WorldWideScience

Sample records for carriers by type of service

  1. European retrievable carrier Eureca servicing by Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, L.; Dettmer, J.; Rath, W.

    1987-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that HERMES with a cargo bay configuration as depicted in figure 1 (5 m length, 3 m diam.) with Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) and HERMES Robotic Arm (HERA) is capable to service a small platform like EURECA, which is an NSTS quarter payload. Only 1/3 of the HERMES cargo bay volume and payload mass is required for the accommodation of the payload Orbital Replaceable Units. By implementing two additional hydrazine tanks refuelling can be avoided for a two-years EURECA mission. The overall servicing configuration is described as follows: The European Retrievable Carrier EURECA-B is mechanically attached through its -y-side sill trunnion to the HERMES berthing port. The HERMES cargo bay doors with radiators are opened and oriented to earth. The HERMES Robotic Arm is equipped with a Module Service Tool (MST) ready for Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) exchange. The HERMES berthing port is located at the rear side of the cargo bay in order to achieve best visibility, clearance and accessibility of the HERMES Robotic Arm operation within the cargo bay and the EURECA payload area. The EURECA solar arrays and antennas remain deployed. During the servicing operation, power will be provided by the fully deployed solar arrays. In order to minimize the plume impingement effect, the solar array edge is directed to the HERMES wing.

  2. The strategic response of full service airlines to the low cost carrier threat and the perception of passengers to each type of carrier

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Low cost carriers have changed the competitive dynamics of the short-haul market forever. They have revolutionised the way of doing business in aviation by adopting a fresh approach on both strategic and operational issues. Simplicity has become their universal principle over network airlines and subsequently they have achieved substantial cost advantages which are passed onto the consumer as lower fares. Network airlines have found it difficult to reshape their structural barr...

  3. Improvement of minority carrier life time in N-type monocrystalline Si by the Czochralski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sungsun; Pang, Ilsun; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Kwanghun

    2016-07-01

    The installation amount of solar power plants increases every year. Multi-crystalline Si solar cells comprise a large share of the market of solar power plants. Multi-crystalline and single-crystalline Si solar cells are competing against one another in the market. Many single-crystalline companies are trying to develop and produce n-type solar cells with higher cell efficiency than that of p-type. In n-type wafers with high cell efficiency, wafer quality has become increasingly important. In order to make ingots with higher MCLT, the effects of both poly types related to metal impurities and pull speeds related to vacancy concentration on minority carrier life time were studied. In the final part of ingots, poly types related to the metal impurities are a dominant factor on MCLT. In the initial part of ingots, pull speeds related to vacancy concentration are a dominant factor on MCLT. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar

    1993-01-01

    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  5. Explaining mobile commerce services adoption by different type of customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Molina-Castillo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have been proclaimed as the new service frontier. Nowadays, in addition to traditional mobile services, new mobile commerce services are ready to be used by customers based on 3G-related technologies. However, little is known about the reasons why different groups of customers adopt mobile commerce services. By means of a sample of 542 Dutch consumers, we analyze the acceptance of these services by four different groups of customers. We finish our work providing interesting conclusions for academics as well as practitioners

  6. 47 CFR 63.25 - Special provisions relating to temporary or emergency service by international carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and beyond the control of, the carrier. (b) Applicants seeking immediate authorization to provide... at any time upon ten (10) days' notice to the carrier, to provide temporary or emergency service by..., points between which such facilities were located, hours or minutes used, nature of traffic handled,...

  7. Quality of service modeling and analysis for carrier ethernet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.

    2008-01-01

    Today, Ethernet is moving into the mainstream evolving into a carrier grade technology. Termed as Carrier Ethernet it is expected to overcome most of the shortcomings of native Ethernet. It is envisioned to carry services end-to-end serving corporate data networking and broadband access demands as w

  8. 47 CFR 54.517 - Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. 54.517 Section 54.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....517 Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. (a) Non-telecommunications carriers shall...

  9. [Modification of DNA typing of blood stains by textile stain carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, R; Weisser, H J

    1991-01-01

    Samples of 20 microliters blood were applicated von 55 different textiles, containing all usual materials for clothes, straight from the fabric and after thorough washing. DNA profiling was influenced only by blue jeans and blue terry towel straight from the fabric; in some of these samples there was an inhibition of the restriction enzyme digest that could not be prevented by an additional dialysis step.

  10. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  11. Free-charge carrier parameters of n-type, p-type and compensated InN:Mg determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schoehe, S.; Hofmann, T.; Darakchieva, Vanya; X Wang; Yoshikawa, A.; Wang, K.; Araki, T; Nanishi, Y; Schubert, M

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to investigate the free-charge carrier properties of Mg-doped InN films. Two representative sets of In-polar InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mg concentrations ranging from $1.2\\times10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $8\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ are compared. P-type conductivity is indicated for the Mg concentration range of $1\\times10^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $9\\times10^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ from a systematic investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon plasm...

  12. 47 CFR 54.501 - Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers. 54.501 Section 54.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.501 Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers. (a)...

  13. Study of the full-service and low-cost carriers network configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Oriol Lordan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The network strategies used by airline carriers have been a recurring subject in air transport research. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different operational characteristics of the airline and its route network configuration. Design/methodology/approach: The two main airline carrier typologies - Full-Service and Low-Cost carriers – are analysed using empirical models developed on complex network research relating them to the business model of the...

  14. The Research of Carrier-grade Unified Communication Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nianling; Wang Xiaohua; Tao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Unified Communication (UC) has been one of the hot topics in telecommunication field, and venders introduce various platforms and products for it. Due to the diversification of platform technologies and lacking of unified application interface, curtent applications are hard to be extended and interconnected. Taking example for China Netcom NGN open service platform, this paper briefly presents how to build up carrier-grade unified communication applications under the direction of operator, which will be the reference to make fast development and large scale deployment for UC services.

  15. A novel method for measuring carrier lifetime and capture cross-section by using the negative resistance I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hairong; Li Siyuan, E-mail: hrli@lzu.edu.c [Institute of Microelectronics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A brand new and feasible method for measuring the carrier lifetime and capture cross-section of a barrier by using the negative resistance segment of the I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor (BTH) is put forward. The measuring principle and calculation method are given. The BTH samples are experimentally measured and the results are analyzed in detail. (semiconductor devices)

  16. A Comparative Study on Evaluating the Service Quality Attributes based on Kano Model: A Case of Low-cost Carrier and Full-service Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Hyojeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of low-cost carriers(LCC with competitive price is heating up the competition in the aviation market more, especially between low-cost carriers(LCC and full-service carriers(FSC. Therefore, it became more important than ever to implement service differentiation strategies of each airline for securing customers and competitiveness. In this sense, the purpose of this study is to compare and assess the different expectations of the customers for airline service attributes pursued by FSCs and LCCs. Three main dimensions of airline service quality attributes (physical, human, and system service, were selected and this study clarified the service quality attributes of each airline carrier using Kano Model. Data were collected from Korean passengers who experienced both LCCs and FSCs for international or domestic flights. As results, this study demonstrated several differences in airline service quality attributes between FSCs and LCCs, which imply that each airline needs to adopt differential strategies to be more competitive. In particular, most physical-related attributes for FSCs were a ‘must-be’ dimension while the majority of attributes for LCCs was clarified ‘one-dimensional’ attribute. The current study also presented implications to be helpful in developing the quality of service and establishing marketing strategies for improvement in customer satisfaction.

  17. A Comparative Study on Evaluating the Service Quality Attributes based on Kano Model: A Case of Low-cost Carrier and Full-service Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Byun Hyojeong; Lee Byeongcheol; Rye Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and development of low-cost carriers(LCC) with competitive price is heating up the competition in the aviation market more, especially between low-cost carriers(LCC) and full-service carriers(FSC). Therefore, it became more important than ever to implement service differentiation strategies of each airline for securing customers and competitiveness. In this sense, the purpose of this study is to compare and assess the different expectations of the customers for airline service a...

  18. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... agents must inform the consumer of the code-share service ``before booking transportation'' and state... global distribution systems, which may be assisting travel agents to establish airline ticket sales...

  19. 47 CFR 20.20 - Conditions applicable to provision of CMRS service by incumbent Local Exchange Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliated incumbent LEC, and use its affiliated incumbent LEC's marketing and other services, subject to paragraphs (a)(3) and (c) of this section. (c) Joint marketing. Joint marketing of local exchange and... and made available for public inspection upon request at the principle place of business of...

  20. Effect of hydrogen on change carrier dissipation in 60Co irradiated by γ-quanta and non-alloyed n-type GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pretreatment in hydrogen plasma (the hydrogenation) influences on the charge carrier dissipation processes in the non-alloyed gallium arsenide of n-type with no = (5...7) centre dot 1015 cm-3 and μo = (5...6) centre dot 10 13 cm2 / (V centre dot c) irradiated by γ-quantum 60Co was studied. The comparison of experimental dependence μ (T) with the designed one in the temperature range 77...291 K for non-hydrogenized and hydrogenized non irradiated and γ-quantum irradiated crystals was carried out. It is shown that the main dissipative mechanism that determine the charged carrier mobility in the non hydrogenized material is the dissipation on the charged centers - the radiation defects in the γ-quantum irradiated GaAs; the presence of double ionized defects is possible

  1. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  2. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.

  3. Study of the full-service and low-cost carriers network configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Lordan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The network strategies used by airline carriers have been a recurring subject in air transport research. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different operational characteristics of the airline and its route network configuration. Design/methodology/approach: The two main airline carrier typologies - Full-Service and Low-Cost carriers – are analysed using empirical models developed on complex network research relating them to the business model of the airlines. Findings and Originality/value: Just in Europe, one can differentiate between Full-Service and Low-Cost Carriers by complex network analyses. In this process, it has been also found that new concept Low-Cost Carriers, such as Vueling, have network properties closer to Full-Service Carriers. Research limitations/implications: This paper has a limited sample, as includes 26 airline case studies from Europe, United States and Asia. Practical implications: The analysis carried out in this research can help to the assessment of the evolution of the strategies of airline carriers, and has also operational implications, since the configuration of an airline route network can determine its resilience to attacks and errors. Social implications: A better understanding of the properties of airline route networks can benefit airlines, passengers and another stakeholders of the air transport industry. Originality/value: Current research on air transport networks has only considered the global or regional level, but few studies have addressed the study of airline transport networks, and its relationship with their business model.

  4. A comparison of architecture types of services

    OpenAIRE

    Petrenko, О. О.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies modern architectures of services systems SOA (service-oriented architecture) and EDA (event-driven architecture), their advantages and drawbacks, capabilities, and feasibility of constructing the unified service-oriented architecture EDSOA (event-driven service-oriented architecture). It is shown that events connect services by transferring the state of a business process from one service, which define and publish events, to other services, which are started by actual event...

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION OF SERVICES IN THE CULTURAL-RELIGIOUS DOMAIN BY TYPES OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparchez Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a sustainable development has been more and more discussed and, implicitly, the service sustainability in the context of globalization. This is why, with this approach, the role of the human and, naturally, of the society was observed in carrying out educational, religious and cultural activities. By analogy with a new product’s development steps, the phases necessary for the development of a new service concept were advanced. By means of qualitative and quantitative researches, the ideas necessary for the development of a new service were generated. From the great number of propositions, the most important ones were selected through qualitative researches. These were used in creating the new service. The cultural-religious educational service is the result of these activities, being a concept of the lateral marketing, but also a concern for a sustainable development. This service merged three distinct concepts (education, culture and religion, taking into account that information and knowledge are central for the progress and sustainability of a society's development. This service is a new concept by means of which one shall target how we may achieve the prevention of certain tendencies of school drop-out, new didactical methods and forms being tested this way, having as main purpose a better teacher-child, child-teacher, child-child, teacher-teacher communication.

  6. Do Low Cost Carriers Provide Low Quality Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejashree Sayanak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of whether low cost carriers provide low quality service. Considerable work has been done on various aspects of airline service quality, including: examining the causes of flight delays and cancellations, investigating service quality during irregular airport operations, and exploring the link between on-time performance and airline ticket prices. Little research has been conducted, however, on the performance of low cost carriers. This paper attempts to fill this void in the literature by examining the on-time performance of six million domestic flights in 2006. We find considerable evidence indicating that low cost carriers offer more reliable flight schedules.

  7. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  8. 14 CFR 382.43 - Must information and reservation services of carriers be accessible to individuals with hearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must information and reservation services... Must information and reservation services of carriers be accessible to individuals with hearing impairments? (a) If, as a carrier, you provide telephone reservation and information service to the...

  9. Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: a case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, John F.; Williams, George

    2005-01-01

    Direct competition between full service airlines and no-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US and European full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeated in the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers of each type of airline's business model? Is there a difference in passengers’ perceptions between low cost ca...

  10. Enriching the tactical network design of express service carriers with fleet scheduling characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, W.J.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Dam, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Express service carriers provide time-guaranteed deliveries of parcels via a network consisting of nodes and hubs. In this, nodes take care of the collection and delivery of parcels, and hubs have the function to consolidate parcels in between the nodes. The tactical network design problem assigns n

  11. Wiener's Loop Filter for PLL-Based Carrier Recovery of OQPSK and MSK-Type Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Spalvieri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter considers carrier recovery for offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK and minimum shift keying-type (MSK-type modulations based on phase-lock loop (PLL. The concern of the letter is the optimization of the loop filter of the PLL. The optimization is worked out in the light of Wiener's theory taking into account the phase noise affecting the incoming carrier, the additive white Gaussian noise that is present on the channel, and the self-noise produced by the phase detector. Delay in the loop, which may affect the numerical implementation of the PLL, is also considered. Closed-form expressions for the loop filter and for the mean-square error are given for the case where the phase noise is characterized as a first-order process.

  12. 47 CFR 101.135 - Shared use of radio stations and the offering of private carrier service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....135 Shared use of radio stations and the offering of private carrier service. Licensees of Private... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared use of radio stations and the offering of private carrier service. 101.135 Section 101.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  13. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  14. Meso and micro-scale response of post carbon removal nitrifying MBBR biofilm across carrier type and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bradley; Banihashemi, Bahman; Forrest, Daina; Kennedy, Kevin; Stintzi, Alain; Delatolla, Robert

    2016-03-15

    This study investigates the effects of three specific moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carrier types and two surface area loading rates on biofilm thickness, morphology and bacterial community structure of post carbon removal nitrifying MBBR systems along with the effects of carrier type and loading on ammonia removal rates and effluent solids settleability. The meso and micro analyses show that the AOB kinetics vary based on loading condition, but irrespective of carrier type. The meso-scale response to increases in loading was shown to be an increase in biofilm thickness with higher surface area carriers being more inclined to develop and maintain thicker biofilms. The pore spaces of these higher surface area to volume carriers also demonstrated the potential to become clogged at higher loading conditions. Although the biofilm thickness increased during higher loading conditions, the relative percentages of both the embedded viable and non-viable cells at high and conventional loading conditions remained stable; indicating that the reduced ammonia removal kinetics observed during carrier clogging events is likely due to the observed reduction in the surface area of the attached biofilm. Microbial community analyses demonstrated that the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria for all carriers is Nitrosomonas while the dominant nitrite oxidizing bacteria is Nitrospira. The research showed that filamentous species were abundant under high loading conditions, which likely resulted in the observed reduction in effluent solids settleability at high loading conditions as opposed to conventional loading conditions. Although the settleability of the effluent solids was correlated to increases in abundances of filamentous organisms in the biofilm, analyzed using next generation sequencing, the ammonia removal rate was not shown to be directly correlated to specific meso or micro-scale characteristics. Instead post carbon removal MBBR ammonia removal kinetics were shown to be

  15. The Scope of State Aid and Public Service Obligation for Airports and Air Carriers in the Light of European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.

  16. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi......, significant homogeneous line broadening of the order of several meV can result....

  17. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  18. [Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunity in asymptomatic carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K W

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients are immunosuppressed as evidenced by anergy to recall antigens and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The immunosuppression appears to be a critical factor or a predictive sign for the development of ATL in carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This study was aimed at assessing the immune status of asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with the immunity specific to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus with oncogenic potential. Forty-three asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were examined for their EBV serology and EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell (EBV-CTL) activity, in comparison with 10 HTLV-I-non-infected normal controls. Both carriers and controls were all positive for EBV capsid antigen (VCA) IgG. Significantly elevated titer of VCAIgG and lower titer of EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies were observed in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers, suggesting reactivation of EBV. Among the HTLV-I carriers, 9 (20.9%) had reduced activity of EBV-CTL as revealed by lower incidence of regression of in vitro EBV-induced B-cell transformation. Accordingly, asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were divided into three groups: the carriers with reduced EBV-specific cellular immunity (group I), the carriers showing normal cellular immunity but aberrant EBV-specific antibody titers (group II), and the carriers with normal EBV-specific cellular immunity and serology (group III). Higher positive rate of anti-HTLV-I Tax antibody was found in the former two groups (44.4% and 56.5%, respectively) compared with group III (18.2%). An immunosuppressive agent, 4-deoxyphorbol ester induced a remarkable decrease of EBV-CTL activity in the carriers of group II and III at the concentration that affected none of the normal controls. These findings indicate that asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers suffer stepwise impairment of EBV-specific immunities, which may be caused by HTLV-I infection.

  19. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2004-01-01

    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  20. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  1. Enhancement of carrier mobility in thin Ge layer by Sn co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Berencén, Y.; Vines, L.; Bischoff, L.; Grenzer, J.; Andric, S.; Tiagulskyi, S.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

    2016-10-01

    We present the development, optimization and fabrication of high carrier mobility materials based on GeOI wafers co-doped with Sn and P. The Ge thin films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition followed by ion implantation and explosive solid phase epitaxy, which is induced by millisecond flash lamp annealing. The influence of the recrystallization mechanism and co-doping of Sn on the carrier distribution and carrier mobility both in n-type and p-type GeOI wafers is discussed in detail. This finding significantly contributes to the state-of-the-art of high carrier mobility-GeOI wafers since the results are comparable with GeOI commercial wafers fabricated by epitaxial layer transfer or SmartCut technology.

  2. Multi-carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Abd Elghafar; Salaheldin M. Diab; Sallam, Bassiouny M.; Moawad I. Dessouky; El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Fathi E. Abd El-Samie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new blind adaptive channel shortening approach for multi-carrier systems. Theperformance of the discrete Fourier transform-DMT (DFT-DMT) system is investigated with the proposedDST-DMT system over the standard carrier serving area (CSA) loop1. Enhanced bit rates demonstratedand less complexity also involved by the simulationof the DST-DMT system.

  3. Influence of polymorphic OATP1B-type carriers on the disposition of docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. de Graan (Anne-Joy); C.S. Lancaster (Cynthia); A. Obaidat (Amanda); B. Hagenbuch (Bruno); L. Elens (Laure); L.E. Friberg (Lena); P. de Bruijn (Peter); S. Hu (Shuiying); A.A. Gibson; G.H. Bruun (G.); T.J. Corydon (T.); T.S. Mikkelsen; A.L. Walker (Aisha); G. Du (Guoqing); W.J. Loos (Walter); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Docetaxel is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 in the liver but mechanisms by which the drug is taken up into hepatocytes remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that (i) liver uptake of docetaxel is mediated by the polymorphic solute carriers OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and (ii) inhe

  4. Meso and micro-scale response of post carbon removal nitrifying MBBR biofilm across carrier type and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bradley; Banihashemi, Bahman; Forrest, Daina; Kennedy, Kevin; Stintzi, Alain; Delatolla, Robert

    2016-03-15

    This study investigates the effects of three specific moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carrier types and two surface area loading rates on biofilm thickness, morphology and bacterial community structure of post carbon removal nitrifying MBBR systems along with the effects of carrier type and loading on ammonia removal rates and effluent solids settleability. The meso and micro analyses show that the AOB kinetics vary based on loading condition, but irrespective of carrier type. The meso-scale response to increases in loading was shown to be an increase in biofilm thickness with higher surface area carriers being more inclined to develop and maintain thicker biofilms. The pore spaces of these higher surface area to volume carriers also demonstrated the potential to become clogged at higher loading conditions. Although the biofilm thickness increased during higher loading conditions, the relative percentages of both the embedded viable and non-viable cells at high and conventional loading conditions remained stable; indicating that the reduced ammonia removal kinetics observed during carrier clogging events is likely due to the observed reduction in the surface area of the attached biofilm. Microbial community analyses demonstrated that the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria for all carriers is Nitrosomonas while the dominant nitrite oxidizing bacteria is Nitrospira. The research showed that filamentous species were abundant under high loading conditions, which likely resulted in the observed reduction in effluent solids settleability at high loading conditions as opposed to conventional loading conditions. Although the settleability of the effluent solids was correlated to increases in abundances of filamentous organisms in the biofilm, analyzed using next generation sequencing, the ammonia removal rate was not shown to be directly correlated to specific meso or micro-scale characteristics. Instead post carbon removal MBBR ammonia removal kinetics were shown to be

  5. Carrier dynamics and terahertz photoconductivity of doped silicon measured by femtosecond pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The carrier dynamics and terahertz photoconductivity in the n-type silicon (n-Si) as well as in the p-type Silicon (p-Si) have been investigated by using femtosecond pump-terahertz probe technique. The measurements show that the relative change of terahertz transmission of p-Si at low pump power is slightly smaller than that of n-Si,due to the lower carrier density induced by the recombination of original holes in the p-type material and the photogenerated electrons. At high pump power,the bigger change of terahertz transmission of p-Si originates from the greater mobility of the carriers compared to n-Si. The transient photoconductivities are calculated and fit well with the Drude-Smith model,showing that the mobility of the photogenerated carriers decreases with the increasing pump power. The obtained results indicate that femtosecond pump-terahertz probe technique is a promising method to investigate the carrier dynamics of semiconductors.

  6. 49 CFR 37.129 - Types of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.129 Types of service. (a) Except as provided in this section, complementary paratransit service for ADA paratransit eligible persons shall be origin-to-destination service. (b) Complementary paratransit service for ADA paratransit eligible...

  7. Characteristic distribution of HTLV type I and HTLV type II carriers among native ethnic groups in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, T; Li, H C; Lou, H; Yashiki, S; Karino, S; Zaninovic, V; Oneegllo, S G; Camacho, M; Andrade, R; Hurtado, L V; Gomez, L H; Damiani, E; Cartier, L; Dipierri, J E; Hayami, M; Sonoda, S; Tajima, K

    1999-09-20

    To confirm the geographic and ethnic segregation of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers in native populations in South America, we have conducted a seroepidemiological study of native populations in South America, including HTLV-I carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups in the Andes highlands of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, and two ethnic groups on Chiloe Island and Easter Island; and HTLV-II carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups of the lowlands along the Atlantic coast of Colombia, Orinoco, Amazon, and Patagonia, and one ethnic group on Chiloe Island. The incidence rate of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers varied among the ethnic groups, ranging from 0.8 to 6.8% for HTLV-I seropositivity and from 1.4 to 57.9% for HTLV-II seropositivity. A new HTLV-I focus was found among the Peruvian Aymara (1.6%), the Bolivian Aymara (5.3%) and Quechua (4.5%), the Argentine Puna (2.3%), and the Chilean Atacama (4.1%), while on HTLV-II focus was found among the Brazilian Kayapo (57.9%), the Paraguayan Chaco (16.4%), and the Chilean Alacalf (34.8%) and Yahgan (9.1%). The distribution of HTLV-I/II foci showed a geographic clustering of HTLV-I foci in the Andes highlands and of HTLV-II foci in the lowlands of South America. It was thus suggested that South American natives might be divided into two major ethnic groups by HTLV-I and HTLV-II carrier state.

  8. An empirical investigation into the changing visual identity of full service and low cost carriers, 2000 vs. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a semiotic content analysis of the visual branding of over 630 airline tail fins as they appeared in 2000 and 2012. Unlike existing studies of airlines’ visual identities that rely on a snap shot in time and examine all airlines, this paper focuses on changes that have occurred in the visual branding of full-service carriers (FSCs and low cost carriers (LCCs between 2000 and 2012. The results confirm that there have been significant changes in the visual content of FSC and LCC tail fins and the way in which these airlines portray non-price competitive characteristics. The research shows that while an increasing number of LCCs now use aircraft tail fins to display their corporate name, FSCs are increasingly employing icons of nationhood. This suggests that while LCCs are trying to appeal to a wide passenger demographic who value low fares over service, FSCs are responding to the competitive threat by explicitly drawing on the cultural rhetoric of symbols of sovereign national identity to differentiate themselves in an increasingly competitive market.

  9. Distinguishing Service Learning from Other Types of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook; Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This discussion paper examines the lack of clarity surrounding the term "service learning" in the library and information science (LIS) literature, which frequently conflates service learning with other types of experiential learning. We suggest that the lack of distinction between service learning and other types of experiential…

  10. Influence of Dielectric Surface Chemistry on the Microstructure and Carrier Mobility of an n-Type Organic Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhagat, P.; Haverinen, H; Klein, J; Jung, Y; Fischer, D; Delongchamp, D; Jabbour, G

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the microstructure evolution of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic bis-benzimidazole (PTCBI) thin films resulting from conditions imposed during film deposition. Modification of the silicon dioxide interface with a hydrophobic monolayer (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS-18)) alters the PTCBI growth habit by changing the unit cell contact plane. PTCBI films deposited on oxide surface have an orientation of (011), while films atop OTS-treated oxide surface have a preferred orientation of (001). The quality of the self assembled monolayer does not appear to influence the PTCBI growth preference significantly yet it enhances the carrier mobility, suggesting that charge traps are adequately passivated due to uniform monolayer coverage. High-quality monolayers result in n-type carrier mobility values of 0.05 cm2V-1s-1 Increasing the substrate temperature during PTCBI film deposition correlates with an increase in mobility that is most significant for films deposited on OTS-treated surface.

  11. CUSTOMERS CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA SIMONA DIMITRIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For a bank it is advantageous to have different types of clients because, as will receive deposits and provide loans for both business and individuals. The difference between the interest charged by banks and they are paid gross banking profit, following recovery, by the bank, business development potential offered by customers, resulting in advantages for both bank and customer. Customer benefits can be considered: the safety of deposits held at banks; interest received for them; that the money held in bank accounts can be returned at any time upon request; transfers of money to them, instead of wearing them large sums of cash.

  12. Development of the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type is developed. A pneumatic has the advantage of good compliance, high payload-to-weight and payload-to-volume ratios, high speed and force capabilities. Using pneumatic actuators which have low stiffness, the service robot can guarantee safety. By suggesting a new serial-parallel hybrid type for the service robot which separates into positioning motion and orienting motion, we can achieve large workspace and high strength-to-moving-weight ratio at the same time. A sliding mode controller can be designed for tracking the desired output using the Lyapunov stability theory and structural properties of pneumatic servo systems. Through many experiments of circular trajectory, the pneumatic service robot is evaluated and verified

  13. Quantum states of charge carriers and longitudinal conductivity in double periodic n-type semiconductor lattice structures in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perov, A. A., E-mail: 19perov73@gmail.com; Penyagin, I. V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Quantum states of charge carriers in double periodic semiconductor superlattices of n-type quantum dots with Rashba spin–orbit coupling in an electron gas have been calculated in the one-electron approximation in the presence of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. For these structures in weak constant electric field, the solution to the quasi-classical kinetic Boltzmann equation shows that the states of carriers in magnetic Landau minibands with negative differential conductivity are possible.

  14. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  15. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Omar; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C-T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C-T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C-V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C-T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  16. The value of energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often related to their enthalpies when other properties and conditions are equivalent. However, it has been suggested that the exergy of the energy carriers is the proper quantity to establish their value...

  17. 7 CFR 56.28 - Types of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (c) Temporary grading service. This type of... under the supervision of a grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (d) Auditing... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of service. 56.28 Section 56.28...

  18. Knowledge-intensive business services : users, carriers and sources of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, I.; Kastrinos, N.

    1998-01-01

    It has now been recognised that services play a vital role in advanced industrial economies. In most European Union (EU) member states service activities now provide around two-thirds of all jobs and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and even higher proportion of total firms. More particularly services h

  19. A study on the minority carrier diffusion length in n-type GaN films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongmei; ZHAO Degang; WANG Jinyan; YANG Hui; WEN Cheng Paul

    2007-01-01

    The minority carrier diffusion length of n-type GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been studied by measuring the surface photovoltaic (PV) spectra. It was found that the minority carrier diffusion length of undoped n-type GaN is considerably larger than that in lightly Si-doped GaN. However, the data suggested that the dislocation and electron concentration appear not to be responsible for the minority carrier diffusion length. It is suggested that Si doping plays an important role in decreasing the minority carrier diffusion length.

  20. Coal-water fuel - a new type of clean energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrokhotov, V.I.; Zaidenvarg, V.E.; Trubetskoy, K.N.; Nekhoroshy, I.Kh.; Korochkin, G.N. [Ministry of Science and Technologies (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    An increased number of pipelines for coal transport are being used in the Russian Federation for environmental and cost reasons. Research has been performed both on the characteristics of the pipeline itself, and on the coal-water slurry it carriers. Improved preparation of the slurry leads to a better quality fuel for sale, and lower transport costs. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Current Practice in Meeting Child Health Needs in Family Support Services: Variation by Service Type and Perspectives on Future Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Dolan, Pat; Canavan, John; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2009-01-01

    The needs of all service users include those related to physical, emotional, sexual and mental health. This article documents where child health needs are recognised and being met within family support services in the west of Ireland, investigates whether there is variation across different types of family support services and presents the views…

  2. 9 CFR 352.2 - Type of service available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... slaughter of exotic animals, and the preparation, labeling, and certification of the exotic animal meat and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type of service available. 352.2 Section 352.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. In situ monitoring of stacking fault formation and its carrier lifetime mediation in p-type 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin, E-mail: chenbinmse@gmail.com; Chen, Jun; Yao, Yuanzhao; Sekiguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Okumura, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Using the fine control of an electron beam (e-beam) in scanning electron microscopy with the capabilities of both electrical and optical imaging, the stacking fault (SF) formation together with its tuning of carrier lifetime was in situ monitored and investigated in p-type 4H-SiC homoepitaxial films. The SFs were formed through engineering basal plane dislocations with the energy supplied by the e-beam. The e-beam intensity required for the SF formation in the p-type films was ∼100 times higher than that in the n-type ones. The SFs reduced the minority-carrier lifetime in the p-type films, which was opposite to that observed in the n-type case. The reason for the peculiar SF behavior in the p-type 4H-SiC is discussed with the cathodoluminescence results.

  4. Market-Type Mechanisms and Public Service Equity: A Review of Experiences in European Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Sorin; Andrews, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    In seeking to benefit from the competitive pressures exerted through marketization,governments have hoped to gain improvements in public service efficiency. Yet, concerns remain about the effects of marketization on how equitably public services are provided. We consider evidence about the relationship between the introduction of market-type mechanisms in the European public sector and the efficiency and equity of service provision. Our analysis reveals that although market-type mechanisms...

  5. Charge carrier Density Imaging / IR lifetime mapping of Si wafers by Lock-In Thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivated silicon wafers for photovoltaic cells has been developed for the public Pieken in de Delta project geZONd. CONCLUSIONS Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivatedsilicon wafers is released t

  6. 47 CFR 64.608 - Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones... Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers. In the absence of alternative suppliers in an exchange area, an exchange carrier must provide a hearing aid compatible telephone, as...

  7. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  8. A Carrier Class IoT Service Architecture Integrating IMS with SWE

    OpenAIRE

    Dongliang Xie; Chao Shang; Jinchao Chen; Yongfang Lai; Chuanxiao Pang

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the sensing capabilities of wireless sensor network (WSN) into the traditional telecom network is an important stage to realize future ubiquitous intelligence in the Internet of Things. Driven by the vision of service oriented architecture (SOA), this paper proposed a carrier class Internet of Things (IoT) service architecture named as MUSE. MUSE integrates WSN with IMS OSE framework to enable the WSN services to be operable and manageable. Also sensor web enablement (SWE) framewo...

  9. Sterilization of Carriers by using Gamma Irradiation for Bio fertilizer Inoculum Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gamma irradiation has been widely used in sterilization process, which leads to improvement in the quality of the products. In the case of bio fertilizer inoculum, the sterilized carrier is also needed for producing high quality bio fertilizer. This study aimed at determining the factors, such as carrier materials, moistures, and packing sizes including packaging materials that may affect the sterilization efficiency by using gamma irradiation. All carrier materials, peat and compost, could be efficiently sterilized by irradiation. The carriers that have moisture content lower than 20% could be sterilized by irradiation at 15 kGy, while carrier with 30% moisture content must be sterilized by irradiation at 25 kGy. Higher irradiation dose was also necessary for sterilization of bigger carrier packing sizes. For, packaging materials, polyethylene bag appeared most durable after gamma irradiation even at high doses. However, contaminants could be detected in irradiated carrier after storage at room temperature for two months. It was hypothesized that these contaminants are spore forming microorganisms, which resist gamma irradiation. This hypothesis, as well as the quality of bio fertilizer produced from irradiated carrier, will be further evaluated

  10. Determination of Hot-Carrier Distribution Functions in Uniaxially Stressed p-Type Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    in the 〈111〉 direction. For the highest stresses, the maximum fields were close to the threshold for current oscillations. The distribution functions were obtained from experimental modulation of intervalence-band absorption of infrared radiation. In order to interpret the results, a parametrized distribution...... in thermal equilibrium. The average carrier energy calculated from the distribution function shows a fast increase with stress and almost saturates when the strain splitting of the two p3 / 2 levels reaches the optical-phonon energy. This saturation is interpreted in terms of the change in scattering...

  11. Fabrication and carrier transport phenomena of one-dimensional quantum wires of p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of p-type Si quantum wires in n-type substrates has been performed by selective implantation of focused ion beams of Ga. It has been confirmed that this method and associated device structure have the advantage of being able to control the diameter of quantum wires. This is accomplished by applying a reverse substrate bias to change the depletion width of the pn junctions. The conductance shows a distinctive temperature dependence of 1n(σ) ∝ T-1/2, which coincides with the characteristic of one-dimensional (1D) hopping conductance. At 4.2 K, the authors have observed electrical properties characteristic of 1D systems, such as conductance dips in the wire-conductance versus substrate-bias characteristics and a positive magnetoconductance in the magnetic field range up to 5 T. 32 refs., 7 figs

  12. Carrier induced epitopic suppression of antibody responses induced by virus-like particles is a dynamic phenomenon caused by carrier-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerlehner, Andrea; Wiesel, Melanie; Dietmeier, Klaus; Zabel, Franziska; Gatto, Dominique; Saudan, Philippe; Bachmann, Martin F

    2010-07-26

    Pre-existing immunity against vaccine carrier proteins has been reported to inhibit the immune response against antigens conjugated to the same carrier by a process termed carrier induced epitopic suppression (CIES). Hence understanding the phenomenon of CIES is of major importance for the development of conjugate vaccines. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a novel class of potent immunological carriers which have been successfully used to enhance the antibody response to virtually any conjugated antigen. In the present study we investigated the impact of a pre-existing VLP-specific immune response on the development of antibody responses against a conjugated model peptide after primary, secondary and tertiary immunization. Although VLP-specific immune responses led to reduced peptide-specific antibody titers, we showed that CIES against peptide-VLP conjugates could be overcome by high coupling densities, repeated injections and/or higher doses of conjugate vaccine. Furthermore we dissected VLP-specific immunity by adoptively transferring VLP-specific antibodies, B-cells or T(helper) cells separately into naïve mice and found that the observed CIES against peptide-VLP conjugates was mainly mediated by carrier-specific antibodies.

  13. Detection of Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Carriers in a Group of Iranian Families by Linkage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardeen Ali Malayeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the value of linkage analysis using six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in familial DMD/BMD cases and their family members for the first time in the Iranian population. We studied the dystrophin gene in 33 unrelated patients with clinical diagnosis of DMD or BMD. Subsequently, we determined the rate of heterozygosity for six intragenic RFLP markers in the mothers of patients with dystrophin gene deletions. Finally, we studied the efficiency of linkage analysis by using RFLP markers for carrier status detection of DMD/BMD. In 63.6% of the patients we found one or more deletions. The most common heterozygous RFLP marker with 57.1% heterozygosity was pERT87.15Taq1. More than 80% of mothers in two groups of familial or non-familial cases had at least two heterozygous markers. Family linkage analysis was informative in more than 80% of the cases, allowing for accurate carrier detection. We found that linkage analysis using these six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis is a rapid, easy, reliable, and inexpensive method, suitable for most routine diagnostic services. The heterozygosity frequency of these markers is high enough in the Iranian population to allow carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of DMD/BMD in more than 80% of familial cases in Iran.

  14. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engaged in unfair or deceptive practices, or unfair methods of competition. The standards herein shall not... proceeding that the activities engaged in have a tendency to pass off and constitute an unfair or deceptive..., express, and cargo transportation; airport transportation and hotel accommodations; local advertising...

  15. AN OPPORTUNITY SEIZED: J & B SERVICES, INC., THE 1970S AND 1980S DEREGULATION OF THE MOTOR CARRIER SYSTEM, AND THE POTENTIAL FOR SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Bates

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mid 1970s and subsequent 1980s witnessed a broad reduction of governmental restraints on the American trucking industry. The reforms initiated in the United States transportation business under the administrations of presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan accompanied similar and simultaneous moves in telecommunications, airlines, railroads, as well as banking systems. In a ten-year period from roughly 1975 to 1985, and including the passage of the Motor Carrier Act in 1980, the trucking landscape rapidly broadened to include smaller carriers that differed a great deal from their larger predecessors. While all new freight movers did not survive, more than enough succeeded to change forever the organization of the American trucking industry. Structured differently internally and externally, these new smaller carriers carved various economic niches for themselves throughout the United States. Too small to be perceived a threat by the larger companies, and yet too large to be battered by ripples in the national economy, these often locally-owned carriers thrived and grew under the new framework brought about by the deregulation of the trucking industry. Using the Tupelo, Mississippi-based J & B Services, Inc. as a microstudy, this work examines the creation, survival, and expansion of one such carrier in the new economic environment. While the following article does not attempt to solve the debate between the proponents of trucking deregulation and their critics, it does, however, supply enough evidence for the reader to gain brief insight in the American trucking industry, and both sides of the deregulation argument.

  16. Sharp-line electroluminescence from individual quantum dots by resonant tunneling injection of carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Turyanska, L.; A. Baumgartner; Chaggar, A.; Patane, A; Eaves, L.; Henini, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report sharp electroluminescence lines from individual self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) excited by resonant tunneling injection of carriers from the n- and p-doped GaAs layers of a p-i-n diode. Bias-tunable tunneling of carriers into the dots provides a means of controlling injection and light emission from a small number of individual dots within a large ensemble. We also show that the extent of carrier energy relaxation prior to recombination can be controlled by tailoring the morp...

  17. Carrier transport properties of Be-doped InAs/InAsSb type-II infrared superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, E. H.; Elhamri, S.; Mitchel, W. C.; Mou, Shin; Brown, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice materials studied to date for infrared detector applications have been residually n-type, but p-type absorber regions with minority carrier electrons can result in increased photodiode quantum efficiency, RoA, and detectivity. Therefore, Be-doped InAs/InAsSb superlattices were investigated to determine the p-type InAs/InAsSb superlattice material transport properties essential to developing high quality photodiode absorber materials. Hall measurements performed at 10 K revealed that the superlattice converted to p-type with Be-doping of 3 × 1016 cm-3 and the hole mobility reached 24 400 cm2/Vs. Photoresponse measurements at 10 K confirmed the 175 meV bandgap and material optical quality.

  18. PROVIDING SERVICEABILITY OF STRUCTURAL BEARING TYPES FOR ROADWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis and Influence of Nitrogen Impurities on Carrier Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yu-Fen; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lin, Jheng-Cyuan; Zhang, Wenjing; Lu, Jing-Yu; Liu, Fan-Hung; Tseng, Chuan-Ming; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Liang, Chi-Te; Li, Lain-Jong

    2013-01-01

    A significant advance toward achieving practical applications of graphene as a two-dimensional material in nanoelectronics would be provided by successful synthesis of both n-type and p-type doped graphene. However reliable doping and a thorough understanding of carrier transport in the presence of charged impurities governed by ionized donors or acceptors in the graphene lattice are still lacking. Here we report experimental realization of few-layer nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene sheets b...

  20. Determining the flow regime in a biofilm carrier by means of magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Maria P; Guthausen, Gisela; Wagner, Michael; Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms on cylindrical carrier material originating from a lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) were investigated by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to determine the local flow velocities at the inner face of the biofilm carrier. To get an insight into the mass transport processes, flow velocity maps of blank and with biofilm cultivated carriers were measured. A single carrier was placed in a tube in three different orientations and exposed to flow velocities of 0.21, 0.42, and 0.64 mm/s. The interplay of the biofilm morphology and the local flow pattern was then analyzed including the effect of the orientation of the carrier in relation to the upstream flow angle. Within this study, the biofilm carrier can be understood as an interconnected system of four sections in which the incoming fluid volume will be distributed depending on the biomass occupation and morphology. In sections with high biofilm occupation, the flow resistance is increased. Depending on the orientation of the carrier in the flow field, this effect leads to flow evasion through less covered sections showing higher flow velocities and consequently the risk of biofilm detachment. However, there was no clear correlation between biofilm coverage and flow ratio.

  1. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  2. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  3. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  4. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  5. Studies on precursor transport by carrier gas and process optimization in CVD of aluminide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminide coatings have been produced over pure iron and nickel substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using anhydrous aluminum chloride as precursor. The success of ensuring the quality of the product often depends upon the ability to maintain a controlled rate of formation of the product. Generally three types of precursors are used in CVD, namely, gases, liquids and solids. The activity of the gaseous precursors can be easily controlled using a mass flow controller. The liquid and solid precursors are heated to a suitable temperature and the vapor is carried in a stream of carrier gas into the CVD reactor. In this case the activity of the precursor may depend upon a number of factors including temperature and flow rate. In this paper the transport characteristics of the anhydrous AlCl3 and optimization of other process parameters in the chemical vapor deposition of aluminide coatings on iron, nickel and their alloys have been described. The experiments show that the carrier gas gets saturated to about 85% of the saturated vapor pressure under the experimental conditions. (author)

  6. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Haoran; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Ge, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: ghyu@mail.sim.ac.cn; Xie, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoliang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-03-02

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O concentration. The result revealed that N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold.

  7. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N2H4·H2O concentration. The result revealed that N2H4·H2O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N2H4 on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold

  8. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Haoran; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Ge, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui; Xie, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoliang; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-03-01

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.H2O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N2H4.H2O concentration. The result revealed that N2H4.H2O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N2H4 on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold.

  9. Determinants of innovation performance of Portuguese companies: an econometric analysis by type of innovation and sector with a particular focus on Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Santos; Aurora A. C. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledged importance of innovation and the increasingly decisive role played by the service sector make innovation an issue of major relevance to the economy. Using a sample of 6593 companies that answered the Community Innovation Survey 2008, we assessed the determinants of innovation of Portuguese companies by comparing the service sector and other sectors of activity (specifically, manufacturing industry, utilities and construction). Among the main results obtained, we highlighted: ...

  10. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekalska, Marta; Amelian, Aleksandra; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG) microspheres with ranitidine (RNT) by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers--gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9%. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach. PMID:25781701

  11. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szekalska Marta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG microspheres with ranitidine (RNT by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers - gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9 %. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach

  12. Aerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters by biofilters with fibrous polymeric biomass carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes of aerobic biological purification by pilot biofilters of chemical enterprise sewage (COD 14 g dm-3) and recirculating waters of atomic power station contaminated with oil products (10-270 mg dm-3) have been investigated. Fibrous materials were used as biomass carriers. These have been manufactured from thermoplastics (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide) by melt-blowing technique. New polymeric fibrous carriers (PFC) of optimized composition, structure and shape are superior to common carriers (claydite, porous ceramics, foamed polyurethane) by specific sorption capacity towards complex associations of microorganisms. In contrast to biofilters filled with claydite, those filled with PFC are characterized by accelerated transfer to stationary working regime, above 90% of biopurification efficiency of high-loaded industrial wastewaters and process stability at toxic actions of biomass, as well as reduced aero- and hydrodynamic resistance of the filtering biolayer. Prospects of improving the biofilter operation are discussed, in particular, by means of carrier modification: fiber filling with magnetic or electroconductive substances, adhesive fixation of adsorbents on the fibers, etc. Such PFC can be related to a promising generation of biosorbents and biomass carriers. (orig.)

  13. Terahertz emission by diffusion of carriers and metal-mask dipole inhibition of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M E; Daniell, G J; Whitworth, G; Chung, A L; Quarterman, A H; Wilcox, K G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Apostolopoulos, V

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation can be generated by ultrafast photo-excitation of carriers in a semiconductor partly masked by a gold surface. A simulation of the effect taking into account the diffusion of carriers and the electric field shows that the total net current is approximately zero and cannot account for the THz radiation. Finite element modelling and analytic calculations indicate that the THz emission arises because the metal inhibits the radiation from part of the dipole population, thus creating an asymmetry and therefore a net current. Experimental investigations confirm the simulations and show that metal-mask dipole inhibition can be used to create THz emitters.

  14. Impact of a boron rich layer on minority carrier lifetime degradation in boron spin-on dopant diffused n-type crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the production of n-type crystalline silicon solar cells with boron diffused emitters, the formation of a boron rich layer (BRL) is a common phenomenon and is largely responsible for bulk lifetime degradation. The phenomenon of BRL formation during diffusion of boron spin-on dopant and its impact on bulk lifetime degradation are investigated in this work. The BRL formed beneath the borosilicate glass layer has thicknesses varying from 10 nm–150 nm depending on the diffusion conditions. The effective and bulk minority carrier lifetimes, measured with Al2O3 deposited layers and a quinhydron–methanol solution, show that carrier lifetime degradation is proportional to the BRL thicknesses and their surface recombination velocities. The controlled diffusion processes and different oxidation techniques used in this work can partially reduce the BRL thickness and improve carrier lifetime by more than 10%. But for BRL thicknesses higher than 50 nm, different etching techniques further lower the carrier lifetime and the degradation in the device cannot be recovered. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Andrade, Ana Lúcia; Ogassavara, Cinthya Terumi; Fiório, Cleiton Eduardo; Brandão, Angela Pires; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina; Sato, Helena; Liphaus, Bernadete; Nerger, Maria Lígia; Conde, Monica; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine. PMID:26517654

  16. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Andrade, Ana Lúcia; Ogassavara, Cinthya Terumi; Fiório, Cleiton Eduardo; Brandão, Angela Pires; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina; Sato, Helena; Liphaus, Bernadete; Nerger, Maria Lígia; Conde, Monica; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine. PMID:26517654

  17. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  18. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-07-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime (τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  19. Interaction Between The Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Crabtree, K N; Foster, J B; Soderberg, A M; Fesen, R A; Parrent, J T; Sanders, N E; Drout, M R; Kamble, A; Chakraborti, S; Pickering, T E; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Filippenko, A V; Kirshner, R P; Mazzali, P; Maeda, K; Marion, G H; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond with electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (~30 days) timescales. The 4428 and 6283 Angstrom DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Angstrom feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of the DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained...

  20. Theoretical investigation of carrier transfer by an optical contacting scheme for optoelectronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Ge, Rongchun; Zhang, Zhilong; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Feng, Yu; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    As a promising charge carrier transfer scheme, optical coupling could potentially improve the performance of an optoelectronic device for energy harvesting based on well developed nanotechnology. By extracting carriers optically, the functional features of the nano-structured material could be better used by minimizing the concerns about its electrical properties. In this paper, we present a rigorous electromagnetic model to analyze the optical carrier transfer problem. The flow of the energy is analyzed carefully by the photon transfer spectrum, and the photon emitters (electron-hole pairs) are assumed in a thermal equilibrium described by Bose-Einstein distribution. The result shows that an energy selective carrier transfer can be optically achieved at the device level by integrating the emitter and receiver into a nano-optical resonator, where both the photon emission and absorption are significantly amplified by a near-field coupling around the resonant frequency. General design and optimization schemes in practice are addressed by examining the influence of the photonic design and an energy dependent emissivity of the emitter, which can be used to develop the optical contacting concept further.

  1. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  2. Increase of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in GPS Receivers Caused by Continuous-Wave Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI on the performance of global positioning system (GPS receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0, an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR is greater than 30 dBc.

  3. 9 CFR 350.3 - Types and availability of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Section 350.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... product must be sound, wholesome and fit for human food. The service will be available only on premises... service will be available for products moved in tank cars and tank trucks from an official...

  4. Multiple regimes of carrier cooling in photoexcited graphene probed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, A. J.; Gabor, N. M.; Herring, P. K.; Fang, W.; Kong, J.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.; Gedik, N.

    2013-03-01

    Energy relaxation and cooling of photoexcited charge carriers in graphene has recently attracted significant attention due to possible hot carrier effects, large quantum efficiencies, and photovoltaic applications. However, the details of these processes remain poorly understood, with many conflicting interpretations reported. Here we use time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to explore multiple relaxation and cooling regimes in graphene in order to elucidate the fundamental physical processes which occur upon photoexcitation of charge carriers. We observe a novel negative terahertz photoconductivity that results from the unique linear dispersion and allows us to measure the electron temperature with ultrafast time resolution. Additionally, we present measurements of the relaxation dynamics over a wide range of excitation fluence. By varying the pump photon energy, we demonstrate that cooling dynamics of photoexcited carriers depend on the amount of energy deposited in the graphene system by the pump pulse, not the number of absorbed photons. The data suggest that fundamentally different regimes are encountered for different excitation fluences. These results may provide a unifying framework for reconciling various measurements of energy relaxation and cooling in graphene.

  5. Uptake of palmitic acid by rabbit alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar type II cells require a source of palmitic acid for synthesis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major constituent of pulmonary surfactant. Previous studies indicated that maximal rates of DPPC synthesis are achieved only if exogenous palmitate is available to the type II cell. Little is known of the mechanisms by which fatty acids enter type II cells. To determine if uptake is mediated by a membrane carrier system, as described in other cell types, we examined the kinetics of palmitate uptake. Using freshly isolated rabbit type II cells, we demonstrated that radiolabeled palmitate uptake was maximal and linear for 45 s; after 1 min the apparent rate of uptake declined. The initial uptake phase was taken as a measure of cellular fatty acid influx because intracellular radiolabeled palmitate remained 80% nonesterified at this time but was 55% esterified by 2 min. Cellular influx of palmitate showed saturation kinetics with increasing concentration of nonalbumin bound palmitate. Michaelis constant was 52.6 nM, and maximum velocity was 152 pmol.10(6) cells-1.min-1. The hypothesis that saturable cellular influx of palmitate is likely linked to the previously identified membrane fatty acid binding protein (MFABP) was supported by Western-blot analysis of rat lung tissue with an antibody to MFABP that demonstrated the presence of this carrier protein in lung tissue. These data suggest that palmitate uptake by type II cells is saturable and may be mediated by a membrane-associated carrier as described in other cell types

  6. 9 CFR 325.18 - Diverting of shipments, breaking of seals, and reloading by carrier in emergency; reporting to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seals, and reloading by carrier in emergency; reporting to Regional Director. 325.18 Section 325.18... CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.18 Diverting of shipments, breaking of seals, and reloading by carrier in...) In case of wreck or similar extraordinary emergency, the Department seals on a railroad car or...

  7. Characterization of carrier concentration in CIGS solar cells by scanning capacitance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) designed for highly efficient solar cell material were investigated to characterize the two-dimensional carrier distribution using scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). We optimized a preparation method of the cross-section samples and concluded that bevel polishing by 25° to 30° was effective for crumbly polycrystalline materials such as CIGS, so as to provide not the surface property of cracked crystalline grains but the cross-section property of individual cut grains. Because of improvement in this preparation procedure, changes in carrier distribution have been observed directly in the active CIGS layer before and after turning on a 100 W halogen lamp irradiation. A calibration curve between carrier concentration N and SCM's dC/dV signals was applied for qualitatively calculating relative values of N in CIGS. Increased carrier concentration peaks on the grains were estimated to become about three times as high as those with the light on. (paper)

  8. Carrier doping by current injection into LaOFFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareva, Irina; Koval, Yury; Steiner, Christian; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Stuerzer, Tobias; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, LMU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, we were able to change the carrier concentration of hole-doped high-T{sub c} superconductors by injection of large currents along the c-axis. We extend this type of experiments to electron-doped pnictides. From our earlier interpretation we should expect that trapping of electrons caused by current injection would decrease the available carrier concentration. Indeed, by various experiments with superconductors from the LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs family we are able to show that trapped electrons caused by current injection perpendicular to the FeAs planes decrease the carrier concentration. We present a spectacular confirmation of this interpretation by the T{sub c} increase by more than 15 K in heavily overdoped La{sub 0.74}F{sub 0.26}FeAs. We performed similar experiments with the recently discovered 1048 layered pnictides of the composition Ca{sub 10}(FeAs){sub 10}(Pt{sub 4}As{sub 8}). The general tendency of carrier doping by trapped electrons was confirmed. A rather interesting discovery was the evolution of hysteretic c-axis IV-characteristics. This is a strong indication of intrinsic Josephson effects. We discuss these results in terms of a change of anisotropy by carrier doping.

  9. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...

  10. Carrier mobility of iron oxide nanoparticles supported on ferroelectrics studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T., E-mail: TAKUMI_OKAMOTO@denso.co.jp [DENSO Corporation (Japan); Kano, J. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Japan); Nakamura, S. [Teikyo University, Department of Science and Engineering (Japan); Fuwa, A. [Waseda University, Faculty of Science and Engineering (Japan); Otoyama, T.; Nakazaki, Y. [Nano Cube Japan Co., Ltd. (Japan); Hashimoto, H.; Takada, J. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Japan); Ito, M. [DENSO Corporation (Japan); Ikeda, N. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was performed on two types of Fe oxide nanoparticles supported on a typical ferroelectric, BaTiO3. It was found that the valence state of FeO nanoparticles changed to a mixed 2+/3+ state at high temperature where BaTiO{sub 3} shows paraelectric behaviour. We attribute this phenomenon to the fluctuation of electric dipoles which realizes carrier injection into the Fe oxides. This is the first report which discusses a dynamical valence state of transition metal oxides supported on ferroelectrics.

  11. Enhancement of the critical current of intrinsic Josephson junctions by carrier injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilaslan, O.; Simsek, Y.; Aksan, M. A.; Koval, Y.; Müller, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the doping effect by carrier injection of high-Tc superconducting Bi-based whiskers. The current was injected in the c-axis direction, i.e., perpendicular to the superconducting planes. Superconducting properties were investigated systematically as a function of the doping level. The doping level of one and the same sample was changed by current injection in very small steps from an underdoped state up to a slightly overdoped state. We have observed that Tc versus log (jc) exhibits a dome-shaped characteristic, which can be fitted by a parabola. As Tc versus carrier concentration has a parabolic form, too, it can be concluded that the critical current density jc increases exponentially with the doping level. The electron-trapping mechanism is interpreted in the framework of Phillips’ microscopic theory. In addition, the Joule heating effect in the intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) was controlled by carrier injection, and the effect of the non-equilibrium quasiparticle on the I-V curves of the IJJs was also discussed.

  12. Versatile Types of MRI-Visible Cationic Nanoparticles Involving Pullulan Polysaccharides for Multifunctional Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yajun; Hu, Hao; Li, Rui-Quan; Yu, Bingran; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2016-02-17

    Owing to the low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, polysaccharides are good candidates for the development of promising biomaterials. In this paper, a series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible cationic polymeric nanoparticles involving liver cell-targeting polysaccharides were flexibly designed for multifunctional gene delivery systems. The pullulan-based vector (PuPGEA) consisting of one liver cell-targeting pullulan backbone and ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (denoted by BUCT-PGEA) side chains with abundant hydroxyl units and secondary amine was first prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization. The resultant cationic nanoparticles (PuPGEA-GdL or PuPGEA-GdW) with MRI functions were produced accordingly by assembling PuPGEA with aminophenylboronic acid-modified Gd-DTPA (GdL) or GdW10O36(9-) (GdW) via the corresponding etherification or electrostatic interaction. The properties of the PuPGEA-GdL and PuPGEA-GdW nanoparticles including pDNA condensation ability, cytotoxicity, gene transfection, cellular uptake, and in vitro and in vivo MRI were characterized in details. Such kinds of cationic nanoparticles exhibited good performances in gene transfection in liver cells. PuPGEA-GdW demonstrated much better MRI abilities. The present design of PuPGEA-based cationic nanoparticles with the liver cell-targeting polysaccharides and MRI contrast agents would shed light on the exploration of tumor-targetable multifunctional gene delivery systems. PMID:26841955

  13. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  14. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A

    2003-01-01

    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  15. Carrier profiling of individual Si nanowires by scanning spreading resistance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xin; Kanungo, Pratyush Das; Kögler, Reinhard; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Wang, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Individual silicon nanowires (NWs) doped either by ion implantation or by in situ dopant incorporation during NW growth were investigated by scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). The carrier profiles across the axial cross sections of the NWs are derived from the measured spreading resistance values and calibrated by the known carrier concentrations of the connected Si substrate or epi-layer. In the case of the phosphorus ion-implanted and subsequently annealed NWs, the SSRM profiles revealed a radial core-shell distribution of the activated dopants. The carrier concentration close to the surface of a phosphorus-doped NW is found to be by a factor of 6-7 higher than the value in the core and on average only 25% of the implanted phosphorus is electrically active. In contrast, for the in situ boron-doped NW the activation rate of the boron atoms is significantly higher than for phosphorus atoms. Some specific features of SSRM experiments of Si NWs are discussed including the possibility of three-dimensional measurements.

  16. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  17. Carrier dynamics of rubrene single-crystals revealed by transient broadband terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, H.; Uchida, R.; Sekine, H.; Terashige, T.; Tao, S.; Matsui, Y.; Kida, N.; Fratini, S.; Ciuchi, S.; Okada, Y.; Uemura, T.; Takeya, J.; Okamoto, H.

    2014-10-01

    Carrier dynamics of an organic molecular semiconductor, rubrene, was investigated by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy from 1 to 15 THz. At 294 K, a Drude-like response due to photogenerated hole carriers is observed below 8 THz. The real part σ 1 ( ω ) of the optical conductivity is suppressed below 2 THz, indicating the presence of a localization effect. Such a spectral feature was reproduced by a Drude-Anderson model including the effect of dynamical disorder due to intermolecular vibrations. At 50 K, the spectral weight of σ 1 ( ω ) due to photocarriers shifts to lower frequency below 4 THz and the suppression of σ 1 ( ω ) is hardly observed, which we associate with a reduction of thermal molecular motions. The overall photocarrier generation and recombination dynamics is also discussed.

  18. Delivering DNA into Plant Cell by Gene Carriers of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yu-qin; LI Lu-hua; WANG Pi-wu; QU Jing; FU Yong-ping; WANG Hui; SUN Jing-ran; L(U) Chang-li

    2012-01-01

    The development.of nanotechnology provides a new method for genetic engineering.However,the nanoparticles as gene carriers have been mainly used in the mammalian cells so far.We observed that ZnS nanoparticles modified with positively charged poly-L-lysine(PLL) successfully delivered GUS-encoding plasmid DNA into tobacco cells by means of ultrasound-assisted method.Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) detection,Southern blot analysis and GUS histochemical staining were carried out for the regenerated plants.The stable genetic modified plants mediated by ZnS nanoparticles can be obtained.This article demonstrates the great potential of nanoparticles as gene carrier in plant transformation and proves a novel approach for plant genetic decoration.

  19. On the possible role played by tunnel recombination in the loss processes of excess current carriers in cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, G. F.; Marinin, A. A.; Gapanovich, M. V.; Rabenok, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    The microwave photoconductivity method was used to study the kinetics of the decay of current carriers generated by nitrogen laser pulses in n- and p-type cadmium telluride. The dependences of the shape and amplitude of photoresponse decays on temperature and light intensity were studied. Photoresponse decays contained "fast" (at t 50 ns) components. At long times, the dependence of photoresponse on the logarithm of time was linear. The shape of slow component decays was almost independent of temperature. The slow component of photoresponse decay could correspond to the loss process of entrapped charges in tunnel recombination.

  20. Enhancement of minority carrier diffusion length in grains of cast Si by hydrogen heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.; Duenas-Santos, F.; del Valle, J. L.

    Minority carrier diffusion length (mcdl) enhancement in the bulk of grains of cast poly-silicon for solar cells has been produced by hydrogen heat treatments. Measurements made by LBIC method, showed an increase of mcdl in the bulk of grains from a mean value of 53 microns to a mean value of 69 microns, before and after the hydrogen heat treatments, respectively, under white light illumination. A mean increase ratio of 33% in the mcdl was obtained in a reproducible way and it was verified that hydrogen was effectively responsible. This result clearly establishes the hydrogen passivating role in this material

  1. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. PMID:25172729

  2. Rate of Foot-and mouth Disease Virus Transmission by Carriers Quantified from Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. These carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. An analysis was carried out usi

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Employees’ Innovator Role: The Moderating Effect of Service Types

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kadir Othman

    2011-01-01

    Services vary significantly. Some services require high level of customization while others are focusing on standardization as the main objective. Customized services absolutely require service providers’ creativity in meeting the customers’ expectation. Studies have shown that Emotional Intelligence (EI) can be used to enhance service providers’ innovator role. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the moderating effect of service types on the relationship between EI factors (self emot...

  4. A ranking of coastal EU habitat types using Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.R.; Deerenberg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    During hydraulic works it is not uncommon that interchanging of habitat types occurs through partial area loss of the habitat type at the location of the activity and development of new habitat or enhancing the quality of the same of another habitat type elsewhere. According to the current interpret

  5. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  6. Ultrafast Carrier Trapping of a Metal-Doped Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor Revealed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2014-06-11

    We explored for the first time the ultrafast carrier trapping of a metal-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor using broad-band transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. Titanium dioxide was successfully doped layer-by-layer with two metal ions, namely tungsten and cobalt. The time-resolved data demonstrate clearly that the carrier trapping time decreases progressively as the doping concentration increases. A global-fitting procedure for the carrier trapping suggests the appearance of two time components: a fast one that is directly associated with carrier trapping to the defect state in the vicinity of the conduction band and a slow one that is attributed to carrier trapping to the deep-level state from the conduction band. With a relatively long doping deposition time on the order of 30 s, a carrier lifetime of about 1 ps is obtained. To confirm that the measured ultrafast carrier dynamics are associated with electron trapping by metal doping, we explored the carrier dynamics of undoped TiO2. The findings reported here may be useful for the implementation of high-speed optoelectronic applications and fast switching devices.

  7. Extent and types of management consulting services to SMEs in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Dukić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of small and medium enterprises depends on many external and internal factors, as well as the volume, type and quality of support available to them. This paper highlights the importance of management knowledge and skills in small business, and the importance of management consulting in their acquisition and development. We have researched and analyzed the extent to management consulting (MC services, separately in the micro, small and medium enterprises. In addition, we learn which types of MC services are most commonly used by companies of different sizes. In that way, we provided qualitative and quantitative data for each group of enterprises, both in the type and volume of services used. It is observed that micro-enterprises use a small amount  MC services, and those of more general type. With the growth of the enterprises, comes an increase in scope, and sophistication of services used. The results may be useful both for small and medium enterprises, as well as for institutional and private providers of management consulting services.

  8. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m2; range, 48-116 ml/m2) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m2; range, 15-74 ml/m2). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m2; range, 31-55 g/m2). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Schara, Ulrike [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 48-116 ml/m{sup 2}) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 15-74 ml/m{sup 2}). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m{sup 2}; range, 31-55 g/m{sup 2}). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  10. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on simulations and experimental measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra and acoustic spectra...

  11. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...... instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  12. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2014-12-01

    To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.

  13. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  14. Towards high charge carrier mobilities by rational design of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Denis; Ruehle, Victor; Baumeier, Bjoern; Vehoff, Thorsten; Lukyanov, Alexander; Kremer, Kurt [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Marcon, Valentina [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lennartz, Christian [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The role of material morphology on charge carrier mobility in partially disordered organic semiconductors is discussed for several classes of materials: derivatives of hexabenzocoronenens, perylenediimides, triangularly-shaped polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and Alq{sub 3}. Simulations are performed using a package developed by Imperial College, London and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (votca.org). This package combines several techniques into one scheme: quantum chemical methods for the calculation of molecular electronic structures and reorganization energies; molecular dynamics and systematic coarse-graining approaches for simulation of self-assembly and relative positions and orientations of molecules on large scales; kinetic Monte Carlo and master equation for studies of charge transport.

  15. Study on the share ratio between a service provider and two carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xin; XU Jun-jie; XIN Zhan-hong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the premise of obtaining optimal revenue, a mathematical model about operation strategies of service provider (SP) in duopoly telecom market was established in this article. In consideration of complexities, the model was transformed from a tri-game to two-party game model under four hypotheses. Nash equilibrium solution between SP and two carriers was proposed with detailed analyses. The value ranges under different cases provided a reference for carriers and SP while deciding share ratios.

  16. Kinetics of carrier-mediated ion transport in two new types of solvent-free lipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapointe, J Y; Laprade, R

    1982-01-01

    In contrast with the usual glyceryl-monooleate/decane (GMO-D) bilayer lipid membranes, new membranes, formed from a mixture of GMO in squalene (GMO-S) or from a mixture of GMO in triolein (GMO-T), seem to be almost solvent free. Our results from voltage-jump relaxation studies, using these "solvent-free" membranes with the homologue carriers, nonactin, monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin, are compared with the corresponding ones for GMO-D membranes. With all homologues, solvent-fre...

  17. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  18. Low Crosstalk Three-Color Infrared Detector by Controlling the Minority Carriers Type of InAs/GaSb Superlattices for Middle-Long and Very-Long Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Wei, Jiang; Wei, Xiang; Feng-Yun, Guo; Hong-Yue, Hao; Xi, Han; Xiao-Chao, Li; Guo-Wei, Wang; Ying-Qiang, Xu; Qing-Jiang, Yu; Zhi-Chuan, Niu

    2016-04-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant Nos 2014CB643903, 2013CB932904, 2012CB932701 and 2011CB922201, the National Special Funds for the Development of Major Research Equipment and Instruments of China under Grant No 2012YQ140005, the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant No XDB01010200, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation-funded Project under Grant No 2014M561029, the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University under Grant No NCET-10-0066, the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2013AA031502, the Science and Technology Innovation Project of Harbin City under Grant No 2011RFLXG006, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61274013, U1037602, 61306013, 51202046, and 61290303, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant Nos 2012M510144 and 2013T60366, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos HIT.NSRIF.2013006 and HIT.BRETIII.201403.

  19. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and the role of grain boundaries in polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Cocker, Tyler L.; Xu, Sijia; Baribeau, Jean-Marc; Wu, Xiaohua; Lockwood, David J.; Hegmann, Frank A.

    2016-10-01

    We have used time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to study microscopic photoconductivity and ultrafast photoexcited carrier dynamics in thin, pure, non-hydrogenated silicon films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on quartz substrates at temperatures ranging from 335 °C to 572 °C. By controlling the growth temperature, thin silicon films ranging from completely amorphous to polycrystalline with minimal amorphous phase can be achieved. Film morphology, in turn, determines its photoconductive properties: in the amorphous phase, carriers are trapped in bandtail states on sub-picosecond time scales, while the carriers excited in crystalline grains remain free for tens of picoseconds. We also find that in polycrystalline silicon the photoexcited carrier mobility is carrier-density-dependent, with higher carrier densities mitigating the effects of grain boundaries on inter-grain transport. In a film grown at the highest temperature of 572 °C, the morphology changes along the growth direction from polycrystalline with needles of single crystals in the bulk of the film to small crystallites interspersed with amorphous silicon at the top of the film. Depth profiling using different excitation wavelengths shows corresponding differences in the photoconductivity: the photoexcited carrier lifetime and mobility are higher in the first 100-150 nm from the substrate, suggesting that thinner, low-temperature grown polycrystalline silicon films are preferable for photovoltaic applications.

  20. Assessment for Community Service Types of Experiential Learning in the Engineering Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia Ka Yuk

    2012-01-01

    While experiential learning has been increasingly explored and adopted by higher education institutions, few have researched the appropriate assessment methods that can be aligned with the learning outcomes of experiential learning. A literature review on the diverse forms of assessment currently used for community service types of experiential…

  1. Preparation of carrier-free 67Ga, by irradiation of natural zinc with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the preparation of carrier-free 67Ga is described. Natural zinc plates were irradiated with protons. After a decay period of four days, the irradiated targets were dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid and the solution percolated through a glass column containing a cationic resin. 67Ga was eluted with 3,5 N HCl; the eluted solution was evaporated to dryness, taken up in 3,8% sodium citrate solution and sterilized. Sterility tests were carried out according to the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Chemical purity of 67Ga citrate was determined by spot tests and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The radioactive purity was verified by gamma spectrometry. The product was endovenously injected into Wistar rats with experimental abcesses, and in a patient with adrenal neuroblastoma. The results shown a high accumulation of 67Ga in soft tissue tumors. (Author)

  2. Clinical and molecular effect on offspring of a marriage of consanguineous spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 mutation carriers: a family case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Jonathan J; Tapia-Guerrero, Yessica S; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Cruz-Mariño, Tania; Cerecedo-Zapata, Cesar M; Gómez, Rocío; Murillo-Melo, Nadia M; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Hernández-Hernández, Oscar; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a genetic disorder characterized by degeneration of the cerebellum, brainstem, and retina that is caused by abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat located in the ATXN7 gene encoding sequence on chromosome 3p21.1. Although SCA7 is an uncommon autosomal dominant ataxia, we previously found increased prevalence of the disease in a Southeastern Mexican population. In this study, we described to our knowledge for the first time a marriage of consanguineous SCA7 mutation carriers and their offspring effect. We characterized a severely affected infantile-onset female patient whose parents and two siblings exhibited no symptoms of the disease at time of diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical analysis of the proband showed a progressive cerebellar syndrome, including gait ataxia, movement disorders, and saccadic movements, as well as hyperreflexia, visual deterioration, urinary and cardiovascular dysfunction, and impaired nerve conduction. The SCA7 mutation was detected in the proband patient. Subsequently, genetic examination using four ATXN7 gene-linked markers (three centromeric microsatellite markers [D3S1228, D3S1287, and D3S3635] and an intragenic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism [SNP-3145G/A]) revealed that the proband descends from a couple of consanguineous SCA7 mutation carriers. Genotyping analysis demonstrated that all offspring inherited only one mutant allele, and that the severe infantile-onset phenotype is caused by germinal expansion (from 37 to 72 CAG repeats) of the paternal mutant allele. Interestingly, the couple also referred a miscarriage. Finally, we found no CAA interruptions in the ATXN7 gene CAG repeats tract in this family, which might explain, at least in part, the triplet instability in the proband. PMID:25664129

  3. Improvement of dissolution and hypoglycemic efficacy of glimepiride by different carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Meshali, Mahasen M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Borg, Thanaa M

    2012-09-01

    Effects of tromethamine (Tris), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K25), and low molecular weight chitosan (LM-CH) on dissolution and therapeutic efficacy of glimepiride (Gmp) were investigated using physical mixtures (PMs), coground mixtures, coprecipitates (Coppts) or kneaded mixtures (KMs), and compared with drug alone. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry were performed to identify any physicochemical interaction with Gmp. Surface morphology was examined via scanning electron microscopy. The results of Gmp in vitro dissolution revealed that it was greatly enhanced by Coppt with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH at a drug to carrier ratio of 1:8. Gmp amorphization by PVP-K25 and LM-CH was a major factor in increasing Gmp dissolution. Being basic, Tris might increase the pH of the microdiffusion layer around Gmp particles improving its dissolution. Formation of water-soluble complexes suggested by solubility study may also explain the enhanced dissolution. Capsules were prepared from Coppts and KM 1:8 drug to carrier binary systems and also with Tris PMs. In vivo, the hypoglycemic efficacy of Gmp capsules in rabbits increased by 1.63-, 1.50-, and 1.46-fold for 1:8 Coppts with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH respectively, compared with Gmp alone. Surprisingly, the response to Tris PM 1:20 capsules was 1.52-fold revealing statistically insignificant difference to that of Tris Coppt 1:8 (1.63 fold). As a conclusion, dissolution enhancement and hypoglycemic potentiation by 1:20 PM of Gmp/Tris, being simple and easy to prepare, may enable development of a reduced-dose and fast-release oral dosage form of Gmp. PMID:22843078

  4. How professionals perceive types of risk in public service innovation: Reports from Copenhagen municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timeus, Krista; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The paper addresses two questions; what do professionals working in the public administration understand by ‘risk’ in relation to their work on innovation?; and how do these professionals understand their own role in managing risks of innovation? The paper takes an inductive approach and focuses...... on individuals, namely, professionals in Copenhagen municipality working on public services innovation. Such innovation includes new services or new methods of service delivery. Although all types of innovation include some risk, in public services, risks are exacerbated by the vulnerability of many users...... dependent on the state (such as children, elderly, people with disabilities), and intense media and political attention.Thus, most of the discussion in the paper focuses on innovations that somehow involve users. This is in contrast to, for example, an organizational innovation that mainly affects workers...

  5. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  6. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  7. Carrier Screening and Prenatal Gene Diagnosis of β-thalassemia by PCR-RDB Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏秀; 单可人; 惠春林; 何燕; 袁筑华; 窦友莲; 曾金琳; 谢渊; 修瑾

    2003-01-01

    In order to identify the distribution of gene types of β-thalassemia and reduce the birthrates of β-thalassemia major in Guiyang area, 1054 pregnant women and their spouses from Affiliated Hospital, Guiyang Medical College were screened. The positive samples were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot blot method (PCR-RDB). When both partners were heterozygous identified as carriers for β- thalassemia, the risk of having a fetus who was homozygous or compound heterozygous was 2.66 %; the ratio of male to female was 1/1.15. Seven types of mutation were identified. CD17 and CD41-42 were dominant among them. Among the 4 cases subject to prenatal gene diagnosis, one fetus was completely normal and 3 fetuses were diagnosed as having β-thalassemia major (1 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous). The fetuses diagnosed as β-thalassemia major were selectively terminated within two weeks. It was concluded that the birthrate of β-thalassemia major in Guiyang area was reduced and the target of improving birth outcome and child development has been achieved.

  8. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  9. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim;

    1994-01-01

    hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies......Vaccination of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to carrier proteins has proven protective against invasive Hib diseases in several trials. However, insufficient immunogenicity has been noted in certain populations. Therefore, studies analyzing...... factors influencing the antibody response to conjugate vaccines are needed. In this study, the response to HibCP coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) was examined in relation to (i) priming with or coadministration of the carrier protein and (ii) the levels of passively acquired maternal TT antibodies. One...

  10. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers' module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson's disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes, whereas AD

  11. Evaluation of adenohypophyseal reserve in patients carrier of hypophyseal adenoma treated by trans-sphenoidal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients carrier hypophyseal adenomas, with ages varying between 16 to 53 years were studied. The patients presented sella changes to the conventional plane radiographies and were submited a surgery treatment, with acess to hypophysis by the trans-sphenoidal way. (author)

  12. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  13. Improvement of oral bioavailability of lovastatin by using nanostructured lipid carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zhou,1,2 Daxin Zhou3 1Department of Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Soochow University, 2Department of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs have been one of the systems of choice for improving the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. In the present study, lovastatin (LVT-loaded NLCs (LVT-NLCs were successfully prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization method with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and satisfactory particle size distribution. The particles had almost spherical and uniform shapes and were well dispersed with a particle size of <50 nm (23.5±1.6 nm and a low polydispersity index (0.17±0.05 mV. The result of stability showed that the LVT-NLCs dispersion maintained excellent stability without exhibiting any aggregation, precipitation, or phase separation at 4°C for 6 months of storage. The LVT release data from all developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and NLCs were best fitted to a Ritger–Peppas kinetic model (0.9832 and 0.9783 for NLCs and SLNs, respectively. This indicated that the release of LVT from the SLNs and NLCs was due to a combination of drug diffusion and erosion from the lipid matrix. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results show that LVT-NLCs were better compared to free drug, which could be attributed to an increase in bioavailability. Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, lovastatin, in vitro release, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic

  14. 77 FR 55783 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... Satellite Carriers AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... copyright owners that produce and/or syndicate movies, programs, and specials that are broadcast...

  15. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  16. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  17. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B; Tangye, Stuart G

    2011-11-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  18. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  19. Theory and computation of hot carriers generated by surface plasmon polaritons in noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Mustafa, Jamal; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-06-01

    Hot carriers (HC) generated by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in noble metals are promising for application in optoelectronics, plasmonics and renewable energy. However, existing models fail to explain key quantitative details of SPP-to-HC conversion experiments. Here we develop a quantum mechanical framework and apply first-principles calculations to study the energy distribution and scattering processes of HCs generated by SPPs in Au and Ag. We find that the relative positions of the s and d bands of noble metals regulate the energy distribution and mean free path of the HCs, and that the electron-phonon interaction controls HC energy loss and transport. Our results prescribe optimal conditions for HC generation and extraction, and invalidate previously employed free-electron-like models. Our work combines density functional theory, GW and electron-phonon calculations to provide microscopic insight into HC generation and ultrafast dynamics in noble metals.

  20. Spatial location of indomethacin associated with unimeric amphiphilic carrier macromolecules as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David E; Moretti, Alysha; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including, proton NMR, relaxation analysis, two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, has been used to demonstrate the spatial location of indomethacin within a unimolecular micelle. Understanding the location of drugs within carrier molecules using such NMR techniques can facilitate rational carrier design. In addition, this information provides insight to encapsulation efficiency of different drugs to determine the most efficient system for a particular bioactive. This study demonstrates that drugs loaded by the unimolecular amphiphile under investigation are not necessarily encapsulated but reside or localize to the periphery or interfacial region of the carrier molecule. The results have further implications as to the features of the unimolecular carrier that contribute to drug loading. In addition, evidence of drug retention associated with the unimolecular surfactant is possible in organic media, as well as in an aqueous environment. Such findings have implications for rational carrier design to correlate the carrier features to the drug of interest and indicate the strong retention capabilities of the unimolecular micelle for delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Spatial location of indomethacin associated with unimeric amphiphilic carrier macromolecules as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David E; Moretti, Alysha; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including, proton NMR, relaxation analysis, two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, has been used to demonstrate the spatial location of indomethacin within a unimolecular micelle. Understanding the location of drugs within carrier molecules using such NMR techniques can facilitate rational carrier design. In addition, this information provides insight to encapsulation efficiency of different drugs to determine the most efficient system for a particular bioactive. This study demonstrates that drugs loaded by the unimolecular amphiphile under investigation are not necessarily encapsulated but reside or localize to the periphery or interfacial region of the carrier molecule. The results have further implications as to the features of the unimolecular carrier that contribute to drug loading. In addition, evidence of drug retention associated with the unimolecular surfactant is possible in organic media, as well as in an aqueous environment. Such findings have implications for rational carrier design to correlate the carrier features to the drug of interest and indicate the strong retention capabilities of the unimolecular micelle for delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864907

  2. Determination of refractory elements in U3O8 by carrier distillation emission spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emission spectrographic method using carrier distillation for the determination of the refractory impurities Ta, Hf, Nb, Th, and W in uranium is described. Different carriers, such as Ga2O3, AgCl, AgCl + LiF, and AgCl + NaF in various proportions, were investigated: a 1% NaF + 9% AgCl mixture as carrier at 10% of total charge arced was found to be the most suitable. Spectra were excited in a d.c. arc at 12 A and were photographed with 35-sec exposures. Palladium was used as an internal standard. The lowest limits of determination lie in the range 1 to 10 ppm for a 100-mg charge. The precision of the method is about 16% or better. (author)

  3. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as retail in the particular industry. In other industries a sale or service may be recognized as... automobile to anyone for any purpose is recognized as a retail sale in the industry, it will be considered as... purposes. If a sale of a particular quantity of coal is recognized in the industry as a retail sale,...

  4. Factors associated to the imposition of types of violence against women informed in sentry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and the factors associated to the imposition of the different types of violence against women informed in sentry services. METHOD: transversal study accomplished through 939 notification forms of cases of violence against women, referring to the three years from 2006 to 2008 in Fortaleza, Ceará. Univariate and multiple analyses by logistic regression were realized. RESULT: the results showed a positive association between the imposition of types of violence against women with a schooling varying from illiterate to basic education and the aggression which had occurred other times. CONCLUSION: this knowledge contributes to the delineation of specific actions that aim at facing this problem, as well as generates subsidies for adequate attendance proposals and guidance for the victims who call on health services.

  5. Attenuating the size and molecular carrier capabilities of polyacrylate nanoparticles by a hydrophobic fluorine effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruère, Raphaël; Turos, Edward

    2012-08-15

    This study investigates the effect of introducing alkyl chain fluorination on the properties of polyacrylate nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution by emulsion polymerization. For this, 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate (1) and methyl trifluoroacrylate (2) were tested as monomers as a means to prepare fluorinated polyacrylate nanoparticles to evaluate how side chain fluorination may affect nanoparticle size and drug carrier properties. Our results show that as fluorine content within the polyacrylate matrix increases, the size of the nanoparticle systematically diminishes, from 45 nm (for nanoparticles containing no fluoroacrylate) to ~7 nm (for nanoparticles constructed solely of fluoroacrylate). We also observe that as fluoroacrylate content and hydrophobicity increases, the nanoparticles decrease their ability to incorporate lipophilic molecules during the process of emulsification. These findings have meaningful implications in the implementation of fluorinated nanoparticles in molecular delivery.

  6. Distribution of free carriers near heavily-doped epitaxial surfaces of n-type Ge(100) upon HF and HCl treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Bolotov, L.; Uchida, N.; Tada, T. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Carrier distributions near n-type epitaxially-grown Ge(100) surfaces with high impurity concentrations (1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) were studied using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) upon surface treatments in aqueous solutions of HF and HCl. After surface treatments with HCl and HF, the molecular vibration modes distinctly showed either chloride or hydride terminations of Ge surfaces with negligible oxidation. The free-carrier concentration profile was inferred from the conduction band plasmon measurements as a function of the incident electron energies employing a dielectric theory simulation with a 4-layer structure and an effective electron mass of 0.02m{sub 0}. A carrier-free layer of 40 and 24 Å were derived for HCl- and HF-treated Ge(100), respectively. The surface band bending was estimated to be 0.32 eV for HF-treated Ge. HCl-treated Ge surfaces showed a band bending of 0.91 eV attributed to the strong effect of the surface Cl-Ge dipole.

  7. Distribution of free carriers near heavily-doped epitaxial surfaces of n-type Ge(100) upon HF and HCl treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier distributions near n-type epitaxially-grown Ge(100) surfaces with high impurity concentrations (1 × 1020 cm−3) were studied using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) upon surface treatments in aqueous solutions of HF and HCl. After surface treatments with HCl and HF, the molecular vibration modes distinctly showed either chloride or hydride terminations of Ge surfaces with negligible oxidation. The free-carrier concentration profile was inferred from the conduction band plasmon measurements as a function of the incident electron energies employing a dielectric theory simulation with a 4-layer structure and an effective electron mass of 0.02m0. A carrier-free layer of 40 and 24 Å were derived for HCl- and HF-treated Ge(100), respectively. The surface band bending was estimated to be 0.32 eV for HF-treated Ge. HCl-treated Ge surfaces showed a band bending of 0.91 eV attributed to the strong effect of the surface Cl-Ge dipole

  8. Characterisation of multiple carrier transport in indium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative mobility spectrum analysis (QMSA) was performed on multiple magnetic field Hall effect measurements of indium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy. This enables two clearly distinct electron species to be identified, which are attributed to the bulk and a surface accumulation layer. In this material, single magnetic field data corresponds to neither electron species, as both contribute significantly to the total conduction. The bulk electron distribution has an extracted average Hall mobility of 3570 cm2/(Vs) at 300 K with a concentration of 1.5 x 1017 cm-3, while the surface electrons have sheet charge density that is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported surface concentrations. The high quality bulk characteristics revealed emphasise the importance of using multi-carrier analysis when performing transport measurements on InN. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accounts for 50–65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes

  10. Comparative evaluation of actinide ion uptake by polymer inclusion membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, B.N. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India); Raut, D.R. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohapatra, P.K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Md. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India)

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • PIMs containing TODGA were used for actinide ion uptake and transport. • The trend of uptake was: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. • The transport trend was similar though significant amount was held in the PIM. • The diffusion coefficients were lower than those obtained with SLM. - Abstract: Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing TODGA (N,N,N′,N′-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer along with the diglycolamide carrier extractants and were characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, thermal analysis and AFM. The PIM composition was optimized by a series of studies which involved variation in the CTA, NPOE and carrier concentration which suggested 58% TODGA, 30% NPOE and 12% CTA to be optimum. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid and showed the trend: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Transport studies were carried out in a two-compartment cell where nitric acid concentration the feed was varied (1–3 M) while the receiver compartment contained alpha-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid (AHIBA). The actinide ion transport efficiencies with TODGA containing PIMs followed the same trend as seen in the uptake studies. The AFM patterns of the PIMs changed when loaded with Eu{sup 3+} carrier (used as a surrogate for Am{sup 3+}) while the regenerated membranes have displayed comparable morphologies. Diffusion coefficient values were experimentally obtained from the transport studies and were found to be 8.89 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s for Am{sup 3+} transport.

  11. Vibration of low amplitude imaged in amplitude and phase by sideband versus carrier correlation digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, N; Gross, M

    2015-01-01

    Sideband holography can be used to get fields images (E0 and E1) of a vibrating object for both the carrier (E0) and the sideband (E1) frequency with respect to vibration. We propose here to record E0 and E1 sequentially, and to image the correlation E1E * 0 . We show that this correlation is insensitive the phase related to the object roughness and directly reflect the phase of the mechanical motion. The signal to noise can be improved by averaging the correlation over neighbor pixel. Experimental validation is made with vibrating cube of wood and with a clarinet reed. At 2 kHz, vibrations of amplitude down to 0.01 nm are detected.

  12. Take advantage of your insurance carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    The primary objective of the developer of an independent energy facility is to make a profit through the sale of electricity and steam. The most effective way to achieve this objective is to design, build and operate a facility in a way that maximizes its availability and efficiency without increasing expenses. A property carrier has a range of insurance products and engineering services designed not only to transfer risk but to increase availability and efficiency and reduce the cost of operating and maintaining a facility. The independent energy producer can benefit by taking full advantage of traditional and specialty insurance products as well as engineering services that are available today. There is a whole range of insurance products that apply during the various stages of pre-construction, construction, testing and commercial operation, and these are described.

  13. In vitro gentamicin release from commercially available calcium-phosphate bone substitutes influence of carrier type on duration of the release profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronckers Antonius LJJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA beads releasing antibiotics are used extensively to treat osteomyelitis, but require surgical removal afterwards because they do not degrade. Methods As an alternative option, this report compares the in vitro gentamicin release profile from clinically used, biodegradable carrier-materials: six injectable cements and six granule-types. Cement cylinders and coated granules containing 3% gentamicin were submerged in dH2O and placed in a 48-sample parallel drug-release system. At regular intervals (30, 90, 180 min. and then every 24 h, for 21 days, the release fluid was exchanged and the gentamicin concentration was measured. The activity of released gentamicin was tested on Staphylococcus aureus. Results All combinations showed initial burst-release of active gentamicin, two cements had continuous-release (17 days. The relative release of all cements (36–85% and granules (30–62% was higher than previously reported for injectable PMMA-cements (up to 17% and comparable to other biodegradable carriers. From the cements residual gentamicin could be extracted, whereas the granules released all gentamicin that had adhered to the surface. Conclusion The high release achieved shows great promise for clinical application of these biodegradable drug-carriers. Using the appropriate combination, the required release profile (burst or sustained may be achieved.

  14. Investigation of different cell types and gel carriers for cell-based intervertebral disc therapy, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, H B; Hagman, M; Horn, M; Lindahl, A; Brisby, H

    2012-10-01

    Biological treatment options for the repair of intervertebral disc damage have been suggested for patients with chronic low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate possible cell types and gel carriers for use in the regenerative treatment of degenerative intervertebral discs (IVD). In vitro: human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs), IVD cells (hDCs), and chondrocytes (hCs) were cultivated in three gel types: hyaluronan gel (Durolane®), hydrogel (Puramatrix®), and tissue-glue gel (TISSEEL®) in chondrogenic differentiation media for 9 days. Cell proliferation and proteoglycan accumulation were evaluated with microscopy and histology. In vivo: hMSCs or hCs and hyaluronan gel were co-injected into injured IVDs of six minipigs. Animals were sacrificed at 3 or 6 months. Transplanted cells were traced with anti-human antibodies. IVD appearance was visualized by MRI, immunohistochemistry, and histology. Hyaluronan gel induced the highest cell proliferation in vitro for all cell types. Xenotransplanted hMSCs and hCs survived in porcine IVDs for 6 months and produced collagen II in all six animals. Six months after transplantation of cell/gel, pronounced endplate changes indicating severe IVD degeneration were observed at MRI in 1/3 hC/gel, 1/3 hMSCs/gel and 1/3 gel only injected IVDs at MRI and 1/3 hMSC/gel, 3/3 hC/gel, 2/3 gel and 1/3 injured IVDs showed positive staining for bone mineralization. In 1 of 3 discs receiving hC/gel, in 1 of 3 receiving hMSCs/gel, and in 1 of 3 discs receiving gel alone. Injected IVDs on MRI results in 1 of 3 hMSC/gel, in 3 of 3 hC/gel, in 2 of 3 gel, and in 1 of 3 injured IVDs animals showed positive staining for bone mineralization. The investigated hyaluronan gel carrier is not suitable for use in cell therapy of injured/degenerated IVDs. The high cell proliferation observed in vitro in the hyaluronan could have been a negative factor in vivo, since most cell/gel transplanted IVDs showed degenerative changes at MRI and

  15. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance (ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  16. Detection of Helicobacter pylori carriers by discriminant analysis of urea and pH levels in gastric juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameglio, F; Abbolito, M R; Giannarelli, D; Citarda, F; Grassi, A; Gandolfo, G M; Casale, V

    1991-08-01

    An alternative approach to the problems inherent in current methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori carriers--that of being generally time-consuming, expensive, and not sufficiently sensitive--was devised by using the urea concentration and pH levels of gastric juices. A linear discriminant analysis of these variables, measured in 54 patients submitted to digestive endoscopy for gastritis, provided a mathematical formula for assigning the subjects (previously classified by other standard methods) to groups of either positive or negative H pylori carriers. The results obtained showed a correct classification in 52 out of 54 cases with only one false negative and one false positive case.

  17. 27 CFR 26.117 - Action by carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Procedure at Port of Arrival § 26.117 Action by carrier. The carrier of the merchandise specified on the Form 487B shall, at the time of unlading at the port of...

  18. Effects of carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in graphene under pulse photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in intrinsic graphene after pulse photoexcitation and reveal effects of intraband carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in the terahertz region, by conducting simulation based on the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that by changing the dielectric constant of the surrounding materials the rate of carrier-carrier scattering can be controlled and the relaxation dynamics differs for cases with low and high dielectric constants. It is also found that the Pauli blocking of photogeneration in case of the pulse photoexcitation causes decrease in the photocarrier concentration and thus weakening of population inversion with higher dielectric constant.

  19. Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Godoy, Fabián; Pando, María E; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, María A; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that extracellular Tax might involve cytokine-like extracellular effects. We evaluated Tax secretion in 18 h-ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures from 15 HAM/TSP patients and 15 asymptomatic carriers. Futhermore, Tax plasma level was evaluated from other 12 HAM/TSP patients and 10 asymptomatic carriers. Proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were quantified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Intracellular Tax in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells occurred in 100% and 86.7% of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers, respectively. Percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+, proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Western blot analyses showed higher secretion levels of ubiquitinated Tax in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers. In HTLV-1-infected subjects, Western blot of plasma Tax showed higher levels in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers, whereas no Tax was found in non-infected subjects. Immunoprecipitated plasma Tax resolved on SDS-PAGE gave two major bands of 57 and 48 kDa allowing identification of Tax and Ubiquitin peptides by mass spectrometry. Relative percentage of either CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+ cells, or Tax protein released from PBMCs, or plasma Tax, correlates neither with tax mRNA nor with proviral load. This fact could be explained by a complex regulation of Tax expression. Tax secreted from PBMCs or present in plasma could potentially become a biomarker to distinguish between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers.

  20. Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Godoy, Fabián; Pando, María E; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, María A; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that extracellular Tax might involve cytokine-like extracellular effects. We evaluated Tax secretion in 18 h-ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures from 15 HAM/TSP patients and 15 asymptomatic carriers. Futhermore, Tax plasma level was evaluated from other 12 HAM/TSP patients and 10 asymptomatic carriers. Proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were quantified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Intracellular Tax in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells occurred in 100% and 86.7% of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers, respectively. Percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+, proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Western blot analyses showed higher secretion levels of ubiquitinated Tax in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers. In HTLV-1-infected subjects, Western blot of plasma Tax showed higher levels in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers, whereas no Tax was found in non-infected subjects. Immunoprecipitated plasma Tax resolved on SDS-PAGE gave two major bands of 57 and 48 kDa allowing identification of Tax and Ubiquitin peptides by mass spectrometry. Relative percentage of either CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+ cells, or Tax protein released from PBMCs, or plasma Tax, correlates neither with tax mRNA nor with proviral load. This fact could be explained by a complex regulation of Tax expression. Tax secreted from PBMCs or present in plasma could potentially become a biomarker to distinguish between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers. PMID:26241614

  1. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... ``Read Comments'' box in the upper right hand side of the screen. Then, in the ``Keyword'' box, insert... Act Statement in the Federal Register published on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit... and to what extent the motor carriers have shareholders, investors, officers, managers and...

  2. 77 FR 23202 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Service Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... while ensuring that the criteria of Section 16 were met. 69 FR 75850, 75852 (December 20, 2004). \\1... FR 52345 (September 2, 2005). \\5\\ The Commission received comments from: The United States Department... 46 CFR Part 531 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Service Arrangements AGENCY: Federal...

  3. Evaluation of the effects of a polyurethane carrier on the degradation of chlorinated anilines by Pseudomonas acidovorans CA50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously described model system for the treatment of harzardous chloroaniline-containing waste waters using immobilized bacterial cells in a bioreactor was enhanced in its degradation efficiency. This was achieved by the substitution of the calcium alginate beads by an inert polyurethane (PU)-carrier. The supply of chloroaniline-polluted waste waters with the PU-carrier (1.25% w/v) resulted in a distinct decrease of the pollutant concentrations in the solution due to the effects of adsorption. Nevertheless, the initially bound amounts of the chloroanilines, were also degraded, which was proved by the chloride balance. In comparative batch-degradation experiments with the Pseudomonas acidovorans strain CA50 with and without the addition of the PU-carrier (1.25% v/w), respectively, the advantages of the PU-supplied treatment system were demonstrated; among others a marked shortening of the degradation periods was achieved. The advantage of the PU-carrier was also shown by using a bubble reactor. In this connection, it is particularly worth mentioning, that high degradation rates can be achieved for a long time even for strongly persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  4. 20.5万吨散货船的优化设计%Summarization of Optimization Design for 205,000-DWT Type Motor Bulk Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of international shipping industry,especially use of ironstone is increasing.To improve the transport ability and efficiency,increase shipping tonnage,raise economic benefits,ship-owners prefer to constructing the larger bulk carriers which are also the development trend in future.A 205,000-DWT TYPE MOTOR BULK CARRIER is maximum tonnage ship of domestic construction currently.This thesis introduce hull structure optimization design method for the first domestic 205,000-DWT bulk carrier.%随着国际航运业的快速发展,尤其是铁矿石用量的增长,为了提高运输能力和效率,增加单程运输吨位,提高经济效益,船东更倾向建造吨位大的散货船舶。大型散货船也是未来发展的趋势。20.5万吨散货船是目前国内建造的吨位最大的散货船。本文介绍了国内建造的首艘20.5万吨散货船结构优化设计方法

  5. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  6. Analytical procedure for experimental quantification of carrier concentration in semiconductor devices by using electric scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is based on a contact-mode variant of atomic force microscopy, which is used for imaging two-dimensional carrier (electrons and holes) distributions in semiconductor devices. We introduced a method of quantification of the carrier concentration by experimentally deduced calibration curves, which were prepared for semiconductor materials such as silicon and silicon carbide. The analytical procedure was circulated to research organizations in a round-robin test. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed for practical analysis and for what is expected for industrial pre-standardization from the viewpoint of comparability among users. It was also applied to other electric scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. Their depth profiles of carrier concentration were found to be in good agreement with those characterized by SCM. These results suggest that our proposed method will be compatible with future next-generation microscopy. (paper)

  7. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure and promoter regulation by estrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandini Vasudevan; Urvashi Bahadur; Paturu Kondaiah

    2001-03-01

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by estrogen, the chicken RCP gene including 1 kb of the 5′ flanking region has been isolated. Characterization of the gene structure shows that it contains six exons and five introns, including an intron in the 5′ untranslated region. Sequence analysis of the 5′ flanking region does not show the presence of any classical, palindromic estrogen response element (ERE). However, there are six half site ERE consensus elements. Four deletion constructs of the 5′ flanking region with varying number of ERE half sites were made in pGL3 basic vector upstream of the luciferase-coding region. Transient transfection of these RCP promoter deletion constructs into a chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH2A) showed 6-12-fold transcriptional induction by a stable estrogen analogue, moxesterol. This suggests that the RCP gene is induced by estrogen even in the absence of a classical ERE and the half sites of ERE in this promoter may be important for estrogen induction.

  8. Byproduct Metal Availability Constrained by Dynamics of Carrier Metal Cycle: The Gallium-Aluminum Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2016-08-16

    Future availability of byproduct metals is not limited by geological stocks, but by the rate of primary production of their carrier metals, which in turn depends on the development of their in-use stocks, the product lifetimes, and the recycling rates. This linkage, while recognized conceptually in past studies, has not been adequately taken into account in resource availability estimates. Here, we determine the global supply potential for gallium up to 2050 based on scenarios for the global aluminum cycle, and compare it with scenarios for gallium demand derived from a dynamic model of the gallium cycle. We found that the gallium supply potential is heavily influenced by the development of the in-use stocks and recycling rates of aluminum. With current applications, a shortage of gallium is unlikely by 2050. However, the gallium industry may need to introduce ambitious recycling- and material efficiency strategies to meet its demand. If in-use stocks of aluminum saturate or decline, a shift to other gallium sources such as zinc or coal fly ash may be required. PMID:27400378

  9. P type porous silicon resistivity and carrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ménard, S., E-mail: samuel.menard@st.com [STMicroelectronics, 10, rue Thalès de Milet, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Fèvre, A. [STMicroelectronics, 10, rue Thalès de Milet, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, INSA CVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, Tours (France); Billoué, J.; Gautier, G. [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, INSA CVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, Tours (France)

    2015-09-14

    The resistivity of p type porous silicon (PS) is reported on a wide range of PS physical properties. Al/PS/Si/Al structures were used and a rigorous experimental protocol was followed. The PS porosity (P{sub %}) was found to be the major contributor to the PS resistivity (ρ{sub PS}). ρ{sub PS} increases exponentially with P{sub %}. Values of ρ{sub PS} as high as 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω cm at room temperature were obtained once P{sub %} exceeds 60%. ρ{sub PS} was found to be thermally activated, in particular, when the temperature increases from 30 to 200 °C, a decrease of three decades is observed on ρ{sub PS}. Based on these results, it was also possible to deduce the carrier transport mechanisms in PS. For P{sub %} lower than 45%, the conduction occurs through band tails and deep levels in the tissue surrounding the crystallites. When P{sub %} overpasses 45%, electrons at energy levels close to the Fermi level allow a hopping conduction from crystallite to crystallite to appear. This study confirms the potential of PS as an insulating material for applications such as power electronic devices.

  10. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid.

  11. Solubility and dissolution enhancement of etoricoxib by solid dispersion technique using sugar carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Abhisekh; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Panda, Satyabrata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve solubility and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble drug, etoricoxib by solvent evaporation technique using various sugar carriers, such as lactose, sucrose, and mannitol. Etoricoxib solid dispersions and their respective physical mixtures using lactose, sucrose, and mannitol were prepared in different ratios by solvent evaporation technique. The percent yield, drug content, saturation solubility, and in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib solid dispersions and physical mixtures were analyzed. Etoricoxib solid dispersions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and DSC analysis. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the possibility of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in various solid dispersions. The XRD and DSC studies indicated the transformation of crystalline etoricoxib (in pure drug) to amorphous etoricoxib (in solid dispersions) by the solid dispersion technology. Both the aqueous solubility and dissolution of etoricoxib were observed in all etoricoxib solid dispersions as compared with pure etoricoxib and their physical mixtures. The in vitro dissolution studies exhibited improved dissolution in case of solid dispersion using lactose than the solid dispersions using both sucrose and mannitol. The in vitro dissolution of etoricoxib from these solid dispersions followed Hixson-Crowell model. PMID:22389861

  12. Field Operations Program - U.S. Postal Service - Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ''park and loop'' mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being

  13. Removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure by microorganisms on perlite--bentonite carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Rajkowska, Aleksandra; Brycki, Bogumił

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted using poultry manure (PM) from a laying hen farm. Six strains of bacteria and one strain of yeast, selected on the base of the previous study, were investigated to evaluate their activity in the removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure: pure cultures of Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii LOCK 0272, Bacillus megaterium LOCK 0963, Pseudomonas sp. LOCK 0961, Psychrobacter faecalis LOCK 0965, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LOCK 0964, Streptomyces violaceoruber LOCK 0967, and Candida inconspicua LOCK 0272 were suspended in water solution and applied for PM deodorization. The most active strains in the removal of volatile odorous compounds (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, isobutyric acid) belonged to B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, L. mesenteroides, C. inconspicua, and P. faecalis. In the next series of experiments, a mixed culture of all tested strains was immobilized on a mineral carrier being a mixture of perlite and bentonite (20:80 by weight). That mixed culture applied for PM deodorization was particularly active against ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, which were removed from the exhaust gas by 20.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The experiments also showed that during deodorization the microorganisms could reduce the concentrations of proteins and amino acids in PM. In particular, the mixed culture was active against cysteine and methionine, which were removed from PM by around 45% within 24 h of deodorization.

  14. PseudoGeneQuest – Service for identification of different pseudogene types in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihinen Mauno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudogenes, nonfunctional copies of genes, evolve fast due the lack of evolutionary pressures and thus appear in several different forms. PseudoGeneQuest is an online tool to search the human genome for a given query sequence and to identify different types of pseudogenes as well as novel genes and gene fragments. Description The service can detect pseudogenes, that have arisen either by retrotransposition or segmental genome duplication, many of which are not listed in the public pseudogene databases. The service has a user-friendly web interface and uses a powerful computer cluster in order to perform parallel searches and provide relatively fast runtimes despite exhaustive database searches and analyses. Conclusion PseudoGeneQuest is a versatile tool for detecting novel pseudogene candidates from the human genome. The service searches human genome sequences for five types of pseudogenes and provides an output that allows easy further analysis of observations. In addition to the result file the system provides visualization of the results linked to Ensembl Genome Browser. PseudoGeneQuest service is freely available.

  15. Challenges for Wireless Mesh Networks to provide reliable carrier-grade services

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hugo, D.; Bayer, N.

    2011-08-01

    Provision of mobile and wireless services today within a competitive environment and driven by a huge amount of steadily emerging new services and applications is both challenge and chance for radio network operators. Deployment and operation of an infrastructure for mobile and wireless broadband connectivity generally requires planning effort and large investments. A promising approach to reduce expenses for radio access networking is offered by Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). Here traditional dedicated backhaul connections to each access point are replaced by wireless multi-hop links between neighbouring access nodes and few gateways to the backbone employing standard radio technology. Such a solution provides at the same time high flexibility in both deployment and the amount of offered capacity and shall reduce overall expenses. On the other hand currently available mesh solutions do not provide carrier grade service quality and reliability and often fail to cope with high traffic load. EU project CARMEN (CARrier grade MEsh Networks) was initiated to incorporate different heterogeneous technologies and new protocols to allow for reliable transmission over "best effort" radio channels, to support a reliable mobility and network management, self-configuration and dynamic resource usage, and thus to offer a permanent or temporary broadband access at high cost efficiency. The contribution provides an overview on preliminary project results with focus on main technical challenges from a research and implementation point of view. Especially impact of mesh topology on the overall system performance in terms of throughput and connection reliability and aspects of a dedicated hybrid mobility management solution will be discussed.

  16. Imparting carrier status results detected by universal newborn screening for sickle cell and cystic fibrosis in England: a qualitative study of current practice and policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulph Fiona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal newborn screening for early detection of children affected by sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis is currently being implemented across England. Parents of infants identified as carriers of these disorders must also be informed of their baby's result. However there is a lack of evidence for most effective practice internationally when doing so. This study describes current or proposed models for imparting this information in practice and explores associated challenges for policy. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with Child Health Coordinators from all English Health Regions. Results Diverse methods for imparting carrier results, both within and between regions, and within and between conditions, were being implemented or planned. Models ranged from result by letter to in-person communication during a home visit. Non-specialists were considered the best placed professionals to give results and a similar approach for both conditions was emphasised. While national guidance has influenced choice of models, other factors contributed such as existing service structures and lack of funding. Challenges included uncertainty about guidance specifying face to face notification; how best to balance allaying parental anxiety by using familiar non-specialist health professionals with concerns about practitioner competence; and extent of information parents should be given. Inadequate consideration of resource and service workload was seen as the main policy obstacle. Clarification of existing guidance; more specific protocols to ensure consistent countrywide practice; integration of the two programmes; and 'normalising' carrier status were suggested as improvements. Conclusion Differing models for communicating carrier results raise concerns about equity and clinical governance. However, this variation provides opportunity for evaluation. Timely and more detailed guidance on protocols with

  17. Assessment of Hot-Carrier Effects on Charge Separation in Type-II CdS/CdTe Heterostructured Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Makoto; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-01

    Charge separation in semiconducting materials is an essential process that determines the efficiency of photovoltaic devices and photocatalysts. Herein, we report the charge-separation dynamics in type-II CdS/CdTe heterostructured nanorods revealed by femtosecond transient-absorption (TA) measurements with a broad-band white-light probe. Under selective excitation of the CdTe segment, bleaching signals at the band gap energy of CdS were clearly observed with a rise component on a subpicosecond time scale, which indicates efficient electron transfer from CdTe to CdS. The pump-energy dependence of the TA dynamics shows that hot electrons rapidly relax to the bottom of the conduction band of CdTe, and then the electrons transfer to the CdS segment. PMID:26278242

  18. 20 CFR 703.101 - Types of companies which may be authorized by the OWCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of companies which may be authorized by... REGULATIONS Authorization of Insurance Carriers § 703.101 Types of companies which may be authorized by the... and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act and its extensions the application of any stock company,...

  19. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  20. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics Measured by the Transient Change in the Reflectance of InP and GaAs Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Klopf

    2005-10-31

    Advancements in microfabrication techniques and thin film growth have led to complex integrated photonic devices, also known as optoelectronics. The performance of these devices relies upon precise control of the band gap and optical characteristics of the thin film structures, as well as a fundamental understanding of the photoexcited carrier thermalization, relaxation, and recombination processes. An optical pump-probe technique has been developed to measure the transient behavior of these processes on a sub-picosecond timescale. This method relies upon the generation of hot carriers by theabsorption of an intense ultrashort laser pulse (~ 135 fs). The transient changes in reflectance due to the pump pulse excitation are monitored using a weaker probe pulse. Control of the relative time delay between the pump and probe pulses allows for temporal measurements with resolution limited only by the pulse width. The transient change in reflectance is the result of a transient change in the carrier distribution. Observation of the reflectance response of indium phosphide (InP) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) films on a sub-picosecond timescale allows for detailed examination of thermalization and relaxation processes of the excited carriers. Longer timescales (> 100 ps) are useful for correlating the transient reflectance response to slower processes such as the diffusion and recombination of the photoexcited carriers. This research investigates the transient hot carrier processes in several InP and GaAs based films similar to those commonly used in optoelectronics. This technique is especially important as it provides a non-destructive means of evaluating these materials; whereas much of the research performed in this field has relied upon the measurement of transient changes in the transmission of transparent films. The process of preparing films that are transparent renders them unusable in functioning devices. This research should not only extend the understanding of

  1. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Herzig, Sébastien; Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  2. Polaron-induced lattice distortion of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots by optically excited carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemeyer, S; Bombeck, M; Göhring, H; Paulus, M; Sternemann, C; Nase, J; Wirkert, F J; Möller, J; Büning, T; Seeck, O H; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Bayer, M; Tolan, M

    2016-10-21

    We report on a high resolution x-ray diffraction study unveiling the effect of carriers optically injected into (In,Ga)As quantum dots on the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. We find a tetragonal lattice expansion with enhanced elongation along the [001] crystal axis that is superimposed on an isotropic lattice extension. The isotropic contribution arises from excitation induced lattice heating as confirmed by temperature dependent reference studies. The tetragonal expansion on the femtometer scale is tentatively attributed to polaron formation by carriers trapped in the quantum dots. PMID:27622774

  3. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each......The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...

  4. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... presumption that it is acceptable for deployment under § 51.230, the degraded service shall not prevail... deployment of advanced services. 51.233 Section 51.233 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where...

  5. Development of montelukast sodium loaded niosomal carriers by film hydration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Awasthi, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize montelukast sodium loaded niosomal drug carrier systems. The vesicles were prepared by film hydration technique using different surfactants. The optimized formulation was selected on the basis of results obtained from drug entrapment, morphology and in vitro drug release studies, and further evaluated for possible drug-excipient interaction, thermal behavior and drug physical state, before and after formulation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis methods, respectively. The morphological characterization of vesicles was done using Transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system was used for elemental and dimensional analysis of developed vesicles. The vesicle surface charge was determined using zeta potential measurements. The results suggested that the optimized formulation had small size (103±6.01 nm) and high drug entrapment (72.20±2.10%). No chemical interaction was observed between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that Span 60 is a good nonionic surfactant for vesicle formulation. After 3 months storage at 2-8°C, the optimized formulation preserved stability in terms of formulation colour, drug amount and percent drug release. After 3 months, flocculation occured and hard cake was not formed on the settlement of vesicles. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the designed vesicles could enhance drug entrapment, reduce the initial burst release of drug and modulate the drug release. PMID:25910042

  6. Optimizing eHealth breast cancer interventions: which types of eHealth services are effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; Hawkins, Robert; Pingree, Suzanne; Roberts, Linda J; McDowell, Helene E; Shaw, Bret R; Serlin, Ron; Dillenburg, Lisa; Swoboda, Christopher M; Han, Jeong-Yeob; Stewart, James A; Carmack-Taylor, Cindy L; Salner, Andrew; Schlam, Tanya R; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the effective elements of Interactive Cancer Communication Systems (ICCSs). A randomized trial explored which types of services of a multifaceted ICCS benefited patients and the nature of the benefit. Women with breast cancer (N=450) were randomized to different types of ICCS services or to a control condition that provided internet access. The Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS), served as the ICCS. ICCS services providing information and support, but not coaching such as cognitive behavior therapy, produced significant benefits in health information competence and emotional processing. Provision of Information and Support ICCS services significantly benefited women with breast cancer. More complex and interactive services designed to train the user had negligible effects. PMID:21709810

  7. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  8. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Zhou

    Full Text Available The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  9. TARGETING OF DRUGS TO VARIOUS BLOOD-CELL TYPES USING (NEO-)GLYCOPROTEINS, ANTIBODIES AND OTHER PROTEIN CARRIERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLEMA, G; MEIJER, DKF

    1994-01-01

    The current problems in controlling severe viral infections of blood cells such as in AIDS as well as the lack of effective and safe pharmacotherapeutic measures for such diseases have renewed interest in the options of targeting of drugs and genes to various blood cell types. The design and develop

  10. Temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers passivated by high quality amorphous silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masahiro; Todoroki, Soichiro; Nakada, Kazuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on the temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of a crystalline silicon wafer passivated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide. The annealing significantly affects the lifetime and its temperature dependence. Our device simulations clearly indicate that valence band offset significantly affects the temperature dependence. We also found a slight increase in the interface defect density after annealing.

  11. Investigation of field-dependent charge carrier generation and recombination in polymer based solar cells by transient extraction currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniepert, Juliane; Blakesley, James; Neher, Dieter [University of Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    There is an ongoing discussion as to whether photoinduced charge transfer in P3HT:PCBM solar cells leads to fully separated electrons and holes, independent of an electric field, or Coulombically bound interfacial charge pairs. While recent studies by R.A. Marsh et al. with transient absorption spectroscopy gave clear evidence for the formation and field-induced dissociation of bound polaron pairs, measurements by I.A. Howard et al. were in favour of hot exciton dissociation. Here, we present the results of bias-dependent Time Delayed Collection Field (TDCF) measurements to access directly the density of free charge carriers in P3HT:PCBM blends coated from dichlorobenzene. Solvent annealing was applied to yield a phase-separated morphology and the corresponding solar cells exhibit high values for the external quantum efficiency and fill factor. Our setup allowed us to follow the generation and recombination of photogenerated charges with a so far unattained time resolution of 40 ns. Our experiments show that the number of collected carriers is independent of the applied bias during pulsed illumination implying that extractable carriers in P3HT:PCBM blends are not generated by the field-assisted separation of bound polaron pairs. In addition, our experiments support the view that bimolecular recombination of free carriers is strongly suppressed in phase-separated P3HT:PBCM blends.

  12. 77 FR 13508 - Certainty of Terms of Service Contracts and NVOCC Service Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...The Federal Maritime Commission amends its rules regarding certainty of terms of service contracts and non-vessel-operating common carrier service arrangements. The rule provides common carriers and shippers with certainty and flexibility by facilitating their use of long-term contracts that adjust based upon an index reflecting changes in market...

  13. Modeling and visualization of carrier motion in organic films by optical second harmonic generation and Maxwell-displacement current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai

    2015-09-01

    The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we

  14. Modeling and visualization of carrier motion in organic films by optical second harmonic generation and Maxwell-displacement current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we

  15. Enhanced carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by Al2O3 encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeoul; Park, Seonyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-10-01

    We report the effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on the carrier mobility and contact resistance of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by statistically investigating 70 devices with SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric. After Al2O3 encapsulation by atomic layer deposition, calculation based on Y-function method indicates that the enhancement of carrier mobility from 24.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 41.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 occurs independently from the reduction of contact resistance from 276 kΩ.μm to 118 kΩ.μm. Furthermore, contrary to the previous literature, we observe a negligible effect of thermal annealing on contact resistance and carrier mobility during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. These results demonstrate that Al2O3 encapsulation is a useful method of improving the carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 transistors, providing important implications on the application of MoS2 and other two-dimensional materials into high-performance transistors.

  16. Immune Thrombocytopenia Resolved by Eltrombopag in a Carrier of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scaramucci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, may provide excellent clinical efficacy in steroid-refractory patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP [1,2]. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated. However, its use in the particular setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and history of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA has not been reported so far. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as having ITP in September 2014. She was not taking any medication and her past history was negative, apart from having been diagnosed a carrier (heterozygous of G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant after a familial screening by molecular and biochemical methods. She presented with only slightly reduced (about 50% enzyme level, belonging to World Health Organization-defined class 3 [3,4]. In the following years, the patient experienced some episodes of AHA, which were managed at outside institutions; in particular, a severe episode of AHA, probably triggered by urinary infection and antibiotics [5], had complicated her second and last delivery. The hemolytic episodes were selflimiting and resolved without sequelae. No other causes of hemolysis were documented. When the case came to our attention, a diagnosis of ITP was made; hemolytic parameters were normal, although the G6PD enzyme concentration was not measured. Oral prednisone (1 mg/kg was given with only a transient benefit. The patient was then a candidate for elective splenectomy. However, given her extremely low platelet count, she was started in October 2014 on eltrombopag at 50 mg/day as a bridge to splenectomy. Given that, to the best of our knowledge, the use of this drug has never been reported in the particular setting of G6PD deficiency, the patient was constantly monitored. A prompt platelet increase (178x109/L was observed 1 week after the start of treatment. After she achieved the target platelet count, the dose of eltrombopag was tapered to the lowest effective dose. The patient

  17. Carrier Transport Mechanism in Single Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Elucidated by Visualized Carrier Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved microscopic second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) measurement was conducted to evaluate temperature dependence of the anisotropic carrier transport process in 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene single crystalline domains for two orthogonal directions. Enhancement of the electric field induced SHG (EFI-SHG) signal at the electrode edge at low temperature suggests the presence of potential drop in the injection process. We directly evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility by taking into account the potential drop, and concluded that the Marcus theory is appropriate to interpret the carrier transport in anisotropic TIPS pentacene thin film. TRM-SHG method is a facile and effective way to directly visualize transport process in anisotropic materials and to evaluate injection and transport processes simultaneously. PMID:27451638

  18. Partial rescue of in vivo insulin signalling in skeletal muscle by impaired insulin clearance in heterozygous carriers of a mutation in the insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, K.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently we reported the coexistence of postprandial hypoglycaemia and moderate insulin resistance in heterozygous carriers of the Arg1174Gln mutation in the insulin receptor gene (INSR). Controlled studies of in vivo insulin signalling in humans with mutant INSR are unavailable...... in vivo insulin signalling in muscle in these carriers of a mutant INSR, probably by increasing insulin action on the non-mutated insulin receptors......., and therefore the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in Arg1174Gln carriers remain to be clarified. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle from six Arg1174Gln carriers and matched control subjects during a euglycaemic...

  19. THE MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SERVICE QUALITY BY SERVQUAL ANALYSIS: A RESEARCH IN IN BANKING SECTOR SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yücel, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract It is very important to know how service is valued by customers in banking sector where the product is the service. Consequently, it becomes an unavoidable burden to improve the services in which they determined any dissatisfaction by measuring customer satisfaction continuously. In this study, with the aim of measuring service quality, we examine Servqual service quality measuring model developed by Parasuraman, Zeithhmal and Berry. The model is based on the average servqua...

  20. Design Study of Type-C Tank for LNG Carrier%C型LNG液货舱设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞权; 陆晟

    2013-01-01

    As one of the key techniques for small-scale LNG ship,the type-C independent tank determines the ship performance of economy and safety.The features of type-C independent tank are briefly introduced.Different cryogenic materials of the tanks are introduced,while the major kinds of material are compared It is introduced the determining method of the design temperature,pressure and factors of the tank size for the type-C independent tank.Combining with the boil-off rate design,the key technology of the insulation lay design is also described.%作为小型LNG船的关键技术之一,C型独立液舱决定着整船的经济性能和安全性能.简要介绍了C型独立液舱的特点,说明了不同液货舱材料的特性,并对几种常用材料进行了对比.介绍了C型独立液货舱设计压力和温度的确定方法,及液货舱尺度要素的确定方法.并结合蒸发率设计,阐述了保温层设计的关键技术.

  1. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, D.B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; Rijen, van M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; Boxtel, van A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, ho

  2. Effect of carrier tunneling on the structure of Si nanowires fabricated by metal assisted etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, S. J.; Gunnella, R.; Neilson, D.; Boarino, L.; Croin, L.; Aprile, G.; Fretto, M.; Rizzi, P.; Antonioli, D.; Pinto, N.

    2016-08-01

    The metal assisted etching mechanism for Si nanowire fabrication, triggered by doping type and level and coupled with choice of metal catalyst, is still very poorly understood. We explain the different etching rates and porosities of wires we observe based on extensive experimental data, using a new empirical model we have developed. We establish as a key parameter, the tunneling through the space charge region (SCR) which is the result of the reduction of the SCR width by level of the Si wafer doping in the presence of the opposite biases of the p- and n-type wafers. This improved understanding should permit the fabrication of high quality wires with predesigned structural characteristics, which hitherto has not been possible.

  3. Effect of carrier tunneling on the structure of Si nanowires fabricated by metal assisted etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, S J; Gunnella, R; Neilson, D; Boarino, L; Croin, L; Aprile, G; Fretto, M; Rizzi, P; Antonioli, D; Pinto, N

    2016-08-26

    The metal assisted etching mechanism for Si nanowire fabrication, triggered by doping type and level and coupled with choice of metal catalyst, is still very poorly understood. We explain the different etching rates and porosities of wires we observe based on extensive experimental data, using a new empirical model we have developed. We establish as a key parameter, the tunneling through the space charge region (SCR) which is the result of the reduction of the SCR width by level of the Si wafer doping in the presence of the opposite biases of the p- and n-type wafers. This improved understanding should permit the fabrication of high quality wires with predesigned structural characteristics, which hitherto has not been possible. PMID:27420163

  4. Influence of filling ratio and carrier type on organic matter removal in a moving bed biofilm reactor with pretreatment of electrocoagulation in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, C; Martín-Pascual, J; González-Martínez, A; Calderón, K; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is great concern about limited water resources and water quality, which require a more advanced technology. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) has been shown to be an efficient technology for removal of organic matter and nutrients in industrial and urban wastewater treatment. However, there are some pollutants which are more difficult to remove by biological processes, so this process can be improved with additional physical and chemical treatments such as electrocoagulation, which appears to be a promising technology in electrochemical treatments. In this research, urban wastewater was treated in an MBBR plant with an electrocoagulation pre-treatment. K1 from AnoxKaldnes and AQWISE ABC5 from Aqwise were the carriers studied under three different filling ratios (20, 35, and 50%). The experimental pilot plant had four bioreactors with 20 L of operation volume and a common feed tank with 100 L of operation volume. The movement of the carriers was generated by aeration and stirrer systems. Organic matter removal was studied by analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). The maximum organic matter removal in this MBBR system was 65.8% ± 1.4% and 78.4% ± 0.1% for K1 and Aqwise ABC5 carriers, respectively. Moreover, the bacterial diversity of the biofilm was studied by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. 20 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, being the predominant population: β-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria.

  5. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid. PMID:27464986

  6. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid. PMID:27464986

  7. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  8. P-Type Doping of GaN by Mg+ Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Shu-De; ZHAO Qiang; ZHOU Sheng-Qiang; YANG Zi-Jian; LU Yi-Hong; SUN Chang-Chun; SUN Chang; ZHANG Guo-Yi; VANTOMME Andre; PIPELEERS Bert

    2003-01-01

    Mg+ and Mg++P+ were introduced into GaN by ion implantation. The structure and crystalline quality of the GaN samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and channelling spectrometry before (xmin = 1.6%) and after implantation (Xmin = 4.1%). X-ray diffraction reveals the existence of implantation-induced damage in the case of post-implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing. The resistivity, average factor, carrier concentration and carrier mobility were measured by the Hall effect. The transformation from n-type to p-type for GaN was observed.

  9. Investigation of carrier scattering mechanisms in molybdenum diselenide single crystals by hall effect measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumesh, C.K. [Dept. of Physics, CharotarUniversity of Scinece and Technology, Changa, Anand, Gujarat (India); Patel, K.D.; Pathak, V.M.; Srivastav, R. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat (India)

    2010-09-15

    Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}) belong to the large family of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. It consists of weakly coupled sandwiched layers i.e. Se - Mo - Se in which a Mo atom layer is enclosed within two Se layers. This structure makes MoSe{sub 2} extremely anisotropic in character and leads to unusual structural properties. In addition, MoSe{sub 2} possess flexible nature along with good carrier mobility to make them potential candidate for fabricating flexible high mobility electronic devices such as Schottky barrier devices, FETs, solar cell etc. In context of this authors made an effort to study the low temperature (12 < T < 300 K) electronic transport properties of Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}). Through the investigation the temperature dependent Hall mobility study revealed that the grown crystals of MoSe{sub 2}possess a mixed scattering mechanism. It has been found that observed temperature dependant mobility has at least two transitions from lattice to impurity scatterings showing an imprint of multicarrier nature of this semiconductor originating from its complex band structure. It has been observed that the studied crystals have at least two group of carriers of differing origins in which transition between dominant scattering mechanisms occur at different temperatures. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Simulation of dual transponder carrier ranging measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu ZHAO; Xiao-jun JIN; Zhong-he JIN

    2009-01-01

    The most dominant error source for microwave ranging is the frequency instability of the oscillator that generates the carrier phase signal. The oscillator noise is very difficult to filter due to its extremely low frequency. A dual transponder carrier ranging method can effectively minimize the oscillator noise by combing the reference phase and the to-and-fro measurement phase from the same single oscillator. This method does not require an accurate time tagging system, since it extracts phases on the same satellite. This paper analyzes the dual transponder carrier ranging system by simulation of the phase measurements with comprehensive error models. Both frequency domain and time domain noise transfer characteristics were simulated to compare them with dual one-way ranging. The simulation results in the two domains conformed to each other and demonstrated that a high level of accuracy can also be achieved by use of the dual transponder carrier ranging system, with relatively simple instruments.

  11. Accelerated start-up of moving bed biofilm reactor by using a novel suspended carrier with porous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Kong, Lingjun; Wang, Xingyu; Tian, Shuanghong; Xiong, Ya

    2015-02-01

    A novel suspended carrier with porous surface was firstly prepared by coating a sponge on the inside and outside of a hard polyethylene ring. Herein the effects of the sponge thickness (0, 2, 4, 6 mm) and pore size (17, 45, 85 pores per inch, ppi) on the performance of the start-up stage in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) were investigated. The results indicated that the home-made carrier with the sponge thickness of 4 mm and the pore size of 45 ppi, defined as SC4-45, showed the best performance, which obtained high biomass concentration of 2,136.6 mg/L, oxygen uptake rate for COD of 150.1 mg O2/h and oxygen uptake rate for NH4(+)-N of 17.4 mg O2/h. The DGGE profiles of the biofilms obtained in SC4-45 and a commercial carrier showed a similar community as the Dice similarity coefficients between two samples was 0.72. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis reveals dominance of Sphaerotilus sp. and Aeromonas sp. in the community of both samples. Moreover, for the MBBR based on SC4-45, COD and NH4(+)-N removal rates reached 99.5 ± 1.1 and 93.6 ± 2.3 % at the end of the start-up stage, much higher than those of the commercial carrier, 74.9 ± 2.7 and 40.0 ± 1.8 %, respectively. These indicated the novel carrier obtained a quick start-up.

  12. Application of Queuing Theory for Locating Service Centers by Considering Provides Several Service in That

    OpenAIRE

    GhAFFARI, Mahdi; SOORAN, Shahram Asgari; AMIRI, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    One of the factors contributing to the success of the service centers to provide high quality services to customers can be short waiting time for customers to receive service and quick access to a service center for the service is licensed under. In this paper, a model for locating service centers stated that its goal is to minimize travel time and waiting for customers to receive service. The main purpose served by assuming diversity is followed. Serving a variety of different means of provi...

  13. Carrier mobility in rubrene-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl studied by the time-of-flight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Michinori; Nose, Toshiaki

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the transient photocurrent of rubrene-doped nematic liquid crystal using a time-of-flight examination. Drift mobilities on the order of 10-6 cm2/V s were obtained for both positive and negative carriers. The minimal dependence of the rubrene concentration on the drift mobility is indicative of the ionic conduction as carrier transport process. The product of the drift mobility and the viscosity obeys the Walden rule, further supporting the ionic carrier transport process.

  14. Customer value of purchasable supplementary services

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Rowley, Edward

    2012-01-01

    There is a general trend in the airline industry to find ways to generate ancillary revenue by offering additional or unbundled services. Especially low cost carriers are known to unbundle their services, however, in contrast only some network carriers started to unbundle their services and gain ancillary revenues, others do not due to a possible negative impact on customer perception and their brand image. The goal of this study is to determine viability and customer value of purchasable ...

  15. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2009-11-08

    Solution-processable organic semiconductors are central to developing viable printed electronics, and performance comparable to that of amorphous silicon has been reported for films grown from soluble semiconductors. However, the seemingly desirable formation of large crystalline domains introduces grain boundaries, resulting in substantial device-to-device performance variations. Indeed, for films where the grain-boundary structure is random, a few unfavourable grain boundaries may dominate device performance. Here we isolate the effects of molecular-level structure at grain boundaries by engineering the microstructure of the high-performance n-type perylenediimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 and analyse their consequences for charge transport. A combination of advanced X-ray scattering, first-principles computation and transistor characterization applied to PDI8-CN 2 films reveals that grain-boundary orientation modulates carrier mobility by approximately two orders of magnitude. For PDI8-CN 2 we show that the molecular packing motif (that is, herringbone versus slip-stacked) plays a decisive part in grain-boundary-induced transport anisotropy. The results of this study provide important guidelines for designing device-optimized molecular semiconductors. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial......(APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds...... which may interact on anionic carriers....

  17. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  18. The Effects of Safety Practices, Technology Adoption, and Firm Characteristics on Motor Carrier Safety by Sarah J.

    OpenAIRE

    Dammen, Sarah J.

    2004-01-01

    Theory of the firm suggests that firms should maximize profit by investing in safety until the marginal cost is equal to the marginal benefit. This paper tests the relationship between firm safety performance and safety practices, safety technologies, and firm marketing strategies. By testing the impact of the safety performance marketing strategy on carrier crash rates, it can be shown that firm managers have control over the safety performance of their firm through management decisions.

  19. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jing, E-mail: joemj1005@163.com, E-mail: miaojing@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Zhao, Mengdan [Zhejiang University, Women’s Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Hu, Fuqiang, E-mail: hufq@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-01-15

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC{sub 50}) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively, while the IC{sub 50} of Taxol{sup TM} was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL{sup −1}. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  20. Investigation on in vitro dissolution rate enhancement of indomethacin by using a novel carrier sucrose fatty acid ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Kolapalli Venkata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize and evaluate solid dispersions (SD of indomethacin by using a novel carrier sucrose fatty acid ester (SFE 1815 to increase its in vitro drug release and further formulating as a tablet. Methods Indomethacin loaded SD were prepared by solvent evaporation and melt granulation technique using SFE 1815 as carrier in 1:0.25, 1:0.5 1:0.75 and 1:1 ratios of drug and carrier. Prepared SD and tablets were subjected to in vitro dissolution studies in 900 mL of pH 7.2 phosphate buffer using apparatus I at 100 rpm. The promising SD were further formulated as tablets using suitable diluent (DCL 21, Avicel PH 102 and pregelatinised starch to attain the drug release similar to that of SD.. The obtained dissolution data was subjected to kinetic study by fitting the data into various model independent models like zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixon-Crowell and Peppas equations. Drug and excipient compatibility studies were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Results The in vitro dissolution data exhibited superior release from formulation S6 with 1:0.5 drug and carrier ratio using solvent evaporation technique than other SDs prepared at different ratio using solvent evaporation and melt granulation technique. The in vitro drug release was also superior to that of the physical mixtures prepared at same ratio and also superior to SD prepared using common carriers like polyvinyl pyrollidone and PEG 4000 by solvent evaporation technique. Tablets (T8 prepared with DCL21 as diluent exhibited superior release than the other tablets. The tablet formulation (T8 followed first order release with Non-Fickian release. Conclusion SFE 1815 a novel third generation carrier can be used for the preparation of SD for the enhancement of in vitro drug release of

  1. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  2. Spatial Carrier Fringe Pattern Demodulation by Use of a Two-Dimensional Continuous Paul Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Lalor, Michael; Moore, Chris

    2010-04-01

    This paper proposes the use of the two-dimensional continuous Paul wavelet transform to extract the phase of spatial carrier fringe patterns. The proposed algorithm has been tested using computer-generated and real fringe patterns, and these tests have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed technique for the phase demodulation of fringe patterns. Additionally, this algorithm is compared to three two-dimensional continuous wavelet algorithms that have figured prominently in the literature, specifically the Morlet, advanced Morlet and fan mother wavelets. This comparison has revealed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three mother wavelets in terms of its suitability for extracting the phase of fringe patterns that exhibit large phase variations.

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion

  4. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470 Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (a) Except for contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community-rated), the carrier is required...

  5. Investigation of carriers of lustrous carbon at high temperatures by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichholz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lustrous carbon is very important in processes of iron casting in green sand. Lustrous carbon (pirografit is a microcrystalline carbon form, which evolves from a gaseous phase. In the case of applying additions, generating lustrous carbon, for sands with bentonite, there is always a danger of emitting – due to a high temperature of liquid cast iron and a humidity - compounds hazardous for a human health. There can be: CO, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (the so-called: BTEX as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs. In order to asses the selected mixtures: bentonite – carrier of lustrous carbon, in which a coal dust fraction was limited, thethermogravimetric analysis and the analysis of evolving gases were performed. Examinations were carried out in the ApplictaionsLaboratory NITZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH ,Selb/Bavaria, Germany. The NETZSCH TG 209 F1 Iris® thermal analyzer coupled to the BRUKER Optics FTIR TENSOR(TM was used to measure.

  6. Development of in situ diagnostics and tools handled by a light multipurpose carrier for tokamak in-vessel interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multipurpose carrier prototype called Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) has been developed and demonstrated by CEA laboratories to operate embedded diagnostics or tools into a tokamak vacuum-vessel. The AIA robot with a vision diagnostic has been deployed inside the vacuum-vessel of Tore Supra tokamak and has realized closed inspections of plasma facing components' under relevant conditions (high vacuum and temperature). CEA is engaged in development of interchangeable diagnostics or tools to be plugged on the front head of the arm. This covers applications such as in-vessel inspections, water leak localization, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) characterization and treatment. This paper describes R and D activities performed in CEA laboratories to develop diagnostics and tools for in-vessel interventions. The AIA multipurpose carrier to carry such devices is also presented. The first demonstration of a quick intervention for plasma facing components performed in the Tore Supra Facility is described as well.

  7. Development of in situ diagnostics and tools handled by a light multipurpose carrier for tokamak in-vessel interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houry, M., E-mail: michael.houry@cea.f [CEA, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnetique, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bayetti, P. [CEA, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnetique, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Keller, D. [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, F-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gargiulo, L.; Bruno, V.; Hatchressian, J.C.; Hernandez, C.; Martins, J.P. [CEA, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnetique, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Measson, Y.; Perrot, Y.; Russotto, F.X. [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, F-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-12-15

    A multipurpose carrier prototype called Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) has been developed and demonstrated by CEA laboratories to operate embedded diagnostics or tools into a tokamak vacuum-vessel. The AIA robot with a vision diagnostic has been deployed inside the vacuum-vessel of Tore Supra tokamak and has realized closed inspections of plasma facing components' under relevant conditions (high vacuum and temperature). CEA is engaged in development of interchangeable diagnostics or tools to be plugged on the front head of the arm. This covers applications such as in-vessel inspections, water leak localization, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) characterization and treatment. This paper describes R and D activities performed in CEA laboratories to develop diagnostics and tools for in-vessel interventions. The AIA multipurpose carrier to carry such devices is also presented. The first demonstration of a quick intervention for plasma facing components performed in the Tore Supra Facility is described as well.

  8. Electrical Characteristics of Schottky Contacts to p-Type (001) GaP: Understanding of Carrier Transport Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sungjoo; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Daesung; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-GaP is important for development of high-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which emit light from red to yellow-green and have a wide variety of applications such as traffic light lamps, automobile tail lamps, and in biotherapy. The current flow behavior can be understood by investigating the effect of the Schottky barrier height (SBH; ΦB) on the work function of metals (ΦM). In this work, SBHs and their dependence on ΦM at (001) p-GaP surfaces were investigated. With increasing temperature, the SBH increased, while the ideality factor decreased. This behavior is explained by means of a thermionic field-emission (TFE) model. The SBH and ideal factor ranged from 0.805 eV to 0.852 eV and from 1.18 to 1.50, respectively, for different Schottky metals. The S-parameter (dΦB/dΦM) was estimated to be 0.025, with this approximately zero value implying that the surface Fermi level is virtually perfectly pinned at the surface states at ~0.85 eV above the valence-band edge.

  9. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  10. Reducing the content of carrier polymer in pectin nanofibers by electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Sisi; Yao, Bing; Sun, Xue; Hu, Junli; Zhou, Yifa; Liu, Yichun

    2016-02-01

    Nanofibers of natural polymers represent an essential class of materials in biomedicine. Pectin is a plant-sourced anionic polysaccharide widely used in food products and biomedicine owning to its abundance, biocompatibility and inherent bioactivity. However, current electrospun pectin nanofibers are suffered from high content of carrier polymer, which may lead to low integrity and mechanical strength as well as in vivo toxicity. We report here a strategy to reduce the content of carrier polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) in our study, in pectin nanofibers, via electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing. With improved electrospinning condition, we first enabled electrospinning of pectin nanofibers at low PEO loading. Then the PEO was removed by washing with a selective solvent to give pectin nanofibers containing only 1.5% PEO. The strategy was versatile to pectins from various sources and of various degree of esterification. The pectin nanofibers exhibited Young's modulus as high as 358.5MPa. In view of their rich bioactivity, the pectin nanofibers of low content of carrier polymer are promising materials for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:26652444

  11. Reducing the content of carrier polymer in pectin nanofibers by electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Sisi; Yao, Bing; Sun, Xue; Hu, Junli; Zhou, Yifa; Liu, Yichun

    2016-02-01

    Nanofibers of natural polymers represent an essential class of materials in biomedicine. Pectin is a plant-sourced anionic polysaccharide widely used in food products and biomedicine owning to its abundance, biocompatibility and inherent bioactivity. However, current electrospun pectin nanofibers are suffered from high content of carrier polymer, which may lead to low integrity and mechanical strength as well as in vivo toxicity. We report here a strategy to reduce the content of carrier polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) in our study, in pectin nanofibers, via electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing. With improved electrospinning condition, we first enabled electrospinning of pectin nanofibers at low PEO loading. Then the PEO was removed by washing with a selective solvent to give pectin nanofibers containing only 1.5% PEO. The strategy was versatile to pectins from various sources and of various degree of esterification. The pectin nanofibers exhibited Young's modulus as high as 358.5MPa. In view of their rich bioactivity, the pectin nanofibers of low content of carrier polymer are promising materials for a wide range of biomedical applications.

  12. Limits of carrier mobility in Sb-doped SnO2 conducting films deposited by reactive sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bissig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron transport in Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO films is studied to unveil the limited carrier mobility observed in sputtered films as compared to other deposition methods. Transparent and conductive ATO layers are deposited from metallic tin targets alloyed with antimony in oxygen atmosphere optimized for reactive sputtering. The carrier mobility decreases from 24 cm2 V−1 s−1 to 6 cm2 V−1 s−1 when increasing the doping level from 0 to 7 at. %, and the lowest resistivity of 1.8 × 10−3 Ω cm corresponding to the mobility of 12 cm2 V−1 s−1 which is obtained for the 3 at. % Sb-doped ATO. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements and near-infrared reflectance measurements reveal that the carrier mobility in sputtered ATO is limited by ingrain scattering. In contrast, the mobility of unintentionally doped SnO2 films is determined mostly by the grain boundary scattering. Both limitations should arise from the sputtering process itself, which suffers from the high-energy-ion bombardment and yields polycrystalline films with small grain size.

  13. 47 CFR 51.605 - Additional obligations of incumbent local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local exchange carriers. (a) An incumbent LEC shall offer to any requesting telecommunications carrier.... (c) For purposes of this subpart, advanced telecommunications services sold to Internet Service Providers as an input component to the Internet Service Providers' retail Internet service offering...

  14. Increased Use of Dental Services by Children in Medicaid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report analyzes the use of dental services by children enrolled in Medicaid from federal fiscal years (FFY) 2000 to 2010. The number and percent of children...

  15. Protection and viability of fruit seeds oils by nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasodomska, Olga; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Jungnickel, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we focused on the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application. The NLC matrix was designed as a protective reservoir of biological active compounds that naturally occur in domestic fruit seed oils. Over the years, emulsions, as a popular physicochemical form of personal care products, were refined in order to obtain the best possible penetration into the skin of any bioactive compound introduced in the formulation, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the bioactive components are useful only if they are able to penetrate the skin unchanged. Therefore, an alternate way to deliver naturally occurring PUFAs is needed. NLCs present a novel delivery and protection system for the PUFAs. The cold pressed fruit seed oils obtained from waste material were used in this paper: blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and plum. Thermodynamic (DSC) and structural techniques ((1)H NMR) were applied in order to characterize the obtained systems in terms of seed oil incorporation into the NLC, and oxidative stability tests were used to confirm the protective quality of the systems. During the formulation optimization process the most stable nanosuspension with the best seed oil incorporation was a mixture of 4% nonionic emulsifiers, 88% water and 6% lipids with a ratio of 6:2, wax:oil. The oxidative stability tests showed that the NLC was an effective method of protection of the PUFAs. PMID:27348480

  16. Carrier cultures of simian foamy virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J K; Samuels, J; Dermott, E; Gay, F W

    1970-05-01

    The production of cultures of HEp-2 and BHK-21 cells persistently infected with a type 1 simian foamy virus is described. After infection, HEp-2 cells showed no structural changes, whereas BHK-21 cells lost their normal spindle shape and showed mitochondrial damage, and some cells contained many lysosomes. Thin sections also showed that a few BHK-21 cells contained virus particles in low concentration, and infectious virus could be isolated from both the cells and the supernatant fluid. No virus was seen in thin sections of HEp-2 cells, although infectious virus in low titer could be recovered intermittently from lysed cells. Both carrier cultures were immune to challenge with homologous virus and antigen could be detected in over 90% of the cells even after growth for 9 weeks in the presence of virus-neutralizing serum. The distribution of antigen in carrier cultures of both cell types is described and compared with that seen in cytocidal infections. PMID:4986851

  17. Contribution to the optimization of 4G mobile communications by means of advanced carrier aggregation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rosas, María Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Mobile broadband subscriptions and data traffic have increasingly grown in the past years with the deployment of the 3G and 4G technologies and the massive use of mobile devices. In this sense, LTE-A has been presented as the next step in wireless communications where higher data rates are targeted and fully packet switched services are held. The ultimate goal of 4G and the forthcoming 5G technology is to increase the Quality of Experience (QoE) of users. In this context, several challenges o...

  18. Carrier Formation Dynamics of Organic Photovoltaics as Investigated by Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Yonezawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ based on a donor (D polymer and an acceptor (A fullerene derivative is a promising organic photovoltaics (OPV. In order to improve the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE of the BHJ solar cell, a comprehensive understanding of the ultrafast dynamics of excited species, such as singlet exciton (D*, interfacial charge-transfer (CT state, and carrier (D+, is indispensable. Here, we performed femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of two prototypical BHJ blend films: poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM blend film and poly(9,9′-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene (F8T2/[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM blend film. We decomposed differential absorption spectra into fast, slow, and constant components via two-exponential fitting at respective probe photon energies. The decomposition procedure clearly distinguished photoinduced absorptions (PIAs due to D*, CT, and D+. Based on these assignments, we will compare the charge dynamics between the F8T2/PC70BM and P3HT/PCBM blend films.

  19. Classifications within molecular subtypes enables identification of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers by RNA tumor profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua;

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are detected in less than one third of families with a strong history of breast cancer. It is therefore expected that mutations still remain undetected by currently used screening methods. In addition, a growing number of BRCA1/2 sequence variants...... tumors by RNA profiling to investigate the classification potential of RNA profiles to predict BRCA1/2 mutation status. We found that breast tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers display characteristic RNA expression patterns, allowing them to be distinguished from sporadic tumors. The majority...

  20. AN OPPORTUNITY SEIZED: J & B SERVICES, INC., THE 1970S AND 1980S DEREGULATION OF THE MOTOR CARRIER SYSTEM, AND THE POTENTIAL FOR SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Toby Bates

    2004-01-01

    The mid 1970s and subsequent 1980s witnessed a broad reduction of governmental restraints on the American trucking industry. The reforms initiated in the United States transportation business under the administrations of presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan accompanied similar and simultaneous moves in telecommunications, airlines, railroads, as well as banking systems. In a ten-year period from roughly 1975 to 1985, and including the passage of the Motor Carrier Act in 1980...

  1. Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    various design parameters have on the device properties, in particular how they affect the carrier dynamics and the corresponding field dynamics. A number of different types of results are presented. We calculate absorption spectra and steady-state field screening due to carrier pile-up at the separate...

  2. Enhanced incorporation of dietary DHA into lymph phospholipids by altering its molecular carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Papasani V; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Yang, Peng; Bi, Jian; O'Donnell, J Michael

    2016-08-01

    Several previous studies indicated that for optimal uptake by the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) should be present as phospholipid in the plasma. However most of dietary DHA is absorbed as triacylglycerol (TAG) because it is released as free fatty acid during digestion of either TAG-DHA (fish oil) or sn-2-DHA phospholipid (krill oil), and subsequently incorporated into TAG of chylomicrons. We tested the hypothesis that the absorption of DHA as phospholipid can be increased if it is present in the sn-1 position of dietary phospholipid or in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), because it would escape the hydrolysis by pancreatic phospholipase A2. We infused micelle containing the DHA either as LPC or as free acid, into the duodenum of lymph cannulated rats, and analyzed the chylomicrons and HDL of the lymph for the DHA-containing lipids. The results show that while the total amount of DHA absorbed was comparable from the two types of micelle, the percentage of DHA recovered in lymph phospholipids was 5 times greater with LPC-DHA, compared to free DHA. Furthermore, the amount of DHA recovered in lymph HDL was increased by 2-fold when LPC-DHA micelle was infused. These results could potentially lead to a novel strategy to increase brain DHA levels through the diet. PMID:27178174

  3. Logistics Optimization of Auto Parts Supplier Embedded by Service Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue LONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the logistics service optimization of auto parts suppliers in China, this paper proposes a logistics service optimization model of many service enterprises to one supplier. This model which takes two logistics service enterprises and one supplier as research objects includes the enterprise interests growth model based on the Lotka-Volterra model and interests distribution model using Shapley value method amended by the contribution factor. Furthermore, an example is given to testify the model. The results show that the auto parts supplier’s logistics can be improved and cost can be reduced if the logistics service alliance was established successfully with one core integrating service enterprise and a total logistics service solution was provided. The results also show that as the cost reduces, the interests of the alliance increase and the rational distribution by the integrating service enterprise will help promote the interests of all members

  4. Absorption of Light by Free Charge Carriers in the Crystalline CdS Under Intense Electron Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V. D.; Yakovlev, V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    The process of light absorption by free electrons in the crystalline cadmium sulfide under irradiation by a nanosecond electron beam with the current density of 8-100 A/cm2 is studied. A superlinear increase in optical absorption is observed if the beam current density is increased from ~8 to 12 A/cm2. The nature of light absorption by thermalized electrons corresponds to the scattering on lattice defects. An increase in the exponent of the power dependence of light absorption on the wavelength with increasing beam current density is associated with the single and double ionization of donors and acceptors. It is concluded that accumulation of charge carriers occurs without capture by traps due to their impact ionization by secondary electrons, whose energy in the thermalization stage is comparable with the band gap of the crystal. According to the results of calculations, the capture cross section of electrons by holes at quadratic recombination is ~10-20 cm2, the Auger recombination coefficient is ~10-31 cm6•s-1, and the charge carrier concentration is ~1.3•1018-1.5•1019 cm-3.

  5. Identification by molecular diagnosis of mosaic Turner's syndrome in an obligate carrier female for fragile X syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada, M. I.; Mornet, E; Tizzano, E.; Molina, M.; Baiget, M; Boue, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of mosaic Turner's syndrome with a 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX karyotype, who was also a fragile X obligate carrier as the mother of an affected boy, was identified by molecular diagnosis. Complete haplotyping and direct DNA analysis showed that the X chromosome in all metaphases was the normal X. At the age of 57, she is mentally normal. Her external appearance was typical of Turner's syndrome. This report shows that molecular studies in conjunction with cytogenetic analysis can help in the cli...

  6. Influence of herbicide active ingredient, nozzle type, orifice size, spray pressure, and carrier volume rate on spray droplet size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent concerns on herbicide spray drift and its subsequent impact on the surrounding environment and herbicide efficacy have prompted applicators to focus on methods to reduce off-target movement of herbicides. Herbicide applications are complex processes and as such few studies have been conducted...

  7. The provision of orthodontic services by general dental practitioners. 2. Factors influencing variation in service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A J; Wright, F A; D'Adamo, S P

    1995-12-01

    Previous work has shown that variations exist amongst general dental practitioners in the volume and type of orthodontic services provided, the type of orthodontic appliances used, and the objectives of the orthodontic treatment. The aims of this survey were to identify practitioner characteristics that account for variations in the level of orthodontic services provided and which distinguish providers and non-providers of orthodontic services. Multiple regression analysis revealed that four practitioner characteristics explained 41 per cent of the variance in the number of orthodontic patients treated. Dentists who treated more orthodontic patients: 1) treated more general practice patients; 2) frequently used multiple sources to keep up to date in orthodontics; 3) perceived their patient base to contain more children; and 4) were likely to have attended a Truitt course. Eleven variables best distinguished providers from non-providers of orthodontic treatment; 1, 2 and 3 above had the highest correlation with the discriminant function. The Null Hypothesis that selected characteristics of dentists providing orthodontic services were no different from those of dentists not providing orthodontic services was rejected. The provision of orthodontic services was associated with a higher level of continuing orthodontic education as well as treating more general practice patients, especially children. PMID:8615740

  8. Ionization of atoms by few-cycle EUV laser pulses: carrier-envelope phase dependence of the intra-pulse interference effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the ionization of the H atom by intense few-cycle laser pulses, in particular the intra-pulse interference effects, and their dependence on the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the laser pulse. In the final momentum distribution of the continuum electrons the imprint of two types of intra-pulse interference effects can be observed, namely the temporal and spatial interference. During the spatial interference electronic wave packets emitted at the same time, but following different paths interfere leading to an interference pattern measurable in the electron spectra. This can be also interpreted as the interference between a direct and a scattered wave, and the spatial interference pattern as the holographic mapping (HM) of the target. This HM pattern is strongly influenced by the carrier-envelope phase through the shape of the laser pulse. Here, we have studied how the shape of the HM pattern is modified by the CEP, and we have found an optimal CEP for the observation of HM. (authors)

  9. Selective extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using tributhylphosphate as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilitated extraction of Cr(VI) through an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated, using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as mobile carrier. The emulsion liquid membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TBP as carrier, SPAN 80 as surfactant and (NH4)2CO3 solution as stripping phase. The extraction of chromium (VI) has been studied under various experimental conditions and have been determined the influences of surfactant concentration, extractant concentration, stripping solution base concentration, mixing speed, phase ratio, treatment ratio, chromium (VI) and HCl concentrations of the feed solution. It was observed that the extraction rate of Cr(VI) was affected by changes of surfactant concentration, extractant concentration, stripping solution base concentration, and mixing speed. The results obtained showed that by appropriate selection of the extraction and stability conditions, nearly all of chromium (VI) ions present in the feed solution were extracted within 2-4 min. The separation factors of chromium (VI) with respect to cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc ions, based on initial feed concentration, have experimentally determined.

  10. Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformation by use of a carrier method of large image-shearing shearography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Sun; Ruijin Liu; Qing Han; Xiaofeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    A carrier method for separating out-of-plane displacement from in-plane components based on large imageshearing shearography is presented. A reference surface is fixed on the side of a test object. They are illuminated by two expanded symmetric illuminations respectively. The carrier is introduced by rotating the reference surface to modulate the displacement of an object. By using Fourier transform to demodulate the modulated fringe pattern, two phase maps, which include out-of-plane and in-plane displacements, can be obtained. Then the out-of-plane displacement can be easily separated from in-plane displacement by subtraction and addition of the two unwrapped phase distributions. The principle of the method is presented and proved by a typical three-point-bending experiment. Experimental results show that the method enjoys high visibility of carrier fringes. The system does not need a special beam as a reference light and has simple optical setup.

  11. Validation of STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M; Brown, A L; Budowle, B

    2001-05-01

    With the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), high-resolution electrophoretic separation of short tandem repeat (STR) loci can be achieved in a semiautomated fashion. Laser-induced detection of fluorescently labeled PCR products and multicolor analysis enable the rapid generation of multilocus DNA profiles. In this study, conditions for typing PCR-amplified STR loci by capillary electrophoresis were investigated using the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). An internal size standard was used with each run to effectively normalize mobility differences among injections. Alleles were designated by comparison to allelic ladders that were run with each sample set. Multiple runs of allelic ladders and of amplified samples demonstrate that allele sizes were reproducible, with standard deviations typically less than 0.12 bases for fragments up to 317 bases in length (largest allele analyzed) separated in a 47 cm capillary. Therefore, 99.7% of all alleles that are the same length should fall within the measurement error window of +/- 0.36 bases. Microvariants of the tetranucleotide repeats were also accurately typed by the analytical software. Alleles differing in size by one base could be resolved in two-donor DNA mixtures in which the minor component comprised > or = 5% of the total DNA. Furthermore, the quantitative data format (i.e., peak amplitude) can in some instances assist in determining individual STR profiles in mixed samples. DNA samples from previously typed cases (typed for RFLP, AmpliType PM+DQA1, and/or D1S80) were amplified using AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus and COfiler and were evaluated using the ABI Prism 310. Most samples yielded typable results. Compared with previously determined results for other loci, there were no discrepancies as to the inclusion or exclusion of suspects or victims. CE thus provides efficient separation, resolution, sensitivity and precision, and the analytical software provides reliable genotyping of STR loci. The

  12. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  13. PHARMACOTHERAPY MONITORING AND DEGREE OF SATISFACTION OF A FEMALE USER CARRIER PSYCHOSOCIAL DISORDER AGGRAVATED BY USE PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Sheyla Leite Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, 23 million people (12% of the population require some mental health care. The bipolar disorders, with a prevalence of 1,5%, shown as a public health problem by representing high risk of mortality. This user group is more likely to produce Drug Related Problems (DRPs and it is this respect the pharmacist shown to be important, with the practice of a qualified pharmaceutical care. This study aims to perform the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring under the pharmaceutical care provided to a user of Psychosocial Care Center II - Eastern city of Teresina, Piauí, and to assess the degree of satisfaction with the service. The monitoring was conducted from September 2012 to June 2013. Every pharmaceutical consultation, we collected data to support pharmaceutical interventions. The Negative Outcomes associated with medication (NOMs and DRPs were classified according to the Third Consensus of Granada. The casual blood glucose and blood pressure were within normal values with the potential for interaction were identified type drug - ethanol. Because of NOM and DRP was obtained 100 % effectiveness, and satisfaction of 89%. Realized the importance of the pharmacist in CAPS II to promote rational use of medicines and guidance on better habits of life, providing a better quality of life for the user.

  14. Characteristics of Telemental Health Service Use by American Indian Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jay H.; Brooks, Elizabeth; Anderson, Heather; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Kaufmann, L. Jeanne; Manson, Spero

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined use by American Indian and Alaska Native veterans of services provided by specialty telemental health clinics focused on posttraumatic stress disorder. These clinics offer services via videoconferencing to address challenges faced by rural veterans in accessing care. Methods A retrospective chart and electronic medical record review was conducted for 85 male veteranswho used services at two rural telemental health clinics in 2006 and 2007. Service use and other characteristics were documented before and after their initial telemental health intake. Results After intake, patients use of any health services (both general medical and mental health services) significantly increased (pservice use by American Indian and Alaska Native veterans at specialty telemental health clinics will help inform research and clinical strategies for improving telemental health for this and other rural populations. PMID:22302338

  15. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-08-14

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  16. 17 CFR 201.150 - Service of papers by parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of papers by parties... PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.150 Service of papers by parties. (a) When required. In every proceeding as defined in § 201.101(a), each paper, including each notice of appearance,...

  17. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Laurent, J.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 1017 cm-3 to 3 × 1020 cm-3). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 1016 cm-3 through calibration analysis.

  18. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  19. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  20. Aligned Structures of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles in a Curable Polymer Carrier Induced by a Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Wen-Xiao; HE Zhen-Hui; XU Xue-Qing; SHEN Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ To understand the interaction in dipolar systems, it is necessary to investigate the structures formed by the interacting particles. We introduce a polymer acrylic resin carrier to fix the structures in the magnetic fluid(Fe3O4). An aligned structure is investigated, which is formed under a magnetic field, and fixed in the cured acrylic resin film by evaporating the solvent at room temperature. The aligned structure is confirmed with the help of optical microscopy and optical diffraction for the cured film. Furthermore, we find substructures by using a scanning electronic microscope. Based on the curable and observable structures, a platform can be developed for investigating the aligned structures and configurations dominant by dipolar interaction. This is also helpful for the development of magnetic devices with orderly aligned structures.

  1. Free-carrier generation in aggregates of single-wall carbon nanotubes by photoexcitation in the ultraviolet regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Jared J; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Lüer, Larry; Hertel, Tobias; Doorn, Stephen K; Lanzani, Guglielmo

    2011-12-16

    We present evidence for the generation of free carriers in aggregated single-wall carbon nanotubes by photoexcitation in the energetic range of the π→π(*) transition associated with the M saddle point of the graphene lattice. The underlying broad absorption culminating at 4.3 eV can be fit well with a Fano line shape that describes strong coupling of a saddle-point exciton to an underlying free electron-hole pair continuum. Moreover, it is demonstrated that transitions in this energetic region autoionize into the continuum by detecting features unique to the presence of free charges in the transient transmission spectra of the continuum-embedded second sub-band exciton, S(2).

  2. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  3. Empirical in operando analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in hematite photoanodes by PEIS, IMPS and IMVS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dino; Ellis, David Shai; Dotan, Hen; Rothschild, Avner

    2016-09-14

    In this Perspective, we introduce intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS) as powerful tools for the analysis of charge carrier dynamics in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for solar water splitting, taking hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes as a case study. We complete the picture by including photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) and linking the trio of PEIS, IMPS and IMVS, introduced here as photoelectrochemical immittance triplets (PIT), both mathematically and phenomenologically, demonstrating what conclusions can be extracted from these measurements. A novel way of analyzing the results by an empirical approach with minimal presumptions is introduced, using the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) function. The DRT approach is compared to conventional analysis approaches that are based on physical models and therefore come with model presumptions. This work uses a thin film hematite photoanode as a model system, but the approach can be applied to other PEC systems as well. PMID:27524381

  4. Classifications within molecular subtypes enables identification of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers by RNA tumor profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Larsen

    Full Text Available Pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are detected in less than one third of families with a strong history of breast cancer. It is therefore expected that mutations still remain undetected by currently used screening methods. In addition, a growing number of BRCA1/2 sequence variants of unclear pathogen significance are found in the families, constituting an increasing clinical challenge. New methods are therefore needed to improve the detection rate and aid the interpretation of the clinically uncertain variants. In this study we analyzed a series of 33 BRCA1, 22 BRCA2, and 128 sporadic tumors by RNA profiling to investigate the classification potential of RNA profiles to predict BRCA1/2 mutation status. We found that breast tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers display characteristic RNA expression patterns, allowing them to be distinguished from sporadic tumors. The majority of BRCA1 tumors were basal-like while BRCA2 tumors were mainly luminal B. Using RNA profiles, we were able to distinguish BRCA1 tumors from sporadic tumors among basal-like tumors with 83% accuracy and BRCA2 from sporadic tumors among luminal B tumors with 89% accuracy. Furthermore, subtype-specific BRCA1/2 gene signatures were successfully validated in two independent data sets with high accuracies. Although additional validation studies are required, indication of BRCA1/2 involvement ("BRCAness" by RNA profiling could potentially be valuable as a tool for distinguishing pathogenic mutations from benign variants, for identification of undetected mutation carriers, and for selecting patients sensitive to new therapeutics such as PARP inhibitors.

  5. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  6. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  7. 49 CFR 365.107 - Types of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract carrier of property (except household goods) , Mexican motor property carriers that perform private carriage and transport exempt items, and motor contract carrier of passengers transportation. (2) Motor carrier brokerage of general commodities (except household goods). (3) Certain types of...

  8. Characteristics of participants in a gestational carrier program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, A M; Corson, S L

    1992-08-01

    Genetic parents and gestational carriers in our gestational carrier program were evaluated by psychodiagnostic interview and by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview-2 (MMPI-2), a widely used objective psychological test, to identify psychopathology and describe personality characteristics. Overall, participants exhibited no overt psychopathology. Personality differences were found between gestational carriers and genetic mothers and genetic fathers and mothers. Clinical interviews revealed that gestational carriers tended to be the dominant partner in the relationship, were motivated by a wish to help an infertile couple, enjoyed being pregnant, showed narcissistic needs, and expressed a wish for secondary financial gain. The majority of gestational carriers stated that they had considered becoming a traditional surrogate but felt they could not surrender a child that was genetically theirs. These results indicate that there is not any predisposing psychopathology which attracts participants to the gestational carrier program.

  9. 78 FR 27137 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... the Copyright Act. See 77 FR 35643, June 14, 2012. The proposed regulation was based on similar... rulemaking. The Office granted these motions, making reply comments due by October 24, 2012. See 77 FR 55783, Sept. 11, 2012; 77 FR 60334, Oct. 3, 2012. In lieu of reply comments, NCTA, DIRECTV, and a...

  10. Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene): Effects of carrier bimolecular recombination and trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soci, Cesare; Moses, Daniel; Xu, Qing-Hua; Heeger, Alan J.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene) over a broad time range using fast (t>100ps) transient photoconductivity measurements. The carrier density was also monitored (t>100fs) by means of photoinduced absorption probed at the infrared active vibrational modes. We find that promptly upon charge-carrier photogeneration, the initial polaron dynamics is governed by bimolecular recombination, while later in the subnanosecond time regime carrier trapping gives rise to an exponential decay of the photocurrent. The more sensitive transient photocurrent measurements indicate that in the low excitation regime, when the density of photocarriers is comparable to that of the trapping states (˜1016cm-3) , carrier hopping between traps along with transport via extended states determines the carrier relaxation, a mechanism that is manifested by a long-lived photocurrent “tail.” This photocurrent tail is reduced by lowering the temperature and/or by increasing the excitation density. Based on these data, we develop a comprehensive kinetic model that takes into account the bipolar charge transport, the free-carrier bimolecular recombination, the carrier trapping, and the carrier recombination involving free and trapped carriers.

  11. Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses Directly from Blood of Persistently Infected Cattle by Multiplex PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D

    1999-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.

  12. Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris-Morini, Delphine; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric; Pascal, Daniel; Halbwax, Mathieu; Maine, Sylvain; Laval, Suzanne; Fédéli, Jean Marc; Damlencourt, Jean François

    2006-10-30

    Experimental results for refractive index variation induced by depletion in a silicon structure integrated in a PIN diode are reported. Thermal effect has been dissociated from the electrical contribution due to carrier density variation induced by a reverse bias voltage. A figure of merit V(pi)L(pi) of 3.1 V.cm has been obtained at 1.55mum. Numerical simulations show a good agreement between experimental and theoretical index variations. PMID:19529496

  13. Impact Excitation by Hot Carriers in Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Perebeinos, Vasili; Avouris, Phaedon

    2006-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the efficiency of intra-molecular hot carrier induced impact ionization and excitation processes in carbon nanotubes. The electron confinement and reduced screening lead to drastically enhanced excitation efficiencies over those in bulk materials. Strong excitonic coupling favors neutral excitations over ionization, while the impact mechanism populates a different set of states than that produced by photoexcitation. The excitation rate is strongly affected by opti...

  14. Free-carrier effects on electronic and optical properties of binary oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleife, Andre; Roedl, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    While there is persistent interest in oxides, e.g., for semiconductor technology or optoelectronics, it remains difficult to achieve n-type and p-type doping of one and the same material. At the same time, higher and higher conductivities are reported for both types of doping individually. Hence, it is important to understand the corresponding influence of free carriers on electronic structure and optical properties. Modern electronic-structure calculations, based on hybrid exchange-correlation functionals and the GW approximation, were performed for n-type (ZnO, CdO, SnO2) and p-type (MnO, NiO) binary oxides. We use these results to analyze the influence of free carriers by computing contributions that increase (Burstein-Moss shift) or reduce (electron-electron interaction and ionized-impurity scattering) the band gaps as a function of free-carrier concentration. We also compute the carrier-concentration dependence of effective electron and hole masses and compare to experimental data. For n-type ZnO we compute optical absorption spectra by means of a recent extension of the Bethe-Salpeter framework. This allows us to take excitonic effects as well as the influence of free carriers on the electron-hole interaction into account. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, A; Zuppardo, M; Gillett, G G; Broome, M A; Almeida, M P; Paternostro, M; White, A G; Paterek, T

    2013-12-01

    The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without direct transfer-or communication-of entanglement. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here, we experimentally entangle two communicating parties sharing three initially separable photonic qubits by exchange of a carrier photon that is unentangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement through noisy environments.

  16. The evolutionary trajectory of mitochondrial carrier family during metazoan evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Ke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploring metabolic evolution is a way to understand metabolic complexity. The substrate transport of mitochondrial carrier family (MCF influences direct metabolic activities, making it possible to understand indirectly metabolic evolution from the evolution of substrate transport of MCF. However, the evolutionary study of substrate transport of MCF does not mean that all the concrete structures of mitochondrial carriers (MCs must first be gained. Results Here we studied the alternation of MCF structure and potential correlated functions of MCF during metazoan evolution. The data analysis indicates that the types of substrates transported by MCF as a whole were maintained during metazoan evolution. However, the size of the substrates transported by members of MCs continuously diminished during the evolutionary process. We have found that the ratio of hydrophobic amino acids at specific helix-helix interfaces increases significantly during vertebrate evolution. Amino acid's spatial positioning and the calculating of packing values both indicate the increase in the number of hydrophobic amino acids would lead to a more "tight" structure of the TR domain, which is in agreement with the trend of diminishing size of substrates transported by MCs. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of carriers of MCF during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions We propose that the more "tight" TR structure generated by the increase of the hydrophobic amino acids at specific helix-helix interfaces during vertebrate evolution enhances the substrate selectivity of MCF, reflecting the evolutionary trajectory of MCF during metazoan evolution.

  17. 29 CFR 4.130 - Types of covered service contracts illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance and operation and engineering support services. (16) Exploratory drilling (other than part of..., clearing timber or brush, etc. (See also §§ 4.116(b) and 4.131(f).). (53) Vending machine services....

  18. 47 CFR 20.11 - Interconnection to facilities of local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of §§ 1.711-1.734 of this chapter, 47 CFR 1.711-1.734. (b) Local exchange carriers and commercial... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection to facilities of local exchange... CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.11 Interconnection to facilities of local...

  19. Strong Asymmetric Charge Carrier Dependence in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Phonons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian D; Zhao, Yue; Wyrick, Jonathan; Chan, Yang-Hao; Ruan, Wen-Ying; Chou, Mei-Yin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2015-06-19

    The observation of phonons in graphene by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy has been met with limited success in previous measurements arising from weak signals and other spectral features which inhibit a clear distinction between phonons and miscellaneous excitations. Utilizing a back-gated graphene device that allows adjusting the global charge carrier density, we introduce an averaging method where individual tunneling spectra at varying charge carrier density are combined into one representative spectrum. This method improves the signal for inelastic transitions while it suppresses dispersive spectral features. We thereby map the total graphene phonon density of states, in good agreement with density functional calculations. Unexpectedly, an abrupt change in the phonon intensity is observed when the graphene charge carrier type is switched through a variation of the back-gate electrode potential. This sudden variation in phonon intensity is asymmetric in the carrier type, depending on the sign of the tunneling bias.

  20. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.;

    2003-01-01

    protein was conjugated with glutathione, the conjugation ratio determined by acid hydrolysis, and amino acid analysis performed with quantification of carboxymethyl cysteine. Elution of conjugates from the resin by a salt gradient revealed considerable heterogeneity in the degree of derivatization......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...

  1. Effect of different carriers and operating parameters on degradation of flax wastewater by fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtian; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Gao, Baotian

    2015-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the effectiveness of a fluidized-bed Fenton process in treating flax wastewater. Flax wastewater was taken from a paper-making factory in a secondary sedimentation tank effluent of a paper-making factory in Hebei. The performance of three carriers (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3) used in the reactor was compared, and the effects of different operational conditions, and Fenton reagent concentrations were studied. Experimental results indicated that SiO2 was the most appropriate carrier in the system. The dose of Fe2+ and H2O2 was a significant operating factor in the degradation progress. The bed expansion was considered to be another factor influencing the treatment effect. Under the appropriate conditions (300 mg/L Fe2+, 600 mg/L H2O2, and 74.07 g/L SiO2 as the carrier, at pH=3, 50% bed expansion), the highest removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC) and color was 89% and 94%, respectively. The article also discussed the process of the colority removal of flax wastewater and the kinetics of TOC removal. PMID:26067494

  2. Measurement of the stimulated carrier lifetime in semiconductor optical amplifiers by four-wave mixing of polarized ASE noise

    OpenAIRE

    Hunziker, Guido; Paiella, Roberto; Vahala, Kerry J.; Koren, Uzi

    1997-01-01

    We present a simple experiment aimed at measuring the stimulated carrier lifetime in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's). The technique relies on polarization-resolved nearly degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) of a laser source with an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise source. The method can quickly characterize the bandwidth performance of active layers for application in a cross-gain or cross-phase wavelength converter.

  3. Inhibition of unintentional extra carriers by Mn valence change for high insulating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    For intrinsic oxide semiconductors, oxygen vacancies served as the electron donors have long been, and inevitably still are, attributed as the primary cause of conductivity, making oxide semiconductors seem hard to act as high insulating materials. Meanwhile, the presence of oxygen vacancies often leads to a persistent photoconductivity phenomenon which is not conducive to the practical use in the fast photoelectric response devices. Herein, we propose a possible way to reduce the influence of oxygen vacancies by introducing a valence change doping in the monoclinic β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin film. The unintentional extra electrons induced by oxygen vacancies can be strongly suppressed by the change valence of the doped Mn ions from +3 to +2. The resistance for the Mn-doped Ga2O3 increases two orders of magnitude in compared with the pure Ga2O3. As a result, photodetector based on Mn-doped Ga2O3 thin films takes on a lower dark current, a higher sensitivity, and a faster photoresponse time, exhibiting a promising candidate using in high performance solar-blind photodetector. The study presents that the intentional doping of Mn may provide a convenient and reliable method of obtaining high insulating thin film in oxide semiconductor for the application of specific device.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE PIPELINES BY METHOD FITNESS FOR SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ion PANA

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the pipelines based on Fitness for Service method is a useful procedure in making a decision on repairing or maintaining pipelines running at its current or reduced parameters. The decision has important consequences for the charges to fix the pipeline and the risks associated with possible effects to the environment and safety of persons. The paper illustrates such an assessment at Level 1 and 2 for a defect type out of roundness.

  5. 78 FR 78257 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... regulations to allow copyright owners to audit the SOAs and royalty fees that cable operators and satellite... must file statements of account (``SOAs'') and deposit royalty fees with the Office in order to use the... two notices of proposed rulemaking concerning a new process to allow copyright owners to audit...

  6. Transport of the soy isoflavone daidzein and its conjugative metabolites by the carriers SOAT, NTCP, OAT4, and OATP2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Gary; Döring, Barbara; Ugele, Bernhard; Geyer, Joachim; Kulling, Sabine E; Soukup, Sebastian T

    2015-12-01

    Soy isoflavones (IF) are phytoestrogens, which interact with estrogen receptors. They are extensively metabolized by glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, leading to the modulation of their estrogenic activity. It can be assumed that this biotransformation also has a crucial impact on the uptake of IF by active or passive cellular transport mechanisms, but little is known about the transport of IF phase II metabolites into the cell. Therefore, transport assays for phase II metabolites of daidzein (DAI) were carried out using HEK293 cell lines transfected with five human candidate carriers, i.e., organic anion transporter OAT4, sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT), Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT, and organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP2B1. Cellular uptake was monitored by UHPLC-DAD. DAI monosulfates were transported by the carriers NTCP and SOAT in a sodium-dependent manner, while OAT4-HEK293 cells revealed a partly sodium-dependent transport for these compounds. In contrast, DAI-7,4'-disulfate was only taken up by NTCP-HEK293 cells. DAI-7-glucuronide, but not DAI-4'-glucuronide, was transported exclusively by OATP2B1 in a sodium-independent manner. DAI-7-glucuronide-4'-sulfate, DAI-7-glucoside, and DAI were no substrate of any of the tested carriers. In addition, the inhibitory potency of the DAI metabolites toward estrone-sulfate (E1S) uptake of the above-mentioned carriers was determined. In conclusion, human SOAT, NTCP, OATP2B1, and OAT4 were identified as carriers for the DAI metabolites. Several metabolites were able to inhibit carrier-dependent E1S uptake. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of the bioactivity of IF especially in case of hormone-related cancers. PMID:25319728

  7. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:23299087

  8. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders.

  9. 77 FR 35643 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Conduct Section 102-2. The standard for evaluating an auditor's independence is based on the Office's..., 2010, in order that the auditor designated under subparagraph is able to confirm the correctness of the... operators an opportunity to review the auditor's conclusions, to remedy any errors identified in the...

  10. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  11. Measurement of suprathermal current carriers and momentum relaxation by electron cyclotron transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, R.K.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Squire, J.P. (Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A new diagnostic of suprathermal electron distributions in tokamks has been developed at Versator II. It is found that the attenuation of obliquely propagating X-mode radiation with {omega}{le}{omega}{sub ce} provides a direct measure of the parallel distribution function (F(p{parallel})). The effects of refraction are eliminated by making a differential attenuation measurement for two beams with equal and opposite launch angle. The asymmetric (current carrying) part of the distribution is then determined. Results show that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) increases both the number of particles in the 4 to 40 keV range as well as their parallel temperature. The LHCD is then shut off and the population is seen to decay in 1.2 ms ({lt}{tau} colllisional).

  12. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  13. MODAL ANALYSIS OF CARRIER SYSTEM FOR HEAVY HORIZONTAL MULTIFUNCTION MACHINING CENTER BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reveal and analyze resonance modes of a large-scale milling-drilling-boring machine. The machine has a movable column with vertical slot occupied by a symmetrical carriage with horizontal ram. Static rigidity of the machine is relatively low due to its large dimensions. So it is necessary to assess possible vibration activity. Virtual and operational trials of the machine have been carried out simultaneously. Modeling has been executed with the help of a finite element method (FEM. The FEM-model takes into account not only rigidity of machine structures but also flexibility of bearings, feed drive systems and guides. Modal FEM-analysis has revealed eight resonance modes that embrace the whole machine tool. They form a frequency interval from 12 to 75 Hz which is undesirable for machining. Three closely located resonances (31-37 Hz are considered as the most dangerous ones. They represent various combinations of three simple motions: vertical oscillations of a carriage, horizontal vibrations of a ram and column torsion. Reliability of FEM- estimations has been proved by in-situ vibration measurements.An effect for stabilization of resonance modes has been detected while making variations in design parameters of the machine tool. For example, a virtual replacement of cast iron for steel in machine structures practically does not have any effect on resonance frequencies. Rigidity increase in some parts (e.g. a ram has also a small effect on a resonance pattern. On the other hand, resonance stability makes it possible to avoid them while selecting a spindle rotation frequency.It is recommended to set double feed drives for all axes. A pair of vertical screws prevents a “pecking” resonance of the carriage at frequency of 54 Hz. It is necessary to foresee an operation of a main drive of such heavy machine tool in the above resonance interval with the spindle frequency of more than 75 Hz. For this purpose it is necessary

  14. The Quality of Genetic Counseling and Connected Factors as Evaluated by Male BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2016-06-01

    There is little written about the quality of genetic counseling for men with the BRCA1/2 mutation. The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of genetic counseling and connected factors according to Finnish male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' (n = 35) perspectives and reasons for seeking genetic counseling. Data were collected from the Departments of Clinical Genetics at five Finnish university hospitals. The exploratory study design was conducted using a 51-item questionnaire based on a previously devised quality of counseling model and analyzed using non-parametric tests and principle content analysis. The satisfaction level with genetic counseling was high, especially with regard to the content of genetic counseling. The benefit of genetic counseling on the quality of life differed significantly (p education, affected the perceived quality of genetic counseling. The results of the study could be used to tailor genetic counseling for male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:26416184

  15. Marketing analysis of a maternity service by a consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Murphy, M

    1996-07-01

    Marketing analysis is a means of identifying consumer satisfaction, thus providing a means of exploiting weaknesses in competitors. As part of a graduate midwifery programme a small study was undertaken analysing marketing activities used by one competitor provider of maternity care services. The Marketing mix, Ansoff matrix and Gap analysis were the marketing tools used. Recommendations to midwifery service providers suggest using market research to identify consumer expectations and explore areas of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  16. Marketing analysis of a maternity service by a consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Murphy, M

    1996-07-01

    Marketing analysis is a means of identifying consumer satisfaction, thus providing a means of exploiting weaknesses in competitors. As part of a graduate midwifery programme a small study was undertaken analysing marketing activities used by one competitor provider of maternity care services. The Marketing mix, Ansoff matrix and Gap analysis were the marketing tools used. Recommendations to midwifery service providers suggest using market research to identify consumer expectations and explore areas of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. PMID:8868709

  17. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  18. Band edge identification and carrier dynamics of CVD MoS2 monolayer measured by broadband Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleithan, Shrouq; Livshits, Maksim; Rack, Jeffrey; Kordesch, Martin; Stinaff, Eric

    Two-dimensional atomic crystals of transition metal dichalcogenides are considered promising candidates for optoelectronics, valleytronics, and energy harvesting devices. These materials exhibit excitonic features with high binding energy as a result of confinement effect and reduced screening when the material is thinned to monolayer. However, previous theoretical and experimental studies report different binding energy results. This work further examines the electronic structure and binding energy in this material using broadband Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy. Samples of MoS2 were grown by chemical vapor deposition, pumped with femtosecond laser, and probed by femtosecond white light resulting in broadband differential absorption spectra with three distinct features related to the three dominant absorption peaks in the material: A, B, and C. The dependence of the transient absorption spectra on excitation wavelength and layer number provides evidence of a band gap located at C (2.9 eV) and therefore an excitonic binding energy of 1 eV. Additional features in the spectra identified as a broadening of the absorption features caused by carrier scattering, surface defects and trap states.

  19. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  20. Dynamical co-existence of excitons and free carriers in perovskite probed by density-resolved fluorescent spectroscopic method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiangyuan; Lv, Yanping; Wang, Shufeng; Wang, Kai; Shi, Yantao; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    Using transient fluorescent spectra at time-zero, we develop a density-resolved fluorescent spectroscopic method for investigating photoproducts in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and related photophysics. The density dependent dynamical co-existence of excitons and free carriers over a wide density range is experimentally observed for the first time. The exciton binding energy (EB) and the effective mass of electron-hole pair can be estimated based on such co-existence. No ionic polarization is found contributing to photophysical behavior. It also solves the conflict between the large experimentally measured EB and the small predicted values. The spectroscopic method also helps to detect the true free carrier density under continuous illumination without the interference of ionic conductivity. Our methods and results profoundly enrich the study and understanding of the photophysics in perovskite materials for photovoltaic applications.

  1. Optical Properties and Carrier Dynamics of GaAs/GaInAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Shell Grown on GaAs Nanowire by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwangwook; Ravindran, Sooraj; Ju, Gun Wu; Min, Jung-Wook; Kang, Seokjin; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Jo, Yong-Ryun; Kim, Bong-Joong; Lee, Yong Tak

    2016-12-01

    GaAs/GaInAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW) shells having different GaInAs shell width formed on the surface of self-catalyzed GaAs core nanowires (NWs) are grown on (100) Si substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence emission from GaAs/GaInAs MQW shells and the carrier lifetime could be varied by changing the width of GaInAs shell. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements showed that the carrier lifetime had a fast and slow decay owing to the mixing of wurtzite and zinc-blende structures of the NWs. Furthermore, strain relaxation caused the carrier lifetime to decrease beyond a certain thickness of GaInAs quantum well shells.

  2. Carrier dynamics in ZnxCd1-xO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Chou, W. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the carrier dynamics in Zn1-xCdxO thin films with different Cd contents grown by molecular beam epitaxy system have been investigated using photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The carrier lifetime can be estimated from the PL decay curve fitted by triple exponential function. The emission energy dependence and temperature dependence of the PL decay time indicate that carrier localization dominate the luminescence mechanism of the ZnCdO alloy semiconductor.

  3. Bombarding Cancer: Biolistic Delivery of therapeutics using Porous Si Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilony, Neta; Tzur-Balter, Adi; Segal, Ester; Shefi, Orit

    2013-08-01

    A new paradigm for an effective delivery of therapeutics into cancer cells is presented. Degradable porous silicon carriers, which are tailored to carry and release a model anti-cancer drug, are biolistically bombarded into in-vitro cancerous targets. We demonstrate the ability to launch these highly porous microparticles by a pneumatic capillary gene gun, which is conventionally used to deliver cargos by heavy metal carriers. By optimizing the gun parameters e.g., the accelerating gas pressure, we have successfully delivered the porous carriers, to reach deep targets and to cross a skin barrier in a highly spatial resolution. Our study reveals significant cytotoxicity towards the target human breast carcinoma cells following the delivery of drug-loaded carriers, while administrating empty particles results in no effect on cell viability. The unique combination of biolistics with the temporal control of payload release from porous carriers presents a powerful and non-conventional platform for designing new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Alice W; Stenzel, Martina H

    2014-04-14

    Peptides take on an increasingly important role as therapeutics in areas including diabetes, oncology, and metabolic, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. In addition, many peptides such as insulin have been employed for many years. A challenge in the administration of peptide drugs is their often low hydrolytic stability, as well as other problems that are common to any drug treatment such as systemic distribution. There is a significant attention in the literature of protein drugs and their delivery strategies, but not many overviews are specifically dedicated to peptides. In this review, the different approaches to deliver peptides have been summarized where the focus is only on drug carriers based on organic materials. Initial discussion is on different methods of polymer-peptide conjugation before being followed by physical encapsulation techniques, which is divided into surfactant-based techniques and polymer carriers. Surfactant-based techniques are dominated by liposome, microemulsions and solid-lipid nanoparticles. The field widens further in the polymer field. The delivery of peptides has been enhanced using polymer-decorated liposomes, solid microspheres, polyelectrolyte complex, emulsions, hydrogels, and injectable polymers. The aim of this article is to give the reader an overview over the different types of carriers. PMID:24661025

  5. Imaging of VMAT2 binding sites in the brain by 18F-AV-133: The effect of a pseudo-carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Recently, 9-[18F]fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV-133) was reported as a new vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) imaging agent for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). To shorten the preparation of 18F-AV-133 and to make it more widely available, we evaluated a simple, rapid purification with a solid-phase extraction method (SPE) using an Oasis HLB cartridge instead of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SPE method produced doses containing a pseudo-carrier, 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). Methods: To test the possible side effects of this pseudo-carrier, comparative dynamic PET scans of the brains of normal monkeys (2 each) and uni-laterally 6-OH-dopamine-lesioned PD monkeys (2 each) were performed using 18F-AV-133 doses prepared by either SPE (containing pseudo-carrier) or HPLC (containing no pseudo-carrier). Autoradiographs of post mortem monkey brain sections were evaluated to confirm the relative 18F-AV-133 uptake in the PD monkey brains and the effects of the pseudo-carrier on VMAT2 binding. Results: The radiochemical purity of the 18F-AV-133, whether prepared by SPE or by HPLC, was excellent (> 99%). PET scans of normal and PD monkey brains showed an expected reduction of VMAT2 in the lesioned areas of the striatum. It was not affected by the presence of the pseudo-carrier, AV-149 (maximally 250 μg/dose). The reduced uptake in the striatum of the lesioned monkey brains was confirmed by autoradiography. Ex vivo inhibition studies of 18F-AV-133 binding in rat brains, conducted with increasing amounts of AV-149, suggested that at the highest concentration (3.5 mg/kg) the VMAT2 binding in the striatum was only moderately blocked (20% reduction). Conclusions: The pseudo-carrier, AV-149, did not affect the 18F-AV-133/PET imaging of VMAT2 binding sites in normal or uni-laterally lesioned monkey brains. The new streamlined SPE purification method will enable 18F-AV-133 to be widely available for routine

  6. Pharmaceutical Applications of Nanoparticle Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurtault, B.; Schuber, F.; Frisch, B.

    Once it has been administered, an active principle still has to face many physiological barriers on the way to its target, and this may significantly affect its efficiency. These different barriers depend to a great extent on the active ingredient itself and on the way it is administered. They may be constituted by enzymes, an acidic or basic pH, or cell membranes that must be crossed. As a consequence, the active principle may be degraded or distributed to organs other than the therapeutic target. This can reduce the efficiency of the administered dose, or even lead to toxicity with regard to organs other than the target. For example, this situation is observed in trials for the oral administration of insulin (for treating type I diabetes). One point is that this molecule is weakly absorbed by the digestive epithelium (first barrier). Secondly, it undergoes enzymatic degradation by gastric proteases (second barrier). As a consequence, the free form of the molecule cannot be administered orally. This is why insulin is mainly administered subcutaneously, so that it attains the blood circulation directly. However, such a means of administration requires specific training of the patient. This example shows that lack of efficiency and/or difficulties in using certain molecules are not necessarily due to their pharmacology, but rather in some cases to their physicochemical properties.

  7. Enhancement of carrier mobility in MoS2 field effect transistors by a SiO2 protective layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Peng-Zhi; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Cao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Xue-Feng; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Deng, Ning-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guang-Yu; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Sheng; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum disulfide is a promising channel material for field effect transistors (FETs). In this paper, monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to fabricate top-gate FETs through standard optical lithography. During the fabrication process, charged impurities and interface states are introduced, and the photoresist is not removed cleanly, which both limit the carrier mobility and the source-drain current. We apply a SiO2 protective layer, which is deposited on the surface of MoS2, in order to avoid the MoS2 directly contacting with the photoresist and the ambient environment. Therefore, the contact property between the MoS2 and the electrodes is improved, and the Coulomb scattering caused by the charged impurities and the interface states is reduced. Comparing MoS2 FETs with and without a SiO2 protective layer, the SiO2 protective layer is found to enhance the characteristics of the MoS2 FETs, including transfer and output characteristics. A high mobility of ˜42.3 cm2/V s is achieved, which is very large among the top-gate CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 FETs.

  8. Well-Typed Services Cannot Go Wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Diana; Douence, Rémi; Grall, Hervé; Royer, Jean-Claude; Südholt, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Les applications orientées services (SOA) sont hautement dynamiques car la con- naissance et la topologie des services évoluent au cours du temps. La découverte dynamique des services est une facilité importante des SOA, sa flexibilité et sa puissance d'utilisation a été récemment accrue par l'introduction d'une notion de sous-typage. Dans un tel contexte des garanties sur la composition des services est un besoin crucial pour le passage à l'échelle. Les systèmes de types sont connus dans le ...

  9. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  10. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  11. Immobilization of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631 Lipase with Different Polymer Carriers Produced by Radiation Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa, H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631. In an attempt to increase the enzyme stability, the enzyme was immobilized on poly (vinyl alcohol PVA, radiation cross liked poly (vinyl alcohol/ vinyl pyrrolidone PVA / PVP and poly (vinyl alcohol/ hydroxyethylmethacrylate PVA/ HEMA hydrogels. The maximum immobilization yield (31.74 % was obtained using PVA/ HEMA copolymer. The effect of the immobilization parameters on the enzyme such as the hydrogel composition, irradiation dose and the immobilization technique was performed. An optimum radiation dose of 15 kGy and hydrogel composition of 10 % PVA/ HEMA (9.6: 0.4 v/v increased the immobilization yield to 60.3 %. Diffusion phenomena can be markedly increased the enzyme immobilization on the surface of the hydrogel. In this case the retained activity was approximately 81.5 % of that of the free enzyme. The profiles of immobilized enzyme activities at various pH values (4-9 and temperatures (30-80 °C showed an overall higher stability for the immobilized enzyme than that for the free one. The half life values of the immobilized and free enzymes at 60 °C were 3.3 h and 1.73 h, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained 69.2 % of its initial activity after three cycles.

  12. 39 CFR 3001.75 - Service by the Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service by the Postal Service. 3001.75 Section 3001.75 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules Applicable to Requests for Changes in the Nature of Postal Services § 3001.75 Service by the Postal...

  13. The Impact of Service-Learning-Type Experiences on Preservice Teachers' Integration of Principles of Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Beverly; He, Ye; Higgins, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this study, members (n = 48) of 2 sections of a required educational psychology course conducted 3 service-learning-type field experiences and wrote reflections on the experiences in relationship to the theories and principles addressed in the course. Participants also described their vision for teaching at the beginning and the end of the…

  14. Immobilization of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631 Lipase with Different Polymer Carriers Produced by Radiation Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, H.; El-Hadi, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631. In an attempt to increase the enzyme stability, the enzyme was immobilized on poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA, radiation cross liked poly (vinyl alcohol/ vinyl pyrrolidone) PVA / PVP and poly (vinyl alcohol/ hydroxyethylmethacrylate) PVA/ HEMA hydrogels. The maximum immobilization yield (31.74 %) was obtained using PVA/ HEMA copolymer. The effect of the immobilization parameters on the enzyme such as the hydroge...

  15. Kinetics of Ca2+ carrier in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadin, M; Pozzan, T; Azzone, G F

    1979-12-25

    The rate of aerobic Ca2+ transport is limited by the rate of the H+ pump rather than by the Ca2+ carrier. The kinetics of the Ca2+ carrier has therefore been studied by using the K+ diffusion potential as the driving force. The apparent Vmax of the Ca2+ carrier is, at 20 degrees C, about 900 nmol (mg of protein)-1 min-1, more than twice the rate of the H+ pump. The apparent Vmax is depressed by Mg2+ and Li+. This supports the view that the electrolytes act as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Ca2+ carrier. The degree of sigmoidicity of the kinetics of Ca2+ transport increases with the lowering of the temperature and proportionally with the concentration of impermeant electrolytes such as Mg2+ and Li+ but not choline. The effects of temperature and of electrolyte do not support the view that the sigmoidicity is due to modifications of the surface potential. Rather, they suggest that Ca2+ transport occurs through a multisubunit carrier, where cooperative phenomena are the result of ligand-induced conformational changes due to the interaction of several allosteric effectors with the carrier subunits. In contrast with La3+ which acts as a competitive inhibitor, Ruthenium Red affects the kinetics by inducing phenomena both of positive and of negative cooperativity. The Ruthenium Red induced kinetics has been reproduced through curve-fitting procedures by applying the Koshland sequential interaction hypothesis to a four-subunit Ca2+ carrier model. PMID:42437

  16. Pilotless recovery of clipped OFDM signals by compressive sensing over reliable data carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids using reserved tones or channel-estimation pilots. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver (in the frequency domain), and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the sparse nonlinear distortion in the time domain. As such, the method provides a practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, and the ability to recover the distorted signal in one shot. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Pilotless Recovery of Clipped OFDM Signals by Compressive Sensing over Reliable Data Carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Safadi, Ebrahim B Al

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel form of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids tone reservation and hence rate loss for this purpose. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver, and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the temporally sparse nonlinear distortion. As such, the method provides a unique practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, offering both the ability to augment these techniques and to solely recover the distorted signal in one shot.

  18. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after wh

  19. Preparation and evaluation of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane with PEGylated liposome as a sustained release drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Hayashida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs can form polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs with drugs or drug carriers possessing linear polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG. On the other hand, PEGylated liposomes have been utilized as a representative anticancer drug carrier. However, little is known about the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome. In the present study, we first report the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome and evaluate it as a sustained release drug carrier. PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin was disrupted by the addition of α-CD. Meanwhile, γ-CD included two PEG chains and/or one bending PEG chain of PEGylated liposome and formed PPRX without the disruption of the membrane integrity of the PEGylated liposome. Moreover, the release of doxorubicin and/or PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin from the PPRX was prolonged in accordance with the matrix type release mechanism. These findings suggest the potential of γ-CD PPRX as sustained release carriers for PEGylated liposome products.

  20. Distribution of charge carriers in dissipative structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, I K; Kovalev, A S

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that redistribution of the charge carrier concentration takes place in the volume of Te and InSb monocrystals under formation and excitation by the strong field of a dissipative structure in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma. This leads to a situation when the presence of only longitudinal autosolitons in the dissipative structure reduces the charge carrier concentration outside autosolitons while the presence of only transversal autosolitons makes the charge carriers concentration larger. These effects are explained in the following manner: longitudinal autosolitons, occurring in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma created by the Joule heating are considered as cold and transversal autosolitons are considered as hot ones

  1. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Optical Carrier - Fiber to the End User; BBRI_fiber12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Optical Carrier - Fiber to the End User" technology. Broadband...

  2. Carrier phase dependence in the ionization of Rydberg atoms by short radio-frequency pulses: A model system for high order harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurtler, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Zande, W.J. van der; Noordam, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    We report time-resolved electron emission in experiments on ionization of rubidium Rydberg atoms (n=90) by few-cycle radio-frequency (RF) (1-10 MHz) pulses. The electron emission occurs in multiple bursts and strongly depends on the carrier-envelope phase as well as the duration and amplitude of the

  3. Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by combining sulfur doping and rectorite carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as the sources of S to prepare sulfur-doped TiO2. • Combination of S-doping and clay carrier enhanced the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. • Sulfur-doped TiO2/rectorite catalysts showed high performance for photocatalytic degradation of metronidazolein under visible light irradiation. • The photocatalytic activity improvement was ascribed to the increased specific surface area, the narrowed band gap and the reduced electron–hole recombination. - Abstract: Sulfur-doped TiO2/rectorite (STC) was prepared by an intercalation method using tetra-n-butyl titanate and dimethyl sulfoxide as the sources of Ti and S, respectively. A number of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) were used to understand the properties of STC. It was found that the layer structure of rectorite was partly destroyed by intercalation, and the STC showed a looser porous lamellar structure with a large specific surface area (187.5 m2/g). By doping S into TiO2 lattice as Ti–O–S bond, the band gap of TiO2 was reduced from 3.2 to 2.8 eV. The removal of metronidazole by the STC under visible light irradiation for 240 min reached 93.8%, which was 71.8% higher than that of P25 TiO2. The improved photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the increased specific surface area, the narrowed band gap and the reduced electron–hole recombination

  4. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase-Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-03-30

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein-protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP-triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  5. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  6. In vivo evaluation of a simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinxin; Niu, Mao; Zhang, Te; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Zhonglei; Wu, Wangxi; Zhang, Qi; Lai, Chunhua; Zhou, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar bone loss has long been a challenge in clinical dental implant therapy. Simvastatin (SV) has been demonstrated to exert excellent anabolic effects on bone. However, the successful use of SV to increase bone formation in vivo largely depends on the local concentration of SV at the site of action, and there have been continuing efforts to develop an appropriate delivery system. Specifically, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) systems have become a popular type of encapsulation carrier system. Therefore, SV-loaded NLCs (SNs) (179.4 nm in diameter) were fabricated in this study, and the osteogenic effect of the SNs was evaluated in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect. Our results revealed that the SNs significantly enhanced bone formation in vivo, as evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and a fluorescence analysis. Thus, this novel nanostructured carrier system could be a potential encapsulation carrier system for SV in bone regeneration applications.

  7. Recovery of salicylic acid from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using TOMAC as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional sewage treatment plants do not fully degrade residues of pharmaceuticals, so that they are introduced into the aquatic environment. On this basis, the demand for the development of efficient systems for removing these compounds from water has assumed a great research interest. Membrane operations are increasingly employed in many industrial sectors as important alternative technologies to the classical processes of separation. Among membrane-based separation processes, the use of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) has received growing attention during recent years. In our work we had tried to recover a pharmaceutical product, salicylic acid (S.A), from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using an ionic liquid: the tri octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) as carrier. Ionic liquids has been revealed as interesting clean alternatives to classical solvents and their use as a liquid phase results in the stabilization of the SLMs duo to their negligible vapour pressure, the possibility of minimising their solubility in the surrounding phases by adequate selection of the cation and anion, and the greater capillary force associated with their high viscosity. For this reason we had studied the influence of different parameters which could affect the efficiency of the transport: pH of the feed phase, the nature of the strippant, the concentration of the strippant, the nature of the support and the initial concentration of the salicylic acid in the feed phase. We had noticed that the pH of the feed solution had no effect of the percentage extraction and after 24 hours we can extract completely our solute. TOMAC seemed to be a good extractant but we found difficult to strip salicylic acid from the TOMAC phase and this could be related to the formation of water micro environments in the ionic liquid membrane.

  8. Learning Actions, Objects and Types of Interaction: A Methodological Analysis of Expansive Learning among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantavuori, Juhana; Engeström, Yrjö; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes a collaborative learning process among Finnish pre-service teachers planning their own learning in a self-regulated way. The study builds on cultural-historical activity theory and the theory of expansive learning, integrating for the first time an analysis of learning actions and an analysis of types of interaction. We examine…

  9. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  10. Long-term carrier-envelope-phase-stable few-cycle pulses by use of the feed-forward method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Fabian; Assion, Andreas; Apolonski, Alexander; Krausz, Ferenc; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2012-06-01

    The feed-forward technique has recently revolutionized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilization, enabling unprecedented values of residual phase jitter. Nevertheless, its demonstrations have hitherto remained in a proof-of-principle state. Here we show that pulse quality and power issues can be solved, leading to few-cycle pulses with good beam quality. Making use of stable interferometers, we achieve day-long CEP-stable operation of the setup. Out-of-loop RMS phase noise amounts to less than 30 mrad in 20 s, with more than 24 h of CEP-locked operation being demonstrated. PMID:22660126

  11. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  12. Suppression of type II collagen-induced arthritis by intragastric administration of soluble type II collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    NAGLER-ANDERSON, C; Bober, L A; Robinson, M E; Siskind, G W; Thorbecke, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although oral administration of protein antigens may lead to specific immunologic unresponsiveness, this method of immunoregulation has not been applied to models of autoimmune disease. Type II collagen-induced arthritis is an animal model of polyarthritis induced in susceptible mice and rats by immunization with type II collagen, a major component of cartilage. Intragastric administration of soluble type II collagen, prior to immunization with type II collagen in adjuvant, suppresses the inc...

  13. Towards Self-Service Governance by Means of Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Paulin, Alois

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel model for governing societies based on modern information technology, which neither relies on manual bureaucratic labor, nor depends on process-based e-government services for governance. We expose the flaws of the later and argue that it is not feasible for sustainable governance due to permanently changing laws and instead propose a model in which people can govern themselves in a self-service manner by relying on constellations of data stored in a network of governmental databases to which citizen and officials have read- and write access under rules defined by temporary valid law.

  14. Retrieval of Electronic Spectra of Charge Carriers in Organic Field-Effect Transistors from Charge Modulation Reflectance Spectra Distorted by Optical Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Ishino, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuya; Miwa, Kazumoto; Uemura, Takafumi; Takeya, Jun; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2013-06-01

    Charge modulation (CM) spectroscopy is useful for detecting and characterizing the electronic structure of charge carriers accumulated in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, CM spectra are distorted by optical interference due to multiple reflections in OFETs particularly when reflection configurations are used. In this study, we demonstrated a method for retrieving the spectra of complex refractive indices of carriers from the distorted CM spectra by using a 4×4 matrix algorithm with general transition matrices. We tested this method by applying it to the CM spectra of a rubrene single-crystal FET measured at several incident angles of light. In spite of the strong distortion of the CM spectra, we could retrieve the spectrum of the imaginary part of refractive indices, which is similar to that observed in the transmission configuration. This method extends the applicability of CM spectroscopy to OFETs with opaque electrodes, where transmission configurations cannot possibly be applied.

  15. Effects of copper on the carrier dynamics in black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced.......Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced....

  16. Fabrication of Slot-Antenna Coupled Warm Carrier Detectors for Submillimeter Wave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Yoshizumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kirihata, Atsushi; Gamo, Kenji

    1999-09-01

    Thin-film slot-antenna-coupled edge-type warm carrier devices with a contact area of about 8×10-10 cm2 were fabricated, and their detection properties were investigated at 700 GHz. The fabricated slot antenna operates as a one-wavelength slot antenna as designed on the basis of the experimental results obtained in the microwave region. In addition, the fabricated edge-type warm carrier device operates as a detector, and rectifies the 700 GHz signal received by the antenna. The sensitivity of the device at 700 GHz was about 100 V/W.

  17. PN-type carrier-induced filter with modulatable extinction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Tu, Xiaoguang; Song, Junfeng; Jia, Lianxi; Luo, Xianshu; Yang, Yan; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the first PN-type carrier-induced silicon waveguide Bragg grating filter on a SOI wafer. The optical extinction ratio of this kind of filter can be efficiently modulated under both reverse and forward biases. The carrier-induced Bragg grating based on a PN junction is fabricated on the silicon waveguide using litho compensation technology. The measured optical bandwidth and the extinction ratio of the filter are 0.45 nm and 19 dB, respectively. The optical extinction ratio modulation under the reverse bias is more than 11.5 dB and it is more than 10 dB under the forward bias. Only 1-dB optical transmission loss is realized in this Bragg grating under a reverse bias. The shifting rates of the central wavelength under forward and reverse biases are ~-1.25 nm/V and 0.01 nm/V, respectively. The 3-dB modulation bandwidth of this filter is 5.1 GHz at a bias of -10 V.

  18. Spectroscopic identification of benzyl-type radicals generated by corona discharge of 2-chloro-4-fluorotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Soon; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2012-05-01

    By means of a technique of corona excited supersonic expansion coupled with a pinhole-type glass nozzle, we generated vibronically excited but jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals from precursor 2-chloro-4-fluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of inert carrier gas He. From an analysis of the visible vibronic emission spectrum, we found evidence of the formation of the 2-chloro-4-fluorobenzyl and 4-fluorobenzyl radicals. A possible pathway for the formation of these benzyl-type radicals is herein proposed. Also, the electronic energy in the D(1) → D(0) transition and the vibrational mode frequencies of the 2-chloro-4-fluorobenzyl radical in the ground electronic state were accurately determined, for the first time, by comparison with ab initio calculations and the known vibrational data of the precursor. PMID:22583229

  19. 48 CFR 928.370 - Service-type insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approval, when one or more of the following conditions are present— (1) Pure risk commercial insurance is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service-type insurance... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 928.370 Service-type insurance policies. (a)...

  20. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  1. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  2. Uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos: padrões de utilização e tipos de serviços Regular use of dental care services by adults: patterns of utilization and types of services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz J. Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos, identificando grupos nos quais esse comportamento é mais freqüente. O estudo foi realizado em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com desenho transversal de base populacional, envolvendo 2.961 indivíduos, que responderam um questionário estruturado. A prevalência de uso regular encontrada foi de 32,8%. Estiveram positivamente associadas ao uso de forma regular as seguintes características: ser do sexo feminino, ter idade The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental services by adults and identify groups where this behavior is more frequent. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil, including 2,961 individuals who answered a standardized questionnaire. Overall prevalence of regular use of dental services was 32.8%. The following variables were positively associated with regular use: female gender, age > 60 years, no partner, high educational level, high economic status, private service user, good/excellent self-rated oral health, and no perceived need for dental treatment. Those who had received orientation on prevention and expressed a favorable view towards the dentist had higher odds of being regular users. Especially among lower-income individuals, regular use was infrequent (15%. When restricting the analysis to users of public dental services, schooling was still positively associated with the outcome. Dental services, especially in the public sector, should develop strategies to increase regular and preventive use.

  3. Cellular uptake of steroid carrier proteins – mechanisms and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Willnow, T E; Nykjaer, A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones are believed to enter cells solely by free diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, recent studies suggest the existence of cellular uptake pathways for carrier-bound steroids. Similar to the clearance of cholesterol via lipoproteins, these pathways involve the recognition of carrier proteins by endocytic receptors on the surface of target cells, followed by internalization and cellular delivery of the bound sterols. Here, we discuss the emerging co...

  4. Motor Carrier Deregulation: Implications of Florida's Experiences for Northeast Agriculture and Rural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Beilock, Richard P.; Freeman, James

    1983-01-01

    Deregulation and reregulation of transportation is one of the most significant policy developments of recent years. It is important to understand the impacts of such changes on the availability of transportation services to agriculture, small communities, and rural areas. In this paper the experiences of shipper/receivers, carriers, private carriers, and agricultural truck brokers in Florida, the first state to deregulate nonpassenger motor carrier transport, are examined. Implications of the...

  5. Carrier effects on tertiary nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor: An examination of performance, biofilm and biologically produced solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Daina; Delatolla, Robert; Kennedy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly stricter ammonia and nitrogen release regulations with respect to wastewater effluents are creating a need for tertiary treatment systems. The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is being considered as an upgrade option for an increasing number of wastewater treatment facilities due to its small footprint and ease of operation. Despite the MBBRs creation as a system to remove nitrogen, recent research on MBBR systems showing that the system's performance is directly related to carrier surface area and is irrespective of carrier shape and type has been performed exclusively on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal systems. Furthermore, the influence of carrier type on the solids produced by MBBR systems has also been exclusively studied for COD removal systems. This work investigates the effects of three specific carrier types on ammonia removal rates, biofilm morphology, along with solids production and settleability of tertiary nitrifying MBBR systems. The study concludes that carrier type has no significant effect on tertiary nitrifying MBBR system performance under steady, moderate loading conditions. The research does however highlight the propensity of greater surface area to volume carriers to become clogged under high loading conditions and that the high surface area carriers investigated in this study required longer adjustment periods to changes in loading after becoming clogged.

  6. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED

  7. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan Tzu Dist., 811 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yang, Fann-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiang-Chen [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations (AIM-HI), National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  8. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  9. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  10. Meiotic and mitotic behaviour of a ring/deleted chromosome 22 in human embryos determined by preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a maternal carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laver Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ring chromosomes are normally associated with developmental anomalies and are rarely inherited. An exception to this rule is provided by deletion/ring cases. We were provided with a unique opportunity to investigate the meiotic segregation at oogenesis in a woman who is a carrier of a deleted/ring 22 chromosome. The couple requested preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD following the birth of a son with a mosaic karyotype. The couple underwent two cycles of PGD. Studies were performed on lymphocytes, single embryonic cells removed from 3 day-old embryos and un-transferred embryos. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with specific probe sets in two rounds of hybridization. Results In total, 12 embryos were biopsied, and follow up information was obtained for 10 embryos. No embryos were completely normal or balanced for chromosome 22 by day 5. There was only one embryo diagnosed as balanced of 12 biopsied but that accumulated postzygotic errors by day 5. Three oocytes apparently had a balanced chromosome 22 complement but all had the deleted and the ring 22 and not the intact chromosome 22. After fertilisation all the embryos accumulated postzygotic errors for chromosome 22. Conclusion The study of the preimplantation embryos in this case provided a rare and significant chance to study and understand the phenomena associated with this unusual type of anomaly during meiosis and in the earliest stages of development. It is the first reported PGD attempt for a ring chromosome abnormality.

  11. Charge carrier transport and lifetimes in n-type and p-type phosphorene as 2D device active materials: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea, E; Hin, C

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we provide a detailed analysis of phosphorene's performance as an n-type and p-type active material. This study is based on first principles calculations of the phosphorene electronic structure, and the resulting electron and hole scattering rates and lifetimes. Emphasis is put on extreme regimes commonly found in semiconductor devices, i.e. high electric fields and heavy doping, where impact ionization and Auger recombination can occur. We found that electron-initiated impact ionization is weaker than the hole-initiated process, when compared to carrier-phonon interaction rates, suggesting resilience to impact ionization initiated breakdown. Moreover, calculated minority electron lifetimes are limited by radiative recombination only, not by Auger processes, suggesting that phosphorene could achieve good quantum efficiencies in optoelectronic devices. The provided scattering rates and lifetimes are critical input data for the modeling and understanding of phosphorene-based device physics. PMID:27479904

  12. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  13. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  14. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  15. Concurrent remote management of CPE by multiple service providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, H.; Smedt, A. de; Hartog, F.T.H. de; Önnegren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Configuration and management of devices in the home is becoming ever more complex for the user. The trend is, therefore, that it will be performed remotely by network and service providers using dedicated configuration servers. The current remote management architectures do not support an environmen

  16. Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation in InN Nanowires Grown by Reactive Vapor Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zervos Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied femtosecond carrier dynamics in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport. Transient differential absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers near and above the optical absorption edge of InN NWs where an interplay of state filling, photoinduced absorption, and band-gap renormalization have been observed. The interface between states filled by free carriers intrinsic to the InN NWs and empty states has been determined to be at 1.35 eV using CW optical transmission measurements. Transient absorption measurements determined the absorption edge at higher energy due to the additional injected photogenerated carriers following femtosecond pulse excitation. The non-degenerate white light pump-probe measurements revealed that relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occurs on a single picosecond timescale which appears to be carrier density dependent. This fast relaxation is attributed to the capture of the photogenerated carriers by defect/surface related states. Furthermore, intensity dependent measurements revealed fast energy transfer from the hot photogenerated carriers to the lattice with the onset of increased temperature occurring at approximately 2 ps after pulse excitation.

  17. Coordination of Instructional Services by Washington State's Educational Service Districts. REL 2015-041

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mark; Speth, Timothy; Akey, Terri; Krasnoff, Basha; Barton, Rhonda; Singh, Malkeet; Scott, Caitlin; Fantz, Traci

    2014-01-01

    This REL Northwest study looked at the funding, delivery, and coordination of instructional services offered by Washington state's network of nine Educational Service Districts (ESDs). REL Northwest examined 13 statewide teaching and learning support areas, including the percentages of districts served, the funding for each service, and ESD…

  18. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ....; DISH Network, LLC and National Programming Service, LLC, comprised the Satellite Carriers. The change... the section 119 compulsory license for the 2010-2014 term. See 75 FR 53198. The rates adopted by...

  19. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices

  20. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  1. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1415 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V{sub 2}) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  2. Analysis of Ionospheric Delay Estimates from GNSS Carrier Phase Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    There is an increased demand for more precise ionospheric information such as ionospheric augmentation for fast ambiguity convergence and resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP). More precise ionospheric information is also highly desired to improve the understanding of the space weather dynamics and its impacts on various applications such as aviation and communication systems. Carrier phase measurements from GNSS offer the best precision for precise applications. Current ionospheric models, however, are mostly derived from code or carrier-smoothed code measurements. Ionopsheric models based on carrier phase measurements are expected to provide improved accuracy and should be investigated. In this contribution, various data analyses will be conducted on ionospheric estimates from carrier phase measurements. Since carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and they are also affected by fractional biases, proper observation model is necessary and will be developed. With proper observation model, the analysis results are used to investigate the differences and characteristics of the ionospheric estimates between the code and carrier phase derived estimates and subsequently to help develop methods for precise estimation of the biases in carrier phase measurements and the recovery of the ionospheric effects. Data acquired at different geographic locations and under different ionospheric conditions will be processed for numerical analysis.

  3. Liver stiffness in the hepatitis B virus carrier: A non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filippo Oliveri; Barbara Coco; Pietro Ciccorossi; Piero Colombatto; Veronica Romagnoli; Beatrice Cherubini; Ferruccio Bonino; Maurizia Rossana Brunetto

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by Fibroscan (FS), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS: In 297 consecutive HBV carriers, we studied the correlation between liver stiffness (LS), stage of liver disease and other factors potentially influencing FS measurements. In 87 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, we monitored the FS variations according to the spontaneous or treatment-induced variations of biochemical activity during follow-up. RESULTS: FS values were 12.3±3.3 kPa in acute hepatitis, 10.3±8.8 kPa in chronic hepatitis, 4.3 ±1.0 kPa in inactive carriers and 4.6±1.2 kPa in blood donors. We identified the cut-offs of 7.5 and 11.8 kPa for the diagnosis of fibrosis≥S3 and cirrhosis respectively, showing 93.9% and 86.5% sensitivity, 88.5% and 96.3% specificity, 76.7% and 86.7% positive predictive value (PPV), 97.3% and 96.3% negative predictive value (NPV) and 90.1% and 94.2% diagnostic accuracy. At multivariate analysis in 171 untreated carriers, fibrosis stage (t=13.187, P 10/18 vs≤ 10/18, P = 0.035) and All levels (t = 3.566, P = 0.001) were independently associated with LS in 83 untreated patients without cirrhosis and long-term biochemical remission (t = 4.662, P < 0.001) in 80 treated patients. During FS monitoring (mean follow-up 19.9±7.1 mo) FS values paralleled those of ALT in patients with hepatitis exacerbation (with 1.2 to 4.4-fold increases in CHB patients) and showed a progressive decrease during antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: FS is a non-invasive tool to monitor liver disease in chronic HBV carriers, provided that the pattern of biochemical activity is taken into account. In the inactive carrier, it identifies non-HBV-related causes of liver damage and transient reactivations. In CHB patients, it may warrant a more appropriate timing of control liver biopsies.

  4. Liver stiffness in the hepatitis B virus carrier: A non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Filippo; Coco, Barbara; Ciccorossi, Pietro; Colombatto, Piero; Romagnoli, Veronica; Cherubini, Beatrice; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by Fibroscan (FS), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS: In 297 consecutive HBV carriers, we studied the correlation between liver stiffness (LS), stage of liver disease and other factors potentially influencing FS measurements. In 87 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, we monitored the FS variations according to the spontaneous or treatment-induced variations of biochemical activity during follow-up. RESULTS: FS values were 12.3 ± 3.3 kPa in acute hepatitis, 10.3 ± 8.8 kPa in chronic hepatitis, 4.3 ± 1.0 kPa in inactive carriers and 4.6 ± 1.2 kPa in blood donors. We identified the cut-offs of 7.5 and 11.8 kPa for the diagnosis of fibrosis ≥ S3 and cirrhosis respectively, showing 93.9% and 86.5% sensitivity, 88.5% and 96.3% specificity, 76.7% and 86.7% positive predictive value (PPV), 97.3% and 96.3% negative predictive value (NPV) and 90.1% and 94.2% diagnostic accuracy. At multivariate analysis in 171 untreated carriers, fibrosis stage (t = 13.187, P 10/18 vs ≤ 10/18, P = 0.035) and ALT levels (t = 3.566, P = 0.001) were independently associated with LS in 83 untreated patients without cirrhosis and long-term biochemical remission (t = 4.662, P < 0.001) in 80 treated patients. During FS monitoring (mean follow-up 19.9 ± 7.1 mo) FS values paralleled those of ALT in patients with hepatitis exacerbation (with 1.2 to 4.4-fold increases in CHB patients) and showed a progressive decrease during antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: FS is a non-invasive tool to monitor liver disease in chronic HBV carriers, provided that the pattern of biochemical activity is taken into account. In the inactive carrier, it identifies non-HBV-related causes of liver damage and transient reactivations. In CHB patients, it may warrant a more appropriate timing of control liver biopsies. PMID:18985805

  5. Enhanced production of branched-chain fatty acids by replacing β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Yanfang; Bentley, Gayle J; Liu, Di; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-08-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are important precursors for the production of advanced biofuels with improved cold-flow properties. Previous efforts in engineering type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) for BCFA production suffered from low titers and/or the co-production of a large amount of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), making it nearly impossible for further conversion of BCFAs to branched biofuels. Synthesis of both SCFAs and BCFAs requires FabH, the only β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the initial condensation reaction between malonyl-ACP and a short-chain acyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrated that replacement of the acetyl-CoA-specific E. coli FabH with a branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabH directed the flux to the synthesis of BCFAs, resulting in a significant enhancement in BCFA titer compared to a strain containing both acetyl-CoA- and branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabHs. We further demonstrated that the composition of BCFAs can be tuned by engineering the upstream pathway to control the supply of different branched-chain acyl-CoAs, leading to the production either even-chain-iso-, odd-chain-iso-, or odd-chain-anteiso-BCFAs separately. Overall, the top-performing strain from this study produced BCFAs at 126 mg/L, comprising 52% of the total free fatty acids. PMID:25788017

  6. Investigating thermal donors in n-type Cz silicon with carrier density imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method to map the thermal donor concentration in silicon wafers using carrier density imaging is presented. A map of the thermal donor concentration is extracted with high resolution from free carrier density images of a silicon wafer before and after growth of thermal donors. For comparison, free carrier density mapping is also performed using the resistivity method together with linear interpolation. Both methods reveal the same distribution of thermal donors indicating that the carrier density imaging technique can be used to map thermal donor concentration. The interstitial oxygen concentration can also be extracted using the new method in combination with Wijaranakula's model. As part of this work, the lifetime at medium injection level is correlated to the concentration of thermal donors in the as-grown silicon wafer. The recombination rate is found to depend strongly on the thermal donor concentration except in the P-band region.

  7. Carrier transport in undoped CdO films grown by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements were performed for the undoped CdO films with carrier concentrations (n) ranging from 2.4 × 1019 to 2.0 × 1020 cm−3 grown on c- and r-plane sapphire substrates by the atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition using Cd powder and H2O as source materials. The n dependence of the optical gap energy (Eopt) could be explained by the combination of the band gap widening due to Burstein–Moss shift and the band gap shrinkages due to the electron–electron and electron–impurity interactions. For all the films, the carrier concentrations (n) were independent of measurement temperature (T), indicating that these films were n-type degenerate semiconductors. The barrier heights at grain boundaries determined from the 1000/T-ln(μT) curves were smaller than the thermal energy at 300 K, suggesting that the grain boundary scattering plays a minor role on the carrier transport in comparison with the intra-grain scattering. The n dependence of the gradient of the μ–T curve revealed the continuous transformation of the dominant intra-grain scattering mechanism from the phonon scattering to the ionized impurity scattering with increasing n. - Highlights: • Undoped CdO films were grown on c- and r-plane sapphire substrates by CVD. • Hall effect measurements were performed for the CdO films at 83–343 K. • For many CdO films, the carrier concentration n was independent of temperature. • The grain boundary scattering plays a minor role in the CdO films. • The dominant intra-grain scattering exhibited the continuous change with n

  8. Performance Analysis of MC-CDMA in the Presence of Carriers Phase Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of carriers phase error on MC-CDMA performance in downlink mobile communications. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit-Error-Rate (BER) are analyzed taking into account the effect of carrier phase errors. It is shown that the MC-CDMA system is very sensitive to a carrier frequency offset, the system performance rapidly degrades and strongly depends on the number of carriers. For a maximal load, the degradation caused by carrier phase jitter is independent of the number of the carriers.

  9. Enhancement of photoluminescence from GaInNAsSb quantum wells upon annealing: improvement of material quality and carrier collection by the quantum well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, M; Kudrawiec, R; Latkowska, M; Syperek, M; Misiewicz, J; Sarmiento, T; Harris, J S

    2013-02-13

    In this study we apply time resolved photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance to study the carrier collection efficiency of a GaInNAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW). We show that the enhancement of photoluminescence from GaInNAsSb quantum wells annealed at different temperatures originates not only from (i) the improvement of the optical quality of the GaInNAsSb material (i.e., removal of point defects, which are the source of nonradiative recombination) but it is also affected by (ii) the improvement of carrier collection by the QW region. The total PL efficiency is the product of these two factors, for which the optimal annealing temperatures are found to be ~700 °C and ~760 °C, respectively, whereas the optimal annealing temperature for the integrated PL intensity is found to be between the two temperatures and equals ~720 °C. We connect the variation of the carrier collection efficiency with the modification of the band bending conditions in the investigated structure due to the Fermi level shift in the GaInNAsSb layer after annealing. PMID:23306016

  10. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Since there is no retail concept in the construction industry, gross receipts from construction... Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.321 Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an...

  11. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct ...... bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process....

  12. Pharmacogenetic typing for oral anti-coagulant response among factor V Leiden mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Risha; Saxena, Renu; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Factor V Leiden mutation is the most common inherited predisposition for hypercoagulability and thereby a common genetic cause for initiation of oral anti-coagulation therapy. There is a dearth of knowledge of coumarin response profile in such thrombophilic population. AIMS: The current pilot study aims to estimate coumarin sensitivity in an Indian cohort with an inherited thrombophilia risk factor (Factor V Leiden mutation carriers) based on the observed frequency of CYP2C9 *2, *3 and VKORC1-1639G >A genotype combinations. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out in a tertiary health care center in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carriers of FVL mutation were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, F*3) and VKORC1 (-1639G >A) variants by PCR-RFLP technique. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test to analyze difference in expected and observed genotype frequency. RESULTS: Sixty-one (n = 61) unrelated carriers of FVL mutation were observed in the 13 years study period. The allele frequency of CYP2C9 *2, CYP2C9 *3, and VKORC1-1639A in this cohort was 0.06, 0.11, and 0.16, respectively. Six (9.7%) individuals had two of the three variant alleles (heterozygous or homozygous), and 28 (45.9%) were heterozygous for at least one polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-prescription genotyping for coumarin drugs, if introduced in Indians with inherited thrombophilia (in whom oral anti-coagulant therapy may be necessary), is likely to identify 9.7% (hypersensitive) subjects in whom the optimum anti-coagulation may be achieved with reduced dosages, 44.3% (normal sensitivity) who may require higher dose and also 55.6% (hyper and moderate sensitivity) subjects who are likely to experience bleeding episodes. PMID:23716941

  13. Somatic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are not required for tumor development in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsvater, RM; deWit, MJ; Zewald, RA; Hofstra, RMW; Buys, CHCM; vanAmstel, HKP; Hoppener, JWM; Lips, CJM

    1996-01-01

    Germ line mutations in one allele of the RET proto-oncogene predispose to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) syndromes, To investigate whether these inherited mutations alone can cause the development of tumors in vivo (oncogene model) or whether somatic mutations in the homologous RET

  14. Six-wave mixing induced by free-carrier plasma in silicon nanowire waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Heng; Huang, Shu-Wei; Zhou, Linjie; Qiu, Kun; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear wave mixing in mesoscopic silicon structures is a fundamental nonlinear process with broad impact and applications. Silicon nanowire waveguides, in particular, have large third-order Kerr nonlinearity, enabling salient and abundant four-wave-mixing dynamics and functionalities. Besides the Kerr effect, in silicon waveguides two-photon absorption generates high free-carrier densities, with corresponding fifth-order nonlinearity in the forms of free-carrier dispersion and free-carrier absorption. However, whether these fifth-order free-carrier nonlinear effects can lead to six-wave-mixing dynamics still remains an open question until now. Here we report the demonstration of free-carrier-induced six-wave mixing in silicon nanowires. Unique features, including inverse detuning dependence of six-wave-mixing efficiency and its higher sensitivity to pump power, are originally observed and verfied by analytical prediction and numerical modeling. Additionally, asymmetric sideband generation is observed for d...

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is initiated by the FabY class of β-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanqiu; Sachdeva, Meena; Leeds, Jennifer A; Meredith, Timothy C

    2012-10-01

    The prototypical type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in bacteria utilizes two distinct classes of β-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) domains to assemble long-chain fatty acids, the KASIII domain for initiation and the KASI/II domain for elongation. The central role of FAS in bacterial viability and virulence has stimulated significant effort toward developing KAS inhibitors, particularly against the KASIII domain of the β-acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase FabH. Herein, we show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not utilize a FabH ortholog but rather a new class of divergent KAS I/II enzymes to initiate the FAS pathway. When a P. aeruginosa cosmid library was used to rescue growth in a fabH downregulated strain of Escherichia coli, a single unannotated open reading frame, PA5174, complemented fabH depletion. While deletion of all four KASIII domain-encoding genes in the same P. aeruginosa strain resulted in a wild-type growth phenotype, deletion of PA5174 alone specifically attenuated growth due to a defect in de novo FAS. Siderophore secretion and quorum-sensing signaling, particularly in the rhl and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) systems, was significantly muted in the absence of PA5174. The defect could be repaired by intergeneric complementation with E. coli fabH. Characterization of recombinant PA5174 confirmed a preference for short-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates, supporting the identification of PA5174 as the predominant enzyme catalyzing the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A with malonyl-ACP in P. aeruginosa. The identification of the functional role for PA5174 in FAS defines the new FabY class of β-ketoacyl synthase KASI/II domain condensation enzymes.

  16. Utilisation by homeless people of acute hospital services in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, M E; Scheuer, M A; Victor, C.; Benzeval, M; Gill, M; Judge, K.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the numbers and distribution of homeless people in London; to quantify the utilisation of acute inpatient services by homeless people in two health authorities; and to predict the total numbers of admissions in homeless people in district health authorities across London. DESIGN--Data were collected from various sources on the distribution of homeless people across London boroughs. All unplanned acute inpatient admissions during November 1990 to relevant hospitals were...

  17. EXPERIENCE WITH THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE UNDER SERVICE-TYPE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Scholz; A.Schmidt; A.Samir; C.Berger

    2004-01-01

    The thermomechanical fatigue behaviour of different high temperature alloys has been investigated and is under investigation respectively. The creep-fatigue behaviour of heat resistant steels was investigated by long-term service-type strain cycling tests simulating thermomechanical fatigue (TMF-) loading conditions at the heated surface of e.g. turbine rotors. Single-stage as well as three-stage cycles leads to similar results at the application of the damage accumulation rule. Life prediction which simulates typical combinations of cold starts, warm starts and hot starts has been established successfully for isothermal service-type loading and will be exceeded for thermomechanical loading. Long-term thermomechanical fatigue testing of Thermal Barrier Coating systems show typical delamination damage. An advanced TMF cruciform testing system enables complex multiaxial loading.

  18. HOT CARRIER SENSITIVITY OF MOSFET's EXPOSED TO SYNCHROTRON-LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, G.; Mahnkopf, R.; Wagemann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron-light irradiation for p- and n-channel MOSFET's on their sensitivity to hot carrier degradation was investigated. The radiation induces additional interface states and a positive oxide charge. Annealing at 450°C reduces the interface state density to its initial value but not the oxide charge. A hot carrier stress can compensate this remaining charge by trapping electrons. This effect produces an enhanced shift of the threshold voltage compared to non-irradiated d...

  19. Enzyme Mechanism and Slow-Onset Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase by an Inorganic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Soares de Maria de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major cause of children's morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing nearly one million deaths annually. The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, synthesizes fatty acids employing the Type II fatty acid biosynthesis system (FAS II, unlike humans that rely on the Type I (FAS I pathway. The FAS II system elongates acyl fatty acid precursors of the cell membrane in Plasmodium. Enoyl reductase (ENR enzyme is a member of the FAS II system. Here we present steady-state kinetics, pre-steady-state kinetics, and equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy data that allowed proposal of P. falciparum ENR (PfENR enzyme mechanism. Moreover, building on previous results, the present study also evaluates the PfENR inhibition by the pentacyano(isoniazidferrateII compound. This inorganic complex represents a new class of lead compounds for the development of antimalarial agents focused on the inhibition of PfENR.

  20. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  1. 37 CFR 385.13 - Minimum royalty rates and subscriber-based royalty floors for specific types of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Accounting Principles, which for the avoidance of doubt shall include the value of any barter or other... expensed by the service in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which for the... the service in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which for the...

  2. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials the electromigration behaviour of the carrier-free 241Am-Am(III) in inert electrolytes, μ = 0.1 (ClO4-), T = 298.1(1) K, was studied. Basing on experimental dependencies of the overall ion mobilities of 241Am-Am(III) on pH between pH 5.5 and 12.9 the stoichiometric hydrolysis constants pβ3 = 28.8(9) and pK1 = 6.9(2) were obtained. For K4 a limitation of pK4 > 13.9(3) was possible, because no formation of anionic hydrolysis products in solutions pH 241Am-Am(III) degrees in the range pH 5.5 - 3 from +6.85(15) up to +5.50(15) · 10-4 cm2s-1V-1. Dependencies of this effect on overall ionic strength, inert electrolyte anion, and temperature of the electrolytes were studied in detail both in acidic and neutral solutions. (author)

  3. Double-hulling of the bulk carriers%散货船的双壳化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫中华

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the technical background of the double-hulling of the bulk carriers and describes the 3 major problems for its design. It finally compares the characteristics of the single/double hull bulk carriers by listing.

  4. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  5. Analysis of Single-Server Queue with Phase-Type Service and Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Dudin, Sergey A.; Moon Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    We propose a queueing model suitable, for example, for modelling operation of nodes of sensor networks. The sensor node senses a random field and generates packets to be transmitted to the central node. The sensor node has a battery of a finite capacity and harvests energy during its operation from outside (using solar cells, wind turbines, piezoelectric cells, etc.). We assume that, generally speaking, service (transmission) of a packet consists of a random number of phases and implementatio...

  6. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lin.wang@insa-lyon.fr; Laurent, J.; Brémond, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5270, INSA Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Chauveau, J. M. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (CRHEA), CNRS UPR10, rue Bernard Grégory, 06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France); Physics Department, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS), Parc Valrose, 06103 Nice (France); Sallet, V.; Jomard, F. [Groupe d' étude de la matière condensée (GEMaC), CNRS - Université de Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.

  7. Types of Models of Service Life of Reinforcement: The Case of the Resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The design of concrete structures is usually made by means of a performance approach based on strength tests carried out following testing conditions agreed by convention. A similar approach should also be followed in the case of durability design regarding reinforcement corrosion. This type of consideration enables the definition of a four level methodology for design against reinforcement corrosion in parallel with that followed for strength design. Levels from I to IV are proposed: a] level I would be the prescriptive method already given in present codes based on "deemed-to-satisfy" rules, b] level I is that where still not quantification of the time to reach a limit state is explicit but the minimum life time is assured through performance based tests, c] level III would be the level in which the calculation of aggressive ingress through models having explicit the time is made and d] level IV includes the verification that the resistance of the cover thickness against the penetration of aggressive substances is higher than the environmental action effect including probabilistic treatments.

    For level II and III the measurement of the electrical resistivity results a very suitable proposal due to this parameter can be measured in a non destructive test and serves to quality control. It is not only a performance test

  8. Analyzing the service availability of mobile cloud computing systems by fluid-flow approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wu LV; Jun-yu LIN; Hui-qiang WANG; Guang-sheng FENG; Mo ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has become a promising technique to deal with computation- or data-intensive tasks. It overcomes the limited processing power, poor storage capacity, and short battery life of mobile devices. Providing con-tinuous and on-demand services, MCC argues that the service must be available for users at anytime and anywhere. However, at present, the service availability of MCC is usually measured by some certain metrics of a real-world system, and the results do not have broad representation since different systems have different load levels, different deployments, and many other random factors. Meanwhile, for large-scale and complex types of services in MCC systems, simulation-based methods (such as Monte-Carlo simulation) may be costly and the traditional state-based methods always suffer from the problem of state-space explosion. In this paper, to overcome these shortcomings, fluid-flow approximation, a breakthrough to avoid state-space explosion, is adopted to analyze the service availability of MCC. Four critical metrics, including response time of service, minimum sensing time of devices, minimum number of nodes chosen, and action throughput, are defined to estimate the availability by solving a group of ordinary differential equations even before the MCC system is fully deployed. Experimental results show that our method costs less time in analyzing the service availability of MCC than the Markov- or simulation-based methods.

  9. "I'm Healthy, It's Not Going To Be Me": Exploring experiences of carriers identified through a population reproductive genetic carrier screening panel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Catherine A; Amor, David J; Di Pietro, Louisa; Archibald, Alison D

    2016-08-01

    Advancing genetic testing technologies mean that population-based carrier screening for multiple inherited conditions is now available. As the number of genetic conditions being screened increases, there is a need for research into how people experience these screening programs. This research aimed to explore how women experience simultaneous carrier screening for three inherited conditions: cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). A qualitative approach was adopted using in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten female participants: five SMA carriers, three CF carriers, and two FXS premutation carriers. Eight participants were pregnant when offered screening by their general practitioner or obstetrician and the decision to have screening was described as straightforward. Participants reported experiencing emotional responses such as anxiety and stress while waiting for either their partner's carrier screen result (CF or SMA carriers) or the pregnancy's CVS result (FXS carrier) and sought additional information about the relevant condition during this time. Most participants were in favor of population carrier screening for these conditions, preferably prior to conception. Genetic counselors played an essential role in supporting couples after they received a carrier result given the variable consent processes undertaken when screening was offered. Further research should focus on the development of reliable online information tailored to people receiving carrier results and strategies for raising awareness of the availability of population carrier screening within the community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150953

  10. The Evaluation of Service Quality by Socially Responsible Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanakamolchai, Somyot

    2008-01-01

    The socially responsible customer segment is growing. Increasingly, customers are concerned about social, political, and environmental issues. These concerns have been shown to affect their attitudes towards the quality of goods and services as well as their buying behaviors. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of empirical research in the service literature on socially responsible customers. This study investigates the role that social responsibility plays in measuring service quality. ...

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  12. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Carrier Transfer between InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Wells Separated by Thick Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.;

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the carrier transfer between two adjacent wells of different width separated by a 100 nm thick barrier. At low temperatures (T 30 K: the transfer strongly increases, denoting that the thermal escape out of the QW...

  14. The Development of the Carrier Aviation Support System Architecture Using DoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Do Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a development of aircraft carrier aviation support system architecture using DoDAF. The aircraft carrier, warship doing role of mobile sea airbase in offensive and defensive mission, is super system that is comprised of carrier itself and carrier-based air wing. Performing critical role in step with aviation operations in carrier-air wing interactions, the aviation support system of aircraft carrier is also system of systems. It is required to complex and integrated approach based on systems engineering in establishing concept of this complex systems. In this view, this study established an operational scenario and derived operational requirements by identifying aviation operations environment on deck of aircraft carrier. It is presented the operational architecture of the carrier aviation support system by using DoDAF and CASE tool CORE.

  15. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  16. Concentration and mobility of charge carriers in thin polymers at high temperature determined by electrode polarization modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaham, Sombel; Locatelli, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Charge carrier concentration (n0) and effective mobility (μeff) are reported in two polymer films (dielectric spectroscopy data. It is shown that the glass transition temperature (Tg) occurrence has a strong influence on the temperature dependence of n0 and μeff. We carry out that n0 presents two distinct Arrhenius-like behaviors below and above Tg, while μeff exhibits a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman behavior only above Tg whatever the polymer under study. For polyimide films, n0 varies from 1 × 1014 to 4 × 1016 cm-3 and μeff from 1 × 10-8 to 2 × 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 between 200 °C to 400 °C. Poly(amide-imide) films show n0 values between 6 × 1016 and 4 × 1018 cm-3 from 270 °C to 400 °C, while μeff varies between 1 × 10-10 and 2 × 10-7 cm2 V-1 s-1. Considering the activation energies of these physical parameters in the temperature range of investigation, n0 and μeff values appear as coherent with those reported in the literature at lower temperature (Polyimide films appear as good candidates due to nS values less than 1011 cm-2 up to 300 °C.

  17. The types of services a single unit, new operating utility needs from industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the future of the Wolf Creek nuclear power plant. He says the future includes the following elements: fulfillment of the commitment to and responsibility for safe operation of the plant, and effective utilization of human and economic resources. The author says the Wolf Creek organization cannot and should not be entirely self-sufficient. Services purchased from outside firms, subcontractors, and consultants are expected to be 20% of the 1986 budget. The author asks for help and patience in meeting the plant's goals

  18. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of disease Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  19. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334

  20. Non-Radiative Carrier Recombination Enhanced by Two-Level Process: A First-Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Shi, Lin; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-02-01

    Non-radiative recombination plays an important role in the performance of optoelectronic semiconductor devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Most textbook examples assume that the recombination process occurs through a single defect level, where one electron and one hole are captured and recombined. Based on this simple picture, conventional wisdom is that only defect levels near the center of the bandgap can be effective recombination centers. Here, we present a new two-level recombination mechanism: first, one type of carrier is captured through a defect level forming a metastable state; then the local defect configuration rapidly changes to a stable state, where the other type of carrier is captured and recombined through another defect level. This novel mechanism is applied to the recombination center in CdTe. We show that this two-level process can significantly increase the recombination rate (by three orders of magnitude) in agreement with experiments. We expect that this two-level recombination process can exist in a wide range of semiconductors, so its effect should be carefully examined in characterizing optoelectronic materials.

  1. Emission spectrographic carrier distillation techniques for the determination of trace elements in nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectrography is widely used in quality control of nuclear fuels for the determination of trace metal impurities in uranium. Carrier distillation technique with a suitable carrier is commonly used for routine quantometric analysis. The limits of detection obtained by other methods involving chemical separation and pre-concentration are better than those for the carrier distillation technique. In this study investigations were made to evaluate various carrier distillation techniques and to develope a suitable technique for achieving optimum sensitivity. (authors)

  2. Investigation into Alternative Sugars as Potential Carriers for Dry Powder Formulation of Budesonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nokhodchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry powder inhaler (DPI formulations are so far being used for pulmonary drug delivery, mainly for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Currently most of DPI formulations rely on lactose as a carrier in the drug powder blend. However, due to reducing sugar function of lactose which makes it incompatible with some drugs such as budesonide, it is realistic to investigate for alternative sugars that would overcome the concerned drawback but still have the positive aspects of lactose. Methods: The study was conducted by characterizing carriers for their physico-chemical properties and preparing drug/carrier blends with concentration of 5% and 10% drug with the carrier. The mixing uniformity (homogeneity of Budesonide in the blends was analyzed using spectrophotometer. The blend was then filled into NB7/2 Airmax inhaler device and the deposition profiles of the drug were determined using multi stage liquid impinger (MSLI after aerosolization at 4 kPa via the inhaler. The morphology of the carriers conducted using the scanning electron microscope. Results: The results determined that the mean fine particle fraction (FPF of 5% and 10% blends of mannitol was 61%, possibly due to fine elongated particles. Dextrose exhibited excellent flowability. Scanning electron microscope illustrated mannitol with fine elongated particles and dextrose presenting larger and coarse particles. It was found out that type of carriers, particle size distribution, and morphology would influence the FPF of budesonide. Conclusion: It may be concluded that mannitol could be suitable as a carrier on the basis of its pharmaceutical performance and successful achievement of FPF whereas the more hygroscopic sugars such as sorbitol or xylitol showed poor dispersibility leading to lower FPF.

  3. Analysis of services trade and employment in China by co-integration and causality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-lin; DAI Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a study by co-integration test and Granger causality test on the relationships between China's services trades and employment using the data of services trade from the WTO website and the employment data from China Statistic Yearbook for the years from 1982 to 2003. Co-integration test showed that 1% increase in export value and import value of services created respectively 0.205% and 0.068 7% more job opportunities in the service sector. Both export and import of services impacted positively on employment in service industry, and export did more than import. However, in the short run, the impacts of services export and import on employment in service industry were both very small, though positive; and the impacts of employment in service industry on both export and import of services were very big, but not stable. Granger causality test indicated that employment in service industry was a Granger cause of services export. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating services import and reducing import barriers, and suggest that the competitiveness of China's labor-intensive services trade can be exploited to boost services export and help employment in service sector, and that the structure of services trade should be optimized by shifting from labor-intensive to knowledge-and technology-intensive services thus to enhance China's competitiveness of services export.

  4. Study of carrier blocking property of poly-linalyl acetate thin layer by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Anderson, Liam J.; Jacob, Mohan V.

    2014-02-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier-blocking property of poly-linalyl acetate (PLA) thin layers sandwiched in indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)/PLA/C60/Al double-layer diodes. Results showed that the PLA layer totally blocks electrons crossing the C60 layer, and also blocks holes entering from the IZO layer. The EFISHG measurement effectively substantiates the hole-blocking electron-blocking property of the PLA layer sandwiched in double layer diodes.

  5. Effect of drug-carrier interaction on the dissolution behavior of solid dispersion tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinarong, Parinda; Kouwen, Sander; Visser, Marinella R; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the dissolution behavior of tablets prepared from solid dispersions with and without drug-carrier interactions. Diazepam and nifedipine were used as model drugs. Two types of carriers were used; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K12, K30 and K60) and saccharides (i

  6. Harmonization of trade in services by APEC members

    OpenAIRE

    Ishido, Hikari

    2013-01-01

    This study maps out the degree of services trade liberalization by the APEC members toward achieving a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) and makes some comparative analyses. The study finds that the commitment level differs greatly between sensitive and less sensitive sectors, and that the commitment level under the ASEAN Framework Agreement (AFAS) package 8 is the highest among the four FTAs studied. It also finds that there are cross-country and sector-wide similarities in the pat...

  7. Carrier extraction behaviour in type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of quantum dot (QD) or quantum ring (QR) nanostructures into GaAs single-junction solar cells has shown enhanced photo-response above the GaAs absorption edge, because of sub-bandgap photon absorption. However, to further improve solar cell performance a better understanding of the mechanisms of photogenerated carrier extraction from QDs and QRs is needed. In this work we have used a direct excitation technique to study type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells using a 1064 nm infrared laser, which enables us to excite electron–hole pairs directly within the GaSb QRs without exciting the GaAs host material. Temperature and laser intensity dependence of the current–voltage characteristics revealed that the thermionic emission process produced the dominant contribution to the photocurrent and accounts for 98.9% of total photocurrent at 0 V and 300 K. Although the tunnelling process gives only a low contribution to the photocurrent, an enhancement of the tunnelling current was clearly observed when an external electric field was applied. (paper)

  8. Increased oxidative damage in carriers of the germline TP53 p.R337H mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S Macedo

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in TP53 are the underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL Syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders characterized by predisposition to multiple early onset cancers. In Brazil, a variant form of LFS/LFL is commonly detected because of the high prevalence of a founder mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (p.R337H. The p53 protein exerts multiple roles in the regulation of oxidative metabolism and cellular anti-oxidant defense systems. Herein, we analyzed the redox parameters in blood samples from p.R337H mutation carriers (C, n = 17 and non-carriers (NC, n = 17. We identified a significant increase in erythrocyte GPx activity and in plasma carbonyl content,an indicator of protein oxidative damage, in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 0.048 and P = 0.035, respectively. Mutation carriers also showed a four-fold increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (NC = 40.20±0.71, C = 160.5±0.88, P<0.0001. Finally, carriers showed increased total antioxidant status but a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid content. The observed imbalance could be associated with deregulated cell bioenergetics and/or with increased inflammatory stress, two effects that may result from loss of wild-type p53 function. These findings provide the first evidence that oxidative damage occurs in carriers of a germline TP53 mutation, and these may have important implications regarding our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for germline TP53 p.R337H mutation-associated carcinogenesis.

  9. The solute carrier 6 family of transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Stefan; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of the human genome comprises transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Members of this family play critical roles in neurotransmission, cellular and whole body homeostasis. Malfunction or altered expression...... of these transporters is associated with a variety of diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of the neurotransmitter transporters in this family is an important strategy in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological properties...

  10. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  11. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  12. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  13. Flying from Europe to the Algarve: The Geographical Impacts of the Growth of Low- Cost Carriers (1996–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramos-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of non-scheduled traffic by scheduled services is one of the main impacts that the liberalisation of the European Common Aviation Area has had on tourist airports. In the case of Faro, between 1996 and 2013, this shift led to both fewer routes served and reduced catchment areas in the source markets for tourists visiting the Algarve. The strategy pursued by Ryanair, the airport’s main carrier, focuses on connections that already channelled a greater volume of traffic when charter airlines dominated. Therefore, the impact of low-cost carriers on diversifying the number of airports of origin and source markets is limited. Moreover, using the spatial analysis functions of GIS software, we verified that the population linked to the theoretical catchment areas of airports with a non-stop flight to Faro in 2013 was smaller than that of the airports with such connections in 2000. The decision-making process involved in the policy incentives for introducing new routes could benefit greatly from this type of analysis.

  14. Carrier synchronization and detection of polyphase signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Digital communication networks used for the distribution of high-speed digital information are currently the subject of design studies for many civil and military applications. This paper presents results that are useful in such studies as well as in network planning. In particular, the paper is concerned with the problems of carrier synchronization and noisy reference detection of polyphase signals. Reconstruction of coherent references for the detection of polyphase signals is considered and analyzed for three carrier reconstruction loops, namely, Nth power (multiply-and-divide) loops, generalized Costas (I-Q) loops, and extensions of data-aided (modulation wipeoff) loops. General expressions for the error probability are developed when the reconstructed reference signals are noisy.

  15. Building the Process-managed Organization by Means of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Repa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows how the idea of "service orientation" may be used not as a technical principle only but also as a tool for analysis of the substance of the business - for building the process-managed organization. The principle of services as a common principle for developing the business, and organizing its IT support is used for mental overcoming of the illusory contradiction between both areas - business, and IT.

  16. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gubik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  17. The Governance of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, P.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of assessing a system of governance for composite services in the social economy is approached by means of original methods.The main innovation is that the welfare structure of a society is separated from the legal transaction- or institutional structure.As both the various types of serv

  18. Lower frequency of Gaucher disease carriers among Tay-Sachs disease carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, L; Frisch, A; Goldman, B; Karpaty, M; Narinsky, R; Bronstein, S; Frydman, M

    1998-01-01

    The heterozygote frequency of Gaucher disease (GD) and Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is distinctly high among Ashkenazi Jews (1:29 for TSD and 1:16 for GD). Two main theories have been suggested to explain this high occurrence: a founder effect with subsequent genetic drift, and a selective advantage of heterozygotes. We compared the frequency of the GD most common mutation (1226A-->G) among carriers of the common TSD mutation (+1277 TATC) with the frequency of this mutation in the general Ashkenazi population. The frequency of GD carriers among 308 TSD heterozygotes was 1:28 which is about half the expected (P = 0.03). These results indicate that carriers of both diseases do not possess additional evolutionary advantage over single mutation carriers. A reasonable interpretation of these findings is that one or both mutations have arisen relatively recently in different regions of Europe and have not yet reached genetic equilibrium. PMID:9781065

  19. Racial and ethnic group variations in service use in a national sample of Medicare home health care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-Korang, Amoah; Kleppinger, Alison; Fortinsky, Richard H

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is known to affect adults in racial and ethnic minority groups disproportionately. When diabetes mellitus-related symptoms lead to the need for skilled care in the community-dwelling Medicare population, physicians can order the Medicare home health care (HHC) benefit, and Medicare-certified home health agencies can deliver it. Little is known about the extent to which racial and ethnic disparities exist in types and patterns of HHC services delivered to Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus when they are approved for the Medicare HHC benefit. This was examined by comparing racial and ethnic groups in terms of measures of HHC service use in a nationally representative sample of Medicare HHC beneficiaries with a primary diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Uniform clinical data from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set were linked with Medicare HHC claims for beneficiaries who received a complete episode of HHC in 2002. In the study sample (n=9,838), 62% of participants self-identified as white, 22% African American, 12% Hispanic, and 3% Asian. Nearly all (99%) participants in all racial and ethnic groups received skilled nursing services. Controlling for numerous sociodemographic and health-related covariates and geographic region of the country, African-American participants received fewer nurse visits per week and fewer visits per week from all clinical disciplines combined than whites (both Phealth aide (AOR=0.716, 95% CI=0.582-0.880, P=.002) services. Lower use of skilled nursing and rehabilitation services by African Americans and of rehabilitation services by Hispanics warrant further clinical and research attention.

  20. Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1: Strong association with haplotype 6 in French Canadians permits simple carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, S.I.; Phaneuf, D.; Tanguay, R.M. (Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Quebec (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), a severe inborn error of tyrosine catabolism, is caused by deficiency of the terminal enzyme, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). The highest reported frequency of HT1 is in the French Canadian population, especially in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region. Using human FAH cDNA probes, the authors have identified 10 haplotypes with TaqI, KpnI, RsaI, BglII, and MspI RFLPs in 118 normal chromosomes from the French Canadian population. Interestingly, in 29 HT1 children, a prevalent haplotype, haplotype 6, was found to be strongly associated with the disease, at a frequency of 90% of alleles, as compared with [approximately] 18% in 35 control individuals. This increased to 96% in the 24 patients originating from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean. These results suggest that one or only a few prevailing mutations are responsible for most of the HT1 cases in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean. Since most patients were found to be homozygous for a specific haplotype in this population, FAH RFLPs have permitted simple carrier detection in nine different informative HT1 families, with a confidence level of 99.9%. Heterozygosity rate values obtained from 52 carriers indicated that [approximately] 88% of families at risk from Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean are fully or partially informative. Prenatal diagnosis was also achieved in an American family. Analysis of 24 HT1 patients from nine countries gave a frequency of [approximately] 52% for haplotype 6, suggesting a relatively high association, worldwide, of HT1 with this haplotype. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Platelet hexosaminidase a enzyme assay effectively detects carriers missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Sachiko; Zhan, Jie; Sun, Wei; Ferreira, Jose Carlos; Keiles, Steven; Hambuch, Tina; Kammesheidt, Anja; Mark, Brian L; Schneider, Adele; Gross, Susan; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical testing of hexosaminidase A (HexA) enzyme activity has been available for decades and has the ability to detect almost all Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, irrespective of ethnic background. This is increasingly important, as the gene pool of those who identify as Ashkenazi Jewish is diversifying. Here we describe the analysis of a cohort of 4,325 individuals arising from large carrier screening programs and tested by the serum and/or platelet HexA enzyme assays and by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Our results continue to support the platelet assay as a highly effective method for TSD carrier screening, with a low inconclusive rate and the ability to detect possible disease-causing mutation carriers that would have been missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Sequence analysis performed on one such platelet assay carrier, who had one non-Ashkenazi Jewish parent, identified the amino acid change Thr259Ala (A775G). Based on crystallographic modeling, this change is predicted to be deleterious, as threonine 259 is positioned proximal to the HexA alpha subunit active site and helps to stabilize key residues therein. Accordingly, if individuals are screened for TSD in broad-based programs by targeted molecular testing alone, they must be made aware that there is a more sensitive and inexpensive test available that can identify additional carriers. Alternatively, the enzyme assays can be offered as a first tier test, especially when screening individuals of mixed or non-Jewish ancestry. PMID:23430931

  2. Comparative analysis of methods for the microcircuit assembly on flexible polyimide carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitskiy V. G.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a classification of methods for the microcircuit assembly with the use of flexible polyimide carriers of different types, and their comparative analysis. The most appropriate method for the manufacturing of flexible dual-layer carriers is singled out.

  3. Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Lartsev, Arseniy; Yager, Thomas; Bergsten, T.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, Tjbm; Yakimova, R.; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Delta n similar to 10(13) cm(-2)) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  4. Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartsev, Arseniy; Yager, Tom; Bergsten, Tobias; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Yakimova, Rositza; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Δn ˜ 1013 cm-2) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  5. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file contains data on characteristics of hospitals and other types of healthcare facilities, including the name and address of the facility and the type of...

  6. An analysis of global aerosol type as retrieved by MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.

    2015-05-01

    In addition to aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol type is required globally for climate forcing calculations, constraining aerosol transport models and other applications. However, validating satellite aerosol-type retrievals is more challenging than testing AOD results, because aerosol type is a more complex quantity, and ground truth data are far less numerous and generally not as robust. We evaluate the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) Version 22 aerosol-type retrievals by assessing product self-consistency on a regional basis and by making comparisons with general expectation and with the Aerosol Robotic Network aerosol-type climatology, as available. The results confirm and add detail to the observation that aerosol-type discrimination improves dramatically where midvisible AOD exceeds about 0.15 or 0.2. When the aerosol-type information content of the observations is relatively low, increased scattering-angle range improves particle-type sensitivity. The MISR standard, operational product discriminates among small, medium, and large particles and exhibits qualitative sensitivity to single-scattering albedo (SSA) under good aerosol-type retrieval conditions, providing a categorical aerosol-type classification. MISR Ångström exponent deviates systematically from ground truth where particle types missing from the algorithm climatology are present, or where cloud contamination is likely to occur, and SSA tends to be overestimated where absorbing particles are found. We determined that the number of mixtures passing the algorithm acceptance criteria (#SuccMix) represents aerosol-type retrieval quality effectively, providing a useful aerosol-type quality flag.

  7. Is oral absorption of vigabatrin carrier-mediated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, M. K.; Juul, R. V.; Thale, Z. I.;

    2015-01-01

    by significant increases in the apparent Michaelis constant. Based on the mechanistic model, a high capacity low affinity carrier is proposed to be involved in intestinal vigabatrin absorption. PAT1-ligands increased the Michaelis constant of vigabatrin after oral co-administration indicating that this carrier......The aim of the study was to investigate the intestinal transport mechanisms responsible for vigabatrin absorption in rats by developing a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model of vigabatrin oral absorption. The PK model was used to investigate whether vigabatrin absorption was carrier......-mediated and if the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) was involved in the absorption processes. Vigabatrin (0.3-300 mg/kg) was administered orally or intravenously to Sprague Dawley rats in the absence or presence of PAT1-ligands l-proline, l-tryptophan or sarcosine. The PK profiles of vigabatrin were described...

  8. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  9. Carrier Density and Plasma Frequency of Aluminum Nanofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao DU; Jun GONG; Chao SUN; Rongfang HUANG; Lishi WEN; W.Y.Cheung; S.P.Wong

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the prerequisite and mode of electromagnetic response of Al nanofilms to electromagnetic wave field was suggested.Reflectance, transmittance in infrared region and carrier density of the films was measured. With the carrier density of the films, the dependence of their plasma frequencies on the film thickness was obtained. On the other hand, the dependence of absorptance on the frequency of electromagnetic wave field was set up by using the measured reflectance and transmittance,which provided plasma frequency-film thickness relation as well. Similarity of both plasma frequency-film thickness relations proved plasma resonance as a mode of electromagnetic response in Al nanofilms.

  10. Novel Scheme of Carrier Tri-reuse and Distribution Fiber Protection Based on Round Shift Method in Optical Access Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Gan, Chaoqin; Yin, Maojun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-06-01

    A novel architecture of optical access network based on round shift method is proposed. Round shift method is composed by round service mode of carriers and cycle characteristic of 2×N arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). By utilizing the round service mode, every carrier is tri-reused to provide service for three different optical network units. Besides, in remote node, the 2×3N AWG can be replaced by three 2×N AWGs and AWGs' channel spacing is increased. So, the demand on RN's AWGs is decreased. Furthermore, based on the cycle characteristic of 2×N AWG, a 1+1 protection scheme is presented to provide independent protection for distribution fibers. Simulation and analysis show the proposed scheme works well.

  11. Evolution of the conductivity type in germania by varying the stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islamov, D. R., E-mail: damir@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gritsenko, V. A., E-mail: grits@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Cheng, C. H. [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chin, A., E-mail: albert-achin@hotmail.com [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-02

    Information regarding the conductivity type of Si/GeO{sub x}/Ni structures with various stoichiometry has been obtained using experiments on injection of minority carriers from n- and p-type silicon. Results show that non-stoichiometric GeO{sub x} films exhibit bipolar conductivity, that is, holes as well as electrons contribute to the charge transport. Stoichiometric GeO{sub 2} films exhibit unipolar electron conductivity.

  12. Measurement of Carrier-Envelope Phase and Field Strength of a Few-Cycle Pulse by Non-sequential Double Ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-Yun; CHEN Jing; JIANG Hong-Bing; LIU Jie; FU Pan-Ming; GONG Qi-Huang; YAN Zong-Chao; WANG Bing-Bing

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the carrier-envelop phase (CEP) and the intensity of a few-cycle pulse by controlling the non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) process.By using an additional static electric field, we can change the momentum distribution of the double-charged ions parallel to the laser polarization from an asymmetrical double-hump structure to a nearly symmetrical one.It is found that the ratio between the strength of the static electric field and that of the laser field is sensitive to the CEP but robust against the intensity fluctuation.Therefore we can determine the CEP of a few-cycle pulse precisely by measuring the static electric field.Furthermore, if the CEP of the few-cycle pulse is fixed at a certain value, we can also calibrate the intensity of the laser pulse by the static electric field.

  13. Functional impairment of Tax-specific but not cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in a minor population of asymptomatic human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamori Ayako

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in a small percentage of infected individuals. ATL is often associated with general immune suppression and an impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, an important host defense system. We previously found that a small fraction of asymptomatic HTLV-1-carriers (AC already showed impaired T-cell responses against the major target antigen, Tax. However, it is unclear whether the impaired HTLV-1 Tax-specific T-cell response in these individuals is an HTLV-1-specific phenomenon, or merely reflects general immune suppression. In this study, in order to characterize the impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, we investigated the function of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in various clinical status of HTLV-1 infection. Results By using tetramers consisting of HLA-A*0201, -A*2402, or -A*1101, and corresponding Tax epitope peptides, we detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in the peripheral blood from 87.0% of ACs (n = 20/23 and 100% of HAM/TSP patients (n = 18/18 tested. We also detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in 38.1% of chronic type ATL (cATL patients (n = 8/21, although its frequencies in peripheral blood CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of ACs or HAM/TSP patients. Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in HAM/TSP patients proliferated well in culture and produced IFN-γ when stimulated with Tax peptides. However, such functions were severely impaired in the Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in cATL patients. In ACs, the responses of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells were retained in most cases. However, we found one AC sample whose Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells hardly produced IFN-γ, and failed to proliferate and express activation (CD69 and degranulation (CD107a markers in response to Tax peptide. Importantly, the same AC sample contained cytomegalovirus (CMV pp65-specific CD8+ T

  14. Evaluation of carrier-mediated siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    RNA delivered by use of carriers remains an analytical challenge. The purpose of the present study was to optimize and validate an analytical protocol based on stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR) to quantitatively monitor the carrier-mediated intracellular si......RNA delivery. An in vitro cell culture model system expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to develop the assay, which was based on the intracellular quantification of a full-length double-stranded Dicer substrate siRNA by stem-loop RT qPCR. The result is a well-documented protocol...

  15. Analysis of Single-Server Queue with Phase-Type Service and Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Dudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a queueing model suitable, for example, for modelling operation of nodes of sensor networks. The sensor node senses a random field and generates packets to be transmitted to the central node. The sensor node has a battery of a finite capacity and harvests energy during its operation from outside (using solar cells, wind turbines, piezoelectric cells, etc.. We assume that, generally speaking, service (transmission of a packet consists of a random number of phases and implementation of each phase requires a unit of energy. If the battery becomes empty, transmission is failed. To reduce the probability of forced transmission termination, we suggest that the packet can be accepted for transmission only when the number of energy units is greater than or equal to some threshold. Under quite general assumptions about the pattern of the arrival processes of packets and energy, we compute the stationary distributions of the system states and the waiting time of a packet in the system and numerically analyze performance measures of the system as functions of the threshold. Validity of Little’s formula and its counterpart is verified.

  16. Difficulties of adaptation to Order 453 by radiology services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as its objective to present some difficulties of adaptation of a Radiological Service to Order 453, of Health Ministry. The Order 453, gives regulations to use of radiodiagnostic techniques and require the implementation of Quality Assurance Programs in all institution that make use of ionizing radiation. A survey of functioning conditions of General Hospital - Radiological Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, was performed with basis on Order 453. After analysis of these conditions, were noticed some needs as, improvement of professional competence about radiation protection and implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in radiological unit of this hospital

  17. The Evaluation of Customer Satisfaction in Terms of Characteristics of Services Offered by Trodat Company

    OpenAIRE

    Constandache Mihaela; Ionescu Adriana; Radu Steluta

    2010-01-01

    Organization and specially shaping the services content should provide greater flexibility and a variation of them depending on the specific needs of each client, time of application, place of achieve and the consumer’s mood. The impact of products/services of a firm on its market show the performances of the entreprise by adapting products or services to customer needs. Studying consumer needs is a prerequisite for achieving quality products and services to obtain business competitiveness th...

  18. Minority carrier lifetimes of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, R.; Edwall, D. D.; Chen, J. S.; Johnston, S. L.; Younger, C. R.

    1991-10-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of HgCdTe on GaAs is a promising technique that overcomes the size and crystal quality limitations of CdTe substrates. An important material parameter is the minority carrier liftetime, which determines the ultimate zero bias impedance and quantum efficiency of a photodiode. We present the first systematic study of the temperature and carrier concentration dependence of minority carrier lifetimes on n-type and p-type layers of MOCVD long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe grown on GaAs substrates. The temperature dependencies of the lifetime are compared with theoretical predictions based on Auger, radiative, and Shockley-Read recombination. Excellent fits are obtained over a broad temperature range, from 20 K to room temperature. The experimental lifetimes of n-type material reach the theoretical limit imposed by Auger+radiative recombination for carrier concentrations higher than 2×1015 cm-3. For lower carrier concentrations, the measured lifetimes are shorter than those predicted from Auguer+radiative recombination, and Shockley-Read recombination must be added to the calculations. The lifetimes of arsenic-doped and vacancy-doped p-type material are Shockley-Read limited. They are one order of magnitude longer than those previously observed on vacancy-doped liquid phase epitaxy material.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. H. Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider’s perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Jiao, Fang-Fang; Siu, Shing-Chung; Fung, Colman S C; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wong, Ka-Wai; Yu, Esther Y T; Lo, Yvonne Y C; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS) intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider's perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880. PMID:26798647

  1. Localization of Refsum disease with increased pipecolic acidaemia to chromosome 10p by homozygosity mapping and carrier testing in a single nuclear family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, N; Rolland, M O; Tranchant, C; Reutenauer, L; Gyapay, G; Warter, J M; Mandel, J L; Koenig, M

    1995-10-01

    Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder associated with the accumulation in blood and tissues of phytanic acid, a natural compound of exogenous origin whose catabolism is impaired in patients. We present here genome wide linkage analysis of an atypical Refsum disease family where L-pipecolic acid level in blood was also increased, suggesting that the patients suffer from a new peroxisomal disorder intermediate between ARD and Infantile Refsum Disease (IRD, a peroxisomal deficiency disease). We were able to demonstrate significant linkage (lod score = 3.6) between Refsum Disease with increased Pipecolic Acidaemia (RDPA) and the interval defined by D10S249 and D10S466 on 10p in this single consanguineous family by combining lod score values obtained from analysis of the multiple affected sibs, haplotype homozygosity and from discrimination between healthy carriers and non carriers based on phytanate oxidase measurements. This illustrates the power of homozygosity mapping with a dense map of microsatellite markers. A similar strategy will allow testing for homogeneity/heterogeneity between RDPA and ARD or the rare complementation groups of IRD.

  2. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  3. The use of dental services by adult Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, G L

    1993-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the rate of dental service utilisation amongst the adult Singaporeans and to examine factors influencing their service utilisation. 1959 subjects aged between 18-75 years participated in a questionnaire survey. Respondents were asked whether they had seen a dentist in the past twelve months. It was found that 57% of the subjects had not seen a dentist in the past year. The reasons given for non-attendance were "felt it was unnecessary" (69.7%), "lack of time" (13.8%), "fear" (5.7%) and "cost" (2.4%). The low level of dental awareness appeared to be the major block to utilisation of dental services in this population. PMID:9582690

  4. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...

  5. Regulation of muscle fiber type and running endurance by PPARdelta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xu Wang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training can promote an adaptive muscle fiber transformation and an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis by triggering scripted changes in gene expression. However, no transcription factor has yet been identified that can direct this process. We describe the engineering of a mouse capable of continuous running of up to twice the distance of a wild-type littermate. This was achieved by targeted expression of an activated form of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta in skeletal muscle, which induces a switch to form increased numbers of type I muscle fibers. Treatment of wild-type mice with PPARdelta agonist elicits a similar type I fiber gene expression profile in muscle. Moreover, these genetically generated fibers confer resistance to obesity with improved metabolic profiles, even in the absence of exercise. These results demonstrate that complex physiologic properties such as fatigue, endurance, and running capacity can be molecularly analyzed and manipulated.

  6. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  7. Choosing Whether to Buy or Make : The Contracting Out of Employment Reintegration Services by Dutch Municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; de Ridder, Ko; Corra, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Western welfare states are under reform. An important part of these reforms is the introduction of market type mechanisms for the deliverance of public services. Over the years, many countries have chosen to contract out employment reintegration services. The underlying notion of contracting out

  8. Development of New Types of Active Carbons, Inorganic Oxides and Phosphates as Selective Adsorbents and Carriers for Catalysts and their Application in Industry. Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    1998-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria of ethane and isobutane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling.......Adsorption equilibria of ethane and isobutane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling....

  9. Development of New Types of Active Carbons, Inorganic Oxides and Phosphates as Selective Adsorbents and Carriers for Catalysts and their Industrial Application. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    1996-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling.......Adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling....

  10. Environmental Influence on Automatic Landing Error of the Carrier-Borne Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhimin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the movement model of aircraft carrier and stern flow model under the influence of marine sport. Also, we focus on the influence of marine sports and aft flow on the landing error of the carrier-borne aircraft under the guidance of the automatic landing system in different sea state level by numerical simulation and calculation. The analysis result is meaningful to the aircraft carrier due to the fact that environmental factors have a great influence on the error of carrier-borne aircraft landing on aircraft carrier, especially; marine sports and aft flow always affect the movement of an aircraft carrier and landing process of carrier-borne aircraft.

  11. Influence of the carrier mobility distribution on the Hall and the Nernst effect measurements in n-type InSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Drouhin, H.-J. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CNRS UMR 7642, CEA-DSM-IRAMIS, Ecole polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Khodaparast, G. A., E-mail: khoda@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    In this study, we report magneto-resistance measurements on an n-doped InSb film, to separate the contributions of the electrical currents from the heat currents. We have demonstrated a prototype for a magnetic field sensor which is powered by heat currents and does not require any electrical current. We fabricated two Hall bars, where a low frequency (f = 0.05 Hz) AC current, was applied between the two contacts in one of the Hall bars. Separating the f and 2f components of the voltage measured across the second Hall bar was used to distinguish between the electrical and the heat contributions to the electron currents. Our observations can be modeled using a Gaussian distribution of mobility within the sample.

  12. Influence of the carrier mobility distribution on the Hall and the Nernst effect measurements in n-type InSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.; Khodaparast, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report magneto-resistance measurements on an n-doped InSb film, to separate the contributions of the electrical currents from the heat currents. We have demonstrated a prototype for a magnetic field sensor which is powered by heat currents and does not require any electrical current. We fabricated two Hall bars, where a low frequency (f = 0.05 Hz) AC current, was applied between the two contacts in one of the Hall bars. Separating the f and 2f components of the voltage measured across the second Hall bar was used to distinguish between the electrical and the heat contributions to the electron currents. Our observations can be modeled using a Gaussian distribution of mobility within the sample.

  13. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  14. World largest capesized bulk carrier was born in WSC%中国最大的好望角型散货船交付使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Baoxin

    2005-01-01

    The world largest Capesized bulk carrier developed and designed by Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Company, the 177000 dwt green environment friendly bulk carrier, has made its official debut in the market. The world bulk carrier shipping giant Bocimar International of Belgium became the first owner of this type of bulk carrier.

  15. Performance Analysis of Downlink Inter-band Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the most distinct features for LTE-Advanced systems, which can support a much wider transmission bandwidth up to 100 MHz by aggregating two or more individual component carriers (CCs) belonging to the same (intra-band) or different (inter-band) frequency bands. ...... CC can be different. In this paper, we investigate the downlink resource allocation for inter-band CA, i.e., how to assign carrier(s) to different UEs. A simple yet effective G-factor based carrier selection algorithm, which takes both traffic load and radio channel characteristics...

  16. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Cox; J. Simard; D. Sinnett; Y. Hamdi; P. Soucy; M. Ouimet; L. Barjhoux; C. Verny-Pierre; L. McGuffog; S. Healey; C. Szabo; M.H. Greene; P.L. Mai; I.L. Andrulis; M. Thomassen; A.M. Gerdes; M.A. Caligo; E. Friedman; Y. Laitman; B. Kaufman; S.S. Paluch; A. Borg; P. Karlsson; M.S. Askmalm; G.B. Bustinza; K.L. Nathanson; S.M. Domchek; T.R. Rebbeck; J. Benitez; U. Hamann; M.A. Rookus; A.M.W. van den Ouweland; M.G.E.M. Ausems; C.M. Aalfs; C.J. van Asperen; P. Devilee; H.J.J.P. Gille; S. Peock; D. Frost; D.G. Evans; R. Eeles; L. Izatt; J. Adlard; J. Paterson; J. Eason; A.K. Godwin; M.A. Remon; V. Moncoutier; M. Gauthier-Villars; C. Lasset; S. Giraud; A. Hardouin; P. Berthet; H. Sobol; F. Eisinger; B.B. de Paillerets; O. Caron; C. Delnatte; D. Goldgar; A. Miron; H. Ozcelik; S. Buys; M.C. Southey; M.B. Terry; C.F. Singer; A.C. Dressler; M.K. tea; T.V.O. Hansen; O. Johannsson; M. Piedmonte; G.C. Rodriguez; J.B. Basil; S. Blank; A.E. Toland; M. Montagna; C. Isaacs; I. Blanco; S.A. Gayther; K.B. Moysich; R.K. Schmutzler; B. Wappenschmidt; C. Engel; A. Meindl; N. Ditsch; N. Arnold; D. Niederacher; C. Sutter; D. Gadzicki; B. Fiebig; T. Caldes; R. Laframboise; H. Nevanlinna; X. Chen; J. Beesley; A.B. Spurdle; S.L. Neuhausen; Y.C. Ding; F.J. Couch; X. Wang; P. Peterlongo; S. Manoukian; L. Bernard; P. Radice; D.F. Easton; G. Chenevix-Trench; A.C. Antoniou; D. Stoppa-Lyonnet; S. Mazoyer; O.M. Sinilnikova

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly in

  17. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M.H.; Mai, P.L.; Andrulis, I.L.; Thomassen, M.; Gerdes, A.M.; Caligo, M.A.; Friedman, E.; Laitman, Y.; Kaufman, B.; Paluch, S.S.; Borg, A.; Karlsson, P.; Askmalm, M.S.; Bustinza, G.B.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.A.; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Ausems, M.G.; Aalfs, C.M.; Asperen, C.J. van; Devilee, P.; Gille, H.J.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Evans, D.G.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Adlard, J.; Paterson, J.; Eason, J.; Godwin, A.K.; Remon, M.A.; Moncoutier, V.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Lasset, C.; Giraud, S.; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Sobol, H.; Eisinger, F.; Bressac de Paillerets, B.; Caron, O.; Delnatte, C.; Goldgar, D.; Miron, A.; Ozcelik, H.; Buys, S.; Southey, M.C.; Terry, M.B.; Singer, C.F.; Dressler, A.C.; Tea, M.K.; Hansen, T.V.; Johannsson, O.; Piedmonte, M.; Rodriguez, G.C.; Basil, J.B.; Blank, S.; Toland, A.E.; Montagna, M.; Isaacs, C.; Blanco, I.; Gayther, S.A.; Moysich, K.B.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Sutter, C.; Gadzicki, D.; Fiebig, B.; Caldes, T.; Laframboise, R.; Nevanlinna, H.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Spurdle, A.B.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Easton, D.F.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly in

  18. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...

  19. Provision of ecosystem services by human-made structures in a highly impacted estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water filtration is one of the most important ecosystem services provided by sessile organisms in coastal ecosystems. As a consequence of increased coastal development, human-made shoreline structures (e.g., docks and bulkheads) are now common, providing extensive surface area for colonization by filter feeders. We estimate that in a highly urbanized sub-tropical estuary, water filtration capacity supported by filter feeding assemblages on dock pilings accounts for 11.7 million liters of water h−1, or ∼30% of the filtration provided by all natural oyster reef throughout the estuary. Assemblage composition, and thus filtration capacity, varied as a function of piling type, suggesting that the choice of building material has critical implications for ecosystem function. A more thorough depiction of the function of coastal ecosystems necessitates quantification of the extensive ecosystem services associated with human-made structures. (paper)

  20. Mechanism and kinetics of the loss of poorly soluble drugs from liposomal carriers studied by a novel flow field-flow fractionation-based drug release-/transfer-assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinna, Askell Hvid; Hupfeld, Stefan; Kuntsche, Judith; Bauer-Brandl, Annette; Brandl, Martin

    2016-06-28

    Liposomes represent a versatile drug formulation approach e.g. for improving the water-solubility of poorly soluble drugs but also to achieve drug targeting and controlled release. For the latter applications it is essential that the drug remains associated with the liposomal carrier during transit in the vascular bed. A range of in vitro test methods has been suggested over the years for prediction of the release of drug from liposomal carriers. The majority of these fail to give a realistic prediction for poorly water-soluble drugs due to the intrinsic tendency of such compounds to remain associated with liposome bilayers even upon extensive dilution. Upon i.v. injection, in contrast, rapid drug loss often occurs due to drug transfer from the liposomal carriers to endogenous lipophilic sinks such as lipoproteins, plasma proteins or membranes of red blood cells and endothelial cells. Here we report on the application of a recently introduced in vitro predictive drug transfer assay based on incubation of the liposomal drug carrier with large multilamellar liposomes, the latter serving as a biomimetic model sink, using flow field-flow fractionation as a tool to separate the two types of liposomes. By quantifying the amount of drug remaining associated with the liposomal drug carrier as well as that transferred to the acceptor liposomes at distinct times of incubation, both the kinetics of drug transfer and release to the water phase could be established for the model drug p-THPP (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)21H,23H-porphine). p-THPP is structurally similar to temoporfin, a photosensitizer which is under clinical evaluation in a liposomal formulation. Mechanistic insights were gained by varying the donor-to-acceptor lipid mass ratio, size and lamellarity of the liposomes. Drug transfer kinetics from one liposome to another was found rate determining as compared to redistribution from the outermost to the inner concentric bilayers, such that the overall

  1. The quality of mobile phone services provided by Romanian operators, from consumers` perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile services are distinguished through their quality, either we speak about the way the client is approached and placed in the centre of the operator's actions, or about the services the client benefits in his capacity as a client. The Romanian mobile operators’ services have greatly evolved from their launch in 1997. Along these times, the mobile operators brought more value to these services, due to their need to meet the consumers' expectations with services of high quality and competitiveness. Usually the Romanian consumers place the price in the forefront of their service/mobile phone services acquisition, but an objective analyze of the quality of the mobile phone services has to take into account both technical aspects of the services and the interfacing services too. Therefore, this paper takes into account technical characteristics of the services such as national telephony coverage, data transmission services coverage, the signal quality, maximum speed of data transfer as well as related services such as distribution network, sales and support sales services, after-sales services, and range of available terminals. Based on mobile services comprehensive analysis made available to consumers by the major players on the Romanian market, this paper aims to highlight the main reasons of the consumers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  2. Germline and somatic mosaicism in a female carrier of Hunter disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Froissart, R.; Maire, I; BONNET, V.; Levade, T; Bozon, D

    1997-01-01

    Carrier detection in a mucopolysaccharidosis type II family (Hunter disease) allowed the identification of germline and somatic mosaicism in the patient's mother: the R443X mutation was found in a varying proportion in tested tissue (7% in leucocytes, lymphocytes, and lymphoblastoid cells, and 22% in fibroblasts). The proband's sister carries the at risk allele (determined by haplotype analysis), but not the mutation. In sporadic cases of X linked diseases, germline mosaicism of the proband's...

  3. Speciation analysis of 129I in seawater by carrier-free AgI-AgCl coprecipitation and accelerator mass spectrometric measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; He, Chaohui;

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed for speciation analysis of 129I in seawater by selective coprecipitation of carrier-free iodide and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of 129I. Iodide was separated from seawater and other species of iodine by coprecipitation of AgI with Ag2SO3...... is higher than 70%. Six seawater samples collected from the Norwegian Sea were analyzed by this method as well as a conventional anion-exchange chromatographic method; the results from the two methods show no significant difference (p = 0.05). Because only one separation step and fewer chemicals...... are involved in the procedure, this method is suitable for operation on board sampling vessels, as it avoids the transport of samples to the laboratory and storage for a longer time before analysis, therefore significantly improving the analytical capacity and reliability of speciation analysis of 129I...

  4. TRANSPORT OF CITRATE CATALYZED BY THE SODIUM-DEPENDENT CITRATE CARRIER OF KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE IS OBLIGATORILY COUPLED TO THE TRANSPORT OF 2 SODIUM-IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOLKEMA, JS; ENEQUIST, H; VANDERREST, ME

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  5. Transport of citrate catalyzed by the sodium-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae is obligatorily coupled to the transport of two sodium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Enequist, Hans; Rest, Michel E. van der

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  6. A Study on the Effects of Carrier Gases on the Structure and Morphology of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Pyrolysis of Ferrocene and C2H2 Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanliang Mi; Jerry Yuesheng Lin; Qian Mao; Yongdan Li; Baoquan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared using different carrier gases,with ferrocene as the catalyst precusor and acetylene as the carbon source. The effects of ammonia and nitrogen as carrier gases on the structure and morphology of CNTs were investigated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM),high-resolution electron microscope (HRTEM),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the products and the catalyst. Experiment results show that the CNTs grown in N2 gas exhibited cylindrical and tubular structure,while a bamboo-like structure was observed for the CNTs grown in NH3 gas. Moreover,vertically aligned CNTs were obtained on an Al2O3 disk when NH3 was used as the carrier gas. The carrier gas also exerted influence on the shape of the catalyst. Based on the theory of active centers of catalysis and combined with the particle shape of the catalyst,a growth model for the vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate is given.

  7. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  8. 76 FR 19721 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... an incorrect installation of the fixation brackets may have occurred. * * * ] If the orientation of... sufficient depth. An incorrect installation, if not detected and corrected, could lead to an in-flight... helicoil inserts on the fixation bracket may be incorrect. If the orientation of the fixation bracket...

  9. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Porto

    Full Text Available Landscapes are often patchworks of private properties, where composition and configuration patterns result from cumulative effects of the actions of multiple landowners. Securing the delivery of services in such multi-ownership landscapes is challenging, because it is difficult to assure tight compliance to spatially explicit management rules at the level of individual properties, which may hinder the conservation of critical landscape features. To deal with these constraints, a multi-objective simulation-optimization procedure was developed to select non-spatial management regimes that best meet landscape-level objectives, while accounting for uncoordinated and uncertain response of individual landowners to management rules. Optimization approximates the non-dominated Pareto frontier, combining a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a simulator that forecasts trends in landscape pattern as a function of management rules implemented annually by individual landowners. The procedure was demonstrated with a case study for the optimum scheduling of fuel treatments in cork oak forest landscapes, involving six objectives related to reducing management costs (1, reducing fire risk (3, and protecting biodiversity associated with mid- and late-successional understories (2. There was a trade-off between cost, fire risk and biodiversity objectives, that could be minimized by selecting management regimes involving ca. 60% of landowners clearing the understory at short intervals (around 5 years, and the remaining managing at long intervals (ca. 75 years or not managing. The optimal management regimes produces a mosaic landscape dominated by stands with herbaceous and low shrub understories, but also with a satisfactory representation of old understories, that was favorable in terms of both fire risk and biodiversity. The simulation-optimization procedure presented can be extended to incorporate a wide range of landscape dynamic processes, management rules

  10. 76 FR 42031 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... an incorrect installation of the fixation brackets may have occurred. * * * If the orientation of the... sufficient depth. An incorrect installation, if not detected and corrected, could lead to an in-flight... (76 FR 19721). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The...

  11. Carrier Screening is a Deficient Strategy for Determining Sperm Donor Eligibility and Reducing Risk of Disease in Recipient Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ari J.; Larson, Jessica L.; Silver, Maxwell J.; Lim, Regine M.; Borroto, Carlos; Spurrier, Brett; Morriss, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aims: DNA-based carrier screening is a standard component of donor eligibility protocols practiced by U.S. sperm banks. Applicants who test positive for carrying a recessive disease mutation are typically disqualified. The aim of our study was to examine the utility of a range of screening panels adopted by the industry and the effectiveness of the screening paradigm in reducing a future child's risk of inheriting disease. Methods: A cohort of 27 donor applicants, who tested negative on an initial cystic fibrosis carrier test, was further screened with three expanded commercial carrier testing panels. These results were then compared to a systematic analysis of the applicants' DNA using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Results: The carrier panels detected serious pediatric disease mutations in one, four, or six donor applicants. Because each panel screens distinct regions of the genome, no single donor was uniformly identified as carrier positive by all three panels. In contrast, systematic NGS analysis identified all donors as carriers of one or more mutations associated with severe monogenic pediatric disease. These included 30 variants classified as “pathogenic” based on clinical observation and 66 with a high likelihood of causing gene dysfunction. Conclusion: Despite tremendous advances in variant identification, understanding, and analysis, the vast majority of disease-causing mutation combinations remain undetected by commercial carrier screening panels, which cover a narrow, and often distinct, subset of genes and mutations. The biological reality is that all donors and recipients carry serious recessive disease mutations. This challenges the utility of any screening protocol that anchors donor eligibility to carrier status. A more effective approach to reducing recessive disease risk would consider joint comprehensive analysis of both donor and recipient disease mutations. This type of high-resolution recessive disease risk analysis is now

  12. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  13. Homeless university students: Experiences with foyer-type service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Grace

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some young people who have been homeless during their secondary schooling manage to obtain a university place. These young people, and others who become homeless during their university courses, have the opportunity to build a sustainable exit from homelessness through education and support. Very little is known about how many young Australians are in this situation, or what can be done to assist them to complete their degrees. This article reports on research that aimed to document the experiences of 11 university students who had experienced homelessness. The research focussed on the difficulties that these young people faced, and the types of environments and service responses that can make a difference for them. The students were part of a larger study of a foyer-type service. The research found that these young people took longer than the standard duration to complete their degrees. Their study was facilitated by provision of stable, safe accommodation and support when they were acutely homeless, relief from other pressures such as family conflict, protection while maturing, time for overseas born including refugee young people to develop language, skills, and resources, support to heal from past damaging experiences and improve their health, assistance to gain entry to preferred university courses, and pathways into stable housing for the duration of their study.

  14. Regiospecific chlorination of (S)-beta-tyrosyl-S-carrier protein catalyzed by SgcC3 in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuangjun; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2007-10-17

    C-1027 is a potent antitumor antibiotic composed of an apo-protein and a reactive enediyne chromophore. The chromophore consists of four different chemical subunits including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety, the biosynthesis of which from l-alpha-tyrosine is catalyzed by six proteins, SgcC, SgcC1, SgcC2, SgcC3, SgcC4, and SgcC5. Biochemical characterization of SgcC3 unveiled the following: (i) SgcC3 is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent halogenase; (ii) SgcC3 acts only on the SgcC2 peptidyl carrier protein-tethered substrates; (iii) SgcC3-catalyzed halogenation requires O2 and reduced FAD and either the C-1027 pathway-specific flavin reductase SgcE6 or E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) can support the SgcC3 activity; (iv) SgcC3 also efficiently catalyzes bromination but not fluorination or iodination; (v) SgcC3 can utilize both (S)- and (R)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 but not 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 as a substrate. These results establish that SgcC3 catalyzes the third enzymatic transformation during the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027 from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC3 now represents the second biochemically characterized flavin-dependent halogenase that acts on a carrier protein-tethered substrate. These findings will facilitate the engineering of new C-1027 analogs by combinatorial biosynthesis methods. PMID:17887753

  15. Forecasting economic aspects of future wireless services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Saugstrup, Dan;

    services be shaped like the Internet today with a large number of independent information providers offering their services directly to the customers? This deliverable will analyse economic models for delivery of ‘3G and beyond’ wireless Internet services, and assess the types of services that will drive......The topic for this deliverable is to assess the future economic setup and implications of wireless services. While provision of basic wireless communication services such as voice and messaging services usually are delivered as end-to-end services by the network operator, the market for content...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.16 - Other servicing actions on real estate type loan accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other servicing actions on real estate type loan accounts. 1951.16 Section 1951.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. Characterization of the monoamine carrier of chromaffin granule membrane by binding of [2-3H]dihydrotetrabenazine.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherman, D; Jaudon, P; Henry, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    [2-3H]Dihydrotetrabenazine (2-hydroxy-3-isobutyl-9, 10-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7-hexahydro-11b-H-benzo [a]-quinolizine), a derivative of the neuroleptic tetrabenazine, binds to the membrane of purified bovine chromaffin granules. Specific binding was characterized by Kd and Bmax values of 3.1 nM and 62 pmol/mg of membrane protein, respectively. It was reversible, with association and dissociation rate constants of 0.22 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and 1.8 x 10(-3) s-1, respectively. Binding sites were present...

  18. Thermoelectric properties of p-type PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites by extrinsic phase mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Ho; Rhyee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsrhyee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the thermoelectric properties of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, synthesized by hand milling, mixing, and hot press sintering. From x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, we observed Ag{sub 2}Te phase separation in the PbTe matrix without Ag atom diffusion. In comparison with previously reported pseudo-binary (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} composites, synthesized by high temperature phase separation, the PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites fabricated with a low temperature phase mixing process give rise to p-type conduction of carriers with significantly decreased electrical conductivity. This indicates that Ag atom diffusion in the PbTe matrix changes the sign of the Seebeck coefficient to n-type and also increases the carrier concentration. Effective p-type doping with low temperature phase separation by mixing and hot press sintering can enhance the thermoelectric performance of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, which can be used as a p-type counterpart of n-type (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} bulk composites.

  19. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  20. Modified Release and Improved Stability of Unstable BCS II Drug by Using Cyclodextrin Complex as Carrier To Remotely Load Drug into Niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Liandi; Wu, Delin; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Caifen; Gui, Shuangying; Geng, Meiyu; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    In answering to the challenge of enzymatic unstability of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs, an effective remote loading strategy was developed to successfully incorporate the drug-cyclodextrin (CD) complex into niosomes to modify the release and stability of a drug candidate, pseudolaric acid B (PAB). Judged by binding constants, and combined solubilization effects of pH and CD complexation on PAB at different pH, the complex internalization driven by a transmembrane pH gradient (from 2.0 to 7.4) and the dynamic shifting of PAB-CD complexation equilibrium at this gradient were introduced. The transfer of PAB-CD complex into the internal aqueous phase of niosomes at 60 °C was primarily verified by synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The remote loading samples behaved as retarded release at pH 5.8, 6.8, and 7.4, for which the stability of PAB in rat plasma was significantly enhanced (about 8.1-fold), in comparison with niosomes prepared by the passive and lipid bilayer loading of PAB. The drug-carrier interaction based release modeling was further fitted, and the convection rate constant (ks) and free energy difference between free and bound states (ΔG) indicated the strongest PAB-carrier interactions in remote loading niosomes. The remote loading strategy also reduced the CD-cholesterol interaction and provided better physical stability of the system. In conclusion, the remote loading of drug-CD complex into niosomes provides advantages to modify the release and enhance the stability of unstable BCS class II drug. PMID:26569615