel (Matthew); S. Healey (Sue); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); F. Bacot (Francois); D. Vincent (Daniel); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Peock (Susan); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); A. Jakubowska (Anna); P. Radice (Paolo); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); S.M. Domchek (Susan); M. Piedmonte (Marion); C.F. Singer (Christian); E. Friedman (Eitan); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); C. Szabo (Csilla); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M.H. Greene (Mark); B. Karlan; J. Garber; C. Phelan (Catherine); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); M. Montagna (Marco); E. Olah; I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); D. Goldgar (David); T. Caldes (Trinidad); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); A. Osorio (Ana); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); M.B. Daly (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); U. Hamann (Ute); S.J. Ramus (Susan); A. Ewart-Toland (Amanda); M.A. Caligo (Maria); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); N. Tung (Nadine); K. Claes (Kathleen); M.S. Beattie (Mary); M.C. Southey (Melissa); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); E.M. John (Esther); A. Kwong (Ava); O. Diez (Orland); J. Balmana (Judith); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); B.K. Arun (Banu); G. Rennert (Gad); S.-H. Teo; P.A. Ganz (Patricia); I. Campbell (Ian); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.J. Gille (Johan); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); M.J. Blok (Marinus); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); M.A. Rookus (Matti); P. Devilee (Peter); S. Verhoef; T.A.M. van Os (Theo); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); D. Frost (Debra); S. Ellis (Steve); E. Fineberg (Elena); R. Platte (Radka); D.G. Evans (Gareth); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); D. Eccles (Diana); J. Cook (Jackie); C. Brewer (C.); F. Douglas (Fiona); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Side (Lucy); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Houghton (Catherine); M.T. Rogers (Mark); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Eason (Jacqueline); H. Gregory (Helen); E. McCann (Emma); A. Murray (Alexandra); A. Calender (Alain); A. Hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); C.D. Delnatte (Capucine); C. Nogues (Catherine); C. Lasset (Christine); C. Houdayer (Claude); D. Leroux (Dominique); E. Rouleau (Etienne); F. Prieur (Fabienne); F. Damiola (Francesca); H. Sobol (Hagay); I. Coupier (Isabelle); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); L. Castera (Laurent); M. Gauthier-Villars (Marion); M. Léone (Mélanie); P. Pujol (Pascal); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); E. Złowocka-Perłowska (Elzbieta); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); A. Viel (Alessandra); B. Peissel (Bernard); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); G. Melloni (Giulia); L. Ottini (Laura); L. Papi (Laura); L. Varesco (Liliana); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Volorio (Sara); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); N. Arnold (Norbert); C. Engel (Christoph); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); A. Meindl (Alfons); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Ditsch (Nina); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); S. Engert (Stefanie); C. Sutter (Christian); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); B.H.F. Weber (Bernhard); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); N. Loman (Niklas); R. Rosenquist (R.); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); D.E. Cohn (David); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); M. Friedlander (Michael); V.L. Bae-Jump (Victoria L.); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C. Rappaport (Christine); D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; N.M. Lindor (Noralane); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Shimon Paluch (Shani); Y. Laitman (Yael); A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); S.T. Moeller (Sanne Traasdahl); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; J. Vijai (Joseph); K. Sarrel (Kara); M. Robson (Mark); N. Kauff (Noah); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); F.C. Nielsen (Finn); L. Jønson (Lars); M.K. Andersen (Mette); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); L. Steele (Linda); L. Foretova (Lenka); A. Teulé (A.); C. Lazaro (Conxi); J. Brunet (Joan); M.A. Pujana (Miguel); P.L. Mai (Phuong); J.T. Loud (Jennifer); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); S. Orsulic (Sandra); S. Narod (Steven); J. Herzog (Josef); S.R. Sand (Sharon); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); T. Vaszko (Tibor); J. Weaver (JoEllen); A. Stavropoulou (Alexandra); S.S. Buys (Saundra); A. Romero (Alfonso); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); T.A. Muranen (Taru); M. Duran; W.K. Chung (Wendy); A. Lasa (Adriana); C.M. Dorfling (Cecelia); A. Miron (Alexander); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Senter (Leigha); D. Huo (Dezheng); S. Chan (Salina); A. Sokolenko (Anna); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); L. Tihomirova (Laima); M.O.W. Friebel (Mark ); B.A. Agnarsson (Bjarni); K.H. Lu (Karen); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); P.A. James (Paul ); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Y. Tessier (Yann); J. Cunningham (Jane); S. Slager (Susan); C. Wang (Chen); S. Hart (Stewart); K. Stevens (Kristen); J. Simard (Jacques); T. Pastinen (Tomi); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); K. Offit (Kenneth); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); H. Thorne (Heather); E. Niedermayr (Eveline); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson; H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); K. Harbst (Katja); M. Soller (Maria); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); A. Öfverholm (Anna); M. Nordling (Margareta); P. Karlsson (Per); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); A. Lindblom (Annika); G.B. Bustinza; J. Rantala (Johanna); B. Melin (Beatrice); C.E. Ardnor (Christina Edwinsdotter); M. Emanuelsson (Monica); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M.H. Pigg (Maritta ); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); M.A. Rookus (M.); S. Verhoef (S.); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); J.L. de Lange (J.); J.M. Collee (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); T.C.T.E.F. van Cronenburg; C.M. Kets; A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B. Gomez Garcia (Encarna); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); M.J. Mourits; G.H. de Bock (Geertruida); S.D. Ellis (Steve); E. Fineberg (Elena); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); M. James (Margaret); J. Paterson (Joan); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Anna); M.J. Kennedy (John); D.E. Barton (David); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); L. Izatt (Louise); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A.F. Brady (Angela); S.A. Melville (Scott); K. Randhawa (Kashmir); J. Barwell (Julian); G. Serra-Feliu (Gemma); I.O. Ellis (Ian); F. Lalloo (Fiona); J. Taylor (James); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); R. Collier (Rebecca); F. Douglas (Fiona); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley (Susan); N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); A. Stormorken (Astrid); E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); S.R. Killick; S. Martin (Sue); D. Rea (Dan); A. Kulkarni (Anjana); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lehmann (Anna); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gabe); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); F. Damiola (Francesca); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Verny-Pierre (Carole); S. Giraud (Sophie); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); V. Moncoutier (Virginie); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); A. de Pauw (Antoine); B. Bressac-de Paillerets (Brigitte); O. Caron (Olivier); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); N. Uhrhammer (Nancy); V. Bonadona (Valérie); S. Handallou (Sandrine); A. hardouin (Agnès); H. Sobol (Hagay); V. Bourdon (Violaine); T. Noguchi (Tetsuro); A. Remenieras (Audrey); F. Eisinger (François); J.-P. Peyrat; J. Fournier (Joëlle); F. Révillion (Françoise); P. Vennin (Philippe); C. Adenis (Claude); R. Lidereau (Rosette); L. Demange (Liliane); D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); E. Barouk-Simonet (Emmanuelle); F. Bonnet (Françoise); V. Bubien (Virginie); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); M. Longy (Michel); C. Toulas (Christine); R. Guimbaud (Rosine); L. Gladieff (Laurence); V. Feillel (Viviane); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); C. Rebischung (Christine); M. Peysselon (Magalie); F. Coron (Fanny); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Lebrun (Marine); C. Kientz (Caroline); S.F. Ferrer; M. Frenay (Marc); I. Mortemousque (Isabelle); F. Coulet (Florence); C. Colas (Chrystelle); F. Soubrier; J. Sokolowska (Johanna); M. Bronner (Myriam); H. Lynch (Henry); C.L. Snyder (Carrie); M. Angelakos (Maggie); J. Maskiell (Judi); G.S. Dite (Gillian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), w

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmana, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Leone, Melanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Zlowocka-Perlowska, Elzbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jonson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teule, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Angel Pujana, Miquel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per; Dunning, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a furthe

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley;

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer......), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303......, P = 1.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also...

  20. Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Stephen P. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Prigge, Sean T. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); McLeod, Rima [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rafferty, John B. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Kirisits, Michael J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Roberts, Craig W. [Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mui, Ernest J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rice, David W., E-mail: d.rice@sheffield.ac.uk [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. Recent studies have demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the biocide triclosan arrest the growth of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and inhibit the activity of the apicomplexan enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR). The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures of T. gondii ENR have revealed that, as in its bacterial and plant homologues, a loop region which flanks the active site becomes ordered upon inhibitor binding, resulting in the slow tight binding of triclosan. In addition, the T. gondii ENR–triclosan complex reveals the folding of a hydrophilic insert common to the apicomplexan family that flanks the substrate-binding domain and is disordered in all other reported apicomplexan ENR structures. Structural comparison of the apicomplexan ENR structures with their bacterial and plant counterparts has revealed that although the active sites of the parasite enzymes are broadly similar to those of their bacterial counterparts, there are a number of important differences within the drug-binding pocket that reduce the packing interactions formed with several inhibitors in the apicomplexan ENR enzymes. Together with other significant structural differences, this provides a possible explanation of the lower affinity of the parasite ENR enzyme family for aminopyridine-based inhibitors, suggesting that an effective antiparasitic agent may well be distinct from equivalent antimicrobials.

  1. Box-Behnken效应面法优化姜黄素纳米结构脂质载体处方%Formulation optimization of curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers by Box-Behnken experimental design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓金; 李丹; 陈大为; 冯怡; 张宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the formulation of curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers by BoxBehnken design and investigate its physic-chemical properties.Methods Curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by film-dispersion and ultrasonication method.A three factor,three-level Box-Behnken design was employed,with the amount of the drug concentration (X1),mixed lipid (X2) and emulsifier mixture concentration (X3) as the investigation object.The evaluation indexes were the entrapment efficiency particle size (Y1) and particle size (Y2).Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to study the shape.Dynamic light scattering was used to study the particle size and electric potential.The entrapment efficiency was determined by mini-column centrifugation.Results In the optimized formulation,the shape of NLC was round or ellipsoidal with the particle size of(58.37 ± 2.60)nm,the many dispersion index (P.I.) was 0.207,entrapment efficiency was (93.48 ± 0.86) % and Zeta potential was-(22.6 ±0.88) mV.DSC showed that the drug was dispersed in the nanoparticles of non-crystalline.Conclusions The Box-Behnken design is effective and suitable for optimizing the formulation of curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.%目的 采用Box-Behnken效应面法优化处方,制备姜黄素纳米结构脂质载体,并考察其理化性质.方法 采用薄膜超声法制备载药纳米结构脂质载体,分别以药物质量浓度(X1)、总脂质质量浓度(X2)和混合乳化剂质量浓度(X3)为考察对象,以包封率(Y1)、粒径(Y2)为评价指标,利用三因素三水平Box-Behnken效应面设计法筛选载药纳米结构脂质载体的最佳处方.采用微柱离心法测定制剂的包封率,透射电镜观察其外观形态,动态光衍射法测定其粒径及Zeta,差示扫描量热法确证姜黄素在载体中的分散状态.结果 最优处方制备的载药纳米结构脂质载体外形呈圆形或椭球形,粒径

  2. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Neng-Jian

    2005-09-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment. According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into, three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  3. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ASEAN OPEN SKIES POLICY 2015 UPON OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOW-COST CARRIERS IN INDONESIA – A CASE STUDY OF PT.CITILINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurhendiarni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Open Skies agreement is included in the ASEAN Economic Community’s blueprint and will be implemented in 2015. This study is intended to assist Citilink - an Indonesian low-cost carrier airline - in measuring its level of awareness and analyzing its SWOT towards the ASEAN Open Skies Policy 2015. This descriptive study utilizes quantitative and qualitative approaches and collected data from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires were distributed to Citilink Staff and analyzed using IBM SPSS and SPSS Amos. The awareness level of Citilink staff towards the ASEAN Open Skies Policy turned out to be high and the knowledge factor significantly influenced the awareness level. The study identified both benefits and drawbacks to the implementation of the ASEAN Open Skies Policy; however, Citilink already holds a good position as an Indonesian low-cost carrier and must pursue an aggressive strategy to maximize opportunities so that it can compete successfully at the regional level.

  5. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  6. Sound in new media and design studies

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Oğuzhan; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Ikonen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    56 DesignIssues: Volume 30, Number 2 Spring 2014 © 2014 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sound in New Media and Design Studies Koray Tahiro˘glu, O˘guzhan Özcan, Antti Ikonen Introduction The effect of new media on the computerization of cultural prac-tices has moved to a new level and has become more open, com-mon, and prevailing as we deal with new forms of artistic creation and design processes in supporting higher education. Massive changes have occurr...

  7. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  8. Distribution Network Design--literature study based

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ang

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is companies' outbound distribution network design in supply chain management. Within the present competitive market, it is a fundamental importance for companies to achieve high level business performance with an effective supply chain. Outbound distribution network design as an important part in supply chain management, to a large extent decides whether companies can fulfill customers' requirement or not. Therefore, such a study is important for manufacturers and ...

  9. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  10. Interactive design computation: a case study on quantum design paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of design processes fosters novel design computation models to be employed in architectural research and design in order to facilitate accurate data processing and refined decision making. These computation models have enabled designers to work with complex geometry an

  11. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  12. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  13. A study of the properties of the mineral residue of thermal pyrolysis of shales produced in an installation with a solid heat carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorovich, Ya.I.; Kopachinskiy, K.F.; Lubentsova, V.N.; Makitra, R.G.; Stel' makh, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    The ash of menilite shales for Carpathia, produced in a laboratory stand with a solid heat carrier, was studied to solve the problem of utilization of its mineral mass. The possibility is demonstrated of using the ash for the production of Portland cement and for construction ceramics. The best results are obtained with the processing of the ash at a temperature of approximately 720 degrees.

  14. Differential Sensitivities of Pulmonary and Coronary Arteries to Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers and Nitrovasodilators: Study in a Bovine Ex Vivo Model of Vascular Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    lsev ier.c omflocate/ vph Differential sensitivities of pulmonary and coronary arteries to hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and nitrovasodilators...preparation has been used extensively in multiple studies that led to the discovery of NO as endothelium-derived relaxing factor (lgnarro et al., 1984...G.M .• Wood, K.S., Chaudhuri, G., 1988a. Pharmacological evidence that endothelium-derived relaxing factor is nitric oxide: use or pyrogallol and

  15. Study on the drift mobility of carriers in vitreous Se thin film by the voltage-pulse injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.J.; Kim, I.H.; Choi, K.W.; Choi, C.K. (Gyeonsang National Univ., Jinju (Republic of Korea))

    1982-05-01

    The drift mobility of carriers in the vitreous Se thin films were measured by the Haynes-Schokley method. It had been shown that the hole mobility was about 0.83 cm/sup 3//V-sec and the drift velocity showed no time dependence. It had also been shown that the value of Pool-Frenkel parameter was approximately 2 from the I-V curve.

  16. In Vitro Study of SnS2, BiOCl and SnS2-Incorporated BiOCl Inorganic Nanoparticles Used as Doxorubicin Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiangming; Mo, Yunfei; Liu, Jianghui; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have been widely used in biomedical field. In this paper, we try to study the use of three types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., SnS2, BiOCl and SnS2-incorporated BiOCl (SnS2/BiOCl)) as doxorubicin (DOX) carriers. Firstly, SnS2, BiOCl and SnS2/BiOCl were synthesised, then were characterized by TEM, nanoparticles size and zeta potential. Next the drug release and cell viability test were carried out. The cell viability test indicated that the drug carriers can effectively kill HeLa cells while maintaining low cytotoxicity against normal cells-fibroblasts. The results show the potential of SnS2/BiOCl nanoparticles for antitumor applications.

  17. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  18. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  19. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  20. Design element analysis on juice market Case study: Prigat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : If at the beginning package was considered simply a package that contained a product, now due to the development and modernization of the trade, it is a very valuable component of the marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic design elements that are included in any packaging refer to shape, color and graphics. The Romanian Juices Market was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Thus, from 1998 until now the following have appeared: the first wide mouth square bottle, the first sport opening head PET bottle for Prigat Active, the first opening gable top box produced in our country.

  1. Microscopic observation of carrier-transport dynamics in quantum-structure solar cells using a time-of-flight technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Fujii, Hiromasa; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Kada, Tomoyuki; Asahi, Shigeo; Kita, Takashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-07-27

    In this study, we propose a carrier time-of-flight technique to evaluate the carrier transport time across a quantum structure in an active region of solar cells. By observing the time-resolved photoluminescence signal with a quantum-well probe inserted under the quantum structure at forward bias, the carrier transport time can be efficiently determined at room temperature. The averaged drift velocity shows linear dependence on the internal field, allowing us to estimate the quantum structure as a quasi-bulk material with low effective mobility containing the information of carrier dynamics. We show that this direct and real-time observation is more sensitive to carrier transport than other conventional techniques, providing better insights into microscopic carrier transport dynamics to overcome a device design difficulty.

  2. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    (APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds......Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... uptakes (P(UP)) at apical and basolateral membranes, apparent permeabilities (P(APP)) and corresponding intracellular end-point accumulations (P(EPA)) of radioactive labeled compounds were studied. Possible effects of other anionic compounds were investigated. Apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) for ES...

  3. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  4. Imparting carrier status results detected by universal newborn screening for sickle cell and cystic fibrosis in England: a qualitative study of current practice and policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulph Fiona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal newborn screening for early detection of children affected by sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis is currently being implemented across England. Parents of infants identified as carriers of these disorders must also be informed of their baby's result. However there is a lack of evidence for most effective practice internationally when doing so. This study describes current or proposed models for imparting this information in practice and explores associated challenges for policy. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with Child Health Coordinators from all English Health Regions. Results Diverse methods for imparting carrier results, both within and between regions, and within and between conditions, were being implemented or planned. Models ranged from result by letter to in-person communication during a home visit. Non-specialists were considered the best placed professionals to give results and a similar approach for both conditions was emphasised. While national guidance has influenced choice of models, other factors contributed such as existing service structures and lack of funding. Challenges included uncertainty about guidance specifying face to face notification; how best to balance allaying parental anxiety by using familiar non-specialist health professionals with concerns about practitioner competence; and extent of information parents should be given. Inadequate consideration of resource and service workload was seen as the main policy obstacle. Clarification of existing guidance; more specific protocols to ensure consistent countrywide practice; integration of the two programmes; and 'normalising' carrier status were suggested as improvements. Conclusion Differing models for communicating carrier results raise concerns about equity and clinical governance. However, this variation provides opportunity for evaluation. Timely and more detailed guidance on protocols with

  5. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  6. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  7. Study on the saturation characteristics of high-speed uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on field screening analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo Shi; Bing Xiong; Changzheng Sun; Yi Luo

    2011-01-01

    A back-illuminated mesa-Structure InGaAs/InP charge-compensated uni-traveling-carrier (UTC) photodi-ode (PD) is fabricated, and its saturation characteristics are investigated. The responsivity of the 40-μm-diameter PD is as high as 0.83 A/W, and the direct current (DC) saturation current is up to 275 mA. The 1-dB compression point at the 3-dB cutoff frequency of 9 GHz is measured to be 100 mA, corresponding to an output radio frequency (RP) power of up to 20.1 dBm. According to the calculated electric field distributions in the depleted region under both DC and alternating current (AC) conditions, the saturation of the UTC-PD is caused by complete field screening at high optical injection levels.%@@ A back-illuminated mesa-structure InGaAs/InP charge-compensated uni-traveling-carrier(UTC) photodiode(PD) is fabricated,and its saturation characteristics are investigated.The responsivity of the 40-μmdiameter PD is as high as 0.83 A/W,and the direct current(DC) saturation current is up to 275 Ma.

  8. Study on the possibility of insulin as a carrier of IUdR for hepatocellular carcinoma-targeted therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Ou; An-Ren Kuang; Xian Peng; Yu-Guo Zhong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possibility of using insulin as a carrier for carcinoma-targeted therapy mediated by receptor, and to investigate the expression of insulin receptor in human hepatocellular carcinoma and the receptor binding characteristics of insulin-IUdR (iododeoxyuridine).METHODS: IUdR was covalently conjugated to insulin.Receptor binding assays of 125Ⅰ-insulin to human hepatocellular carcinoma and its adjacent tissue were performed.Competitive displacements of 125Ⅰ-insulin by insulin and insulin-IUdR to bind to insulin receptor were respectively carried out. Statistical comparisons between the means were made with paired t-test at a confidence level of 95%.RESULTS: The data indicated that there were high- and low-affinity binding sites for 125Ⅰ-insulin on both hepatocellular carcinoma and its adjacent tissue. Hepatocellular carcinoma had a significantly higher Bmax for high affinity binding site than its adjacent liver tissue (P<0.05, t=2.275). Insulin-IUdR competed as effectively as insulin with 125Ⅰ-insulin for binding to insulin receptor. Values of IC501, C502, KI1 and KI2 for Values of IC50l and KI1 for insulin-IUdR were significantly higher than that for insulin (P<0.01,t=4.537 and 4.813).CONCLUSION: It is possible to use insulin as a carrier for carcinoma-targeted therapy mediated by receptor.

  9. Fundamental Limitations to Plasmonic Hot-Carrier Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Schatz, George C

    2016-05-19

    Detailed balance between photon-absorption and energy loss constrains the efficiency of conventional solar cells to the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, if solar illumination can be absorbed over a wide spectrum by plasmonic structures, and the generated hot-carriers can be collected before relaxation, the efficiency of solar cells may be greatly improved. In this work, we explore the opportunities and limitations for making plasmonic solar cells, here considering a design for hot-carrier solar cells in which a conventional semiconductor heterojunction is attached to a plasmonic medium such as arrays of gold nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms and fundamental limitations of this cell are studied using a nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the numerical results indicate that this cell can significantly improve the absorption of solar radiation without reducing open-circuit voltage, as photons can be absorbed to produce mobile carriers in the semiconductor as long as they have energy larger than the Schottky barrier rather than above the bandgap. However, a significant fraction of the hot-carriers have energies below the Schottky barrier, which makes the cell suffer low internal quantum efficiency. Moreover, quantum efficiency is also limited by hot-carrier relaxation and metal-semiconductor coupling. The connection of these results to recent experiments is described, showing why plasmonic solar cells can have less than 1% efficiency.

  10. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  11. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enninga, Tanja; Manschot, M.M.; Gessel, C. van; Gijbels, J.; Lugt, Remko van der; Sleeswijk Visser, Sjoukje; Verhoeven, Fenne; Godfroij, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a diff

  12. The Study of ABO Groups and Rh Factor in Active and Non-active Carriers of Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydeh Alaoddolehei et al.

    2007-01-01

    there is no significant difference between blood group (p=0.145 or Rh factor (p=0.329 and active or non-active form. This finding was in agreement with others, for example Maria Rios showed that there is a relationship between parvovirus B19 and P antigen and also between Hemophilos influenza and Anwy antigen (2. Another study proved that the adherence of Norwalk virus is more deficiently in low concentration of H1 epitope (6. However, to the best of author's knowledge, there is low amount of information about relationship between HBV and blood groups. Thus, it seems more studies should be accomplished in this field. Meanwhile, it is necessary to examine the patients * Correspondence: Haydeh Alaoddolehei MS, Paramedical Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Ganjafrooz Avenue, Babol, Iran. Tel: +98 111 2234274 Fax: +98 111 2234367 E-mail: alaee_ha@yahoo.com Received: 13 Feb 2006 Revised: 19 Sep 2006 Accepted: 22 Sep 2006 Hep Mon 2007; 7 (1: 43-44 for secretory forms and other blood group systems in active carriers. References 1. Gerald L. Mandell. Douglas. Principles and practice of infectious disease, fifth ed, Churchill, volume 1, 2000, 39. 2. Rios M, Bianco C. The role of blood group antigens in infectious disease. Hematology 2000; 37: 177-86. 3. Tilzey AD, et al. Zuckermonted, Viral Hepatitis fever diseases, Alen. R, Liss, 1988, 1047. 4. Gerald L. Mandell, Principles and practice of infectious disease, fifth ed, Churchill, volume 3, 2000, 1285-6, 1299- 300. 5. Golafshan J, Ghahremani MJ, Sharifzadeh S, The principles and methods of blood banking, Fourth ed, Shiraz Medical University, 2001, 91. 6. Marionneau S, Airaud F. Influence of the combind ABO, FUT2 and FUT3 polymorphism on susceptibility to nerwalk virus attachment, J infect Dis, 2005 sep 15; 192 (6: 1071-7, Epub 2005 Aug. http://www/nlm.nih.gov/- researchers/med/pub.

  13. Design of Planet Carrier of MW Wind Turbine and its Analysis Based on the Finite Element Method%兆瓦级风电机组行星架设计及有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文娟; 侯力; 田川宝; 冷松

    2012-01-01

    以某兆瓦级风电机组主齿轮箱为研究对象,设计了齿轮箱的行星传动机构.通过三维建模软件建立行星架的计算模型,利用有限元方法对行星架的应力、位移及疲劳寿命等进行分析计算,得到其最大位移及最大应力的大小和发生位置,最大位移发生在行星架右壁轴孔边缘处,最大应力发生在右壁与轴承结合处.对行星架疲劳寿命的分析表明其在额定载荷下可以承受无限多次循环而不破坏.结果为某兆瓦级风电机组行星架及齿轮传动的设计提供了理论依据.%Research is on a MW wind turbine gearbox,and the planetary transmission mechanism of the gearbox is designed-Building the planet carrier's calculation model through 3D modeling software,using the finite element method to analysis and calculate the stress ,displacement and fatigue life of the planet carrier,and to get the size and position where the maximum stress and biggest deformation is produced.The biggest deformation of planet carrier happens in the shaft hole edge of right wall, and the biggest stress occurs in the attaches of the right wall and the bearing.The analysis of the fatigue life of the planet carrier shows that it can bear unlimited multiple cycles at rated load without being destroyed.The result provides theoretical basis for the design in planet carrier and gear transmission of MW Wind Turbine.

  14. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  15. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    Biomedicine is a field that has great influence on the majority of mankind. The constant development has considerably changed our way of life during the last centuries. This has been achieved through the dedication of biomedical researchers along with the tremendous ressources that over time have...... been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for biomedical studies are a recurring theme in this thesis. Data collected in some biomedical studies are positively skewed; hence methods relying on the normal distribution are not directly applicable. We investigated how data from one of these studies are suitably analyzed. We extracted 23 different summary...

  16. Multi-Band Feeds: A Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Yogesh; Raja, Wasim; Mehta, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Broadband antenna feeds are of particular interest to existing and future radio telescopes for multi-frequency studies of astronomical sources. Although a 1:15 range in frequency is difficult to achieve, the well-known Eleven feed design offers a relatively uniform response over such a range, and reasonably well-matched responses in E & H planes. However, given the severe Radio Frequency Interference in several bands over such wide spectral range, one desires to selectively reject the corresponding bands. With this view, we have explored the possibilities of having a multi-band feed antenna spanning a wide frequency range, but which would have good response only in a number of pre-selected (relatively) RFI-free windows (for a particular telescope-site). The designs we have investigated use the basic configuration of pairs of dipoles as in the Eleven feed, but use simple wire dipoles instead of folded dipoles used in the latter. From our study of the two designs we have investigated, we find that the desig...

  17. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  18. X-ray tubes study and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, D

    1990-01-01

    This thesis contain both theoretical and experimental works. Theoretical aspect includes X-Ray tubes case study and design principles, in the introduced design process, anode-cathode distance, vacuum needed, filament size, anode face angle and shape and size of focusing electrodes can be found. A method for specification of tungsten lager thickness on anode is also introduced. Using computer simulation, electron trajectory between cathode-anode is obtained, This work is presented in the first International Conference on Control and Modeling, Tehran, 1990. Experimental work contains manufacturing more than 10 tubes and test each of them. One of these tubes can with stand up to 50 KV. Filament can be heated by passing a 2.1 A current. In these conditions anode current is 1.2 m A. Using this tube, some radiographs have been taken.

  19. Study of carrier blocking property of poly-linalyl acetate thin layer by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Anderson, Liam J.; Jacob, Mohan V.

    2014-02-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier-blocking property of poly-linalyl acetate (PLA) thin layers sandwiched in indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)/PLA/C60/Al double-layer diodes. Results showed that the PLA layer totally blocks electrons crossing the C60 layer, and also blocks holes entering from the IZO layer. The EFISHG measurement effectively substantiates the hole-blocking electron-blocking property of the PLA layer sandwiched in double layer diodes.

  20. Different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in carriers with factor V Leiden compared with non-carriers, but not in other thrombophilic defects. Results from a large retrospective family cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makelburg, Anja B. U.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Hamulyak, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Buller, Harry R.; Lijfering, Willem M.

    2010-01-01

    The term factor V Leiden (FVL) paradox is used to describe the different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that has been found in carriers of FVL. In a thrombophilic family-cohort, we estimated differences in absolute risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for various

  1. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  2. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  3. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...... index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  4. High dynamic GPS carrier tracking loop design utilizing PID%应用PID思想的高动态GPS载波跟踪环路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帅和; 赵琳; 丁继成

    2011-01-01

    传统的GPS载波跟踪环路对载体的高速运动敏感,难以适应动态环境下基带处理的要求,因此提出一种应用PID思想,融合频率误差微分控制项的环路优化设计方案.分析了载波跟踪环路锁相环的基本结构,将环路中对本地数控振荡器的控制近似为PI模型;根据锁相环的相位输出结果,提取频率误差量,作为增加的微分控制项的输入;适当选取模型参数,构建应用PID控制的GPS载波跟踪环路.仿真结果初步表明,改进方案的环路达到稳态时间比原始方案缩短了10 ms以上,在动态适应性方面显著优于传统跟踪环路.%Traditional GPS carrier tracking loop in GPS receiver is sensitive to high-speed motion of the vehicle, which is difficult to meet the requirements of baseband processing in dynamic environment. So an improved tracking loop scheme is put forward which applies proportion, integration and differentiation (PID)control to fuse differential control items of frequency errors. The basic structure of the carrier tracking phase locked loop (PLL) is analyzed, and the control on the local numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) is approximated to be PI model. According to the phase output of PLL, the magnitude of fiequency error is extracted and taken as the input of the added differential control items. The model parameters are appropriately selected to construct the GPS carrier tracking loop utilizing PID. The simulation results indicate that the improved scheme could reduce the settling time by more than I0 ms, which is more suitable to work in high dynamic environment than traditional tracking loop.

  5. Study and Design of LED Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optical characteristics, thermal characteristics, electrical characteristics of the LED device are studied. After analysis of the significance of the optical model, we establish the model of the LED light source using optical simulation software to analyze the impact of modeling four factors and law, based on ray tracing model intensity distribution with the manufacturers. On this basis, we expand the LED secondary optical design, namely, increasing of LDE method to the light level. After comparing different forms of non-imaging optical components, combined with the actual situation, the final choice is the system composed of rotating parabolic reflector with LDE. Besides, the reflected changing the relative position of the body and LDE space lead to the normal light intensity of the entire system appearing two peaks, but their causes are different. In addition, the method of combining theoretical analysis and computer simulations to study the distribution of LDE array illumination is utilized. Formula on the illumination distribution in the LDB array to a plane parallel thereto is deduced, which is verified by computer simulation and agrees well with it. A quantitative study of the factors affecting the road surface illuminance distribution is made on the basis of previous study, combined with the actual road lighting works. These factors are: LDE array form, the number of LED, spacing between LDE, LDE interval between the street lamps. The derived entire road illumination distribution formula and the corresponding curve gives a basic method for the analysis of such practical problems related outcomes for the LDE illumination optical system design and research basis.

  6. HBx M130K and V131I (T-A mutations in HBV genotype F during a follow-up study in chronic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertazzi Federico

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 400 million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV. An estimated 10% of these chronic patients develop progressive liver damage including cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. The HBx gene encodes a protein of 154 amino acids which is a transactivator and has been associated with HBV pathogenesis. A change in the amino acid sequences at positions 130 and 131 in the HBV-X protein (M130K and V131I produced by T-A point mutations at the nucleic acids level has been associated with severe liver damage and HCC in patients from China and Africa. Further, such changes have been proposed as a prognostic marker for progressive liver damage and HCC. The purpose of this study was to determine if T-A mutations are present in HBV chronic carriers with genotype F (the major genotype in Costa Rica and further, if these mutations are associated with HBV disease progression in Costa Rica HBV patients from 1972 to 1985. Results Serum samples from 50 HBV positive individuals were amplified and directly sequenced, 48 belonged to genotype F, 1 from genotype D and another was classified as D or E. T-;A mutations were absent in 17 acute patients who recovered, but was present in 12 of 29 chronic carrier samples (42.8%, in one sample the T-A mutations were detected as early as 29 days after clinical onset of disease. In 17 carriers with available liver biopsies, T-;A mutations were found in 8 sera of 13 (61.5% classified as moderate or severe, and none in 4 biopsies with mild liver damage. However, it was not possible to demonstrate a statistical association between the presence of T-A mutations and moderate/severe liver damage, using a Fischer exact test, 1 tail, p = 0.05. In 4 patients HCC was diagnosed, and 2 of them presented the T-A mutations in their sera. Conclusion T-A mutations were found in HBV genotype F in chronic carriers but not in patients who recovered from acute infection. These mutations

  7. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used...

  8. Pancreatic beta cells and islets take up thiamin by a regulated carrier-mediated process: studies using mice and human pancreatic preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Lisa; Nabokina, Svetlana M.; Sekar, V. Thillai; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Maedler, Kathrin; Said, Hamid M.

    2009-01-01

    Thiamin is essential for the normal function of the endocrine pancreas, but very little is known about uptake mechanism(s) and regulation by beta cells. We addressed these issues using mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells, and freshly isolated primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Results showed that thiamin uptake by beta-TC-6 cells involves a pH (but not Na+)-dependent carrier-mediated process that is saturable at both the nanomolar (apparent Km = 37.17 ± 9.9 nM) and micromolar (apparent Km = 3.26 ± 0.86 μM) ranges, cis-inhibited by thiamin structural analogs, and trans-stimulated by unlabeled thiamin. Involvement of carrier-mediated process was also confirmed in primary mouse and human pancreatic islets. Both THTR-1 and THTR-2 were found to be expressed in these mouse and human pancreatic preparations. Maintaining beta-TC-6 cells in the presence of a high level of thiamin led to a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in thiamin uptake, which was associated with a significant downregulation in level of expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein and mRNA levels and a decrease in transcriptional (promoter) activity. Modulators of intracellular Ca2+/calmodulin- and protein-tyrosine kinase-mediated pathways also altered thiamin uptake. Finally, confocal imaging of live beta-TC-6 cells showed that clinical mutants of THTR-1 have mixed expression phenotypes and all led to impairment in thiamin uptake. These studies demonstrate for the first time that thiamin uptake by the endocrine pancreas is carrier mediated and is adaptively regulated by the prevailing vitamin level via transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, clinical mutants of THTR-1 impair thiamin uptake via different mechanisms. PMID:19423748

  9. A comparative study on the possible cytotoxic effects of different nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) compositions in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugè, Francesca; Damiani, Elisabetta; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Offerta, Alessia; Puglia, Carmelo; Tiano, Luca

    2015-11-30

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are widely used for topical delivery of active ingredients into the skin for both local and systemic treatment. But concerns have been raised regarding their potential nanotoxicity. To understand the role of NLC composition in terms of cytotoxicity and pro-oxidant effects, we investigated cell viability and intracellular levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) incubated with five NLC formulations differing in their solid lipid composition. HDF and NLC were also exposed to UVA irradiation in order to evaluate the behavior of NLC under realistic environmental conditions which might promote their instability. Using the Guava via-count assay, all nanoparticles, except for those formulated with Compritol 888 ATO, showed a significant decrease in live cells and a parallel increase in apoptotic or dead cells compared to the control, either before and/or after UVA irradiation (18 J/cm(2)). NLC formulated with Geleol™ Mono Diglycerides resulted the most cytotoxic. A similar trend was also observed when intracellular ROS levels were measured in HDF incubated with NLC: there was increased ROS content compared to the control, further exacerbated following UVA. NLC formulated with Dynasan 118 were particularly susceptible to UVA exposure. The results indicate which could be the most suitable candidates for formulating NLC that are biocompatible and non-cytotoxic even when exposed to UVA and hence help direct future choices during the formulation strategies of these delivery systems. Of those tested, Compritol 888 ATO appears to be the best choice.

  10. The effect of oxidation on charge carrier motion in PbS quantum dot thin films studied with Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Hoang, Lan Phuong; Williams, Pheona; Moscatello, Jason; Aidala, Kathy; Aidala Group Team

    We developed a technique that uses scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to study the real-time injection and extraction of charge carriers in thin film devices. We investigate the effects of oxidation on thin films of Lead Sulfide (PbS) quantum dots with tetrabutyl-ammonium-iodide (TBAI) ligands in an inverted field effect transistor geometry with gold electrodes. By positioning the SPM tip at an individual location and using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to measure the potential over time, we can record how the charge carriers respond to changing the backgate voltage with grounded source and drain electrodes. We see relatively fast screening for negative backgate voltages because holes are quickly injected into the PbS film. The screening is slower for positive gate voltages, because some of these holes are trapped and therefore less mobile. We probe these trapped holes by applying different gate voltages and recording the change in potential at the surface. There are mixed reports about the effect of air exposure on thin films of PbS quantum dots, with initial exposure appearing to be beneficial to device characteristics. We study the change in current, mobility, and charge injection and extraction as measured by KPFM over hours and days of exposure to air. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR-0955348, and the Center for Heirarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (NSF CMMI-1025020).

  11. Validation of chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU using Cu-based oxygen carrier and comparative study of Cu, Mn and Co based oxygen carriers using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU has been demonstrated to be an effective technological pathway for high-efficiency low-cost carbon dioxide capture when particulate coal serves as the fuel. In this paper, complete process-level modeling of CLOU process conducted in ASPEN Plus is presented. The heat content of fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. It is shown that the established model provides results which are in excellent agreement with the experiments for the overall power output of the CLOU process. Finally the effect of varying the air flow rate and three different types of coal as the solid fuel on energy output is investigated, and the performance of three – Copper (Cu, Manganese (Mn and Cobalt (Co based oxygen carriers in CLOU process is compared. It is shown that there exists an optimal air flow rate to obtain the maximum power output for a given coal feeding rate and coal type. The effect of three different oxygen carriers on energy output is also investigated using the optimal air flow rate. Among the three oxygen carriers - CuO, Mn2O3, and Co3O4; Mn2O3 shows the best performance on power output. The results presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of various quantities such as the air flow rate and oxygen carrier (and its type required to achieve near optimal energy output from a CLOU process based power plant.

  12. Carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    of the molar mixing ratio between the carrier peptide and the therapeutic cargo, whereas the direct conjugation approach ensures an inherent proximity of the carrier peptide to its therapeutic cargo. So far studies addressing the choice of using the co-administration approach over the conjugation approach......-34)) and the widely studied CPP penetratin were employed as therapeutic cargo and carrier peptide, respectively....

  13. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs.

  14. 基于低压电力载波通信的单相智能电表的设计%Design of Single-phase Smart Meter Based on low Voltage Power Line Carrier-Current Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋树祥; 韦正丛; 梁承福; 何婷婷

    2012-01-01

    In order to remote real-time monitoring and management of single-phase smart meters, a single-phase smart meters has been designed based on carrier chip PL3201 and metering chip 90E24. This design used the low-voltage power line carrier communication, by the direct sequence spread spectrum communication technology, making the system's anti - jamming capability improved significantly. Meanwhile, the design uses the IDT's latest high - precision chip 90E24, the measurement accuracy is better than current industry standards, in a considerable time, the power sector to meet national requirements for measurement accuracy. Practical results show that the design is not only Low-cost, simple, and the measurement of high precision, strong anti -interference, for low carrier concentration meter reading system.%为了对单相智能电表进行远程实时监控管理,设计了一种基于载波芯片PL3201和计量芯片90E24的单相智能电表;该设计把直接序列扩频通信技术应用于低压电力线载波通信,使得系统的抗干扰能力得到显著提升;同时,该设计采用了IDT公司最新推出的高精度计量芯片90E24进行计量,其计量精度优于目前业内水平,能在相当时间内满足国家电力部门对计量精度的要求;实践结果表明,该设计不仅成本低廉、方法简单,且计量精度高、扰干扰能力强,适用于低压载波集中抄表系统.

  15. Embedded Design of Power Line Carrier Communication Module and Its Intelligent Application%嵌入式电力线载波通信模块设计及其智能应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾素琼

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the module system of low- voltage power line carrier communication is designed based on LPC2132 and ST7538. The implementation of system is discussed mainly. The hardware and software are designed for the modular system. Finally, the application of the module on the intelligent home are designed and analysed. Module test:+ 12V power supply, communication speed: 4800bps, each frame length: 128Byte, power line carrier frequency: 82+0. 3kHz, the communication distance: about 500m, through experiments, the module apply successful on the intelligent home. The modular system is added only a small number of components, is added the control chip, which can be conveniently applied to narrow-band signals in the low -voltage power line carrier communication occasions. The design has the advantades of simple constructure, flexible operation mode, reliable communication, anti-interference ability etc.%设计了基于LPC2132与 ST7538低压电力线载波通信模块系统,重点介绍系统的实现过程;对模块系统作硬件和软件设计,对模块在智能家居上的应用作设计及分析;模块应用试验:±12V供电,通信速率:4800bps,每帧长度:128Byte,电力线载波频率:82±0.3kHz,通信距离:约500m,通过实验,模块成功地应用在智能家居上;模块应用时只需加少量元器件、控制芯片,可方便地应用于窄带低压电力线载波通信各场合,设计具有结构简单、工作方式灵活、可靠、抗干扰能力强等特点.

  16. Carrier Decay and Diffusion Dynamics in Single-Crystalline CdTe as seen via Microphotoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2015-03-01

    The ability to spatially resolve the degree to which extended defects impact carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes is important for determining upper limits for defect densities in semiconductor devices. We show that a new spatially and temporally resolved photoluminescence (PL) imaging technique can be used to accurately extract carrier lifetimes in the immediate vicinity of dark-line defects in CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures. A series of PL images captured during the decay process show that extended defects with a density of 1.4x10-5 cm-2 deplete photogenerated charge carriers from the surrounding semiconductor material on a nanosecond time scale. The technique makes it possible to elucidate the interplay between nonradiative carrier recombination and carrier diffusion and reveals that they both combine to degrade the PL intensity over a fractional area that is much larger than the physical size of the defects. Carrier lifetimes are correctly determined from numerical simulations of the decay behavior by taking these two effects into account. Our study demonstrates that it is crucial to measure and account for the influence of local defects in the measurement of carrier lifetime and diffusion, which are key transport parameters for the design and modeling of advanced solar-cell and light-emitting devices. We acknowledge the financial support of the Department of Energy Office of Science under Grant No. DE-AC36-08GO28308.

  17. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin

    2006-01-01

    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  18. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  19. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  20. Southampton mealtime assistance study: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Helen C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is common in older people in hospital and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes including increased mortality, morbidity and length of stay. This has raised concerns about the nutrition and diet of hospital in-patients. A number of factors may contribute to low dietary intakes in hospital, including acute illness and cognitive impairment among in-patients. The extent to which other factors influence intake such as a lack of help at mealtimes, for patients who require assistance with eating, is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using trained volunteer mealtime assistants to help patients on an acute medical ward for older people at mealtimes. Methods/design The study design is quasi-experimental with a before (year one and after (year two comparison of patients on the intervention ward and parallel comparison with patients on a control ward in the same department. The intervention in the second year was the provision of trained volunteer mealtime assistance to patients in the intervention ward. There were three components of data collection that were repeated in both years on both wards. The first (primary outcome was patients’ dietary intake, collected as individual patient records and as ward-level balance data over 24 hour periods. The second was clinical outcome data assessed on admission and discharge from both wards, and 6 and 12 months after discharge. Finally qualitative data on the views and experience of patients, carers, staff and volunteers was collected through interviews and focus groups in both years to allow a mixed-method evaluation of the intervention. Discussion The study will describe the effect of provision of trained volunteer mealtime assistants on the dietary intake of older medical in-patients. The association between dietary intake and clinical outcomes including malnutrition risk, body composition, grip strength, length of hospital stay and mortality

  1. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  2. Development of Novel Drug and Gene Delivery Carriers Composed of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Designed Peptides With PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takahisa; Hashida, Yasuhiko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2016-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) attract great interest in biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. In this study, we developed a novel delivery system using SWCNTs associated with designed polycationic and amphiphilic peptides. Wrapping of SWCNTs with H-(-Lys-Trp-Lys-Gly-)7-OH [(KWKG)7] resulted in stable dispersion in water, but the composite aggregated in the buffered solution. This dispersion instability was also evident in a cell culture medium with fetal bovine serum. To improve the aqueous dispersibility, the SWCNTs-(KWKG)7 composite was further modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at the lysine residues via amide bond formation and the highest modification extent of 13.3% of the amino groups which corresponded to 2 PEG chains in each peptide molecule was achieved with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled carboxyl-PEG12. The uptake of the SWCNTs composite by A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells was evaluated by visual observation and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis for SWCNTs wrapped with a mixture of (KWKG)7 with PEGylation and H-(-Cys-Trp-Lys-Gly-)-OH-(KWKG)6 [CWKG(KWKG)6] labeled with fluorescent boron-dipyrromethene tetramethylrhodamine and 7-fold higher uptake comparing with SWCNTs-peptide composite without PEGylation was obtained suggesting the importance of dispersibility in addition to a cationic charge. The superior potential of SWCNTs composites assisted by polycationic and amphiphilic peptides with PEGylation was thus demonstrated.

  3. The Concept Design and Hydrodynamic Performance Analysis of New Tidal Current Power Station Carrier%新式潮流电站载体概念设计及水动力性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关超; 张亮; 马勇

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the complementary use of tidal current and wind power, a new type of carrier platform is designed. The module of tidal turbine and wind power is successful constructed, and then a“600 kW autocephalous electric system”is built. Based on the new carrier and take the effects of turbine force and environment into consideration, the stability of the system is investigated, and its seakeeping is analyzed by finite element software ANSYS. This work may provide some suggestions for the development and construction of multi-energy complementary power stations.%为了实现潮流能和风能的互补利用,设计一种新式潮流电站载体平台,实现了对潮流水轮机和风能发电模块的搭载,构建了600 kW独立电力系统。基于新式潮流电站载体,考虑水轮机受力和环境的影响,分析发电装置的稳性,并应用有限元软件ANSYS对新式结构建模,分析了装置的耐波性。本研究将为多能互补潮流发电装置研究、开发和建设提供参考和借鉴。

  4. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez,Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel,Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. ...

  5. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  6. Study on the humanization design of Television

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凌飞

    2015-01-01

    Since 1924 the world’s first television was born, and now the TV has entered every household, become necessary for life products. The TV design in order to better meet people’s needs, the concept of humanity is essential to human design principles in this article as a starting point to explore the design of the TV how to better “people-oriented”.

  7. Design studies on indoor green furniture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菲

    2014-01-01

    Furniture is an important part in people's daily life, if green furniture can be achieved, for people to have a deeper understanding of green design. This paper analyzes the importance and problems of the current lifestyle of people, leads to green furniture, as well as focusing on aspects of green design furniture. Proposed should follow the “nature-based” green design basis, because it is the basis of the nature and duration requested.

  8. A case study in value design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a special type of valve gave rise to a problem which lead the mechanical engineers who designed the valve to call in the help of the author. The final solution to the problem may not be mathematically sophisticated (in fact, it may seem trivial to some readers, but the steps through which the design team struggled and the final approach which resulted in a practically feasible solution may be of interest to other practitioners.

  9. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting.

  10. Design and Phenomenology of the FEBSTAT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hipppocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. Methods The “Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood” (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 minutes or more based upon ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included an MRI and EEG done within 72 hours of FSE, and a detailed history and neurological examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at one month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age- appropriate developmental testing at one and five years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and one year after that. Telephone calls every three months document further seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a ‘control’ group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and one year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. Key findings The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (Interquartile range (IQR)=12.0–24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 minutes (IQR=47.0–110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (4;2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had normal

  11. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  12. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  13. Studying the Creation of Design Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher J.; Hevner, Ala n R.; Weber, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    and information systems represents a highly interconnected locus in which both the generative processes of building design artifacts and articulating constructs used to evaluate their quality take place. We address this interconnectedness with an extended process-oriented research design enabling multi...

  14. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  15. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  16. Studies on the selective Am3+ transport, irradiation stability and surface morphology of polymer inclusion membranes containing Cyanex-301 as carrier extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K; Hassan, P A; Manchanda, V K

    2011-08-15

    Transport behaviour of Am(3+) across cellulose triacetate (CTA) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the carrier extractant and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) as the plasticizer was investigated from different feed and strip conditions. The TBP plasticized membrane resulted back transport of Am when alpha-hydroxy iso-butyric acid was used as the complexing agent in the strip phase while no such effect was seen when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as the complexant. Effect of varying Cyanex-301 concentration and bipyridyl (bipy) concentration on Am transport was also investigated. Long term reusability of the membrane was studied by measuring the permeability coefficient (P) after exposing the PIMs to a maximum gamma ray dose of ∼ 200 kGy. The surface morphology of the membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and the roughness parameter was correlated to transport efficiency.

  17. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Interface Trap States and Charge Carrier Concentration in Rubrene Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masaki; Arai, Norimichi; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Takeya, Jun; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-ichi; Takenobu, Taishi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2011-08-01

    Field-induced charge carriers at the semiconductor/dielectric interface of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors (RSC-FETs) were studied by ESR. We fabricated bottom-contact RSC-FETs to be used for ESR measurements by laminating RSCs onto SiO2 and polymer/SiO2 gate dielectric surfaces. The observed ESR spectra depict a minimal dependence on gate voltage, whose result is in sharp contrast to those obtained using RSC-FETs fabricated by the deposition of a parylene C gate dielectric. This behavior indicates that few deep trap levels are generated by the lamination technique. The dependence of ESR intensity on drain voltage was also investigated using gradual channel approximation.

  18. Two-Phase and Family-Based Designs for Next-Generation Sequencing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan C Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost of next-generation sequencing is now approaching that of early GWAS panels, but is still out of reach for large epidemiologic studies and the millions of rare variants expected poses challenges for distinguishing causal from non-causal variants. We review two types of designs for sequencing studies: two-phase designs for targeted follow-up of genomewide association studies using unrelated individuals; and family-based designs exploiting co-segregation for prioritizing variants and genes.Two-phase designs subsample subjects for sequencing from a larger case-control study jointly on the basis of their disease and carrier status; the discovered variants are then tested for association in the parent study. The analysis combines the full sequence data from the substudy with the more limited SNP data from the main study. We discuss various methods for selecting this subset of variants and describe the expected yield of true positive associations in the context of an on-going study of second breast cancers following radiotherapy.While the sharing of variants within families means that family-based designs are less efficient for discovery than sequencing unrelated individuals, the ability to exploit co-segregation of variants with disease within families helps distinguish causal from non-causal ones. Furthermore, by enriching for family history, the yield of causal variants can be improved and use of identity-by-descent information improves imputation of genotypes for other family members. We compare the relative efficiency of these designs with those using unrelated individuals for discovering and prioritizing variants or genes for testing association in larger studies. While associations can be tested with single variants, power is low for rare ones. Recent generalizations of burden or kernel tests for gene-level associations to family-based data are appealing. These approaches are illustrated in the context of a family-based study of

  19. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramsen Inge

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s, and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

  20. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  1. The Study of Tactical Missile's Airframe Digital Optimization Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhiqing; QIAN Airong; LI Xuefeng; GAO Lin; LEI Jian

    2006-01-01

    Digital design and optimal are very important in modern design. The traditional design methods and procedure are not fit for the modern missile weapons research and development. Digital design methods and optimal ideas were employed to deal with this problem. The disadvantages of the traditional missile's airframe design procedure and the advantages of the digital design methods were discussed. A new concept of design process reengineering (DPR) was put forward. An integrated missile airframe digital design platform and the digital design procedure, which integrated the optimization ideas and methods, were developed. Case study showed that the design platform and the design procedure could improve the efficiency and quality of missile's airframe design, and get the more reasonable and optimal results.

  2. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  3. An evaluation of low-cost payload carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, V. H.

    1980-01-01

    Payload carrier designed for space vehicles is essentially cargo carrier that supports, positions, and protects various equipment and materials used in conducting experiments in weightless space environment. Proposed carrier entitled Materials Experiment Assembly II (MEA-II) is considered superior to previously developed models in size, weight, and cost to user. Structure is lightweight with insulated exterior and can be custom sized to meet user needs.

  4. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.J.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.; Turton, D.R.; Poole, K. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Cyclotron Unit

    1997-07-30

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via {sup 11}C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [{sup 11}C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [{sup 11}C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [{sup 11}C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [{sup 11}C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author).

  5. Status of the Neutrino Factory accelerator design studies

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, Gersende

    2013-01-01

    This document is a review of the present status of the Neutrino Factory design study, after the publication of the Interim Design Report and before the publication of the Reference Design Report. The different components of the accelerator as well as their current design stage and future tasks are described here.

  6. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  7. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.bachmann@efda.org [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  8. Design and evaluation of an intravesical delivery system for superficial bladder cancer: preparation of gemcitabine HCl-loaded chitosan-thioglycolic acid nanoparticles and comparison of chitosan/poloxamer gels as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyiğit, Zeynep Ay; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Çalışkan, Çağrı; Waldner, Claudia; Şen, Sait; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Baloğlu, Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an intravesical delivery system of gemcitabine HCl for superficial bladder cancer in order to provide a controlled release profile, to prolong the residence time, and to avoid drug elimination via urination. For this aim, bioadhesive nanoparticles were prepared with thiolated chitosan (chitosan-thioglycolic acid conjugate) and were dispersed in bioadhesive chitosan gel or in an in situ gelling poloxamer formulation in order to improve intravesical residence time. In addition, nanoparticle-loaded gels were diluted with artificial urine to mimic in vivo conditions in the bladder and were characterized regarding changes in gel structure. The obtained results showed that chitosanthioglycolic acid nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 174.5±3.762 nm and zeta potential of 32.100±0.575 mV were successfully developed via ionotropic gelation and that the encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine HCl was nearly 20%. In vitro/ex vivo characterization studies demonstrated that both nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded chitosan and poloxamer gels might be alternative carriers for intravesical administration of gemcitabine HCl, prolonging its residence time in the bladder and hence improving treatment efficacy. However, when the gel formulations were diluted with artificial urine, poloxamer gels lost their in situ gelling properties at body temperature, which is in conflict with the aimed formulation property. Therefore, 2% chitosan gel formulation was found to be a more promising carrier system for intravesical administration of nanoparticles.

  9. Design Studies with DEMIRCI for SPP RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Yasatekin, B; Alacakir, A; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    To design a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is a onerous job which requires a good understanding of all the main parameters and the relevant calculations. Up to the present there are only a few software packages performing this task in a reliable way. These legacy software, though proven in time, could benefit from the modern software development tools like Object Oriented (OO) programming. In this note, a new RFQ design software, DEMIRCI is introduced. It is written entirely from scratch using C++ and based on CERN's OO ROOT library. It has a friendly graphical user interface and also a command line interface for batch calculations. It can also interact by file exchange with similar software in the field. After presenting the generic properties of DEMIRCI, its compatibility with similar software packages is discussed based on the results from the reference design parameters of SPP (SNRTC Project Prometheus), a demonstration accelerator at Ankara, Turkey.

  10. Research designs for experimental single-case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Spieß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes the most important designs for single case experimental studies, which are ABAB-design, multiple baseline design, alternating treatments design and changing criterion design. The logic of experimental control in single case studies is explained and it is described, how these different designs are able to provide internal validity and enable causal interpretations of intervention outcome. An important precondition of valid interpretation is objective and reliable data assessment. Data evaluation by visual inspection is explained and several methods of statistical data analysis are discussed. To establish generability across persons, situations, and settings, the importance of replication studies is highlighted.

  11. Study of carrier energetics in ITO/P(VDF-TrFE)/pentacene/Au diode by using electric-field-induced optical second harmonic generation measurement and charge modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2017-02-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement and charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS), we studied carrier behavior and polarization reversal in ITO/ poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/pentacene/Au diodes with a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) layer in terms of carrier energetics. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diodes showed three-step polarization reversal in the dark. However, the I-V was totally different under illumination and exhibited two-step behavior. EFISHG probed the internal electric field in the pentacene layer and accounted for the polarization reversal change due to charge accumulation at the pentacene/P(VDF-TrFE) interface. CMS probed the related carrier energetics and indicated that exciton dissociation in pentacene molecular states governed carrier accumulation at the pentacene/ferroelectric interface, leading to different polarization reversal processes in the dark and under light illumination. Combining EFISHG measurement and CMS provides us a way to study carrier energetics that govern polarization reversal in ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE)/pentacene diodes.

  12. Conceptual design studies for a CEPC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

    2016-11-01

    The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

  13. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  14. THE RELIABILITY STUDY OF MINE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世济; 张达贤; 习永峰; 卢明银; 孙洪泉

    1991-01-01

    The method of reliability analysis of mineral reserve estimation, mining construction, mining technological system and surface mine investment in mine design is discussed in this paper. On the basis of this method, the questions, such as "whether the planned production and predicted economic effectiveness could be obtained", can be answered, and corresponding measures can be taken.

  15. Design of concentrator based on electric line broadband carrier and relay routing algorithm%基于电力线宽带载波集中器设计与中继算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可; 胡晓光

    2011-01-01

    The design scheme of concentrator based on electric line broadband carrier and its automatic relay routing algorithm are proposed. The concentrator takes S3C2440 chip as its core, adopting the electric line broadband carrier technology to communicate with the collector and the GPRS technology to communicate with the management center. Its software is based on the embedded Linux operating system, adopting the multi-channel I/O multiplexing technology and the embedded database technology to realize the receiving, transmitting and storage of user data. For low-voltage electric line, the automatic relay routing algorithm with relay constrains is employed for meter reading. The operating experience indicates that,the concentrator based on electric line broadband carrier has fast transmission speed,high reliability, excellent real-time performance and low operating cost, and the automatic relay routing algorithm with relay constrains improves the meter reading efficiency.%针对国内目前低压电力线抄表系统中采用的窄带载波集中器及人工中继路由方式,提出了基于电力线宽带载波的集中器设计方案及自动中继路由算法.宽带载波集中器硬件是以S3C2440为核心,采用电力线宽带载波技术与采集器通信、通用分组无线服务(GPRS)技术与管理中心通信;软件是基于嵌入式Linux操作系统设计,采用多路I/0复用技术以及嵌入式数据库技术实现对用户电量的接收、转发及存储.同时依据低压电力线的特点,采用具有中继约束条件的自动中继路由算法实现用户电量的抄收.运行经验和实践表明:宽带载波集中器具有传输速率快、可靠性高、实时性强和运行费用低等优点;具有中继约束条件的自动中继路由算法能有效缩短自动中继的时间,提高抄表效率.

  16. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  17. Three-month follow-up of Western and non-Western participants in a study on preconceptional ancestry-based carrier couple screening for cystic fibrosis and hemoglobinopathies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, P.; Plass, A.M.C.; Henneman, L.; Bezemer, P.D.; Cornel, M.C.; Kate, L.P. ten

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study psychological outcomes, knowledge, recall and understanding of test-results, satisfaction, and reproductive intentions among 97 Western and 46 non-Western participants in a unique preconceptional carrier screening study for both cystic fibrosis and hemoglobinopathies in a multiet

  18. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  19. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  20. Crossover versus parallel designs: dose-escalation design comparisons for first-in-human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiwu; Hosmane, Balakrishna; Locke, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical efficiency for rising-dose designs in the context of first-in-human studies. Specifically, we identify a class of crossover designs that are appealing in terms of both subject safety and statistical efficiency and, for a three-period, two-panel design in such a class, we compare its A-efficiency relative to the corresponding parallel designs and optimal/efficient crossover designs, respectively, under various plausible models. In the meantime, we also evaluate the impact of inclusion of baseline measurements as a covariate in the statistical analysis, for both crossover and parallel studies.

  1. Study of Screen Design Principles for Visualizing Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.

  2. Double-hulling of the bulk carriers%散货船的双壳化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫中华

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the technical background of the double-hulling of the bulk carriers and describes the 3 major problems for its design. It finally compares the characteristics of the single/double hull bulk carriers by listing.

  3. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  4. Study of the design of CSNS MEBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Hua-Fu; LIU Hua-Chang; FU Shi-Nian

    2009-01-01

    The design of CSNS MEBT has two objectives: (1) to match the beam both in the transversal direction and the longitudinal direction from RFQ into DTL; (2) to further chop the beam into the required time structure asked by RCS. It is very difficult and critical to control well the emittance growth and in the meantime to match and chop the beam. Firstly, the optical design is done and optimized, and the multi-particle simulations show that the maximum emittance growth is successfully controlled within 14%. Secondly, based on the different beam envelopes obtained by TRACE-3D and PARMELA, the least deflecting angle of the chopper is determined by TRACE-3D. At last, the field of steering magnet is determined through simulations.

  5. STUDY ON THE IMMOBILIZATION OF PAPAIN WITH A MACROPOROUS BEAD CARRIER OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING MONOMER UNITS OF N-AMINOETHYL ACRYLAMIDE AND VINYL ALCOHOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-feng Li; Jun-rong Li; Lian-di Fu; Yao-zeng Li

    2000-01-01

    A kind of macroporous bead carrier of copolymer containing monomer units ofN-aminoethyl acrylamide and vinyl alcohol was synthesized, i.e. the MR-AA carrier. Papain was immobilized on the carrier using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized papain was compared with free papain using casein as a substrate, and the effects of glutaraldehyde concentration, pH, temperature, time and papain amount added on the activity recovery were also investigated. The results show that the MR-AA carrier contains reactive primary amine groups, hydrophilic amido links and hydroxyl groups, as well as macroporous structures based on its matrix (MR-AV matrix), furthermore, the activity recovery of papain in the immobilization could reach 48%~58%. In comparison with free papain, the resulting immobilized papain exhibits a remarkable thermostability and better reusability.

  6. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, S.S.; Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M. de; Rijmen, F.; Cornel, M.C.; Kinderen, M. de; Plass, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduc

  7. Design Study of Small Efficient Cryocoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    passive spring mass system Maximum cold production 0.1 W at 100K Maximum power input 200 W electric Cooler weight 74 kg Cooler size 630 mm long, 350...In the early 1970’s, the Philips Research Laboratory of Eindhoven, The Netherlands, designed a Stirling cryogenic refrigeration system in which the...into or obtained from the system (C > 0, C < 0, respectively). x x More specifically, these two modes are the classical Stirl - ing refrigerator (T > I

  8. Photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polymer-fullerene composites studied with light-induced electron-spin resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Zoriniants, G.; Scharber, M.C.; Brabec, C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed studies on photoinduced spins in conjugated polymer/fullerene composites using (cw) light-induced electron-spin-resonance (LESR) technique are reported. Two overlapping LESR lines are observed, from positive polarons on the polymer chains and negative charges on the fullerene moieties. Micr

  9. Photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polymer–fullerene composites studied with light-induced electron-spin resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Zoriniants, G.; Scharber, M.; Brabec, C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hummelen, J.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed studies on photoinduced spins in conjugated polymer/fullerene composites using (cw) light-induced electron-spin-resonance (LESR) technique are reported. Two overlapping LESR lines are observed, from positive polarons on the polymer chains and negative charges on the fullerene moieties. Micr

  10. Analytical study of recoil systems and their design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sirpal

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical study of the various design parameters usually employed in the typical existing designs and it has been found that the order of magnitudes of some of these parameters are fairly different from those theoretically suggested. An explanation of this difference is also offered. A few additional parameters that are necessary for a preliminary design have also been studied. Based on this some considerations regarding a new design have been suggested.

  11. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  12. THE USE OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH-CARE SERVICES - CARRIER TESTING FOR THE GENETIC DISORDER HEMOPHILIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAREKAMP, [No Value; SUURMEIJER, TPBM; ROSENDAAL, FR; BROCKERVRIENDS, AHJT

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to explore carrier testing among women who were possible or obligate carriers of the haemophilia gene. Knowledge of the possibility of carrier testing and use of carrier testing were studied separately. In our exploration we were guided by the diffusion theory and

  13. Preparation, Characterization and Stability Studies of Glassy Solid Dispersions of Indomethacin using PVP and Isomalt as carriers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) The purpose of the present study was to use the solid dispersion (SD) technique to improve the dissolution rates of indomethacin (IMC). Materials and Methods IMC solid dispersions in PVP K30 and isomalt (GALEN IQ 990) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique and a hot melt method in weight ratios of 2, 10 and 30% (IMC:PVP). Solid dispersions and physical mixtures were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissol...

  14. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  15. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuangMin Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  16. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, GuangMin; Yuan, Weizheng; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, HongLong

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  17. Design of Cargo Hold Ventilation for Bulk Carrier Carrying Dangerous Cargoes%散货船装载危险品货舱通风系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣杰

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the different requirements of the Rules for cargo hold ventilation of bulk carrier carrying all kinds of dangerous cargoes, this paper classiifes the types of cargo hold ventilation for carrying dangerous cargoes, describes the design and typical arrangement of each type of cargo hold ventilation including the relevant rules and standards in order to simplify the design of cargo hold ventilation and reduce the cost of shipbuilding under the premise of meeting ship’s speciifcation and the Rules' minimum requirement.%本文通过分析散货船危险品货物清单中各种货物的装载和运输对货舱通风的不同要求,对散货船装载危险品货舱通风的型式进行归类,简述每一类货舱通风的设计及典型布置,分析其中所涉及到的相关规范和标准,旨在满足船东技术规格书要求和规范最低配置的前提下尽可能简化货舱通风系统的设计,降低船舶的建造成本。

  18. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  19. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) is intended to provide investigators in several biological disciplines with a relatively inexpensive method to access space for up to 60 days with eventual recovery on Earth. The RRS will permit totally intact, relatively soft, recovery of the vehicle, system refurbishment, and reflight with new and varied payloads. The RRS is to be capable of three reflights per year over a 10-year program lifetime. The RRS vehicle will have a large and readily accessible volume near the vehicle center of gravity for the Payload Module (PM) containing the experiment hardware. The vehicle is configured to permit the experimenter late access to the PM prior to launch and rapid access following recovery. The RRS will operate in one of two modes: (1) as a free-flying spacecraft in orbit, and will be allowed to drift in attitude to provide an acceleration environment of less than 10(exp -5) g. the acceleration environment during orbital trim maneuvers will be less than 10(exp -3) g; and (2) as an artificial gravity system which spins at controlled rates to provide an artificial gravity of up to 1.5 Earth g. The RRS system will be designed to be rugged, easily maintained, and economically refurbishable for the next flight. Some systems may be designed to be replaced rather than refurbished, if cost effective and capable of meeting the specified turnaround time. The minimum time between recovery and reflight will be approximately 60 days. The PMs will be designed to be relatively autonomous, with experiments that require few commands and limited telemetry. Mass data storage will be accommodated in the PM. The hardware development and implementation phase is currently expected to start in 1991 with a first launch in late 1993.

  20. Statistical design study of lunar ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Mike; Tucker, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of a lunar ceramic was conducted according to a statistically designed experiment. The method of cold pressing was used since the consumption of electrical energy is kept to a minimum (a priority in the lunar environment). This traditional fabrication technique also provides an initial data source on which further investigations can be based. Results obtained from using two percent binder, a cold pressing pressure of 276 MPa, and 24 hours sintering time yielded the greatest compressive strength of 247 MPa. Analysis of each variable's influence on the compressive strength is also presented.

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)--based hydrogels as potential carriers for oral transmucosal delivery of risperidone: preparation and characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Amaral, M H; González-Mira, E; Santos, D; Ferreira, D

    2012-05-01

    Two different solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)-based hydrogels (HGs) formulations were developed as potential mucoadhesive systems for risperidone (RISP) oral transmucosal delivery. The suitability of the prepared semi-solid formulations for application on oral mucosa was assessed by means of rheological and textural analysis, during 30 days. Plastic flows with thixotropy and high adhesiveness were obtained for all the tested systems, which predict their success for the oral transmucosal application proposed. The SLN remained within the colloidal range after HGs preparation. However, after 30 days of storage, a particle size increase was detected in one type of the HGs formulations. In vitro drug release studies revealed a more pronounced RISP release after SLN hydrogel entrapment, when compared to the dispersions alone. In addition, a pH-dependent release was observed as well. The predicted in vivo RISP release mechanism was Fickian diffusion alone or combined with erosion.

  2. Excited state carrier dynamics in CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} semisconductor alloys as studied by ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, S.E.

    1995-08-01

    This dissertation discusses studies of the electron-hole pair dynamics of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} semiconductor alloys for the entire compositional range from x = 1 to x = 0 as examined by the ultrafast fluorescence techniques of time correlated single photon counting and fluorescence upconversion. Specifically, samples with x = 1, .75, .5, .25, and 0 were studied each at a spread of wavelengths about its respective emission maximum which varies according to {lambda} = 718nm - 210x nm. The decays of these samples were found to obey a Kohlrausch distribution, exp [(t/{tau}){sup {beta}}], with the exponent 3 in the range .5-.7 for the alloys. These results are in agreement with those expected for localization due to local potential variations resulting from the random distribution of sulfur and selenium atoms on the element VI A sub-lattice. This localization can be understood in terms of Anderson localization of the holes in states whose energy distribution tails into the forbidden energy band-gap. Because these states have energy dependent lifetimes, the carriers can decay via many parallel channels. This distribution of channels is the ultimate source of the Kohlrausch form of the fluorescence decays.

  3. Targeted brain derived neurotropic factors (BDNF delivery across the blood-brain barrier for neuro-protection using magnetic nano carriers: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel

    Full Text Available Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration.

  4. Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

  5. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  6. 航母中线电视监视系统的设计%Design of centerline television surveillance system for aircraft landing on carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建川; 邵俊峰; 王弟男; 陈长青; 王锐

    2012-01-01

    A centerline camera subsystem is designed for the mother-ship recovery television surveillance sys- tem. An Electron Multiplying Charge-coupled Device(EMCCD)-based Electrical-Optical(EO) imager is pro- posed according to the requirements for illumination principle, imaging contrast and resolution. The stability of a gyro-stabilized platform and the accuracy of a centerline camera are analyzed, and several imaging processing methods are discussed to solve the problems of position and inclination angles. It is found that the EO system based on Andor Ixon EMCCD with a diameter of 40 mm can fulfill the optical requirements for the centerline camera. The F/2 optical system based on a petzval show its MTF to be close to the diffraction limit. The sta- bility and accuracy status-quo gyro-stabilized platform is enough for the surveillance system. The centroid algo- rithm and edge operator imaging processing method are proposed to calculate the altitude, latitude and inclina- tion. The designed system is capable of performing surveillance with 24-hours a day, which is suitable for air- eraft landing on earriers.%研究设计了航母中线电视监视系统。依据照度、对比度及分辨率要求提出了一套基于电子倍增电荷耦合器件(EMCCD)的光电成像系统。分析了航母中线电视监视系统的舰载稳定平台的精度要求,并探讨了该系统可采用的图像处理算法。分析表明:采用主流的AndorIxonEMCCD并配合口径为40mm的光学系统可满足照度、对比度和分辨率的要求;采用Petzval形式初步设计的F/2光学系统,其光学传递函数接近衍射极限;而现有舰载稳定平台技术可以满足指向稳定的需要。最后,分析了形心算法、边缘算子算法在获取着舰机位置和姿态角的应用。该系统具有全天候工作能力,适用于航空母舰的着舰引导。

  7. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  8. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  9. An In Vitro Comparative Study of the Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Two Carrier-Based Root Canal Obturators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alkahtani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  10. Prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae carriers in the Catalan preschool population. Working Group on Invasive Disease Caused by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanals, D; Bou, R; Pons, I; Sanfeliu, I; Domínguez, A; Pineda, V; Renau, J; Muñoz, C; Latorre, C; Sanchez, F

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of healthy Haemophilus influenzae carriers in a random sample of the preschool population in Catalonia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected and cultured on chocolate agar supplemented with 260 microg/ml of bacitracin. Four hundred two of the 734 (54.8%) children studied were detected as Haemophilus influenzae carriers: 7 (0.9%) carried serotype b, 14 (1.9%) serotype e, 6 (0.8%) serotype f, and 375 (51%) carried nontypable strains. The results show that, although the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae carriers is similar to figures reported from other countries, the prevalence of Haemophillus influenzae serotype b carriers is lower and corresponds with the low incidence of invasive disease observed in the Catalan community.

  11. PEO-PPO-PEO/Poly(DL-lactide-co-caprolactone) Nanoparticles as Carriers for SN-38: Design, Optimization and Nano-Bio Interface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Dimchevska, Simona; Geskovski, Nikola; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chacorovska, Marina; Pejova, Biljana; Hristov, Delyan R; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of extremely hydrophobic substances such as SN-38 into nanoparticles, is a promising approach to solve the solubility issue and enable drug administration. Moreover, nanocarriers' tumor homing behavior, targeted and controlled release at the site of action will optimize therapeutic potency and decrease toxicity of the incorporated drug substance. However, the enormous drug hydrophobicity might limit the capacity for encapsulation as the premature drug precipitation will contribute to fast free drug crystal growth, low drug incorporation and huge waste of the active material. In this article we defined the optimal region for manufacturing of SN-38 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO/P(DL)LCL nanoparticles (NPs) with high efficacy of encapsulation, suitable particle size and different surface properties, using D-optimal design and nanoprecipitation as production method. Further we made an approach to investigate the interactions with macromolecules at the nano-bio interface which are predetermined by the physico-chemical and surface properties of the NPs, and are important determinants for the biological identity of the nanoparticles, the potential for evasion of the physiological barriers and the efficacy of localization at the site of action. Here we present in depth analysis of the behavior of two types of nanoparticles with different surface properties through structured protein interaction and bioreactivity experiments in order to presuppose NP performance and toxicological profile in biological environment.

  12. Time-resolved THz studies of carrier dynamics in semiconductors, superconductors, and strongly-correlated electron materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, Robert A.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2006-11-14

    materials occur at lower energies. The terahertz (THz) regime is particularly rich in such fundamental resonances. This includes ubiquitous lattice vibrations and low-energy collective oscillations of conduction charges. In nanoscale materials, band structure quantization also yields novel infrared and THz transitions, including intersubband absorption in quantum wells. The formation of excitons in turn leads to low-energy excitations analogous to inter-level transitions in atoms. In transition-metal oxides, fundamental excitation gaps arise from charge pairing into superconducting condensates and other correlated states. This motivates the use of ultrafast THz spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study light-matter interactions and microscopic processes in nanoscale and correlated-electron materials.A distinct advantage of coherent THz pulses is that the amplitude and phase of the electric field can be measured directly, as the THz fields are coherent with the fs pulses from which they are generated. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), both the real and imaginary parts of the response functions (such as the dielectric function) are obtained directly without the need for Kramers?Kronig transforms. The THz response can also be expressed in terms of absorption and refractive index, or as the optical conductivity. The optical conductivity describes the current response of a many-body system to an electric field, an ideal tool to study conducting systems. A second important advantage is the ultrafast time resolution that results from the short temporal duration of the THz time-domain sources. In particular, optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy enables a delicate probe of the transient THz conductivity after optical photoexcitation. These experiments can provide insight into quasiparticle interactions, phase transitions, or nonequilibrium dynamics. In this chapter we will provide many such examples. Since THz spectroscopy of solids is a quickly expanding field

  13. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    The results of the design trade-off studies and the sensitivity analysis of Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) Program are presented. The effects of variations in the design of the vehicle body, propulsion systems, and other components on vehicle power, weight, cost, and fuel economy and an optimized hybrid vehicle design are discussed. (LCL)

  14. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  15. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  16. 固体热载体热解霍林河褐煤实验研究%Experiment study on pyrolysis of Huolinhe lignite with solid heat carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲旋; 张荣; 孙东凯; 毕继诚

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis of Huolinhe lignite with solid heat carrier was carried out in a moving bed reactor with the capacity of 10 kg/h. The solid heat carrier used in the experiment was the circulating ash from a 75 t/h CFB boiler. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, residence time and coal particle size on the yields and composition of products were studied. It is found that the gas yield increases with the increasing pyrolysis temperature. The yield of tar reaches a maximum of 4.94% at 520 ℃. The heating value of pyrolysis gas is from 19.80 MJ/m3 to 23.20 MJ/m3. Some useful compounds, such as BTX and PCX, could be obtained from pyrolysis tar and the contents of them are much higher than those from a bituminous pyrolysis tar. Moreover, the pyrolysis char exhibits good combustion characteristic. The sulfur content of pyrolysis char is notably lower than that in raw coal, which benefits to reduce the desulphurization burden of the CFB boiler.%在处理量为10kg/h的粉煤-固体热载体移动床实验装置上,以循环灰为热载体对其进行了热解特性评价实验.考察了热解温度(460℃~610℃)、反应时间(6min~8min)及煤粒粒径对热解产物产率和组成的影响.结果表明,随着热解温度的升高,气体产率增大;焦油产率在520℃时达到最大值4.94%.热解煤气的热值为19.80MJ/m3~23.20MJ/m3.与淮南烟煤相比,热解焦油中BTX、PCX的含量较高,特别是PCX的含量在反应温度为610℃时达到23.82%.热解半焦具有很好的燃烧特性而且硫含量明显低于原煤,有利于减轻循环流化床锅炉的脱硫负荷.

  17. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  18. 聚氨酯泡沫塑料填料的改性试验研究%Experimental Study on Modification of Polyurethane Foam Plastics Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成国栋; 王芬; 李超; 汪泳; 赵贞地; 季民

    2012-01-01

    The conventional polyurethane foam plastic carrier was modified by chemical oxidation and gelatin protein grafting technology, and the surface physicochemical properties of the carrier, the speed of biofilm formation, the quantity of biofilm and the performance in treating wastewater were investigated before and after the modification. The results showed that the ratio of C - 0 bond on surface of the modified carrier was increased by 47. 86% , and the ratios of C - C and C - H bonds on surface of the modified carrier were reduced by 50. 66%. Hydrophilicity and surface roughness of the carrier were increased after the modification. Compared with the original carrier, the quantity of biofilm on the modified carrier was increased by 30% , the average growth rate of biofilm was increased by 47% , and the removal rates of COD and ammonia nitrogen were increased.%采用化学氧化-明胶蛋白接枝技术对普通聚氨酯泡沫塑料填料进行改性,并对改性前后填料的表面特性、挂膜速度、生物膜量及除污性能等进行研究.结果发现,改性填料表面的C-O键所占比例提高了47.86%,C-C、C-H键所占比例下降了50.66%;改性填料的表面粗糙度以及亲水性提高;与未改性填料相比,改性填料的生物膜量提高了30%,生物膜量的平均增长速率提高了47%;与未改性填料相比,改性填料对COD和氨氮的去除率均有所提高.

  19. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  20. 舰载无人机与弹射装置适配性问题研究%Study on Adaptability of Carrier-based Unmanned Aircraft with Aircraft Catapult Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云飞; 陈良

    2016-01-01

    The adaptability of carrier-based aircraft with aircraft catapult device is composed of machinery interface adaptability, operation process adaptability, take-off capability adaptability and environment condition adaptability in terms of engineering. Carrier-based unmanned aircraft has some unique features compared with common carrier-based aircraft in which be told issues, because it has been constricted by some factors such as requirements, technology level and cost. Chinese industry is a junior in application and design for carrier-based aircraft. This paper discussed features of adaptability of carrier-based aircraft with aircraft catapult device. As well as it believes that discussion could promote the technology readiness level up.%从工程角度,舰载机与弹射装置的适配性由机械接口适配性、操作流程适配性、起飞(含性能)适配性和环境适应性等4个方面构成。舰载无人机作为舰载机的一个分支,受到需求、技术成熟度与成本等多因素影响或制约,在上述4个方面与有人驾驶的舰载机相比,具有其特殊性。我国在舰载机特别是可被弹射起飞的舰载机设计领域仍处于初级阶段,本文针对舰载无人机与弹射装置的适配性进行讨论,以提高未来舰载无人机研制中相关技术的成熟度,加快型号研制进展。

  1. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  3. California Education in Environmental Design and Urban Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lawrence B.

    The purpose of the study was to examine California's needs in the broad field of environmental design and urban studies. Chapter 1 discusses the purposes, methods, and sources of the study. Chapter 2 deals with the Environmental Design Professions which include: architecture, landscape architecture, city planning, and their educational systems.…

  4. The Annular Microwave Dryer Design and Study on Honeysuckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Yuefeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to dry fresh honeysuckle, microwave drying process were studied on fresh honeysuckle; and microwave drying apparatus on fresh honeysuckle is designed according to the drying process. The designed microwave dryer contains microwave generator, microwave dryer, dehumidifying systems, control system, transmission systems, microwave leakage inhibited mechanism and other components. The drying experiment is carried by the designed dryer, from the setting-to-work test, the design was success.

  5. 气体热载体法煤热解动力学研究%Kinetic study on coal pyrolysis with gas heat carrier method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宝仔

    2015-01-01

    采用热重分析和气体热载体实验考察了准东煤和神木煤的热解动力学特性,并根据热解动力学模型确定动力学参数. 随热解温度的升高,反应停留时间对半焦收率及半焦挥发分的影响逐渐减小;煤热解活化能与反应停留时间、煤粒径大小均相关. 研究结果对于煤热解工艺工业化具有参考意义.%This paper probes into the pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of Zhundong coal and Shenmu coal with thermogravimetric analysis method and gas heat carrier experiment, and determines the kinetic parameters by established pyrolysis kinetic model. It finds that the impact of reaction residence time on semi-coke yield and its volatile matter decreases with increasing pyrolysis tempera-ture;the pyrolysis activation energies of coals are related to reaction residence time and coal particle size. The study results have great significance on industrialization of coal pyrolysis process.

  6. The Relationship between Serum Bilirubin and Elevated Fibrotic Indices among HBV Carriers: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study probed the association between bilirubin and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and progression. A cross-sectional analysis of 28,500 middle aged and elderly Chinese participants was performed to analyze the differences of bilirubin in terms of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive or negative and the correlation between bilirubin and severity of hepatic fibrosis estimated by non-invasive indices. Bilirubin was significantly higher in the HBsAg (+ group than the HBsAg (− group. Higher bilirubin levels were consistently associated with elevated liver fibrosis indices among HBsAg carriers. Compared with quartile 1 of total bilirubin (TBil, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs for elevated fibrosis indices of quartile 4 were 2.24 (95% CIs, 1.57–3.21 estimated by fibrosis 4 score (FIB-4 and 2.22 (95% CIs, 1.60–3.08 estimated by aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI. In addition, direct bilirubin (DBil had a stronger association with elevated liver fibrosis indices than did indirect bilirubin (IBil. Furthermore, the relationship between DBil and elevated fibrosis indices was more robust among participants who were female, overweight or had central fat distribution. These findings suggested that bilirubin levels, especially DBil, were independently associated with an increased risk of increased fibrosis indices.

  7. Comparative evaluation of natural and acid-modified layered mineral materials as rimifon-carriers using UV/VIS, FTIR, and equilibrium sorption study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedyalka Georgieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The encapsulation of rimifon on natural (NZ and acid-modified (AMZ zeolites was investigated by UV/VIS, FTIR, and equilibrium sorption studies in aqueous medium. The UV/VIS and FTIR spectral investigations provided data on the nature and characteristics of the drug–zeolite complexes. The probable host–guest interactions during rimifon encapsulation in AMZ include van der Waals interactions, as well as H-bonds established between the O-atom from the carbonyl (>C=O group and N-pyridine/N-hydrazine atoms in rimifon and zeolite OH-groups. The maximum experimental equilibrium sorption capacity of AMZ (qmax = 7.17 mg/g was approximately 24 times higher than that of NZ. Baudu and Fritz–Schlunder isotherms almost overlapped and seemed to be the best-fitting models with regard to the experimental equilibrium data of rimifon sorption on AMZ. The unique properties of AMZ and the established high extend of rimifon encapsulation proved the possibility of its successful application as rimifon-carrier for environmental and medical purposes.

  8. Isolated Ti in Si: Deep level transient spectroscopy, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and high-resolution Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, L.; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Combining deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), high-resolution Laplace DLTS, and minority carrier transient spectroscopy studies, we question the identification of the dominant Ti-related defects introducing deep levels (E40, E150, and H180) in n- and p-type Si. The observed results cannot unambiguously support the models previously reported for these defects. The presence of the Poole-Frenkel effect describing the enhancement of the emission rates of E40 as a function of electric field is not consistent with the previous assignment of this defect to the single acceptor, whereas the absence of the enhancement of the emission rate of E150 under different reverse bias applied to the diode does not confirm the previous attribution of this defect to the single donor in n-type Si. The attribution of H180 to the double donor is in good agreement with our results. In contrast, the identical depth profiles obtained for E40 and E150 in bulk of as-grown, hydrogenated and annealed samples cannot be explained by the assignment of these levels to different defects.

  9. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  10. Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs.

  11. Design Study Methodology: Reflections from the Trenches and the Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmair, M; Meyer, M; Munzner, T

    2012-12-01

    Design studies are an increasingly popular form of problem-driven visualization research, yet there is little guidance available about how to do them effectively. In this paper we reflect on our combined experience of conducting twenty-one design studies, as well as reading and reviewing many more, and on an extensive literature review of other field work methods and methodologies. Based on this foundation we provide definitions, propose a methodological framework, and provide practical guidance for conducting design studies. We define a design study as a project in which visualization researchers analyze a specific real-world problem faced by domain experts, design a visualization system that supports solving this problem, validate the design, and reflect about lessons learned in order to refine visualization design guidelines. We characterize two axes - a task clarity axis from fuzzy to crisp and an information location axis from the domain expert's head to the computer - and use these axes to reason about design study contributions, their suitability, and uniqueness from other approaches. The proposed methodological framework consists of 9 stages: learn, winnow, cast, discover, design, implement, deploy, reflect, and write. For each stage we provide practical guidance and outline potential pitfalls. We also conducted an extensive literature survey of related methodological approaches that involve a significant amount of qualitative field work, and compare design study methodology to that of ethnography, grounded theory, and action research.

  12. Acoustic Sensitivity Analysis on Dominant Transmission Paths for Noise Reduction Design of Super-large Crude Carrier%超大型油轮降噪设计主传递路径族灵敏度方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高处; 杨德庆

    2014-01-01

    针对振动噪声传递路径降噪设计是提高船舶声学性能的有效措施之一。目标舱室振动噪声传递路径并不唯一,其中多条主要路径传递了大部分振动与噪声能量。利用作者提出的基于声振熵概念及图论中K则最短路径理论的声振熵赋权图法,能够快速识别船舶舱室噪声主要传递路径族。在此基础上,计算噪声主传递路径族上声学设计参数变化对目标舱室声压影响的灵敏度,调整有关声学设计措施,此即降噪设计主传递路径族灵敏度方法。提出适用于大型船舶噪声主传递路径分析及主传递路径族灵敏度的降噪设计通用流程,通过超大型油轮降噪声学设计实例,说明了该方法的有效性。%One of the effective measures to improve the acoustic performance of ships is to perform a noise reduction design along the sound transmission path. However, there are usually several transmission paths to the target cabin, of which some dominant paths transmit a large amount of noise and vibration energy. Using the proposed vibro-acoustical entropy weighted graph method based on the vibro-acoustical entropy concept and K shortest path theory, the dominant transmission paths of the cabin noise can be identified quickly. On this basis, the sensitivity of influence of the change of the acoustic design parameters of the dominant transmission paths on the sound pressure of the target cabin is calculated. And the method for noise reduction design can be adjusted and determined efficiently. This is known as the sensitivity method of dominant transmission paths in noise reduction design. A general program of this method for noise reduction design of large ships is designed. A numerical example of a super large crude carrier is given and the results show the effectiveness of this method.

  13. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    , Japan Background: The Japan Polyp Study (JPS Workgroup was established in 2000 to evaluate colonoscopic follow-up surveillance strategies. The JPS was a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate follow-up surveillance strategies in patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies for control of colorectal cancer, with removal of all detected polyps. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the patient recruitment and whether the clinical characteristics were adequate for enrollment at the participating centers. Materials and methods: Among referrals for colonoscopy at the eleven participating centers, all patients who were 40–69 years old, without a family or personal history of familial polyposis, Lynch syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or a personal history of polypectomy with unknown histology, and had no invasive colorectal cancer or colectomy, were considered for inclusion from February 2003. Results: Among 4,752 referrals, a total of 3,926 patients with a mean age of 57.3 (range 40–69 years, including 2,440 (62% males, were included in the JPS. The participation rate was 83%. Among them, a total of 2,757 patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies with removal of all detected polyps were eligible, giving an eligibility rate of 70% (2,757 of 3,926. Among the eligible patients, 2,166 were assigned to randomized groups, and 591 patients to a nonrandomized group. The last steps of data lock, analysis, and complete histopathological assessment based on a pathology review are ongoing. Conclusion: Eligible patients recruited for the JPS were successfully assigned on the basis of the expected sample-size calculation. Keywords: colonoscopy, follow-up surveillance strategies, Japan Polyp Study (JPS, study design, multicenter randomized controlled trial

  14. Rationale and Design of the 'MITOCARE' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by reperfusion using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis has provided clinical benefits; however, it also induces considerable cell death. This process is called reperfusion injury. The continuing high rates...... resonance). The study is being financed under an EU-FP7 grant and conducted under the auspices of the MITOCARE research consortium, which includes experts from clinical and basic research centers, as well as commercial enterprises, throughout Europe. Results from this study will contribute to a better...

  15. Study on the Channel Characteristics of Power Carrier Communication%电力载波通信信道特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高境

    2015-01-01

    电力线信道是电力载波通信中安全、可靠传输信息载体,因此关于阻抗特性、衰减特性、噪声特性方面的分析是电力载波通信网络构建的前提。最后提出了PLC与Wi-Fi等多种网络融合是未来发展的趋势。%Power line channel is a power line carrier communication in safe and reliable transmission of information carrier, so on the characteristic impedance, attenuation characteristics and noise characteristics analysis is the premise of power line carrier communication network construction. In the end, the integration of PLC and Wi-Fi is the trend of the future development.

  16. 重型清障车吊臂和托臂的优化设计及应力分析%Optimized Design Heavy Wrecker Boom and the Carrier Arm and Stress Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎玉勤; 朱运东; 周晓峰; 周超

    2015-01-01

    清障车是一种具有道路抢险作业装备,能够起吊和托起事故、违章或损坏车辆,并能快速离开事故现场的专用车辆.文章采用UG软件对吊臂模型处理,通过其自带软件NX NASTRAN对托臂总成进行有限元分析,根据实际作业工况对托臂总成进行约束与载荷施加,使托臂的强度分析更具有可信度.其结果为吊臂和托臂总成的设计及优化提供了参考依据.%The wrecker is a kind of road rescue operations equipment, capable of lifting and hold accidents, illegal,or damage to the vehicle,and quickly left the scene of special vehicles. Base model using UG soft-ware to handle the boom, comes with software by NX NASTRAN for the carriage arm assembly finite ele-ment analysis, according to the actual working condition of the bracket arm assembly constraints and load is applied, the strength of the supporting arm of analysis more credibility. As a result,the boom and the carrier arm assembly design and optimization provides a reference for.

  17. Research study on IPS digital controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.

    1976-01-01

    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  18. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  19. Children as Educational Computer Game Designers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Ahmet; Land, Susan M.; Smith, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how children designed computer games as artifacts that reflected their understanding of nutrition. Ten 5th grade students were asked to design computer games with the software "Game Maker" for the purpose of teaching 1st graders about nutrition. The results from the case study show that students were able to express their…

  20. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  1. 300 GeV Up-dated design study

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    The 'Report on the Design Study of a 300 GeV Proton Synchrotron' (document CERN/ 563) was issued in November 1964. An Addendum (document CERN/702) to this Design Study was issued on 30 May as one of the up-to-date set of documents and relevant costs presented to the June Council Meeting.

  2. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  3. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...) Studies by highway agencies shall contain: (1) The hydrologic and hydraulic data and design...

  4. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  5. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  6. EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    2000-11-06

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

  7. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  8. Design of Orion Soil Impact Study using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two conventional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) test matrices under consideration for an Orion Landing System subscale soil impact study are reviewed. Certain weaknesses in the designs, systemic to OFAT experiment designs generally, are identified. An alternative test matrix is proposed that is based in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), which achieves certain synergies by combining the original two test matrices into one. The attendant resource savings are quantified and the impact on uncertainty is discussed.

  9. Spatial location of indomethacin associated with unimeric amphiphilic carrier macromolecules as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David E; Moretti, Alysha; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including, proton NMR, relaxation analysis, two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, has been used to demonstrate the spatial location of indomethacin within a unimolecular micelle. Understanding the location of drugs within carrier molecules using such NMR techniques can facilitate rational carrier design. In addition, this information provides insight to encapsulation efficiency of different drugs to determine the most efficient system for a particular bioactive. This study demonstrates that drugs loaded by the unimolecular amphiphile under investigation are not necessarily encapsulated but reside or localize to the periphery or interfacial region of the carrier molecule. The results have further implications as to the features of the unimolecular carrier that contribute to drug loading. In addition, evidence of drug retention associated with the unimolecular surfactant is possible in organic media, as well as in an aqueous environment. Such findings have implications for rational carrier design to correlate the carrier features to the drug of interest and indicate the strong retention capabilities of the unimolecular micelle for delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of porous carrier size on biofilm development, microbial distribution and nitrogen removal in microaerobic bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2017-03-15

    In this study, effects of porous carrier’s size (polyurethane-based) on microbial characteristics were systematically investigated in addition to nitrogen removal performance in six microaerobic bioreactors. Among different sized carriers (50, 30, 20, 15,10, 5 mm), 15 mm carrier showed highest nitrogen removal (98%) due to optimal micro-environments created for aerobic nitrifiers in outer layer (0∼7 mm), nitrifiers and denitrifiers in middle layer (7∼10 mm) and anaerobic denitrifiers in inner layer (10∼15 mm). Candidatus brocadia, a dominant anammox bacteria, was solely concentrated close to centroid (0∼70 μm) and strongly co-aggregated with other bacterial communities in the middle layer of the carrier. Contrarily, carriers with a smaller (<15 mm) or larger size (>15 mm) either destroy the effective zone for anaerobic denitrifiers or damage the microaerobic environments due to poor mass transfer. This study is of particular use for optimal design of carriers in enhancing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in microaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

  11. 78 FR 26705 - Telecommunications Carriers Eligible for Support; Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Several...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Telecommunications Carriers Eligible for Support; Lifeline and Link Up Reform and... requirement of the Commission's rules that the service area of an eligible telecommunications carrier (ETC... as pending and future requests by telecommunications carriers that seek limited designation, as...

  12. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  13. A Study on the Effects of Carrier Gases on the Structure and Morphology of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Pyrolysis of Ferrocene and C2H2 Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanliang Mi; Jerry Yuesheng Lin; Qian Mao; Yongdan Li; Baoquan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared using different carrier gases,with ferrocene as the catalyst precusor and acetylene as the carbon source. The effects of ammonia and nitrogen as carrier gases on the structure and morphology of CNTs were investigated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM),high-resolution electron microscope (HRTEM),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the products and the catalyst. Experiment results show that the CNTs grown in N2 gas exhibited cylindrical and tubular structure,while a bamboo-like structure was observed for the CNTs grown in NH3 gas. Moreover,vertically aligned CNTs were obtained on an Al2O3 disk when NH3 was used as the carrier gas. The carrier gas also exerted influence on the shape of the catalyst. Based on the theory of active centers of catalysis and combined with the particle shape of the catalyst,a growth model for the vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate is given.

  14. Anisotropic mobility and carrier dynamics in the β-type BEDT-TTF salts as studied by inter-layer transverse magnetoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Sugawara and Masafumi Tamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to estimate an in-plane conduction anisotropy in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D layered conductor by measuring the inter-layer transverse magnetoresistance is proposed. We applied this method to layered organic conductors β-(BEDT-TTF2X (BEDT-TTF = bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene, C10H8S8; X = IBr2, I2Br by applying magnetic field rotating within the basal plane at 4.2 K. We found the anisotropic behaviour of carrier mobility μ. From this, anomalous distribution of carrier lifetime τ on the Fermi surface is derived, by the use of Fermi surface data reported for the materials. Calculations of the non-uniform susceptibility χ0(q suggest that carrier scattering is enhanced at specific k-points related to partial nesting of the Fermi surface. The present method is thus demonstrated to be an efficient experimental tool to elucidate anisotropic carrier dynamics in q2D conductors.

  15. Bone induction by composites of bioresorbable carriers and demineralized bone in rats: a comparative study of fibrin-collagen paste, fibrin sealant, and polyorthoester with gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    Host tissue response and heterotopic osteoinduction by composites of demineralized bone matrix and three different substances used as bioresorbable carriers implanted in the abdominal muscles were evaluated by strontium 85 uptake and histology 4 weeks postoperatively in 60 male Wistar rats. Both...

  16. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R [Atlantic Orient Corp., Norwich, VT (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  17. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  18. Beyond the castle:public space co-design, a case study and guidelines for designers

    OpenAIRE

    Cruickshank, Leon; Coupe, Gemma; Hennesy, Dee

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a high profile project to reimagine a large green space in the heart of the city of Lancaster in the UK. This co-design project involved professional designers but also 2500 people with 700 of these making an active co-design contribution. This project forms the basis of a discussion of how we used a series of events to help participants reach their full creative co-design potential moving from doing to creating levels of creativity. From this case study we go on to ...

  19. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  20. Efficacy and efficiency: self-designed versus instructor-designed study tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E B; Hassanein, R S

    1992-03-01

    During the course of their education, occupational therapy students learn to administer complex structured assessments. For easier administration of these assessments, students design note cards, which then replace cumbersome test manuals during administration. This study considered whether students could learn test administration with equal efficiency and efficacy if given test administration note cards rather than having to design their own. The results showed that the subjects using instructor-designed cards earned written test and practical examination scores similar to those of the subjects using self-designed cards. The subjects using instructor-designed cards spent significantly less (p = .003) total time in study than did the subjects using self-designed cards. The difference in time between the two groups was attributable to the time spent designing note cards. Therefore, distribution of instructor-designed note cards appears to offer equally effective and significantly more efficient learning when compared with that produced when students design their own cards. The differences in efficacy and efficiency were similar for students of different learning styles (as classified by Witkin's field-dependence/field-independence continuum) [corrected].

  1. Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene): Effects of carrier bimolecular recombination and trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soci, Cesare; Moses, Daniel; Xu, Qing-Hua; Heeger, Alan J.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene) over a broad time range using fast (t>100ps) transient photoconductivity measurements. The carrier density was also monitored (t>100fs) by means of photoinduced absorption probed at the infrared active vibrational modes. We find that promptly upon charge-carrier photogeneration, the initial polaron dynamics is governed by bimolecular recombination, while later in the subnanosecond time regime carrier trapping gives rise to an exponential decay of the photocurrent. The more sensitive transient photocurrent measurements indicate that in the low excitation regime, when the density of photocarriers is comparable to that of the trapping states (˜1016cm-3) , carrier hopping between traps along with transport via extended states determines the carrier relaxation, a mechanism that is manifested by a long-lived photocurrent “tail.” This photocurrent tail is reduced by lowering the temperature and/or by increasing the excitation density. Based on these data, we develop a comprehensive kinetic model that takes into account the bipolar charge transport, the free-carrier bimolecular recombination, the carrier trapping, and the carrier recombination involving free and trapped carriers.

  2. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  3. Dextran: A promising macromolecular drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Suneela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades intensive efforts have been made to design novel systems able to deliver the drug more effectively to the target site. The ongoing intense search for novel and innovative drug delivery systems is predominantly a consequence of the well-established fact that the conventional dosage forms are not sufficiently effective in conveying the drug compound to its site of action and once in the target area, in releasing the active agent over a desired period of time. The potential use of macromolecular prodrugs as a means of achieving targeted drug delivery has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Macromolecules such as antibodies, lipoproteins, lectins, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, natural as well as synthetic polymers offer potential applicabilities as high molecular weight carriers for various therapeutically active compounds. Dextrans serve as one of the most promising macromolecular carrier candidates for a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to their excellent physico-chemical properties and physiological acceptance. The present contribution attempts to review various features of the dextran carrier like its source, structural and physico-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetic fate and its applications as macromolecular carrier with special emphasis on dextran prodrugs.

  4. A Fractional Factorial Design to Study the Effect of Process Variables on the Preparation of Hyaluronidase Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated to understand the effect of PLGA concentration, PVA concentration, internal-external phase ratio, homogenization speed, and homogenization time on mean particle size, zeta potential, and percentage drug encapsulation using fractional factorial design. Using PLGA (50-50 as the carrier, hyaluronidase loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The particle size was analyzed by dynamic light scattering technique and protein content by Lowry method. The study showed that homogenization speed as an independent variable had maximum effect on particle size and zeta potential. Internal-external phase volume ratio had maximum effect on drug encapsulation. Mean particle size also had high dependency on the combined effect of PVA concentration and phase volume ratio. Using fractional factorial design particle size of <400 nm, zeta potential of <−30 mV, and percentage encapsulation of 15–18% were achieved.

  5. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  6. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    A design study for a stellar reference unit, or star tracker, for SIRTF was conducted in FY96 in conjunction with the Tracking Sensors Group of the Avionic Equipment Section of JPL. The resulting design was derived from the Oersted, autonomous, Advanced Stellar Compass, star tracker. The projected...

  7. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  8. Open Educational Resources: A Delphi Study of Instructional Design Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Marnice K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this modified Delphi research study was to investigate instructional designers' beliefs about the instructional strategies and activities to be included in a universal framework for designing quality, self-directed, multimedia, open educational resources (OERs). With the rapid growth of availability and use of OERs by a widely…

  9. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  10. Improving Biomarker Development and Assessment: Standards for Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziding FENG

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), NCI funded and investigator driven, has the mission to evaluate biomarkers for their clinical utilities in cancer risk prediction, diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis. Abundant cancer biomarkers reported in literature yet few are used in clinics. Therefore, the emphasis of the EDRN is biomarker validation. Although schema for a phased approach to development exists and guidelines are available for study reporting, a coherent and comprehensive set of guideline for a definitive biomarker validation study design have not been delineated.Methods: We proposed PROBE study design, Prospective specimen collec-tion and Retrospective Blinded Evaluation, for pivotal definitive evaluation of the accuracy of a classification biomarker. A detailed formulation of all aspects of the design is provided. Four tables itemize aspects that relate to (i) the Clinical Context; (ii) Performance Criteria; (iii) the Biomarker test; and (iv) Study power and termination. Alternative designs and strategies were contrasted to illustrate the merit of PROBE design.Results: The ideas are applied to studies of biomarkers the intended use of which is for disease diagnosis, screening, or prognosis. Two EDRN valida-tion studies (breast cancer and prostate cancer) were used as examples to elucidate PROBE design.Conclusion: Common biases that pervade the biomarker research literaturewould be eliminated if these rigorous standards were followed closely. We urge the adoption of the design as standard of practice for pivotal evaluation of the classification accuracy ofbiomarkers.

  11. Transformation: Structure/space studies in bionics and space design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the architectural design project "Transformation Structure Space", which was carried out at the Department of Building Construction HB2 in 2004. The goal of the study was to find innovative solutions for space system design through the application of bionic (biomimetic) approaches. Using specific research both fields as the foundation, five different architectural projects based on a scientific-technological concept were developed. The introduction of natural role models into the design process and the development of the application in space and the respective setting proved to be a difficult task within the timeframe of a design program, nonetheless all of the projects show very innovative aspects.

  12. Design and evaluation of an intravesical delivery system for superficial bladder cancer: preparation of gemcitabine HCl-loaded chitosan–thioglycolic acid nanoparticles and comparison of chitosan/poloxamer gels as carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay Şenyiğit Z

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Ay Şenyiğit,1 Sinem Yaprak Karavana,1 Derya İlem-Özdemir,2 Çağrı Çalışkan,2 Claudia Waldner,3 Sait Şen,4 Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch,5 Esra Baloğlu1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Radiopharmacy, Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey; 3ThioMatrix, Forschungs-Beratungs GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria; 4Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey; 5Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: This study aimed to develop an intravesical delivery system of gemcitabine HCl for superficial bladder cancer in order to provide a controlled release profile, to prolong the residence time, and to avoid drug elimination via urination. For this aim, bioadhesive nanoparticles were prepared with thiolated chitosan (chitosan–thioglycolic acid conjugate and were dispersed in bioadhesive chitosan gel or in an in situ gelling poloxamer formulation in order to improve intravesical residence time. In addition, nanoparticle-loaded gels were diluted with artificial urine to mimic in vivo conditions in the bladder and were characterized regarding changes in gel structure. The obtained results showed that chitosan-thioglycolic acid nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 174.5±3.762 nm and zeta potential of 32.100±0.575 mV were successfully developed via ionotropic gelation and that the encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine HCl was nearly 20%. In vitro/ex vivo characterization studies demonstrated that both nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded chitosan and poloxamer gels might be alternative carriers for intravesical administration of gemcitabine HCl, prolonging its residence time in the bladder and hence improving treatment efficacy. However, when the gel formulations were diluted with artificial urine, poloxamer gels lost their in

  13. A new design approach to innovative spectrometers. Case study: TROPOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatier, Jean-Baptiste; Baümer, Stefan; Kruizinga, Bob; Vink, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Designing a novel optical system is a nested iterative process. The optimization loop, from a starting point to final system is already mostly automated. However this loop is part of a wider loop which is not. This wider loop starts with an optical specification and ends with a manufacturability assessment. When designing a new spectrometer with emphasis on weight and cost, numerous iterations between the optical- and mechanical designer are inevitable. The optical designer must then be able to reliably produce optical designs based on new input gained from multidisciplinary studies. This paper presents a procedure that can automatically generate new starting points based on any kind of input or new constraint that might arise. These starting points can then be handed over to a generic optimization routine to make the design tasks extremely efficient. The optical designer job is then not to design optical systems, but to meta-design a procedure that produces optical systems paving the way for system level optimization. We present here this procedure and its application to the design of TROPOLITE a lightweight push broom imaging spectrometer.

  14. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  15. Scenario for concurrent conceptual assembly line design: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, F.; Ríos, J.; Menéndez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The decision to design and build a new aircraft is preceded by years of research and study. Different disciplines work together throughout the lifecycle to ensure not only a complete functional definition of the product, but also a complete industrialization, a marketing plan, a maintenance plan, etc. This case study focuses on the conceptual design phase. During this phase, the design solutions that will meet the functional and industrial requirements are defined, i.e.: the basic requirements of industrialization. During this phase, several alternatives are studied, and the most attractive in terms of performance and cost requirements is selected. As a result of the study of these alternatives, it is possible to define an early conceptual design of the assembly line and its basic parameters. The plant needs, long cycle jigs & tools or industrial means and human resources with the necessary skills can be determined in advance.

  16. Modelling a case study in Astronomy with IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Burgos, D., & Tattersall, C. (2008). Modelling a case study in Astronomy with IMS Learning Design [Electronic Version]. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2008 from http://jime.open.ac.uk/2008/19/.

  17. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  18. A Learning and Interaction design framework, from a study on formulating principles for the design of engaging music learning games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Based on a preliminary action research study investigating the design of digital music games and years of experiences from interaction design processes of learning resources, this extended abstract presents a framework that mixes designs for learning principles and game design with a process view...... using a simple interaction design lifecycle. Though the first outset was to design engaging music games, the resulting framework has a more generic character.......Based on a preliminary action research study investigating the design of digital music games and years of experiences from interaction design processes of learning resources, this extended abstract presents a framework that mixes designs for learning principles and game design with a process view...

  19. Towards simultaneous achievement of carrier activation and crystallinity in Ge and GeSn with heated phosphorus ion implantation: An optical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Wang, Lanxiang; Wang, Wei; Lim, Sin Leng; Chan, Taw Kuei; Chua, Lye Hing; Henry, Todd; Zou, Wei; Hatem, Christopher; Osipowicz, Thomas; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of Ge and GeSn alloys implanted with phosphorus ions at 400 °C by spectroscopic ellipsometry from far-infrared to ultraviolet. The dielectric response of heated GeSn implants displays structural and transport properties similar to those of heated Ge implants. The far-infrared dielectric function of as-implanted Ge and GeSn shows the typical free carrier response which can be described by a single Drude oscillator. Bulk Ge-like critical points E1, E1 + Δ1, E0', and E2 are observed in the visible-UV dielectric function of heated Ge and GeSn indicating single crystalline quality of the as-implanted layers. Although the implantation at 400 °C recovers crystallinity in both Ge and GeSn, an annealing step is necessary to enhance the carrier activation.

  20. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal