WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier selection

  1. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  2. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  3. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccard, Matthieu [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Koswatta, Priyaranga [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Holman, Zachary [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-04-06

    "The first step towards building a high-efficiency solar cell is to develop an absorber with few recombination-active defects. Many photovoltaic technologies have already achieved this (monocrystalline Si, III-V materials grown on lattice-matched substrates, perovskites, polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS); those that have not (a-Si:H, organics) have been limited to low open-circuit voltage. The second step is to develop contacts that both inhibit surface recombination and allow for low-resistance collection of either only electrons or only holes. For most photovoltaic technologies, this step is both more difficult and less explored than the first, and we are unaware of a prescribed methodology for selecting materials for contacts to solar cells. We elucidate a unified, conceptual understanding of contacts within which existing contacting schemes can be interpreted and future contacting schemes can be imagined. Whereas a split of the quasi-Fermi levels of holes and electrons is required in the absorber of any solar cell to generate a voltage, carriers are eventually collected through a metallic wire in which no such quasi-Fermi-level split exists. We define a contact to be all layers between the bulk of the absorber and the recombination-active interface through which carriers are extracted. The quasi-Fermi levels must necessarily collapse at this interface, and thus the transition between maximal quasi-Fermi-level splitting (in the absorber) and no splitting occurs entirely in the contact. Depending on the solar cell architecture, the contact will usually extend from the surface of the absorber to the surface of a metal or transparent conductive oxide layer, and may include deposited or diffused doped layers (e.g., as in crystalline and thin-film Si cells) and heterostructure buffer layers (e.g., the CdS layer in a CdTe device). We further define a passivating contact as one that enables high quasi-Fermi-level splitting in the absorber (large “internal” voltage

  4. Determine the optimal carrier selection for a logistics network based on multi-commodity reliability criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2013-05-01

    From the perspective of supply chain management, the selected carrier plays an important role in freight delivery. This article proposes a new criterion of multi-commodity reliability and optimises the carrier selection based on such a criterion for logistics networks with routes and nodes, over which multiple commodities are delivered. Carrier selection concerns the selection of exactly one carrier to deliver freight on each route. The capacity of each carrier has several available values associated with a probability distribution, since some of a carrier's capacity may be reserved for various orders. Therefore, the logistics network, given any carrier selection, is a multi-commodity multi-state logistics network. Multi-commodity reliability is defined as a probability that the logistics network can satisfy a customer's demand for various commodities, and is a performance indicator for freight delivery. To solve this problem, this study proposes an optimisation algorithm that integrates genetic algorithm, minimal paths and Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products. A practical example in which multi-sized LCD monitors are delivered from China to Germany is considered to illustrate the solution procedure.

  5. Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps without Knowledge of the Favored Allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakov, Shay; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Bafna, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Methods for detecting the genomic signatures of natural selection have been heavily studied, and they have been successful in identifying many selective sweeps. For most of these sweeps, the favored allele remains unknown, making it difficult to distinguish carriers of the sweep from non-carriers. In an ongoing selective sweep, carriers of the favored allele are likely to contain a future most recent common ancestor. Therefore, identifying them may prove useful in predicting the evolutionary trajectory—for example, in contexts involving drug-resistant pathogen strains or cancer subclones. The main contribution of this paper is the development and analysis of a new statistic, the Haplotype Allele Frequency (HAF) score. The HAF score, assigned to individual haplotypes in a sample, naturally captures many of the properties shared by haplotypes carrying a favored allele. We provide a theoretical framework for computing expected HAF scores under different evolutionary scenarios, and we validate the theoretical predictions with simulations. As an application of HAF score computations, we develop an algorithm (PreCIOSS: Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps) to identify carriers of the favored allele in selective sweeps, and we demonstrate its power on simulations of both hard and soft sweeps, as well as on data from well-known sweeps in human populations. PMID:26402243

  6. Selection and evaluation of biofilm carrier in anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection and evaluation of biofilm carrier represent the two significant ways for improving the anaerobic digesters. This study investigated the performances of the AD (anaerobic digestion) reactors using three types of fibrous biofilm carriers, including the ACF (activated carbon fiber), the PVAF (polyvinyl alcohol fiber) and the GF (glass fiber). The biogas and methane production, pH, COD (chemical oxygen demand), TS (total solids), VS (volatile solids), residual coenzyme F420 as well as the residual amount of methanogen were measured periodically during the experimental run. Also, the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) was used to identify the microbial consortium and their attachments onto the surface of ACF carrier. The ACF carrier performed better than the other two types of carriers in achieving higher amount of biogas and methane production and pollutants' removal. The experimental results also demonstrated that the ACF carrier could make the reactor keep higher biogas and methane productions than the control blank reactor during the long run. -- Highlights: → ACF as biofilm carrier is superior to PVAF and GF in AD treatment of cattle manure. → ACF makes the reactor keep higher biogas and methane productions. → ACF enhances microorganism's immobilization.

  7. Release of selected amino acids from zinc carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja, Renata; Dolińska, Barbara; Ryszka, Florian

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the results of an investigation of the release of selected amino acids (histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine) from model suspensions prepared by co-precipitation with zinc chloride. It has been proven that the influence of the Zn(II)/amino acid molar ratio on dissolution profiles of the tested amino acids and dissolution half-life (t1/2) of histidine or tryptophan is significant. The amount of amino acid in the dispersed phase (supporting dose) is a determinant of the amino acid release profile. There is a minimal supporting dose (30.0 μmol of histidine or 17.4 μmol of tryptophan) that provides release of similar amounts of amino acid (4.1-4.6 μmol of histidine or 8.7-9.9 μmol of tryptophan) after the same time intervals. The tyrosine release profiles follow first order kinetics since the supporting dose (0.9-11.2 μmol) is limited by the tyrosine low solubility in water. PMID:27279069

  8. Identification and evaluation of influential criteria for the selection of an environmental shipping carrier using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Peng; Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika

    2015-01-01

    The current environmental pollution is a major factor in economic development and vehicle pollution is ranked next to industrial emissions in total emissions worldwide. This study focuses on the selection of a suitable shipping carrier from an economic and environmental perspective. In practice, ...

  9. Performance comparison of asynchronous orthogonal multi-carrier CDMA in frequency selective channel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, G; Ng, TS

    1998-01-01

    Bit error rate (BER) performance of an asynchronous multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system for the uplink of the mobile communication system with equal gain combining and maximum ratio combining are obtained. Given a fixed bandwidth frequency selective channel, performance of MC-CDMA is compared with that of conventional CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA in numerical results.

  10. Selective labeling of the erythrocyte hexose carrier with a maleimide derivative of glucosamine: Relationship of an exofacial sulfhydryl to carrier conformation and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfhydryl-reactive derivatives of glucosamine were synthesized as potentially transportable affinity labels of the human erythrocyte hexose carrier. N-maleoylglycyl derivatives of either 6- or 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose were the most potent inhibitors of 3-O-methylglucose uptake, with concentrations of half-maximal irreversible inhibition of about 1 mM. Surprisingly, these derivatives were very poorly transported into erythrocytes. They reacted rather with an exofacial sulfhydryl on the carrier following a reversible binding step, the latter possibly to the exofacial substrate binding site. However, their reactivity was determined primarily by access to the exofacial sulfhydryl, which, as predicted by the one-site model of transport, required a carrier conformation with the exofacial substrate binding site exposed. Once reacted, the carrier was locked in a conformation unable to reorient inwardly and bind cytochalasin B. In intact erythrocytes the N-maleoylglycyl derivative of 2-[3H]glucosamine labeled predominantly an Mr 45,000-66,000 protein on gel electrophoresis in a quantitative and cytochalasin B inhibitable fashion. By use of changes in carrier conformation induced by competitive transport inhibitors in a double differential labeling method, virtually complete selectivity of labeling of the carrier protein was achieved, the latter permitting localization of the reactive exofacial sulfhydryl to an Mr 18,000-20,000 tryptic fragment of the carrier

  11. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  12. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  13. Mobile Carrier Selection In A Post-Conflict Environment – The Primacy Of Ethnicity Over Conventional Network Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaimović Tarik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze determinants which affect the selection of mobile carriers in a post-conflict environment - Bosnia and Herzegovina. We apply relevant probability modelling to test perceptions of individual respondents on different network effects obtained through a targeted representative survey. Furthermore, we explore whether some non-traditional influences might affect costumers, focusing on the role of demographic characteristics. Our results confirm that conventional network effects have a role in carrier selection, although they are different across carriers. However, we identify that the ethnicity of respondents overwhelms the traditional network effects by having the highest magnitude in the model. Our findings show that the “ethnic affiliation” of mobile carriers, attributed by the users, remains a persistent factor in attracting and keeping telecommunication costumers in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  14. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  15. Facet-selective charge carrier transport, deactivation mechanism and stabilization of a Cu2O photo-electro-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yun, Xiaogang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Wenqin; Li, Yongdan

    2016-03-14

    A facet-dependent photo-deactivation mechanism of Cu2O was verified and reported, which is caused by the facet-dependent charge carrier transport. During irradiation, the {100} and {110} crystal facets are selectively corroded by the photo-generated holes, while the {111} facets are comparatively stable. PMID:26898270

  16. Diversity Techniques for Single-Carrier Packet Retransmissions over Frequency-Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Fijalkow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In data packet communication systems over multipath frequency-selective channels, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ protocols are usually used in order to ensure data reliability. For single-carrier packet transmission in slow fading environment, an identical retransmission of the same packet, due to a decoding failure, does not fully exploit the available time diversity in retransmission-based HARQ protocols. In this paper, we compare two transmit diversity techniques, namely, cyclic frequency-shift diversity and bit-interleaving diversity. Both techniques can be integrated in the HARQ scheme in order to improve the performance of the joint detector. Their performance in terms of pairwise error probability is investigated using maximum likelihood detection and decoding. The impact of the channel memory and the modulation order on the performance gain is emphasized. In practice, we use low complexity linear filter-based equalization which can be efficiently implemented in the frequency domain. The use of iterative equalization and decoding is also considered. The performance gain in terms of frame error rate and data throughput is evaluated by numerical simulations.

  17. Iodide selective membrane electrodes based on a Molybdenum-Salen as a neutral carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new polymeric membrane electrode (PME) and a coated platinum disk electrode (CPtE) based on Schiff base complex of Mo(VI) as a suitable carrier for I- ion were described. The influence of membrane composition, pH and possible interfering anions were investigated on the response properties of the electrodes. The electrodes exhibited a Nernstian slope of 63.0 ± 0.5 (CPtE) and 60.3 ± 0.4 (PME) mV decade-1 in I- ion over a wide concentration range from 7.9 x 10-7 to 1.0 x 10-1 M for CPtE and 9.1 x 10-6 to 1.0 x 10-1 M I- for PME. The potentiometric response of the electrodes was independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 2.0-8.5 with a fast response time (-. → The sensors have a wide concentration range with a fast response time. → Efforts have been made to improve the selectivity with the use of CPtE.

  18. Hydrogen as energy carrier. Energy and discharge accounting for selected energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is viewed by many as a central energy carrier in the future energy system. Hydrogen does not give any discharges for the end user. Hydrogen may be obtained from different sources and may be used for various purposes both stationary and within communication. Central groups may have different opinions on the energy efficiency and the environmental profits of hydrogen use. This disagreement may be due to that not all the sections of the energy chain are clarified. There are also difference in opinions on when to introduce hydrogen in the energy system. The aim of this study was to make an energy and discharge account for hydrogen in some selected energy chains and compare them to alternative chains. The results of the study may contribute to helping the authorities in the work of making sensible measure employments regarding introduction of hydrogen into the Norwegian energy system. Even if the energy efficiency and discharges are two of the main factors which has to be evaluated when various energy chains are compared. It has to be emphasised that other important aspects such as costs, other environmental consequences, availability of energy sources and personal safety have not been considered. The results show that the energy efficiency and discharges vary considerably for different energy chains depending of which energy source is chosen. The energy efficiency and discharges are influenced by where in the enrage chain the conversion occurs as well. Central versus local conversion of hydrogen decides primarily how realistic the CO2 handling is (costs) and how much of the disused heat may be utilised. For stationary consumption it is shown that the energy chains with hydrogen give lower energy efficiency compared to the relevant reference chains (same energy source). For the discharges it is more determining which energy source and conversion technology is chosen than whether hydrogen is the source. For communication hydrogen has the advantage as energy

  19. Determination of Effective Stability Constants of Ion-Carrier Complexes in Ion Selective Nanospheres with Charged Solvatochromic Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaojiang; Bakker, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Ionophores are widely used ion carriers in ion selective sensors. The effective stability constant (β) is a key physical parameter providing valuable guidelines to the design of ionophores and carrier-based ion selective sensors. The β value of ion-carrier complex in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes and solutions have been determined in the past by various techniques, but most of them are difficult to implement at the nanoscale owing to the ultrasmall sample volume. A new methodology based on charged solvatochromic dyes is introduced here for the first time to determine β values directly within ion selective nanospheres. Four ionophores with different selectivities toward Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and H(+), respectively, are successfully characterized in nanospheres composed of triblock copolymer Pluronic F-127 and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate. The values determined in the nanospheres are smaller compared with those in plasticized PVC membranes, indicating a more polar nanosphere microenvironment and possible uneven distribution of the sensing components in the interfacial region. PMID:26502342

  20. Metalophthalocyanine complexes as ion-carriers in membrane-selective electrodes for detection of thiosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Souri, Ali

    2004-08-02

    The potentiometric response properties of several PVC-based membrane electrodes using phthalocyanine complexes of aluminum (AlPc), nickel (NiPc) and copper (CuPc) as anion carriers, toward thiosalicylic acid (TSA) were investigated. The influences of lipophilic ionic additives (cationic and anionic) and the pH of the buffered solutions were used for the interpretation of the mechanism of the potentiometric response of sensors. The sensitivity, linear range, detection limit, and potentiometric selectivity of the membrane sensors show a considerable dependence on the nature of central metal of the ionophore. The membrane electrodes based on AlPc demonstrate sub-Nernstian responses toward TSA over the range of 0.01 to 1x10{sup -5} M. In the case of NiPc and CuPc as ionophores and in the presence of trioctylmethyl ammonium (TOMA{sup +}) as a cationic additive, a Nernstian response could be established in a range of 4 orders of magnitudes of TSA concentration (0.01 to 1x10{sup -6} M). The results of potentiometric investigations revealed that from thermodynamic point of view, the axial coordination of thiosalicylate with the central metal of NiPc and CuPc is more efficient with respect to AlPc. This preference in response to TSA was discussed on the basis of the softness nature of NiPc and CuPc and more affinity for coordination with the thiolate group of thiosalicylate as a soft anion. These potentiometric sensors manifest prominent advantages of high selectivity for TSA over the various inorganic and organic anions, fast response times and micromolar detection limits and can be used over a wide pH range of 4.0-8.0. The prepared electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc were successfully applied in the potentiometric titration of sub-milimolar quantities of Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions and very good recovery results were obtained in these measurements. The results of complexometric studies between Hg{sup 2+} and TSA using electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc as indicator

  1. Charge-carrier selective electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cell by contact-printed siloxane oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ‘Smart’ (or selective) electrode for charge carriers, both electrons and holes, in organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using insertion layers made of hydrophobically-recovered and contact-printed siloxane oligomers between electrodes and active material has been demonstrated. The siloxane oligomer insertion layer has been formed at a given interface simply by conformally-contacting a cured slab of polydimethylsiloxane stamp for less than 100 s. All the devices, either siloxane oligomer printed at one interface only or printed at both interfaces, showed efficiency enhancement when compared to non-printed ones. The possible mechanism that is responsible for the observed efficiency enhancement has been discussed based on the point of optimum symmetry and photocurrent analysis. Besides its simplicity and large-area applicability, the demonstrated contact-printing technique does not involve any vacuum or wet processing steps and thus can be very useful for the roll-based, continuous production scheme for organic BHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • Carrier-selective insertion layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells • Simple contact-printing of siloxane oligomers improves cell efficiency. • Printed siloxane layer reduces carrier recombination at electrode surfaces. • Siloxane insertion layer works equally well at both electrode surfaces. • Patterned PDMS stamp shortens the printing time within 100 s

  2. Charge-carrier selective electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cell by contact-printed siloxane oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Khang, Dahl-Young, E-mail: dykhang@yonsei.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    ‘Smart’ (or selective) electrode for charge carriers, both electrons and holes, in organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using insertion layers made of hydrophobically-recovered and contact-printed siloxane oligomers between electrodes and active material has been demonstrated. The siloxane oligomer insertion layer has been formed at a given interface simply by conformally-contacting a cured slab of polydimethylsiloxane stamp for less than 100 s. All the devices, either siloxane oligomer printed at one interface only or printed at both interfaces, showed efficiency enhancement when compared to non-printed ones. The possible mechanism that is responsible for the observed efficiency enhancement has been discussed based on the point of optimum symmetry and photocurrent analysis. Besides its simplicity and large-area applicability, the demonstrated contact-printing technique does not involve any vacuum or wet processing steps and thus can be very useful for the roll-based, continuous production scheme for organic BHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • Carrier-selective insertion layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells • Simple contact-printing of siloxane oligomers improves cell efficiency. • Printed siloxane layer reduces carrier recombination at electrode surfaces. • Siloxane insertion layer works equally well at both electrode surfaces. • Patterned PDMS stamp shortens the printing time within 100 s.

  3. SELECTIVE TRANSPORT OF GOLD(Ⅱ) THROUGH THE LIQUID MEMBRANE CONTAINING POLYTHIOETHER OLIGOMER AS CARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYuwu; WANGYing; 等

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the transport properties of oligomer of polythioether PSA used as moble carrier in bulk liquid membrane for gold(Ⅲ).It was found that Au(Ⅲ) can be transported by PSA from source phase to receiving phase completely under appropriate conditions and only Au(Ⅲ) can be transferred through the liquid membrane to receiving phase from a mixture of Na(I)-Cu(Ⅱ)-Au(Ⅲ)-Fe(Ⅲ)-Pt(Ⅳ) in the following system:HAuCl4-HCl(aq.)/PSA-ClCH2-CH2Cl/(NH2)2CS-HCl(aq.).The transport rate of Au(Ⅲ) depended on the concentration of carrier,the thickness of liquid membrane,the concentration of Au(Ⅲ) in source phase and the acidity of the media.

  4. Silicon quantum dots in SiOx dielectrics as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of c-Si QDs embedded in a-SiOx dielectric matrix was achieved at a low temperature ∼400°C, from one step process by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering of c-Si wafer and pure SiO2 targets, in the (H2+Ar)- plasma. Formation of a double-barrier structure has been primarily identified from the SAX data and exclusively confirmed from the resonant tunneling current appearing in the J-E characteristic curve peaks, determined by the discrete energy levels of c-Si QDs, at which it could be used as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

  5. Study on analysing the criteria's for selection of shipping carriers in Chinese shipping market using analytical hierarchy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Kannan, Devika;

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation has led to the increased export and import of goods worldwide. Due to this, the selection of the right mode of transportation for heavy (huge) goods items is a challenging task for industries. In this regard, maritime transport is the best way to send huge goods compared to other...... modes of transportations. The objective of this study is to investigate the essential criteria for shipping carrier and to rank them with the help of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in the perspective of the Chinese shipping market. From the results, it is observed that the most important criteria...

  6. Silicon quantum dots in SiOx dielectrics as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of c-Si QDs embedded in a-SiOx dielectric matrix was achieved at a low temperature ˜400°C, from one step process by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering of c-Si wafer and pure SiO2 targets, in the (H2+Ar)- plasma. Formation of a double-barrier structure has been primarily identified from the SAX data and exclusively confirmed from the resonant tunneling current appearing in the J-E characteristic curve peaks, determined by the discrete energy levels of c-Si QDs, at which it could be used as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells.

  7. Effect of dendrimers on selected enzymes-Evaluation of nano carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Maksim; Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Aliaksei; Michlewska, Sylwia; Shcharbina, Natallia; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2016-02-29

    In the field of nanotechnology, dendrimers represent a new class of highly branched macromolecules that is receiving a stimulating and rising interest. The structural organization of these synthetic macromolecules provides promising opportunities for using them as nano-carriers of drugs or gene material to be delivered to the target cells. For applications of dendrimers as drug carriers, analysis of their specific interactions with biological structures at molecular level is very important. This paper describes the molecular interactions between cationic phosphorus dendrimers of third and fourth generation (CPD G3 and CPD G4) and 3 plasma regulatory proteins, namely aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and l-lactic dehydrogenase. Dendrimer-protein interactions were studied using spectrofluorimetric, circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering techniques. Their morphology in the presence or absence of dendrimers was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that both dendrimers form positively charged complexes with HIV-derived peptides. The circular dichroism spectra show that these dendrimers can significantly change the secondary structure of proteins, indicating formation of protein/dendrimer complexes. PMID:26724219

  8. Bond-selective fragmentation of water molecules with intense, ultrafast, carrier envelope phase stabilized laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, D; Dharmadhikari, J A; Dharmadhikari, A K

    2013-01-01

    Carrier envelope phase (CEP) stabilized pulses of intense 800 nm light of 5 fs duration are used to probe the dissociation dynamics of dications of isotopically-substituted water, HOD. HOD$^{2+}$ dissociates into either H$^+$ + OD$^+$ or D$^+$ + OH$^+$. The branching ratio for these two channels is CEP-dependent; the OD$^+$/OH$^+$ ratio (relative to that measured with CEP-unstabilized pulses) varies from 150% to over 300% at different CEP values, opening prospects of isotope-dependent control over molecular bond breakage. The kinetic energy released as HOD$^{2+}$ Coulomb explodes is also CEP-dependent. Formidable theoretical challenges are identified for proper insights into the overall dynamics which involve non-adiabatic field ionization from HOD to HOD$^+$ and, thence, to HOD$^{2+}$ via electron rescattering.

  9. Selective extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using tributhylphosphate as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilitated extraction of Cr(VI) through an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated, using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as mobile carrier. The emulsion liquid membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TBP as carrier, SPAN 80 as surfactant and (NH4)2CO3 solution as stripping phase. The extraction of chromium (VI) has been studied under various experimental conditions and have been determined the influences of surfactant concentration, extractant concentration, stripping solution base concentration, mixing speed, phase ratio, treatment ratio, chromium (VI) and HCl concentrations of the feed solution. It was observed that the extraction rate of Cr(VI) was affected by changes of surfactant concentration, extractant concentration, stripping solution base concentration, and mixing speed. The results obtained showed that by appropriate selection of the extraction and stability conditions, nearly all of chromium (VI) ions present in the feed solution were extracted within 2-4 min. The separation factors of chromium (VI) with respect to cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc ions, based on initial feed concentration, have experimentally determined.

  10. Silicon quantum dots in SiO{sub x} dielectrics as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700032 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of c-Si QDs embedded in a-SiO{sub x} dielectric matrix was achieved at a low temperature ∼400°C, from one step process by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering of c-Si wafer and pure SiO{sub 2} targets, in the (H{sub 2}+Ar)- plasma. Formation of a double-barrier structure has been primarily identified from the SAX data and exclusively confirmed from the resonant tunneling current appearing in the J-E characteristic curve peaks, determined by the discrete energy levels of c-Si QDs, at which it could be used as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells.

  11. Selective Release of anti–TB Drugs Complex from Smart Copolymeric Bioactive nano–carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arredondo–Peñaranda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart nano–copolymeric matrices have been employed to load and release anti tuberculosis (anti – TB drugs combinated complexes of Ethambutol (EMB, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RMP and Pyrazinamide (PZA. Copolymeric nanocarriers were synthesized using a microemulsion polymerization method previously reported. These nanocarriers can show selective swelling–collapse response under changes in local environments such a temperature, pH, solvent composition and electrical stimuli. The employ of these kinds of systems permits a controlled and selective delivery and release on specific human tissues. High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique was used to allow the detection of combinated mixtures of different active principles of anti–TB drugs using an acetonitrile mobile phase at 0.5 mL/min of flow rate whit a Spherisorb ODS2, C18 column. The results obtained suggest that the employ of smart nanohydrogels is a novel method in several tuberculosis therapies.

  12. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2013-08-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Triclosan Resistome from Metagenome Reveals Diverse Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductases and Selective Enrichment of Triclosan Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Kong, Hyun Gi; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Jinhee; Baek, Kwang-Yeol; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent and TCS resistance is considered to have evolved in diverse organisms with extensive use of TCS, but distribution of TCS resistance has not been well characterized. Functional screening of the soil metagenome in this study has revealed that a variety of target enoyl acyl carrier protein reductases (ENR) homologues are responsible for the majority of TCS resistance. Diverse ENRs similar to 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7-α-HSDH), FabG, or the unusual YX7K-type ENR conferred extreme tolerance to TCS. The TCS-refractory 7-α HSDH-like ENR and the TCS-resistant YX7K-type ENR seem to be prevalent in human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that a selective enrichment occurred in pathogenic bacteria in soil. Additionally, resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be mediated by antibiotic resistance genes that co-localize with TCS resistance determinants. Further comparative analysis of ENRs from 13 different environments has revealed a huge diversity of both prototypic and metagenomic TCS-resistant ENRs, in addition to a selective enrichment of TCS-resistant specific ENRs in presumably TCS-contaminated environments with reduced ENR diversity. Our results suggest that long-term extensive use of TCS can lead to the selective emergence of TCS-resistant bacterial pathogens, possibly with additional resistance to multiple antibiotics, in natural environments. PMID:27577999

  14. Triclosan Resistome from Metagenome Reveals Diverse Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductases and Selective Enrichment of Triclosan Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Kong, Hyun Gi; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Jinhee; Baek, Kwang-Yeol; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent and TCS resistance is considered to have evolved in diverse organisms with extensive use of TCS, but distribution of TCS resistance has not been well characterized. Functional screening of the soil metagenome in this study has revealed that a variety of target enoyl acyl carrier protein reductases (ENR) homologues are responsible for the majority of TCS resistance. Diverse ENRs similar to 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7-α-HSDH), FabG, or the unusual YX7K-type ENR conferred extreme tolerance to TCS. The TCS-refractory 7-α HSDH-like ENR and the TCS-resistant YX7K-type ENR seem to be prevalent in human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that a selective enrichment occurred in pathogenic bacteria in soil. Additionally, resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be mediated by antibiotic resistance genes that co-localize with TCS resistance determinants. Further comparative analysis of ENRs from 13 different environments has revealed a huge diversity of both prototypic and metagenomic TCS-resistant ENRs, in addition to a selective enrichment of TCS-resistant specific ENRs in presumably TCS-contaminated environments with reduced ENR diversity. Our results suggest that long-term extensive use of TCS can lead to the selective emergence of TCS-resistant bacterial pathogens, possibly with additional resistance to multiple antibiotics, in natural environments. PMID:27577999

  15. Ytterbium-selective polymeric membrane electrode based on substituted urea and thiourea as a suitable carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasticized membranes using 1-phenyl-3-(2-thiazolyl)-2-thiourea (PTT) and 1-phenyl-3-(2-thiazolyl)-2-urea (PTU) have been prepared and explored as ytterbium ion-selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers, viz. chloronaphthalene (CN), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), dibutylphthalate (DBP), dioctylsebacate (DOS) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and oleic acid (OA) was studied and improved membrane performance was observed. Optimum performance was noted with membrane of PTT having composition of PTT (3.5):PVC (80):DOS (160):NaTPB (1.5) in mg. The sensor works satisfactorily in the concentration range 1.2 x 10-7 to 1.0 x 10-2 M (detection limit 5.5 x 10-8 M) with a Nernstian slope of 19.7 mV decade-1 of activity. Wide pH range (3.0-8.0), fast response time (10 s), non-aqueous tolerance (up to 20%) and adequate shelf life (12 weeks) indicate the vital utility of the proposed sensor. The proposed electrode comparatively shows good selectivity for Yb3+ ion with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, transition and rare earth metals ions and can be used for its determination in binary mixtures and sulfite determination in white and red wine samples

  16. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  17. Iodide Selective Electrodes Based on Bis(2-mercaptobenzothiazolato Mercury(II and Bis(4-chlorothiophenolato Mercury(II Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza M. Zohory

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available New iodide-selective electrodes based on bis(2-mercaptobenzothiazolato mercury(II [Hg(MBT2] and bis(4-chlorothiophenolato mercury(II [Hg(CTP2] carriers are described. The electrodes were prepared by incorporating the ionophores into plasticized PVC membranes, which were directly coated on the surface of graphite disk electrodes. The electrodes displayed high selectivity for iodide with respect to a number of inorganic and organic anions. The influence of the membrane composition and pH, and the effect of lipophilic cationic and anionic additives on the response properties of the electrodes were investigated. The electrodes exhibited near-Nernstian slopes of -57.6 ± 0.8 and -58.4 ± 1.4 mV/decade of iodide concentration over the range 1 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 M, with detection limits of ~4 × 10-7 and 6 × 10-7 M for the electrodes based on [Hg(MBT2] and [Hg(CTP2], respectively. They have relatively fast response times (≤ 10 s, satisfactory reproducibility, and life times of at least two months. The potentiometric responses of the electrodes are independent of pH of the test solution over the range 3.5 – 11.5.

  18. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter%PWM逆变器载波方式的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described indetail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the out-put frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switchingPWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization ofthe DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current wave-form. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonance-trigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  19. A rigorous approach for selection of optimal variant sets for carrier screening with demonstration of clinical utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Davie, Jocelyn; Breton, Benjamin; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Carrier screening for certain diseases is recommended by major medical and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) societies. Most carrier screening panels test only for common, ethnic-specific variants. However, with formerly isolated ethnic groups becoming increasingly intermixed, this approach is becoming inadequate. Our objective was to develop a rigorous process to curate all variants, for relevant genes, into a database and then apply stringent clinical validity classification criteria to each in order to retain only those with clear evidence for pathogenicity. The resulting variant set, in conjunction with next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS), then affords the capability for an ethnically diverse, comprehensive, highly specific carrier-screening assay. The clinical utility of our approach was demonstrated by screening a pan-ethnic population of 22,864 individuals for Bloom syndrome carrier status using a BLM variant panel comprised of 50 pathogenic variants. In addition to carriers of the common AJ founder variant, we identified 57 carriers of other pathogenic BLM variants. All variants reported had previously been curated and their clinical validity documented, or were of a type that met our stringent, preassigned validity criteria. Thus, it was possible to confidently report an increased number of Bloom’s syndrome carriers compared to traditional, ethnicity-based screening, while not reducing the specificity of the screening due to reporting variants of unknown clinical significance. PMID:26247052

  20. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Rouen; Capucine Hyon; Richard Balet; Nicole Joyé; Nino Guy Cassuto; Jean-Pierre Siffroi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this proced...

  1. NGR-tagged nano-gold: A new CD13-selective carrier for cytokine delivery to tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Curnis, Flavio; Fiocchi, Martina; Sacchi, Angelina; Gori, Alessandro; Gasparri, Anna; Corti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal gold (Au), a well-tolerated nanomaterial, is currently exploited for several applications in nanomedicine. We show that gold nanoparticles tagged with a novel tumor-homing peptide containing Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR), a ligand of CD13 expressed by the tumor neovasculature, can be exploited as carriers for cytokine delivery to tumors. Biochemical and functional studies showed that the NGR molecular scaffold/linker used for gold functionalization is critical for CD13 recognition. Using fibros...

  2. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  3. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Alexandre; Hyon, Capucine; Balet, Richard; Joyé, Nicole; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10)(q25;p13) reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it. PMID:24587925

  4. Influence of selected lifestyle factors on breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Sun, Ping; Tulman, Anna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is as high as 80%, and the risk estimates for ovarian cancer range from 15 to 40%. Several environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to contribute to the development of breast cancer in the general population and it is of interest to establish if these factors operate among mutation carriers as well. To evaluate the effects of age of menarche, parity, breast-feeding, oophorectomy and oral contraceptive use, as well as smoking and coffee consumption, on the risks of breast and ovarian cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study of Polish women with BRCA1 mutations. There were 348 breast cancer patients, 150 ovarian cancer patients and similar numbers of age-matched controls. BRCA1 carriers with late age of menarche, lower parity and long-term breast-feeding were less likely to develop breast cancer. Oral contraceptives protected against ovarian cancer. PMID:16261399

  5. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors. PMID:20596476

  6. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  8. NGR-tagged nano-gold: A new CD13-selective carrier for cytokine delivery to tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnis, Flavio; Fiocchi, Martina; Sacchi, Angelina; Gori, Alessandro; Gasparri, Anna; Corti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal gold (Au), a well-tolerated nanomaterial, is currently exploited for several applications in nanomedicine. We show that gold nanoparticles tagged with a novel tumor-homing peptide containing Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR), a ligand of CD13 expressed by the tumor neovasculature, can be exploited as carriers for cytokine delivery to tumors. Biochemical and functional studies showed that the NGR molecular scaffold/linker used for gold functionalization is critical for CD13 recognition. Using fibrosarcoma-bearing mice, NGR-tagged nanodrugs could deliver extremely low, yet pharmacologically active doses of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an anticancer cytokine, to tumors with no evidence of toxicity. Mechanistic studies confirmed that CD13 targeting was a primary mechanism of drug delivery and excluded a major role of integrin targeting consequent to NGR deamidation, a degradation reaction that generates the isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR) integrin ligand. NGR-tagged gold nanoparticles can be used, in principle, as a novel platform for single- or multi-cytokine delivery to tumor endothelial cells for cancer therapy. PMID:27226823

  9. RGDechi-hCit: αvβ3 selective pro-apoptotic peptide as potential carrier for drug delivery into melanoma metastatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Capasso

    Full Text Available αvβ3 integrin is an important tumor marker widely expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Recently, we reported some biological features of RGDechi-hCit, an αvβ3 selective peptide antagonist. In the present work, we mainly investigated the pro-apoptotic activity of the molecule and its ability to penetrate the membrane of WM266 cells, human malignant melanoma cells expressing high levels of αvβ3 integrin. For the first time we demonstrated the pro-apoptotic effect and the ability of RGDechi-hCit to enter into cell overexpressing αvβ3 integrin mainly by clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, we deepened and confirmed the selectivity, anti-adhesion, and anti-proliferative features of the peptide. Altogether these experiments give insight into the biological behavior of RGDechi-hCit and have important implications for the employment of the peptide as a new selective carrier to deliver drugs into the cell and as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool for metastatic melanoma. Moreover, since the peptide shows a pro-apoptotic effect, a great perspective could be the development of a new class of selective systems containing RGDechi-hCit and pro-apoptotic molecules or other therapeutic agents to attain a synergic action.

  10. Selective transport of Sr2+ from simulated nuclear waste solution by polymer inclusion membrane containing a crown ether carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of Sr2+ from acidic nitrate solution with polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) made from cellulose tri acetate (CTA), Di-tert-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and nitrophenyl n-octyl ether (NPOE) was studied. Transport rates were calculated at varying feed acidities. Selective transport of Sr2+ over other fission products was observed. (author)

  11. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  12. Influence of the carrier Gas, trimethylgallium flow, and growth time on the character of the selective epitaxy of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the carrier gas, trimethylgallium flow, and growth time on the character of the selective epitaxy of GaN in stripe windows oriented along the crystallographic direction 〈11-bar00〉 GaN for various widths of the mask between the stripes is studied. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen in the reactor atmosphere leads to changes in the form of the stripes in the case of wide (40 μm) mask from a rectangular form restricted by a {1 1-bar20} lateral face to a trapezoidal form restricted by a {1 1-bar22} lateral face. It is also shown that during growth in the nitrogen-hydrogen mixture, the gallium flow starts to considerably affect the form of the growing stripes. It is shown that the process is significantly unstable, which leads to a noticeable variation in the form type as the transverse section of the stripe increases.

  13. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with...... offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy...... to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the...

  14. A fast response hafnium selective polymeric membrane electrode based on N,N'-bis({alpha}-methyl-salicylidene)-dipropylenetriamine as a neutral carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, B. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rezaei@cc.iut.ac.ir; Meghdadi, S.; Zarandi, R. Fazel [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-30

    In this study a new hafnium selective sensor was fabricated from polyvinylchloride (PVC) matrix membrane containing neutral carrier N,N'-bis({alpha}-methyl-salicylidene)-dipropylenetriamine (Mesaldpt) as a new ionophore, sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as anionic discriminator and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizing solvent mediator in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The electrode exhibits Nernstian response for Hf{sup 4+} (Hafnium(IV)) over a wide concentration range (2.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M) with the determination coefficient of 0.9966 and slope of 15.1 {+-} 0.1 mV decades{sup -1}. The limit of detection is 1.9 x 10{sup -7} M. The electrode has a fast response time of 18 s and a working pH range of 4-8. The proposed membrane shows excellent discriminating ability towards Hf{sup 4+} ion with regard to several alkali, alkaline earth transition and heavy metal ions. It can be used over a period of 1.5 months with good reproducibility. It is successfully applied for direct determination of Hf{sup 4+} in solutions by standard addition method for real sample analysis.

  15. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  16. Application of duster analysis in carrier phase combined observation selection of Galileo%聚类分析在Galileo载波相位组合观测值选取中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢喆; 樊妙; 金继业

    2011-01-01

    鉴于传统Galileo载波相位组合观测值筛选方法工作量大,本文引入了模糊聚类理论,将其与载波相位组合理论相结合,对聚类指标进行了选取,然后运用最大树聚类法对Galileo载波相位组合观测值进行分类,并讨论了分类结果.最后通过与传统聚类方法的比较,证明了本方法的合理性.%Due to the large amount work of carrier phase combined observations selection of Galileo with traditional method, the theory of Fuzzy Cluster was drawn into the paper. This paper analyzed the cluster index selected through the theory of carrier phase combination, used the maximal tree method to classify carrier phase observations of Galileo and discussed the results. The results showed that the method was feasible compared with traditional method.

  17. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  18. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  19. Selective transport of 137Cs from nitric acid medium using a flat sheet polypropylene membrane containing di-t-butyl benzo 18 crown 6 as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction and transport behaviour across a polypropylene supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 137Cs using di-t-butyl benzo 18 crown 6 (DTBB18C6) in nitrobenzene as the carrier was investigated. A diluent containing 2:3 mixture of toluene: nitrobenzene was found to be most promising. Permeability maxima were investigated at 2 M nitric acid. The fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target were found to be poorly transported. (author)

  20. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reversed-phase surfaces in a sequential injection-lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology...... involves the use of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are preimpregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting this approach, the...... immobilization of the most suitable chelating agent can be effected irrespective of the kinetics involved, optimal reaction conditions can be used for implementing the chelating reaction of the target metal analyte with the immobilized reagent, and an added degree of freedom is offered in selecting the most...

  1. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reversed-phase surfaces in a sequential injection-lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology...

  2. Highly Selective Salicylate Membrane Electrode Based on N,N'-(Aminoethyl)ethylenediamide Bis(2-salicylideneimine) Binuclear Copper(Ⅱ) Complex as Neutral Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Ai-Li; CHAI, Ya-Qin; YUAN, Ruo; GUI, Guo-Feng

    2006-01-01

    A new ion selective electrode for salicylate based on N,N'-(aminoethyl)ethylenediamide bis(2-salicylideneimine)binuclear copper(Ⅱ) complex [Cu(Ⅱ)2-AEBS] as an ionophore was developed. The electrode has a linear range from 1.0 × 10-1 to 5.0 × 10-7 mol· L-1 with a near-Nemstian slope of (-55 ± 1) mV/decade and a detection limit of 2.0 ×10-7 mol·L-1 in phosphorate buffer solution of pH 5.0 at 25 ℃. It shows good selectivity for Sal and displays anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence: Sal- > SCN-> ClO4-> I- > NO2- > Br- > NO3- > Cl- > SO32- > SO42-The proposed sensor based on binuclear copper(Ⅱ)complex has a fast response time of 5-10 s and can be used for at least 2 months without any major deviation. The response mechanism is discussed in view of the alternating current (AC) impedance technique and the UV-vis spectroscopy technique. The effect of the electrode membrane compositions and the experimental conditions were studied. The electrode has been successfully used for the determination of salicylate ion in drug pharmaceutical preparations.

  3. New Concept of PLC Modems: Multi-Carrier System for Frequency Selective Slow-Fading Channels Based on Layered SCCC Turbocodes

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zavrtalek; Kekrt, D.; Hrad, J.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces a novel concept of a PLC modem as a complement to the existing G3 and PRIME standards for communications using medium- or high-voltage overhead or cable lines. The proposed concept is based on the fact that the levels of impulse noise and frequency selectivity are lower on high-voltage lines than on low-voltage ones. Also, the demands for “cost-effective” circuitry design are not so crucial as in the case of modems for low-voltage level. In contract to these positive co...

  4. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined.......To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  5. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  6. Executive functions and selective attention are favored in middle-aged healthy women carriers of the Val/Val genotype of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: a behavioral genetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Muñoz Mayra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, a common functional polymorphism, has been related to executive performance in young healthy volunteers, old subjects and schizophrenia patients. The effect of this polymorphism on cognitive function in middle-aged healthy women is not well known. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether measures of executive function, sustained attention, selective attention and verbal fluency would be different depending on the COMT genotype and task demand. Method We genotyped 74 middle-aged healthy women (48 to 65 years old for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. We analyzed the effects of this polymorphism on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, selective attention (Stroop test, sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test and word generation (Verbal Fluency test, which are cognitive functions that involve the frontal lobe. Results There were 27 women with the Val/Val COMT genotype, 15 with the Met/Met genotype, and 32 with the Val/Met genotype. Women carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed better in executive functions, as indicated by a lower number of errors committed in comparison with the Met/Met or Val/Met groups. The correct responses on selective attention were higher in the Val/Val group, and the number of errors committed was higher in the Met/Met group during the incongruence trial in comparison with the Val/Val group. Performance on sustained attention and the number of words generated did not show significant differences between the three genotypes. Conclusion These

  7. New Concept of PLC Modems: Multi-Carrier System for Frequency Selective Slow-Fading Channels Based on Layered SCCC Turbocodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zavrtalek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a novel concept of a PLC modem as a complement to the existing G3 and PRIME standards for communications using medium- or high-voltage overhead or cable lines. The proposed concept is based on the fact that the levels of impulse noise and frequency selectivity are lower on high-voltage lines than on low-voltage ones. Also, the demands for “cost-effective” circuitry design are not so crucial as in the case of modems for low-voltage level. In contract to these positive conditions, however, there is the need to overcome much longer distances and to take into account low SNR on the receiving side. With respect to the listed reasons, our concept makes use of MCM, instead of OFDM. The assumption of low SNR is compensated through the use of an efficient channel coding based on a serially concatenated turbo code. In addition, MCM offers lower latency and PAPR compared to OFDM. Therefore, when using MCM, it is possible to excite the line with higher power. The proposed concept has been verified during experimental transmission of testing data over a real, 5 km long, 22kV overhead line.

  8. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  9. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    paper, we evaluate the performance of uplink CA in LTE-Advanced systems with different CC allocation schemes. We first present the radio resource management (RRM) framework of multi-component carrier LTE-Advanced systems, with special attention on CC selection, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and......Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this...... traffic conditions....

  10. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  11. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  12. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  13. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  14. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as...

  15. Information and Its Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the structure of a data transmission source, carrier, and receiver; (2) a quantitative measure for the amount of data, followed by some quantitative examples of data transmission processes; (3) the concept of data current; (4) data containers; and (5) how this information can be used to structure physics courses. (JN)

  16. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gubik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  17. Comparison of human solute carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Schlessinger, Avner; Matsson, Pär; Shima, James E.; Pieper, Ursula; Yee, Sook Wah; Kelly, Libusha; Apeltsin, Leonard; Stroud, Robert M.; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Solute carriers are eukaryotic membrane proteins that control the uptake and efflux of solutes, including essential cellular compounds, environmental toxins, and therapeutic drugs. Solute carriers can share similar structural features despite weak sequence similarities. Identification of sequence relationships among solute carriers is needed to enhance our ability to model individual carriers and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their substrate specificity and transport. Here, we desc...

  18. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...

  19. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  20. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  1. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  2. Fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A. P.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2012-10-01

    Sunlight-generated hot-carrier transport in strongly absorbing direct band-gap GaAs—among the most optimal of semiconductors for high-efficiency solar cells—is simulated with an accurate full-band structure self-consistent Monte Carlo method, including short- and long-range Coulomb interaction, impact ionization, and optical and acoustic phonon scattering. We consider an ultrapure 100-nm-thick intrinsic GaAs absorber layer designed with quasiballistic carrier transport that achieves complete photon absorption down to the band edge by application of careful light trapping and that has a generous hot-carrier retention time of 10 ps prior to the onset of carrier relaxation. We find that hot-carrier solar cells can be severely limited in performance due to the substantially reduced current density caused by insufficient extraction of the widely distributed hot electrons (holes) through the requisite energy selective contacts.

  3. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...... allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown to be...

  4. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Meiotic Studies of a Human Male Carrier of the Common Translocation, t(11;22), Suggests Postzygotic Selection rather than Preferential 3:1 MI Segregation as the Cause of Liveborn Offspring with an Unbalanced Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Goldman, Alastair S. H.; Speed, Robert M.; Hultén, Maj A.

    2000-01-01

    The t(11;22)(q23;q11) translocation is the only non-Robertsonian rearrangement for which there are a large number of unrelated families, apparently with the same breakpoints. These families most often have been ascertained through an abnormal child with the karyotype 47,XX or XY, +der(22) t(11;22)(q23;q11). To explain the high incidence of 3:1 segregants, rarely seen in offspring of carriers of other reciprocal translocations, a number of theoretical models have been suggested. We have used b...

  6. Review of Magnetic Carrier Technologies for Metal Ion Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Broomberg, J.; Gélinas, S.; Finch, James A.; Xu, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic carriers are magnetic materials designed to bind selectively on some non -magnetic materials to make them separable using magnetic separation. It allows magnetic separation, a fast, efficient, high capacity and well-developed industrial technology, to be applied to the separation of materials that are otherwise non-magnetic. One application is in metal ion recovery from dilute effluents. Magnetic carrier technologies offer some advantages over other more conventional metal ion separa...

  7. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author)

  8. Long-Lived Hot Carriers in III-V Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Fonseka, H A; Gao, Q; Mura, F; Tan, H H; Rubini, S; Martelli, F; Jagadish, C; Capizzi, M; Polimeni, A

    2016-05-11

    Heat management mechanisms play a pivotal role in driving the design of nanowire (NW)-based devices. In particular, the rate at which charge carriers cool down after an external excitation is crucial for the efficiency of solar cells, lasers, and high-speed transistors. Here, we investigate the thermalization properties of photogenerated carriers by continuous-wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) in InP and GaAs NWs. A quantitative analysis of the PL spectra recorded up to 310 K shows that carriers can thermalize at a temperature much higher than that of the lattice. We find that the mismatch between carrier and lattice temperature, ΔT, increases exponentially with lattice temperature and depends inversely on the NW diameter. ΔT is instead independent of other NW characteristics, such as crystal structure (wurtzite vs zincblende), chemical composition (InP vs GaAs), shape (tapered vs columnar NWs), and growth method (vapor-liquid-solid vs selective-area growth). Remarkably, carrier temperatures as high as 500 K are reached at the lattice temperature of 310 K in NWs with ∼70 nm diameter. While a population of nonequilibrium carriers, usually referred to as "hot carriers", is routinely generated by high-power laser pulses and detected by ultrafast spectroscopy, it is quite remarkable that it can be observed in cw PL measurements, when a steady-state population of carriers is established. Time-resolved PL measurements show that even in the thinnest NWs carriers have enough time (∼1 ns) after photoexcitation to interact with phonons and thus to release their excess energy. Nevertheless, the inability of carriers to reach a full thermal equilibrium with the lattice points to inhibited phonon emission primarily caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio of small diameter NWs. PMID:27104870

  9. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  10. The DOE Transportation Management Division's Motor Carrier Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of hazardous materials and wastes over the nation's highways by commercial motor carriers presents a challenge for the purchaser of transportation services. During the next decade the volume of hazardous materials and wastes is expected to increase dramatically. Along with this increase in the shipments of these hazardous materials and wastes comes the responsibility of selecting a motor carrier to transport these materials. The selection of the open-quotes rightclose quotes motor carrier to transport a generator's hazardous materials and/or waste is a decision that, in today's regulatory environment, can't be left to chance. The legal ramifications and potential liability are such today, that a company should be very selective in deciding who to allow to transport these hazardous commodities. Shippers of hazardous materials must come to the realization that they are responsible for the shipment, long after the truck leaves their plant gates

  11. An Efficient Inter Carrier Interference Cancellation Schemes for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been used widely in wireless communication systems. OFDM is very effective in combating inter-symbol interference and can achieve high data rate in frequency selective channel. For OFDM communication systems, the frequency offsets in mobile radio channels distort the orthogonality between subcarriers resulting in Inter Carrier Interference (ICI. ICI causes power leakage among subcarriers thus degrading the system performance. A well-known problem of OFDM is its sensitivity to frequency offset between the transmitted and received carrier frequencies. There are two deleterious effects caused by frequency offset one is the reduction of signal amplitude in the output of the filters matched to each of the carriers and the second is introduction of ICI from the other carriers. This research work investigates three effective methods for combating the effects of ICI: ICI Self Cancellation (SC, Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation, and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. These three methods are compared in terms of bit error rate performance and bandwidth efficiency. Through simulations, it is shown that the three techniques are effective in mitigating the modulation schemes, the ML and EKF methods perform better than the SC method.Keywords- Orthogonal frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM; Inter Carrier Interference(ICI; Carrier to Interference Power Ratio (CIR;Self Cancellation(SC;Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO; Maximum Likelihood(ML; Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF.

  12. Energy and Its Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G. Bruno

    1982-01-01

    Describes the first course of a new physics curriculum developed at the Karlsruke Institute for the Didactics of Physics. The basic idea, energy flow, is introduced at the beginning of the course and illustrated by examples from everyday life. Highlights selected topics which introduce concepts unique to the approach. (Author/JN)

  13. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...... worked out with respect to net transport rate, initial rate, unidirectional fluxes including back-flow through the pump, maximum accumulation ratio, competitive inhibition and acceleration, counter transport, and metabolic poisoning. The energetics of the system are treated. The fact that the system...

  14. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  15. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  16. Sustainable bioenergy carriers from wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M.A.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Abreu, A. A.; Costa, J.C.; Sousa, D. Z.; Alves, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies for renewable energy production is crucial for decreasing the reliance in fossil fuels and improving global sustainability. Waste materials are valuable resources that can be used for the production of energy carriers. Organic wastes can be anaerobically digested to ultimately produce methane. Hydrogen can be recovered from this process, if methanogenesis is inhibited. These energy carriers can also be derived from recalcitrant materials in a two step-proce...

  17. Hybridization-Induced Carrier Localization at the C60/ZnO Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Leah L.; Racke, David A.; Kim, Hyungchul; Ndione, Paul; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Berry, Joseph J.; Graham, Samuel; Nordlund, Dennis; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-05-25

    Electronic coupling and ground-state charge transfer at the C60/ZnO hybrid interface is shown to localize carriers in the C60 phase. This effect, revealed by resonant X-ray photoemission, arises from interfacial hybridization between C60 and ZnO. Such localization at carrier-selective electrodes and interlayers may lead to severely reduced carrier harvesting efficiencies and increased recombination rates in organic electronic devices.

  18. Motor Carrier Evaluation Program procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (DOE-TMD) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned material. In the performance of these duties, the DOE-TMD has established an exemplary safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials. The DOE recognizes that its responsibility for hazardous material does not end when the shipments leave the DOE sites. A special partnership is needed between the DOE, the DOE contractors, and the carriers chosen to transport hazardous materials. As in any partnership, it is critical that DOE know essential information about its partner in this joint venture. In fulfillment of its responsibility for the safe transportation of radioactive materials as well as other hazardous commodities and wastes routinely shipped from many DOE locations nationwide, the DOE-TMD has developed this policy for a motor carrier evaluation program. It is the intent of the DOE-TMD that this Motor Carrier Evaluation Program be implemented at all DOE locations to the fullest extent practicable. This program will assist in the evaluation of carriers transporting Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material, because these shipments frequently are in the ''public eye.'' The program will also evaluate truckload (TL) quantity transporters of hazardous materials, including radioactive material and chemical wastes. The program has also recently been expanded to include motor carriers transporting less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities of these materials

  19. Carrier sense data highway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  20. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  1. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  2. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  3. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  4. Sensitive and selective detection of trace copper in standard alloys, food and biological samples using a bulk optode based on N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as neutral carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Lashkari, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, an optical sensing film has been proposed for sensitive determination of copper (ІІ) ion in aqueous solutions. The copper sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating N,N'-(4,4'-ethylene biphenyl) bis(3-methoxy salicylidine imine) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS) as plasticizer. This proposed membrane works on the basis of a cation-exchange mechanism and shows a significant absorbance signal change on exposure to acetate buffer solution of pH 4.0 containing copper ion. The proposed sensing film displays a linear range of 0.01-32.0 μg mL-1 with a limit of detection 0.008 μg mL-1. Moreover, upon the introduction of a negatively charged lipophilic additive (oleic acid) into the membrane, the optode displayed enhanced sensitivity. In addition, satisfactory analytical sensing characteristics for determining copper (II) ion were obtained in terms of the selectivity, stability and reproducibility. The response time of the optode was less than 3 min, depending on the concentration of Cu(ІІ) ions. The optode membrane has been applied to determine Cu(II) in various real samples.

  5. Carrier Deformability in Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Deformability is a key property of drug carriers used to increase the mass penetration across the skin without disrupting the lipid barrier. Highly deformable vesicles proved to be more effective than conventional liposomes in delivering drugs into and across the mammalian skin upon topical non occlusive application. In the past five years, highly deformable vesicles have been used for local delivery of drugs on joint diseases, skin cancer, atopic dermatitis, would healing, psoriasis, scar treatment, fungal, bacteria and protozoa infections. Promising topical vaccination strategies rely also in this type of carriers. Here we provide an overview on the main structural and mechanical features of deformable vesicles, to finish with an extensive update on their latest preclinical applications. PMID:26675226

  6. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  7. Gemini surfactants as gene carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Piskorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants are a new class of amphiphilic compounds built from two classic surfactant moieties bound together by a special spacer group. These compounds appear to be excellent for creating complexes with DNA and are effective in mediating transfection. Thanks to their construction, DNA carrier molecules built from gemini surfactants are able to deliver genes to cells of almost any DNA molecule size, unattainable when using viral gene delivery systems. Moreover, they are much safer for living organisms.

  8. Recursive SDN for Carrier Networks

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, James; Liu, Zhi; Panda, Aurojit; Koponen, Teemu; Raghavan, Barath; Rexford, Jennifer; Shenker, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Control planes for global carrier networks should be programmable (so that new functionality can be easily introduced) and scalable (so they can handle the numerical scale and geographic scope of these networks). Neither traditional control planes nor new SDN-based control planes meet both of these goals. In this paper, we propose a framework for recursive routing computations that combines the best of SDN (programmability) and traditional networks (scalability through hierarchy) to achieve t...

  9. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Castro; M. E. Tornadijo; Fresno, J. M.; H. Sandoval

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The ph...

  10. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  11. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  12. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  13. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  14. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans; Steffansen, Bente

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... with K(m) 44microM and 38microM, respectively. BCRP inhibition affected both absorptive an exsorptive P(EPA) and P(APP) for ES. Glipizide apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) were not inhibitable. Basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was inhibitable, its P(EPA) prevented, and P(UP) was saturable with K(m) 56......microM, but exsorptive P(APP) was not affected. Carrier mediated exsorption kinetics for ES are seen at both apical and basolateral membranes, resulting in predominant exsorption despite presence of absorptive carrier(s). Carrier mediated basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was observed, but glipizide P...

  15. Characterization data on the topical carrier DDC642

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Desmet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains original data, figures and methods used in the characterization of the liposomal carrier ‘DDC642’ for topical applications, described in “An elastic liposomal formulation for RNAi-based topical treatment of skin disorders: proof-of-concept in the treatment of psoriasis” (Desmet et al., 2016 [1]. Several elastic liposomal formulations have been evaluated for their ability to encapsulate and deliver RNA interference (RNAi molecules to cultured primary skin cells. The efficiency and effectiveness of these liposomes were compared to that of our previously characterized liposomes, the ‘SECosomes’ (SEC (Geusens et al., 2010 [2]. After selection of a potential superior carrier, based on encapsulation and transfection efficiency data (Desmet et al., 2016 [1], the selected DDC642 liposomes were characterized more in-depth. Herein, a detailed characterization of the DDC642 liposome and RNAi-loaded lipoplexes is given, including the matching protocols.

  16. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  17. Neural nets and chaotic carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ""Neural Nets and Chaotic Carriers"" develops rational principles for the design of associative memories, with a view to applying these principles to models with irregularly oscillatory operation so evident in biological neural systems, and necessitated by the meaninglessness of absolute signal levels. Design is based on the criterion that an associative memory must be able to cope with 'fading data', i.e., to form an inference from the data even as its memory of that data degrades. The resultant net shows striking biological parallels. When these principles are combined with the Freeman speci

  18. Carrier frequencies, holomorphy and unwinding

    CERN Document Server

    Coifman, Ronald R; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2016-01-01

    We prove that functions of intrinsic-mode type (a classical models for signals) behave essentially like holomorphic functions: adding a pure carrier frequency $e^{int}$ ensures that the anti-holomorphic part is much smaller than the holomorphic part $ \\| P_{-}(f)\\|_{L^2} \\ll \\|P_{+}(f)\\|_{L^2}.$ This enables us to use techniques from complex analysis, in particular the \\textit{unwinding series}. We study its stability and convergence properties and show that the unwinding series can stabilize and show that the unwinding series can provide a high resolution time-frequency representation, which is robust to noise.

  19. Technetium diagnostic agent and carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable sup(99m)Tc-labelled radioactive diagnostic agent is produced by contacting sup(99m)Tc-containing pertechnetate with a non-radioactive carrier comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent and a stabilizer. The stabilizer is chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters. A mole ratio of more than 100 moles ascorbic or erythorbic acid to 1 mole of reducing agent provides a stable composition at high levels of radioactivity

  20. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  1. TIME INTENSITY (TI) MEASUREMENTS OF SWEETENERS ON GREEN TEA CARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Vietoris; Peter Czako; Peter Zajác,Jozef Čapla; Andrea Mendelová; Dagmar Kozelová; Hana Balková

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea). For analysis was selected time intensity (TI) methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed simila...

  2. A mitochondrial import receptor for the ADP/ATP carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Söllner, Thomas; Griffiths, Gareth; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Neupert, Walter

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a mitochondrial outer membrane protein of 72 kd (MOM72) that exhibits the properties of an import receptor for the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC), the most abundant mitochondrial protein. Monospecific antibodies and Fab fragments against MOM72 selectively inhibit import of AAC at the level of specific binding to the mitochondria. AAC bound to the mitochondrial surface is coprecipitated with antibodies against MOM72 after lysis of mitochondria with detergent. MOM72 thus has a complem...

  3. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  4. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families

  5. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  6. Suitability of different formulated carriers for sustaining microbial shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-availability of a suitable carrier for bioinnoculant is a serious constraint for dissemination of biofertilizer technology in Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate a suitable carrier from locally available cheap material and evaluate for shelf life by using locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10- 10.8x10 cfu g for MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population of PGPR was sustained in all the formulation tested up to six months of storage period. (author)

  7. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  8. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al2O3) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  9. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar

    1993-01-01

    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  10. Free carrier absorption in quantum cascade structures

    OpenAIRE

    Carosella, F.; Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Ferreira, R.; Dupont, E; K. Unterrainer; Strasser, G.; Wacker, Andreas; Bastard, G.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the free carrier absorption in Quantum Cascade Lasers is very small and radically different from the classical Drude result on account of the orthogonality between the direction of the carrier free motion and the electric field of the laser emission. A quantum mechanical calculation of the free carrier absorption and inter-subband oblique absorption induced by interface defects, coulombic impurities and optical phonon absorption/emission is presented for QCL's with a double quant...

  11. Secure quantum carriers for quantum state sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Karimipour, Vahid; Marvian, Milad

    2010-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum carrier and show that messages can be uploaded and downloaded from this carrier and while in transit, these messages are hidden from external agents. We explain in detail the working of the quantum carrier for different communication tasks, including quantum key distribution, classical secret and quantum state sharing among a set of $n$ players according to general threshold schemes. The security of the protocol is discussed and it is shown that only the legi...

  12. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J.; Lowden, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of ...

  13. Multi-carrier technologies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, Carl R; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wiegandt, David A; Zekavat, S Alireza; Shattil, Steve

    2006-01-01

    1. Introduction. 2. Overview of Multi-Carrier Technologies. 3. High-Performance High-Capacity MC-CDMA for Future Generations: The CI Approach. 4. High Performance, High Throughput TDMA via Multi-Carrier Implementations. 5. High-Performance, High-Capacity DS-CDMA via Multicarrier Implementation. 6. High-Performance, High-Throughput OFDM with Low PAPR via Carrier Interferometry Phase Coding. 7. The Marriage of Smart Antenna Arrays and Multi-Carrier Systems: Spatial Sweeping, Transmit Diversity, and Directionality. Index.

  14. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.204... carrier, the effective and prospective fares of the adopted carrier shall be changed to reflect the...

  15. Beta-cell mitochondrial carriers and the diabetogenic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Thierry; Maechler, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in pancreatic beta-cells by coupling metabolism of the secretagogue glucose to distal events of regulated insulin exocytosis. This process requires transports of both metabolites and nucleotides in and out of the mitochondria. The molecular identification of mitochondrial carriers and their respective contribution to beta-cell function have been uncovered only recently. In type 2 diabetes, mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event and may precipitate beta-cell loss. Under diabetogenic conditions, characterized by glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity, the expression profile of mitochondrial carriers is selectively modified. This review describes the role of mitochondrial carriers in beta-cells and the selective changes in response to glucolipotoxicity. In particular, we discuss the importance of the transfer of metabolites (pyruvate, citrate, malate, and glutamate) and nucleotides (ATP, NADH, NADPH) for beta-cell function and dysfunction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:26979549

  16. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  17. Information Carriers and Identification of Information Objects: An Ontological Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doerr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Even though library and archival practice, as well as Digital Preservation, have a long tradition in identifying information objects, the question of their precise identity under change of carrier or migration is still a riddle to science. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the unique identification of some important kinds of information objects, independent from the kind of carrier or specific encoding. Our approach is based on the idea that the substance of some kinds of information objects can completely be described in terms of discrete arrangements of finite numbers of known kinds of symbols, such as those implied by style guides for scientific journal submissions. Our theory is also useful for selecting or describing what has to be preserved. This is a fundamental problem since curators and archivists would like to formally record the decisions of what has to be preserved over time and to decide (or verify) whether a migration (transformation) preserves the intended information conte...

  18. ACMG position statement on prenatal/preconception expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grody, Wayne W; Thompson, Barry H; Gregg, Anthony R; Bean, Lora H; Monaghan, Kristin G; Schneider, Adele; Lebo, Roger V

    2013-06-01

    For years, clinicians have offered gene-by-gene carrier screening to patients and couples considering future pregnancy or those with an ongoing pregnancy early in gestation. Examples include ethnic-specific screening offered to Ashkenazi Jewish patients and panethnic screening for cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Next-generation sequencing methods now available permit screening for many more disorders with high fidelity, quick turnaround time, and lower costs. However, instituting these technologies carries with it perils that must be addressed. The basis for the selection of disorders on expanded carrier screening panels should be disclosed. The information provided about disorders with mild phenotypes, variable expression, low penetrance, and/or characterized by an adult onset should be complete and transparent, allowing patients to opt out of receiving these test results. Patients also must be made aware of the concept of residual risk following negative test results. Laboratories have a duty to participate in and facilitate this information transfer. PMID:23619275

  19. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  20. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang; Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Rasmussen, Anders; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  1. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  2. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  3. Polymer coating of carrier excipients modify aerosol performance of adhered drugs used in dry powder inhalation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo; Adi, Handoko; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Young, Paul M

    2012-11-15

    The potential of excipient coating to enhance aerosol performance of micronized drugs in carrier excipient-drug blends, used in dry powder inhalers, was investigated. Both EC (ethyl cellulose) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) were used as coating agents. Carriers were prepared via sieve fractioning followed by spray drying, with and without polymer additive. Each uncoated and coated carrier salbutamol sulphate (SS) blended systems were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance, after blending and storage for 24h. All carrier-based systems prepared had similar particle sizes and morphologies. The surface chemistries of the carriers were significantly different, as was drug-carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance. Particle adhesion between SS and aerosol performance (fine particle fraction; FPF) followed the rank: PVP coated>un-coated>EC coated lactose. This rank order could be attributed to the surface energy measured by contact goniometry and related to the chemistry of lactose and each polymer. Storage did not significantly affect aerosol performance, however a rank increase in mean FPF value was observed for uncoated and EC coated lactose. Finally, the net electrostatic charge across the aerosol cloud indicated that the EC coated lactose transferred less charge to SS particles. The performance of each carrier system could be attributed to the carrier surface chemistry and, in general, by careful selection of the coating polymer, drug-carrier adhesion, electrostatic charge and aerosol performance could be controlled. PMID:22964399

  4. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  5. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  6. Effects of carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in graphene under pulse photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in intrinsic graphene after pulse photoexcitation and reveal effects of intraband carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in the terahertz region, by conducting simulation based on the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that by changing the dielectric constant of the surrounding materials the rate of carrier-carrier scattering can be controlled and the relaxation dynamics differs for cases with low and high dielectric constants. It is also found that the Pauli blocking of photogeneration in case of the pulse photoexcitation causes decrease in the photocarrier concentration and thus weakening of population inversion with higher dielectric constant.

  7. Minority carrier blocking to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit in narrow-band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-04-01

    We present detailed theoretical predictions on the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by minority carrier blocking with heterostructure barriers in bulk narrow-band-gap semiconductors. Bipolar carrier transport, which is often significant in a narrow-band-gap material, is detrimental to the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency as it suppresses the Seebeck coefficient and increases the thermal conductivity. When the minority carriers are selectively prevented from participating in conduction while the transport of majority carriers is relatively unaffected by one-sided heterobarriers, the thermoelectric figure of merit can be drastically enhanced. Thermoelectric transport properties such as Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and electronic thermal conductivity including the bipolar term are calculated with and without the barriers based on the near-equilibrium Boltzmann transport equations under the relaxation time approximation to investigate the effects of minority carrier barriers on the thermoelectric figure of merit. For this, we provide details of carrier transport modeling and fitting results of experimental data for three important material systems, B i2T e3 -based alloys, M g2S i1 -xS nx , and S i1 -xG ex , that represent, respectively, near-room-temperature (300 K-500 K), midtemperature (600 K-900 K), and high-temperature (>1000 K ) applications. Theoretical maximum enhancement of thermoelectric figure of merit that can be achieved by minority carrier blocking is quantified and discussed for each of these semiconductors.

  8. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  9. 49 CFR 369.2 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating revenues after applying the revenue deflator formula shown in Note A. (3) When a business combination occurs such as a merger, reorganization, or consolidation, the surviving carrier shall...

  10. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao; Fu, Rong; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2009-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  11. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  12. ISRAEL’S NATIONAL WATER CARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    The National Water Carrier of Israel (Ha Movil Ha' Artzi). It is the main water project of Israel and its main task is to transfer water from the rainy north to the center and to the arid south. The National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israel's water system. The original goal was to provide irrigation water to Negev. Today 80% of the water is utilized for Israel's domestic consumption. Most of the water works in Israel are combined with the National Water Carrier for about...

  13. The evolutionary trajectory of mitochondrial carrier family during metazoan evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Ke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploring metabolic evolution is a way to understand metabolic complexity. The substrate transport of mitochondrial carrier family (MCF influences direct metabolic activities, making it possible to understand indirectly metabolic evolution from the evolution of substrate transport of MCF. However, the evolutionary study of substrate transport of MCF does not mean that all the concrete structures of mitochondrial carriers (MCs must first be gained. Results Here we studied the alternation of MCF structure and potential correlated functions of MCF during metazoan evolution. The data analysis indicates that the types of substrates transported by MCF as a whole were maintained during metazoan evolution. However, the size of the substrates transported by members of MCs continuously diminished during the evolutionary process. We have found that the ratio of hydrophobic amino acids at specific helix-helix interfaces increases significantly during vertebrate evolution. Amino acid's spatial positioning and the calculating of packing values both indicate the increase in the number of hydrophobic amino acids would lead to a more "tight" structure of the TR domain, which is in agreement with the trend of diminishing size of substrates transported by MCs. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of carriers of MCF during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions We propose that the more "tight" TR structure generated by the increase of the hydrophobic amino acids at specific helix-helix interfaces during vertebrate evolution enhances the substrate selectivity of MCF, reflecting the evolutionary trajectory of MCF during metazoan evolution.

  14. Carrier modulation layer-enhanced organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Meenu; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chen, Chung-Chia; Lee, Meng-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML), also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance. PMID:26193252

  15. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diode (OLED-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML, also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance.

  16. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  17. Perceived fit of different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients and its effect on purchase intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2011-01-01

    ingredients are accepted by consumers in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté. Intentions to purchase different carrier/ingredient combinations are explained by perceived fit of a particular carrier......-ingredient combination, as well as respondents' general attitudes towards functional foods and their health concerns. A sample of Danish consumers (n=959) participated in a survey. Results show that perceived carrier-ingredient fit is strongly related to purchase intentions. In addition, small effects of attitudes......Scientific research that can support the consumer-oriented development of functional food products is still scarce. Up until now, only few studies have investigated consumer acceptance of different carrier/ingredient combinations in food products. The present study aims to identify which functional...

  18. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...... enriched with different ingredients. Other parameters such as age, gender, income, education, presence of children or sick members in a family, and body mass index were also considered. The present study deals with the role that these various determinants play when it comes to the acceptance of carrier...

  19. TIME INTENSITY (TI MEASUREMENTS OF SWEETENERS ON GREEN TEA CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea. For analysis was selected time intensity (TI methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed similar profile shape of natural sweeteners. Different was performance of saccharin. During preference experiment was evaluated that all artificial sweeteners are associated with negative attributes of CATA questionnaire. Perception of sweeteners by male and female assessors was statistically significant.

  20. Clusters of dislocations in a carrier wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters of point dislocations (wave vortices) may be present within an otherwise perfect plane scalar wave, a carrier wave in two dimensions, which may be evanescent. The question arises: is it possible to deduce the orientation of the distant undisturbed carrier wave purely from local information about the cluster itself? For groups of two and four dislocations in a carrier wave, this may be done by using no other information than the local phase map or the individual positions of the singularities. The maximum number possible in a cluster with a carrier wave is 4 and the total strength (topological charge) of a cluster is always zero or ± 2. The study includes an examination of degenerate dislocations of strength zero or ± 1

  1. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the...... substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine and......, with the result that a certain asymmetry of inhibition (stronger inhibition of exit than of entrance) is to be expected. This asymmetry was termed “first order asymmetry”. In experiments with each of the three inhibitors an asymmetry of inhibition in the expected direction was observed which however...

  2. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  3. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location

  4. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.

    1983-12-01

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  5. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  6. Airport Congestion When Carriers Have Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes airport congestion when carriers are nonatomistic, showing how the results of the road-pricing literature are modified when the economic agents causing congestion have market power. The analysis shows that when an airport is dominated by a monopolist, congestion is fully internalized, yielding no role for congestion pricing under monopoly conditions. Under a Cournot oligopoly, however, carriers are shown to internalize only the congestion they impose on themselves. A toll ...

  7. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  8. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  9. Hot carrier solar cell absorbers: investigation of carrier cooling properties of candidate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibeer, G.; Shrestha, Santosh; Huang, Shujuan; Patterson, Robert; Xia, Hongze; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Gupta, Neeti; Smyth, Suntrana; Liao, Yuanxun; Lin, Shu; Wang, Pei; Dai, Xi; Chung, Simon; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The hot carrier cell aims to extract the electrical energy from photo-generated carriers before they thermalize to the band edges. Hence it can potentially achieve a high current and a high voltage and hence very high efficiencies up to 65% under 1 sun and 86% under maximum concentration. To slow the rate of carrier thermalisation is very challenging, but modification of the phonon energies and the use of nanostructures are both promising ways to achieve some of the required slowing of carrier cooling. A number of materials and structures are being investigated with these properties and test structures are being fabricated. Initial measurements indicate slowed carrier cooling in III-Vs with large phonon band gaps and in multiple quantum wells. It is expected that soon proof of concept of hot carrier devices will pave the way for their development to fully functioning high efficiency solar cells.

  10. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  11. Carrier relaxation processes in magnetic semiconductor quantum-dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy relaxation process of CdSe/ZnMnSe quantum dots (QDs) was investigated using polarization-selective magneto-photoluminescence (PL). Peaks from the Mn2+ internal transition, the CdSe QDs, and the ZnMnSe barrier were observed in the system. The CdSe QD peak was relatively weak while the intensity of the Mn2+ transition was strong in the spectrum taken at zero magnetic field. However, the peaks intensities changed significantly when a magnetic field was applied, and the situation became reversed (i.e., the CdSe QD peak become stronger than the peak due to the Mn2+ internal transition, specifically for σ+ polarization). The opposite intensity behavior was observed in the peak from the Mn2+ ions and in the PL of the CdSe QDs and revealed that these two carrier capture centers competed with each other for carriers excited in the ZnMnSe barrier. The variation in the Mn2+ internal transition with the magnetic field was well described by using a model developed under an angular momentum selection rule. This suggests that competition between the two energy transfer processes in the CdSe/ZnMnSe QD system is responsible for the observed PL intensity behavior.

  12. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  13. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  14. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  15. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... sessions announced on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 285), and elsewhere in today's Federal Register, and to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety...

  16. Charge carrier transport in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials exhibiting charge carrier mobility ranging from 10−3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs, i.e., between those of amorphous and crystalline materials, had been missing before the 1990s when the electronic conduction in liquid crystals was discovered. Since then, various liquid crystalline materials including discotic and calamitic liquid crystals have been studied in order to clarify their charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystalline mesophases. In this article, the historical background of the discovery of electronic conduction in liquid crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic conductions, unique properties of the charge carrier transport, the effect of molecular alignment on it, and the conduction mechanism in liquid crystalline mesophases are shortly described on the basis of the experimental and theoretical studies accumulated in these two decades, noting that the missing materials were liquid crystals. - Highlights: • Liquid crystals exhibit charge mobility ranging from 10–3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs. • Electronic (intrinsic) and ionic (extrinsic) conductions in liquid crystals • Unique charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystals • Effect of molecular alignment in mesophases on charge carrier transport • Conduction mechanism in smectic liquid crystals

  17. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  18. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  19. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either the...

  20. Carrier dynamics in submonolayer InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhangcheng; Zhang, Yating; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2006-01-01

    Carrier dynamics of submonolayer InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) were studied by microphotoluminecence (MPL), selectively excited photoluminescence (SEPL), and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL). MPL and SEPL show the coexistence of localized and delocalized states, and different local phonon...

  1. Association between maternal HBsAg carrier status and neonatal adverse outcomes: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili; Wu, Jinlin; Qu, Yi; Li, Jiao; Pan, Lingli; Li, Deyuan; Wang, Huiqing; Mu, Dezhi

    2014-09-18

    Abstract Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate whether maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier status increases the risk of neonatal complications. Methods: Publications addressing the association between maternal HBV carrier status and neonatal outcomes were selected from the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Publication bias and heterogeneity across studies were evaluated and summary odds ratios, weighted mean difference or standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between groups. Results: Eighteen studies and 7600 pregnant HBV carriers were selected for analyses. A statistically association with maternal HBV carrier status was demonstrated for premature birth and asphyxia, with no difference found among perinatal mortality, gestational age, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, birth weight, low birth weight, macrosomia, Apgar sore at 1 min, jaundice and congenital anomaly. Heterogeneity across studies was found, and no publication bias was detected. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that maternal hepatitis B carrier status is significantly associated with premature birth and asphyxia. Large-scale prospective studies are still warranted. PMID:25231370

  2. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  3. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  4. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  5. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  6. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  7. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi......, significant homogeneous line broadening of the order of several meV can result....

  8. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in the urine of non-carriers and chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus in Maringa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Padovani Giolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to aflatoxins (AFs in the diet may favour the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and the acute exacerbation of hepatitis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV carriers. Measurement of biomarkers such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, in urine allows for the assessment of populations exposed to aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in the urine of HBV carrier and non-carrier patients. One group included 43 randomly selected HBV carriers treated at two hospitals in the city of Maringa, Brazil, from March to June 2008. Control group consisted of 29 healthy adult volunteers with anti-HBs positive and HBsAg negative test results. Detection of AFM1 was performed by fluorescence using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and post-column derivation with the Kobra Cell®. Of the 72 samples analysed, 05/29 (17.2% AFM1 positive samples were from HBV non-carriers, and 16/43 (37.2% of samples were from chronic HBV carriers. This study showed AFM1 in the urine of the two surveyed population. However, there is evidence that the chronic HBV carriers have a higher risk of developing HCC due to additive interaction between AFs and HBV.A exposição às aflatoxinas (AFs na dieta é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC e a exacerbação da hepatite aguda em indivíduos portadores do vírus da hepatite B (VHB. O uso de biomarcadores, como a aflatoxina M1 (AFM1 na urina, produto de biotransformação da aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, permite avaliar se a população está exposta às AFs. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar ocorrência de AFM1 na urina de portadores e não portadores crônicos do VHB. Foi selecionado um grupo, de forma aleatória, representado por 43 portadores do VHB atendidos em dois hospitais da cidade de Maringá, Brasil, no período de Março a Junho/2008. O grupo controle foi composto por 29 voluntários adultos saud

  10. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  11. Managing photons and carriers for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Isabell; Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah; Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Tumkur, Thejaswi; Wang, Wei-Ren; Wray, Parker

    While small plasmonic nanoparticles efficiently generate energetic hot carriers, light absorption in a monolayer of such particles is inefficient, and practical utilization of the hot carriers in addition requires efficient charge-separation. Here we describe our approach to address both challenges. By designing an optical cavity structure for the plasmonic photoelectrode, light absorption in these particles can be significantly enhanced, resulting in efficient hot electron generation. Rather than utilizing a Schottky barrier to preserve the energy of the carriers, our structure allows for their direct injection into the adjacent electrolyte. On the substrate side, the plasmonic particles are in contact with a wide band gap oxide film that serves as an electron blocking layer but accepts holes and transfers them to the counter electrode. The observed photocurrent spectra follow the plasmon spectrum, and demonstrate that the extracted electrons are energetic enough to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. A similar structure can be designed to achieve broadband absorption enhancement in monolayer MoS2. Time permitting, I will discuss charge carrier dynamics in hybrid nanoparticles composed of plasmonic / two-dimensional materials, and applications of photo-induced force microscopy to study photocatalytic processes.

  12. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  13. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire; T. Bruce Grindley

    2014-01-01

    Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  14. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben;

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  15. Biodegradable PEG-based drug carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Braunová, Alena; Ulbrich, Karel; Jelínková, Markéta; Říhová, Blanka; Seymour, L. W.

    Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2005, s. 7-9. [Conference on New Approaches to Drug Delivery "Nanomedicines of the Future". Glasgow (GB), 18.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable polymers * drug carriers Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  16. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  17. Development of nanostructured lipid carrier for dacarbazine delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almousallam, Musallam; Moia, Claudia; Zhu, Huijun

    2015-09-01

    Dacarbazine (Dac) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for treating various cancers. However, its poor water solubility, short half-life in blood circulation, low response rate and high side effect limit its application. This study aimed to improve the drug solubility and prolong drug release by developing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for Dac delivery. The NLC and Dac-encapsulated NLC were synthesized with precirol ATO 5 and isopropyl myristate as lipids, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, soybean lecithin and Kolliphor P 188 as co-surfactants. The NLCs with controlled size were achieved using high shear dispersion following solidification of oil-in-water emulsion. For Dac encapsulation, the smallest NLC with 155 ± 10 nm in size, 0.2 ± 0.01 polydispersion index and -43.4 ± 2 mV zeta potential was selected. The resultant DLC-Dac possessed size, polydispersion index and zeta potential of 190 ± 10, 0.2 ± 0.01, and -43.5 ± 1.2, respectively. The drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 98.5 % and 14 %, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed a biphasic pattern, with 50 % released in the first 2 h, and the remaining released sustainably for up to 30 h. This is the first report on the development of NLC for Dac delivery, implying that NLC could be a new potential candidate as drug carrier to improve the therapeutic profile of Dac.

  18. Multifunctional Catalysts to Synthesize and Utilize Energy Carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lercher, Johannes A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Autrey, Thomas; Bullock, R. Morris; Camaioni, Donald M.; Cho, Herman M.; Dixon, David A.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Gao, Feng; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Henderson, Michael A.; Hu, Jian Z.; Iglesia, Enrique; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Kay, Bruce D.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Linehan, John C.; Liu, Jun; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Szanyi, Janos; Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong; Weber, Robert S.

    2014-06-23

    The central role and critical importance of catalysis in a future based on sustainability, together with the insight that developments have to be knowledge-based have motivated significant efforts to better understand catalyzed processes and to develop new catalytic routes from this knowledge. Overall, three main energy carriers are used worldwide, carbon (and hydrocarbons), hydrogen, and electrons. Conventionally, the stored energy is accessed by oxidizing carbon and hydrogen, forming O-H and C-O bonds and performing work with the produced heat or electricity. Conversely, to synthesize energy carriers sustainably, it is consequently required to reverse the direction, i.e., to break C-O and O-H bonds and form C-C, C-H and H-H bonds. To address these challenges, PNNL’s BES-sponsored program comprises three thrust areas with subtasks, focusing on the fundamentals of biomass conversion processes, direct and indirect CO2 reduction, and on elementary studies aimed at generating and using H2. Multi-functionality, i.e., the simultaneous interaction of more than one catalytically active site with the substrate is the key to achieving the atom and energy efficiency in individual steps. The combination of several types of these sites with carefully selected energetics and rate constants is used to generate complex catalysts able to enhance the rates of multistep processes. This short report summarizes recent results obtained in this BES-funded program.

  19. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Hepatic or splenic targeting of carrier erythrocytes: a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier mouse erythrocytes, i.e., red cells, subjected to a dialysis technique involving transient hypotonic hemolysis and isotonic resealing were treated in vitro in three different ways: (a) energy depletion by exposure for 90 min at 42 degrees C; (b) desialylation by incubation with neuroaminidase; and (c) oxidative stress by incubation with H2O2 and NaN3. Procedure (c) afforded maximal damage, as shown by analysis of biochemical properties of the treated erythrocytes. Reinfusion in mice of the variously manipulated erythrocytes following their 51Cr labeling showed extensive fragilization as indicated by rapid clearance of radioactivity from the circulation. Moreover, both the energy-depleted and the neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes showed a preferential liver uptake, reaching 50 and 75%, respectively, within 2 h. On the other hand, exposure of erythrocytes to the oxidant stress triggered a largely splenic removal, accounting for almost 40% of the reinjected cells within 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of liver from mice receiving energy-depleted erythrocytes demonstrated remarkable erythrocyte congestion within the sinusoids, followed by hyperactivity of Kupffer cells and by subsequent thickening of the perisinusoidal Disse space. Concomitantly, levels of serum transaminase activities were moderately increased. Each of the three procedures of manipulation of carrier erythrocytes may prove applicable under conditions where selective targeting of erythrocyte-encapsulated chemicals and drugs to either the liver or the spleen has to be achieved

  1. Nanoparticles and nanostructured carriers for drug delivery and contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godage, Olga S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; German, Sergey V.; Zuev, Viktor V.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, nanotechnologies are widely used in science and industry. It is known that the application of drug delivery nanostructured carriers for biomedicine is one of the promising areas of nanotechnology. Nanostructured carriers can be used in the diagnosis process for detecting a neoplastic tumor cells in peripheral blood, for contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as for targeted drug delivery to tumor tissues. Agents for the targeted delivery (nanoparticles, liposomes, microcapsules, and etc) can affect the healthy tissues and organs, cause side effects and have a toxic effect. Therefore, it necessary to study the morphological changes that occur not only in the "target", such as a tumor, but also the internal organs, taking place under the influence of both the agents for targeted drug delivery and physical impact induced remote controlled drug release. Thus , the aim of our work is selection of the most promising agents for targeted drug delivery to tumor and contrast agents for in vivo visualization of tumor tissue boundaries , as well as their impact on the organs and tissues as results of nanostructured object biodistribution.

  2. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  3. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2004-01-01

    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  4. Detachment factors for enhanced carrier to carrier transfer of CHO cell lines on macroporous microcarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Landauer, K.; Dürrschmid, M.; Klug, H.; Wiederkum, S.; Blüml, G.; Doblhoff-Dier, O.

    2002-01-01

    In this publication different detachment factors were tested for enhancing carrier to carrier transfer for scale-up of macroporous microcarrier based bioprocesses. Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, CHO-K1 and a genetically engineered CHO-K1 derived cell line (CHO-MPS), producing recombinant human Arylsulfatase B, were examined. The cells were grown on Cytoline 1microcarriers (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) in protein-free and chemically defined medium respectively. Fully colonised...

  5. Selective schools select alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2006), s. 22. ISSN 1936-5152 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : selective schools * alphabet ical sorting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://go.worldbank.org/HZFRFHFMG0

  6. Transuranic separation using organophophorus extractants adsorbed onto superparamagnetic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric coated ferromagnetic carriers with an absorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted by tributyl phosphate (TBP) are being evaluated for application in the separation and the recovery of low concentrations of americium, plutonium, and uranium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles and the complexed particles can be recovered from the solution using a magnet. Physical and chemical characterization of the extractant-absorbed particles were performed by gamma and liquid scintillation counting, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) micrograph, and other physical measurements. Plutonium, americium, and uranium separations have been performed at various HNO3 and HCl concentrations. Parameters were studied to determine the limitations and capacity of the process. The status of the chemistry and application of the process to Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts for actinide decontamination are discussed

  7. Research progress in nanoparticles as anticancer drug carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Sun; Huaqing Lin ; Chuqin Yu; Suna Lin

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles drug delivery system has sustained and controled release features as wel as targeted drug deliv-ery, which can change the characteristics of drug distributionin vivo. It can increase the stability of the drug and enhance drug bioavailability. The selective targeting of nanoparticles can be achieved through enhanced permeability and retention efect and a conjugated specific ligand or through the efects of physiological conditions, such as pH and temperature. Nanoparticles can be prepared by using a wide range of materials and can be used to encapsulate chemotherapeutic agents to reduce toxic-ity, which can be used for imaging, therapy, and diagnosis. In this research, recent progress on nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system wil be reviewed, including positive-targeting, negative-targeting, and physicochemical-targeting used as anticancer drug carriers.

  8. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470 Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (a) Except for contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community-rated), the carrier is required...

  9. A Comparative Study on Evaluating the Service Quality Attributes based on Kano Model: A Case of Low-cost Carrier and Full-service Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Hyojeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of low-cost carriers(LCC with competitive price is heating up the competition in the aviation market more, especially between low-cost carriers(LCC and full-service carriers(FSC. Therefore, it became more important than ever to implement service differentiation strategies of each airline for securing customers and competitiveness. In this sense, the purpose of this study is to compare and assess the different expectations of the customers for airline service attributes pursued by FSCs and LCCs. Three main dimensions of airline service quality attributes (physical, human, and system service, were selected and this study clarified the service quality attributes of each airline carrier using Kano Model. Data were collected from Korean passengers who experienced both LCCs and FSCs for international or domestic flights. As results, this study demonstrated several differences in airline service quality attributes between FSCs and LCCs, which imply that each airline needs to adopt differential strategies to be more competitive. In particular, most physical-related attributes for FSCs were a ‘must-be’ dimension while the majority of attributes for LCCs was clarified ‘one-dimensional’ attribute. The current study also presented implications to be helpful in developing the quality of service and establishing marketing strategies for improvement in customer satisfaction.

  10. Screening-induced carrier transport in silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Boltzmann transport equation in the MRT approximation, we present a theory to investigate low-field carrier transport in dual-gated silicene FETs by taking into account screened charged impurity scattering, which is the most likely scattering mechanism limiting the conductivity. Static RPA dielectric screening is also included in the conductivity calculation to study temperature-dependent silicene transport. It is found that both calculated conductivity and band gap not only depend strongly on carrier sheet density, but also depend strongly on effective offset density. More importantly, screening-induced metal-insulator-transition phenomena in buckled silicene can be observed theoretically, which is similar to that obtained in monolayer graphene. (paper)

  11. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  12. Carrier synchronization and detection of polyphase signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Digital communication networks used for the distribution of high-speed digital information are currently the subject of design studies for many civil and military applications. This paper presents results that are useful in such studies as well as in network planning. In particular, the paper is concerned with the problems of carrier synchronization and noisy reference detection of polyphase signals. Reconstruction of coherent references for the detection of polyphase signals is considered and analyzed for three carrier reconstruction loops, namely, Nth power (multiply-and-divide) loops, generalized Costas (I-Q) loops, and extensions of data-aided (modulation wipeoff) loops. General expressions for the error probability are developed when the reconstructed reference signals are noisy.

  13. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  14. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  15. High carrier mobilities in black diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Oliver A.; Jackman, Richard B.; Nebel, Christoph; Foord, John S.

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen plasma treatment of diamond renders the surface p-type, with the carriers emerging with little thermal activation, in sharp contrast to the use of boron for the formation of p-type material. To date, it has been thought that only the highest quality 'white' polycrystalline material is useful for electronic device applications, with many regarding single-crystal diamond as ultimately the substrate material of choice. In this paper it is shown that when p-type material is produced through hydrogenation, this is not the case. 'Black' polycrystalline diamond, which can be grown much more rapidly than white, shows carrier concentrations and mobility values similar to both white polycrystalline diamond and single-crystal material. This result has important implications for the provision of low-cost black-diamond substrates for device applications.

  16. Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier Rideshare System

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Maj Travis

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives the background and details of the Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier to be flown on the National Recoinnassance Office Launch 36 with the Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite Auxiliary Payload. The CubeSats included are from a number of labs, universities and government entities for the purpose of technology demonstration, science experimentation and operational proof of concepts. This mission will pave the way for rideshare on NRO missions and other Atlas V launches.

  17. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Eckmann, D.M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanoge...

  18. Crude Carrier Consolidation and Capital Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T T Gilje; J Dinwoodie; J Challacombe

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of consolidation strategies amongst crude carrier operators anxious to reduce costs and attract institutional capital. Could consolidation combat erratic tonnage demand, mounting regulatory pressure to provide quality service at reduced costs, rising costs of finance and unpredictable long-term returns that deter institutional capital? A questionnaire survey of capital providers' and charterers' attitudes towards consolidation found that long-term vessel emplo...

  19. Electroactuation with Single Charge Carrier Ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alpha A; Colby, Ralph H.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple theory of electromechanical transduction for single-charge-carrier double-layer electroactuators is developed, in which the ion distribution and curvature are mutually coupled. The obtained expressions for the dependence of curvature and charge accumulation on the applied voltage, as well as the electroactuation dynamics, are compared with literature data. The mechanical- or sensor- performance of such electroactuators appears to be determined by just three cumulative parameters, wit...

  20. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interacti...

  1. Software defined networking: meeting carrier grade requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Staessens, Dimitri; Sharma, Sachin; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Networking is a networking paradigm which allows network operators to manage networking elements using software running on an external server. This is accomplished by a split in the architecture between the forwarding element and the control element. Two technologies which allow this split for packet networks are ForCES and Openflow. We present energy efficiency and resilience aspects of carrier grade networks which can be met by Openflow. We implement flow restoration and ru...

  2. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...

  3. 24 CFR 17.46 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim... from the carrier or insurer before his claim under this subpart is settled, the amount or...

  4. 44 CFR 11.75 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prosecute rights available against a carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim been timely or...

  5. 29 CFR 15.25 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable... the loss from the carrier or insurer before his or her claim under this subpart is settled, the...

  6. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee; Fratu, Octavian

    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE...

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan;

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  8. Legionella pneumophila Secretes a Mitochondrial Carrier Protein during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Dolezal; Margareta Aili; Janette Tong; Jhih-Hang Jiang; Marobbio, Carlo M.T.; Sau Fung Lee; Ralf Schuelein; Simon Belluzzo; Eva Binova; Aurelie Mousnier; Gad Frankel; Giulia Giannuzzi; Ferdinando Palmieri; Kipros Gabriel; Thomas Naderer

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Mitochondrial carrier proteins evolved during endosymbiosis to transport substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. As such the proteins are associated exclusively with eukaryotic organisms. Despite this, we identified putative mitochondrial carrier proteins in the genomes of different intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. We named the mitochondrial carrier protein from L. pneumophila LncP and...

  9. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  10. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers--innovative generations of solid lipid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhaye, S S; Vaidya, Reshma; Sutar, Sagar; Patwardhan, Arati; Kadam, V J

    2008-10-01

    The first generation of solid lipid carrier systems in nanometer range, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN), was introduced as an alternative to liposomes. SLN are aqueous colloidal dispersions, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids. SLN are manufactured by techniques like high pressure homogenization, solvent diffusion method etc. They exhibit major advantages such as modulated release, improved bioavailability, protection of chemically labile molecules like retinol, peptides from degradation, cost effective excipients, improved drug incorporation and wide application spectrum. However there are certain limitations associated with SLN, like limited drug loading capacity and drug expulsion during storage, which can be minimized by the next generation of solid lipids, Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC are lipid particles with a controlled nanostructure that improves drug loading and firmly incorporates the drug during storage. Owing to their properties and advantages, SLN and NLC may find extensive application in topical drug delivery, oral and parenteral administration of cosmetic and pharmaceutical actives. Cosmeceuticals is emerging as the biggest application target of these carriers. Carrier systems like SLN and NLC were developed with a perspective to meet industrial needs like scale up, qualification and validation, simple technology, low cost etc. This paper reviews present status of SLN and NLC as carrier systems with special emphasis on their application in Cosmeceuticals; it also gives an overview about various manufacturing techniques of SLN and NLC. PMID:18855604

  11. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  12. Carrier Transport Mechanism in Single Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Elucidated by Visualized Carrier Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved microscopic second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) measurement was conducted to evaluate temperature dependence of the anisotropic carrier transport process in 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene single crystalline domains for two orthogonal directions. Enhancement of the electric field induced SHG (EFI-SHG) signal at the electrode edge at low temperature suggests the presence of potential drop in the injection process. We directly evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility by taking into account the potential drop, and concluded that the Marcus theory is appropriate to interpret the carrier transport in anisotropic TIPS pentacene thin film. TRM-SHG method is a facile and effective way to directly visualize transport process in anisotropic materials and to evaluate injection and transport processes simultaneously. PMID:27451638

  13. Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Suze MPJ; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette LM

    2012-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2% GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy, most professionals report that they would carry this out. Most respondents favoured ethnicity registration for health purposes. As most practitioners look for role models among peers, debate among general practitioners and midwives should be encouraged when new policy is to be developed, articulating the voices of colleagues who already actively offer HbP-carrier screening. Moreover, primary care professionals and professional organisations need support of policy at national level. PMID:22549405

  14. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Heiner

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. To achieve this, we consider a highly selective energy filter such as a quantum dot embedded into a one-dimensional conductor. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. In addition this theoretical analysis, I will also report on first experimental results in a nanowire-based energy filter device. Ref: S Limpert, S Bremner, and H Linke, New J. Phys 17, 095004 (2015)

  15. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation and...

  16. Studies on carrier free promethium-147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was intended to study the state of Pm-147 in solution and its adsorbed state on membrane filters by varying the concentrations of Pm-147 solution and its pH. Also, the study on the coprecipitation of Pm-147 with Fe(OH)3 was carried out by varying amounts of Fe(OH)3 and pH of the solution. The carrier-free Pm-147 exists in an ionic state of pm3+ in solution, and is adsorbed on membrane filter in filtration process. The adsorbed state of Pm-147 on the membrane filter shows various ionic state at a constant ionic strength of 0.1M NaCl, that is, Pm3+ state exists until pH value of 5.0, then gradually Pm(OH)2+ state appears between pH value of 5.0 to 6.0, and the state of Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)3 would be expected at the higher pH value of 6.0. Coprecipitation of Pm-147 on Fe(OH)3 is an adsorption penomenon in an ionic state of Pm3+ in acidic condition. At higher pH and larger amount of Fe carrier, the adsorbed state of Pm-147 shows Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)2+ state. As a results of the present studies, it is seen that the characteristic of carrier free radioisotopes is not due to the radioactivity, but due to the adsorption of ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes. Therefore, the knowledge on the ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes could help for the solution of decontamination in handing and chemical procedure with radioisotopes. (author)

  17. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  18. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  19. Investigation of sugar sulfur carrier in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of galvanotechnics it is necessary to have nickel which is easely subjected to the anode dissolving (the so called depolarized nickel). In the industry, nickel of such a quality is produced by the method of electrolytic sedimentation from the nickel solution in the presence of sulfur carriers, usually in the presence of saccharin. To study behaviour of saccharin in the process of electrolysis, investigations of saccharin labelled by sulfur-35 have been done. These investigations have permitted to determine the type and quantity of products of decomposition formed, as well as to determine possibilities for rising the quantity of introducer sulfur due to the variants of technological process

  20. Why Do Firms Have "Purpose"? The Firm's Role as a Carrier of Identity and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Henderson; Eric Van den Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theory in which a firm's adoption of a prosocial purpose can increase profitability by strengthening employees' reputation and identity—leading to higher effort and lower wages—as long as implementing purpose is costly with respect to direct monetary payoffs. Employees who value prosocial action will select into firms with a social purpose, which then become a visible carrier for these employees' identity and reputation.

  1. Investigation of artificial malonyl group carriers and multifunctional cyclic scaffolds towards the mimicry of PKS

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Lozano, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a new convenient method for the synthesis of malonic acid half esters and thioesters under solvent-free conditions. The relative acidity of a broad variety of MAHOs and MAHTs has been estimated by an innovative and simple method based on the determination of observed rate constants from hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments of malonates. The results obtained from kinetic experiments allowed us to select the more suitable artificial malonyl carriers in decarboxylative al...

  2. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, M. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, K. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  3. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  4. Teratogenicity of Artemether-Clindamycin Nanostructured Lipid Carriers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Soniya A; Awale, Madhavi; Pathak, Sulabha; Vanage, Geeta; Patravale, Vandana B; Sharma, Shobhona

    2016-07-01

    Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy is considered the best option in the treatment of malaria. However, toxicity of artemisinins limits their use in pregnancy. In the absence of sufficient toxicity data, the World Health Organization recommends that artemisinins are not to be used in the first trimester of pregnancy and can be used only in second and third trimesters, when other treatments are not available. We have recently observed that drugs loaded in nanolipid carriers are selectively taken up in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes with a concomitant reduction in the dose required to cure animals. Thus, 20% of the therapeutic dose of artemether-clindamycin (ARM-CP) loaded in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs; mean particle size 55 ± 10 nm) resulted in complete parasite clearance and 100% survival of infected mice. Here, we investigate the teratogenicity of this formulation in rodents (dosing on alternate days from 6th day to 18th day of gestation; 12-15 animals/group). The teratogenicity of drug-free NLCs and artesunate-clindamycin (ARS-CP) solution was also evaluated. We found that the therapeutic dose of ARS-CP caused fetal resorptions (87.5% resorptions in 8 litters), suggesting its unsuitability for use in pregnancy. Artesunate-clindamycin NLCs at therapeutic doses also resulted in ∼90% fetal resorptions in 10 litters examined. However, postimplantation losses or fetal malformations were not observed at the dose of ARM-CP NLCs that was required for complete parasite clearance in preclinical trials (ie, 20% of the therapeutic dose). Our data suggest that the NLCs loaded with 20% of the therapeutic dose of ARM-CP may have potential in treating malaria during pregnancy. PMID:27278417

  5. Gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E J; Reid, H; Pow, I; Klemt, A

    2002-08-01

    Between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order Artiodactyla at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) of wildebeest (Connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. Gamma herpesvirus DNA was detected in the known, or suspected, carrier species: roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), musk ox (Ovibos muschatus) and mouflon (Ovis musimon). In six other species: lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) yak (Bos grunniens), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros), DNA was present in some newborn calves and over 30% of adults, strongly suggesting a carrier state. In contrast five Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and two swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) died of MCF during the study. A virus isolated from scimitar-horned oryx calves produced cytopathic effects in scimitar-horned oryx kidney cell-culture and caused MCF in a rabbit. PMID:12208112

  6. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  7. Analysing the risk of LNG carrier operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In accordance with these risk models, available information from different sources has been structured in the form of event trees for different generic accident categories. In this way, high-risk areas pertaining to LNG shipping operations have been identified. The major contributions to the risk associated with LNG shipping are found to stem from five generic accident categories, i.e. collision, grounding, contact, fire and explosion, and events occurring while loading or unloading LNG at the terminal. Of these, collision risk was found to be the highest. According to the risk analysis presented in this paper, both the individual and the societal risk level associated with LNG carrier operations lie within the As Low As Reasonable Practicable (ALARP) area, meaning that further risk reduction should be required only if available cost-effective risk control options could be identified. This paper also includes a critical review of the various components of the risk models and hence identifies areas of improvements and suggests topics for further research

  8. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  9. Features of charge carrier transport determined from carrier extraction current in .mu.c-Si:H

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juška, G.; Arlauskas, K.; Nekrašas, N.; Stuchlík, Jiří; Niquille, X.; Wyrsch, N.

    299-302, - (2002), s. 375-379. ISSN 0022-3093 Grant ostatní: VMSF(LT) 01SP-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mobility of majority carriers * photoconductivity transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2002

  10. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... residential and single-line business lines multiplied by the difference between the residential and single-line business End User Common Line rate cap and the lesser of $6.50 or the non-price cap local exchange... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap...

  11. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  12. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A

    2015-11-01

    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. PMID:26183299

  13. Preface: Special issue featuring papers from the International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, L.; Bordone, P.; Brunetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors (HCIS-13) celebrates 30 years since it first took place in Modena. Nonequilibrium dynamics of charge carriers, pioneered by the hot-electron concept, is an important issue for understanding electro-optic transport properties in semiconductor materials and structures. In these 30 years several topics have matured, and new ones have emerged thus fertilizing the field with a variety of physical problems and new ideas. The history of the conference is summarized in the opening paper `30 years of HCIS'. The future of the conference seems secure considering the continued lively interest of the participants. The conference addressed eleven major topics which constitute the backbone of the proceedings and are summarized as follows: carrier transport in low dimensional and nanostructure systems, nonequilibrium carriers in superlattices and devices, small devices and related phenomena, carrier dynamics and fluctuations, carrier quantum dynamics, coherent/incoherent carrier dynamics of optical excitations and ultra-fast optical phenomena, nonlinear optical effects, transport in organic matter, semiconductor-based spintronics, coherent dynamics in solid state systems for quantum processing and communication, novel materials and devices. Nanometric space scale and femtosecond time scale represent the ultimate domains of theoretical, experimental and practical interest. Traditional fields such as bulk properties, quantum transport, fluctuations and chaotic phenomena, etc, have received thorough and continuous attention. Emerging fields from previous conferences, such as quantum processing and communication, have been better assessed. New fields, such as spintronics and electron transport in organic matter, have appeared for the first time. One plenary talk, 11 invited talks, 230 submitted abstracts covering all these topics constituted a single-session conference. Following scientific selection

  14. Theoretical investigation of carrier transfer by an optical contacting scheme for optoelectronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Ge, Rongchun; Zhang, Zhilong; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Feng, Yu; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    As a promising charge carrier transfer scheme, optical coupling could potentially improve the performance of an optoelectronic device for energy harvesting based on well developed nanotechnology. By extracting carriers optically, the functional features of the nano-structured material could be better used by minimizing the concerns about its electrical properties. In this paper, we present a rigorous electromagnetic model to analyze the optical carrier transfer problem. The flow of the energy is analyzed carefully by the photon transfer spectrum, and the photon emitters (electron-hole pairs) are assumed in a thermal equilibrium described by Bose-Einstein distribution. The result shows that an energy selective carrier transfer can be optically achieved at the device level by integrating the emitter and receiver into a nano-optical resonator, where both the photon emission and absorption are significantly amplified by a near-field coupling around the resonant frequency. General design and optimization schemes in practice are addressed by examining the influence of the photonic design and an energy dependent emissivity of the emitter, which can be used to develop the optical contacting concept further.

  15. 47 CFR 1.824 - Random selection procedures for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service and Multipoint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random selection procedures for Multichannel..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Grants by Random Selection § 1.824 Random selection procedures..., the Commission may use the random selection process to select the conditional licensee or...

  16. Dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as a novel carrier in the liquid membrane permeation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proven extractability and profound selectivity of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) has been exploited by selecting this crown ether as the ionophore in liquid membrane transport. Macrocycle-facilitated transport of Pu(IV) and U(VI) against their concentration gradient from aqueous nitric acid solutions across organic bulk liquid membrane (BLM) and thin-sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing DC18C6 as the mobile carrier and toluene as the membrane solvent was investigated. (author). 23 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  17. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF CARRIER-BASED AIRCRAFT DURING LANDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段萍萍; 聂宏; 魏小辉

    2013-01-01

    In view of the complexity of landing on the deck of aircraft carrier ,a systematic model ,composed of six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier-based aircraft ,four-degree-of-freedom model of landing gears and six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier , is established in the Matlab-Simulink environment , with damping function of landing gears and dynamic characteristics of tires being considered .The model ,where the car-rier movement is introduced ,is applicable for any abnormal landing condition .Moreover ,the equations of motion and relevant parameter are also derived .The dynamic response of aircraft is calculated via the variable step-size Runge-Kuta algorithm .The effect of attitude angles of aircraft and carrier movement during the process of landing is illustrated in details .The analytical results can provide some reference for carrier-based aircraft design and main-tenance .

  18. Influence of ultrafast carrier dynamics on semiconductor absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, we present a theoretical description of the many-body effects in semi-conductor quantum wells and the role they play in the absorption phenomenon. The optical properties of semiconductors and their connections to the thermodynamic properties of the quasi-2D electron-hole plasma are studied in both nonequilibrium and equilibrium regimes. This work was motivated by a series of pump and probe experiments with spin-selective excitation that were performed at Heriot-Watt. The interpretation of the experimental results is non-trivial given the substantial influence of Coulomb and many-body effects which give rise to a rich variety of broadening and energy renormalizations, and hence places heavy demands on the modeling. We constructed a simple model to describe the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the hot electron/hole plasma. We accounted for various dynamical processes such as: relaxation of the carrier distributions, thermalization, plasma cooling, carrier spin-flip, recombination (radiative and nonradiative) and light hole scattering into heavy holes. A full microscopic treatment of the many-body problem being computationally prohibitive, we focused on a phenomenological approach using rate equations and the associated characteristic times for each of the dynamical process included in our analysis. We computed the time dependent energy renormalization and bleaching of the excitonic resonances by solving the semiconductor Bloch equations together with the set of coupled rate equations. We obtained a good qualitative agreement with experiments and further insight into the interplay between the various dynamical processes by varying the phenomenological parameters entering the rate equations. In particular we found that the carrier spin-flip occurs on a relatively long time scale (several tens of picoseconds) compared to the carrier distributions relaxation and thermalization (a picosecond or less). We also could monitor the time evolution of the plasma

  19. Computer assisted analysis of hand radiographs in infantile hypophosphatasia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand radiographs of 49 carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia and 67 non-carriers were evaluated using two Apple IIe Computer Programs and Apple Graphics Tablet. CAMPS was used to determine the bone lengths and calculate the metacarpophalangeal profiles. A newly developed program (ADAM) was used to determine bone density based on percent cortical area of the second metacarpal. Carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia had significantly less dense bones. (orig.)

  20. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  1. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  2. Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Bamber, Lisa; Harding, Marilyn; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Kunji, Edmund R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein–detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes' radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known struct...

  3. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  4. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  5. Microemulsions as carriers for therapeutic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Surinder K; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    The thrust for finding newer drug delivery systems for exiting therapeutic molecules has opened a wide window for colloidal systems. Due to the presence of different domains of variable polarity in the microemulsion systems, they show a huge potential to be used as drug delivery vehicles for a variety of drugs. The use of microemulsion as drug delivery vehicles through a number of routes has engaged a large number of research groups in this area. Microemulsion media finds several applications ranging from drug delivery to drug nanoparticle templating due to its ability to enhance solubility, stability and bioavailability. This review on patent articles recounts the patent literature dealing with different kind of microemulsion carriers used via different routes, solubility and permeability enhancement and its use as a template for nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:19807681

  6. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    aggregated. This paper presents a summary of the supported CA scenarios as well as an overview of the CA functionality for LTE-Advanced with special emphasis on the basic concept, control mechanisms, and performance aspects. The discussion includes definitions of the new terms primary cell (PCell) and......Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are...... secondary cell (SCell), mechanisms for activation and deactivation of CCs, and the new cross-CC scheduling functionality for improved control channel optimizations. We also demonstrate how CA can be used as an enabler for simple yet effective frequency domain interference management schemes. In particular...

  7. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  8. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers' module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson's disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes, whereas AD

  9. Light emission from hot carriers in polar semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Paolo; Di Carlo, Aldo; Vogl, Peter; Zandler, G.

    1993-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of hot-carrier induced light emission in III-V semiconductor devices. Carrier heating under the intense electric fields present under high bias conditions are studied via a selfconsistent Monte Carlo simulation. The carrier distribution functions obtained from the simulation are then incorporated into a pseudo-potential algorithm that describes the direct optical transitions and calculates the corresponding spectra. We show that the light emission due to hot carriers is dominated by direct radiative interband transitions within the conduction and valence bands. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for GaAs MESFET and GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs.

  10. Preparation of microorganism free carrier for biofertilizer product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier is free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming was used as a carrier for the biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation has been used to produce a ?clean? or sterile carrier. The sterilization effect of the carrier was checked by using serial dilution technique. Carriers that were irradiated at 50 kGy of gamma irradiation were found to be sterile. The shelf life of the sterile carriers was also determined. After six months the compost carriers were still free from microbial contamination. (Author)

  11. Carrier-Density-Dependent Lattice Stability in InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrafast decay of the x-ray diffraction intensity following laser excitation of an InSb crystal has been utilized to observe carrier dependent changes in the potential energy surface. For the first time, an abrupt carrier dependent onset for potential energy surface softening and the appearance of accelerated atomic disordering for a very high average carrier density have been observed. Inertial dynamics dominate the early stages of crystal disordering for a wide range of carrier densities between the onset of crystal softening and the appearance of accelerated atomic disordering

  12. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  13. Fertility preservation in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Salvagno, Francesca; Delle Piane, Luisa; Casano, Simona; Evangelista, Francesca; Pittatore, Giulia; Razzano, Alessandra; Marchino, Gian L; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    According to enhanced long-term survival rates of these patients, interest in fertility preservation for young women facing gonadotoxic therapies is increasing. Women who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have a specifically increased lifetime risk of developing breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. Moreover, they are at high risk of undergoing premature infertility due to the medical interventions that are often performed in order to reduce cancer risk or treat an already existing malignancy. Fertility issues are relevant for healthy BRCA mutation carriers, whose family-planning decisions are often influenced by the need of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at young age. In BRCA mutation carriers who have a breast cancer at young age, the oncostatic treatment is associated with a significant ovarian toxicity linked to chemotherapy as well as to the long lasting hormonotherapy and to the need of delaying pregnancy for several years. Prompt counselling about different fertility preservation options should be offered to all young girls and women at high risk of ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Validated techniques to preserve fertility include oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, while experimental techniques include ovarian suppression with GnRH-analogs during chemotherapy and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The choice of the best strategy depends on age, type of chemotherapy, partner status, cancer type, time available for fertility preservation intervention and the risk of ovarian metastasis. All available options should be offered and can be performed alone or in combination. A crucial point is to avoid a significant delay to cancer treatment. PMID:26997146

  14. Does carrier size matter? A fundamental study of drug aerosolisation from carrier based dry powder inhalation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela; Hoe, Susan; Wong, William; Young, Paul M

    2011-07-15

    There is plenty of evidence supporting the notion that the size of the carrier influences the aerosolisation performance of drug from a drug-carrier blend. Interestingly, that evidence is contradictory in places and the study of such mechanisms is fraught by the compounding variables associated with comparing crystalline powders (e.g. as size is varied so may the shape, surface chemistry, roughness and the amount of fine excipients). To overcome these limitations, a series of model polystyrene spheres were used to study the influence of size on aerosol performance. Three polystyrene sphere carriers (TS-80, TS-250 and TS-500, describing their approximate diameters) were characterised using laser diffraction, atomic force microscopy, colloid probe microscopy, electron microscopy, true density and dynamic vapour sorption. The model carriers were blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (67.5:1 ratios) and the aerosolisation performance was tested using a multistage liquid impinger at a range of flow rates (40-100 lmin(-1)). Physico-chemical analysis of the carriers indicated that all carriers were spherical with similar roughness and densities. Furthermore, the adhesion force of drug to the carrier surfaces was independent of carrier size. Significant differences in drug aerosolisation were observed with both flow rate and carrier size. In general, as carrier size was increased, aerosol performance decreased. Furthermore, as flow rate was increased so did performance. Such observations suggest that higher energy processes drive aerosolisation, however this is likely to be due to the number of impaction events (and associated frictional and rotational forces) rather than the actual collision velocity (since the larger carriers had increased momentum and drag forces). This study shows that, in isolation of other variables, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolisation performance is observed. PMID:21501674

  15. Carrier-added and no-carrier-added syntheses of [18F]spiroperidol and [18F]haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syntheses of [18F]haloperidol and [18F]spiroperidol in both no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms have been accomplished. The no-carrier-added [18F]butyrophenone neuroleptics were prepared in low (18F-neuroleptics were prepared in better (5-17%) yields by 18F-for-19F nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The preparation of all synthetic precursors, and procedures for radiolabeling are fully described. (author)

  16. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingya; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat S; Yang, Haoze; Mohammed, Omar F

    2016-03-17

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser's relatively large penetration depth and consequently these techniques record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and subpicosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample's surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystal and its powder film. We also discuss the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces. PMID:26911313

  18. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2016-02-25

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  19. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase-Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-03-30

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein-protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP-triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  20. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accounts for 50–65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes

  1. Widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Wang, Sun Long; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-12-01

    A widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) with only one optical filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fundamental principle lies in the fact that the suppressed optical carrier of the phase modulated optical signal could be recovered by the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplification effect. When phase modulated optical signals go through an optical filter with a bandpass response, the optical carrier and the upper sidebands suffer from the suppression of the optical filter because they fall in the stopband of that. In our system, the optical carrier could be recovered by the SBS operation around 38 dB. The MPF is achieved by one-to-one mapping from the optical domain to the electrical domain only when one of phase modulated sidebands lies in the bandpass of the optical filter. It shows an excellent selectivity with a 3-dB bandwidth of 170 MHz over a tuning frequency range of 9.5-32.5 GHz. The out-of-band suppression of the MPF is more than 20 dB. Moreover, the MPF shows an excellent shape factor with 10-dB bandwidth of only 520 MHz. The frequency response of the MPF could be widely tuned by changing the frequency difference between the frequency of the optical carrier and the center frequency of the bandpass of the optical filter. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out to verify the proposed approach. PMID:25606864

  2. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g−1, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m2 g−1 and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results

  3. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Willian, E-mail: willkopp@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Silva, Felipe A., E-mail: eq.felipe.silva@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Lima, Lionete N., E-mail: lionetenunes@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Masunaga, Sueli H., E-mail: sueli.masunaga@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Montana State University-MSU, 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Tardioli, Paulo W., E-mail: pwtardioli@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Giordano, Roberto C., E-mail: roberto@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M., E-mail: faraujo@df.ufscar.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g{sup −1}, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results.

  4. Study on Carrier Material of Immobilization Acetylcholinesterase For Biosensor in Detectionof Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou; Jia, Chuandong

    A comparison between several immobilization materials of AChE on surface of glassy carbon electrode(GCE) was presented. The immobilization methods employed crosslinking method with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent and bovine serum albumin(BSA) as a protectant, AChE was immobilized on different membranes including nylon membrane, cellulose nitrate membrane and chitosan membrane respectively. The enzyme membrane was then fixed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode(GCE) with O-ring to prepare an amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides. The activity of immobilization AChE was detected by measuring the oxidation current of thiocholine, the results showed that the activity of immobilization AChE were all different with different membrane as carrier material.Compared with nylon membrane and cellulose nitrate membrane, chitosan membrane was obviously good. So chitosan membrane can be selected as immobilized AChE carrier material.

  5. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-xin Yao; Zai-xi Fu; Xian-yi Zhang; Xian-feng Zheng; Xue-han Ji; Zhi-feng Cui; Hong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The intra- and inter-band relaxation dynamics of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots are investigated with the aid of time-resolved nonlinear transmission spectra which are obtained using femtosecond pump-probe technique.By selectively exciting the core and shell carrier,the dynamics are studied in detail.Carrier relaxation is found faster in the conduction band of the CdS shell (about 130 fs) than that in the conduction band of the CdSe core (about 400 fs).From the experiments it is distinctly demonstrated the existence of the defect states in the interface between the CdSe core and the CdS shell,indicating that ultrafast spectroscopy might be a suitable tool in studying interface and surface morphology properties in nanosystems.

  6. Carrier distillation-ICAP approach for trace metal assay of U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for the trace metal assay of U3O8 powder has been described. The carrier distillation technique used for selective volatilization of trace metals in U3O8 with d.c. arc excitation is adapted for the release of analytes from the solid sample into the ICAP source by inductively heating the sample. The experimental parameters have been optimised for the direct determination of Cd, Cu, K, Na, Ni and Pb. The performance of the method developed here is tested for the precision and accuracy of determinations by analysing spiked U3O8 samples and NBL U3O8 reference standards (standard deviation 2-9%). The method appears promising to be developed as a highly precise analytical optical emission spectrometric method as it adds to the ingenuity of the carrier distillation method, the advantages of ICAP. (orig.)

  7. Carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering in the low-density and low-temperature regime for resonantly pumped semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorke, M.; Jahnke, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Gartner, P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); National Institute for Materials Physics, POB MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Seebeck, J.

    2009-02-15

    We study carrier relaxation due to Coulomb scattering and interaction with LO-phonons in semiconductor quantum dots at low temperatures. Scattering for different relaxation process are evaluated for various carrier distributions that correspond to stages of the typical relaxation kinetics after optical excitation with a weak pulse, generating on average less than one electron per quantum dot. Even when the spacing of the quantum dot energy levels does not match the LO-phonon energy, we.nd that carrier-LO-phonon scattering, in addition to electronelectron and electron-hole interaction, provides efficient carrier relaxation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers.

  9. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  10. Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    various design parameters have on the device properties, in particular how they affect the carrier dynamics and the corresponding field dynamics. A number of different types of results are presented. We calculate absorption spectra and steady-state field screening due to carrier pile-up at the separate...

  11. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5 Section 252.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers....

  12. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section 252.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air...

  13. 27 CFR 26.117 - Action by carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Procedure at Port of Arrival § 26.117 Action by carrier. The carrier of the merchandise specified on the Form 487B shall, at the time of unlading at the port of...

  14. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  15. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on simulations and experimental measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra and acoustic spectra is...

  16. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  17. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  18. 50 CFR 14.105 - Consignment to carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.105 Consignment to carrier. (a) No carrier shall accept any live wild mammal or bird for transport to the United States that has not been examined within... attendant. (c) A sick or injured wild mammal or bird shall be permitted transport to the United States...

  19. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-12-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  20. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  1. Current Consumption Measurements with a Carrier Aggregation Smartphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mejias, Rafael; Guo, Yu; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben; Ángel Maestro Ruiz de Temiño, Luis

    Carrier Aggregation (CA) is introduced in LTE release 10 to improve data rates by allowing the User Equipment (UE) to receive data on more than one LTE carrier. The related increased complexity is expected to affect the UE current consumption, but yet no empirical evaluation has been published on...

  2. Quality of service modeling and analysis for carrier ethernet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.

    2008-01-01

    Today, Ethernet is moving into the mainstream evolving into a carrier grade technology. Termed as Carrier Ethernet it is expected to overcome most of the shortcomings of native Ethernet. It is envisioned to carry services end-to-end serving corporate data networking and broadband access demands as w

  3. AQUASOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sutariya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiopharmaceutics involves delivery of biopharmaceutical product through different biomaterials like multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, aquasomes, superparamagnetic iron oxide crystals, and liposomes dendrimers. Nanotechnology has emerged fields of biomedical research in the last few decades the presents context is an attempt to present the brief information about nanobiotechnological applications. Aquasomes are nanoparticulate carrier system but instead of being simple nanoparticles these arse three layered self assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. Aquasomes are spherical 60–300 nm particles used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes discovery comprises a principle from microbiology, food chemistry, biophysics and many discoveries including solid phase synthesis, supramolecular chemistry, molecular shape change and self assembly. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds and brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate. Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage. Hydroxyapatite seems, therefore, a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants for drug delivery. The solid core provides the structural stability, while the carbohydrate coating protects against dehydration and stabilizes the biochemically active molecules. This property of maintaining the conformational integrity of bioactive molecules has led to the proposal that aquasomes have potential as a carrier system for delivery of peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Aquasome deliver their content through specific targeting, molecular sheiling and slow

  4. Role of solid carriers in pharmaceutical performance of solid supersaturable SEDDS of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul B; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-11-10

    Self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) has been increasingly used for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. SEDDS can be solidified by adsorbing them on different solid carriers. In the present study, the impact of properties of solid carrier on drug release profile from solid SEDDS was investigated. Celecoxib (CEL) loaded supersaturable SEDDS (S-SEDDS) was prepared and optimized by using optimal response surface design. Optimum composition of S-SEDDS corresponded to 10:45:45% v/v ratio of oil (Capryol 90), surfactant (Tween 20) and cosurfactant (Transcutol HP) with Soluplus (40 mg) as precipitation inhibitor. Different grades of silicon dioxide were selected based on their properties like surface area, porosity and hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity, and used for preparation of solid S-SEDDS (SS-SEDDS) by adsorption method. All SS-SEDDS formulations in release studies, gave droplet size, PDI and zeta potential similar to S-SEDDS. The percent drug release after 120min from CEL powder, S-SEDDS and SS-SEDDS with Sylysia 350 fcp, Aerosil 300 Pharma, Aerosil 200 Pharma and Aerosil R 972 Pharma was found to be 0.58%, 100%, 38.44%, 9.63%, 2.53% and 5.99%, respectively. Drug release profiles were compared by using model independent methods. The differential drug release behavior of SS-SEDDS was attributed to the different physico-chemical properties of solid carriers. SS-SEDDS with Sylysia 350 fcp showed higher drug release and greater dissolution efficiency. Oral bioavailability study also demonstrated 2.34 fold increase in Cmax and 4.82 fold increase in AUC (0-24h) when compared with CEL powder. This study highlights the rational for selection of solid carriers in the formulation development of solid SEDDS. PMID:26364711

  5. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and...... attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to...

  6. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel;

    2014-01-01

    . The algorithm is tested in a mixed line rate optical transmission scenario employing dual polarization 448 Gb/s 16-QAM signal surrounded by eight on-off keying channels in a 50 GHz grid. It is shown that joint carrier synchronization and data detection are more robust towards optical transmitter......In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...... impairments and nonlinear phase noise, compared to digital phase-locked loop (PLL) followed by hard decisions. Additionally, soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and detection offers an improvement of 0.5 dB in terms of input power compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier...

  7. Experimental and ab initio ultrafast carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Ana M; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the non-equilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions which allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly non-thermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  8. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  9. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested. PMID:22113629

  10. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: mrc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: tmachida@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  11. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  12. Optimal dimension design of a hatch cover for lightening a bulk carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Tae-Sub; Roh, Myung-Il

    2015-06-01

    According to the increase of the operating cost and material cost of a ship due to the change of international oil price, a demand for the lightening of the ship weight is being made from various parties such as shipping companies, ship owners, and shipyards. To satisfy such demand, many studies for a light ship are being made. As one of them, an optimal design method of an existing hull structure, that is, a method for lightening the ship weight based on the optimization technique was proposed in this study. For this, we selected a hatch cover of a bulk carrier as an optimization target and formulated an optimization problem in order to determine optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover for lightening the bulk carrier. Some dimensions representing the shape of the hatch cover were selected as design variables and some design considerations related to the maximum stress, maximum deflection, and geometry of the hatch cover were selected as constraints. In addition, the minimization of the weight of the hatch cover was selected as an objective function. To solve this optimization problem, we developed an optimization program based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) using C++ programming language. To evaluate the applicability of the developed program, it was applied to a problem for finding optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover of a deadweight 180,000 ton bulk carrier. The result shows that the developed program can decrease the hatch cover's weight by about 8.5%. Thus, this study will be able to contribute to make energy saving and environment-friendly ship in shipyard.

  13. Quantitative Carrier Density Wave Imaging in Silicon Solar Cells Using Photocarrier Radiometry and Lock-in Carrierography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q. M.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.

    2016-04-01

    InGaAs camera-based low-frequency homodyne and high-frequency heterodyne lock-in carrierographies (LIC) are introduced for spatially resolved imaging of optoelectronic properties of Si solar cells. Based on the full theory of solar cell photocarrier radiometry (PCR), several simplification steps were performed aiming at the open circuit case, and a concise expression of the base minority carrier density depth profile was obtained. The model shows that solar cell PCR/LIC signals are mainly sensitive to the base minority carrier lifetime. Both homodyne and heterodyne frequency response data at selected locations on a mc-Si solar cell were used to extract the local base minority carrier lifetimes by best fitting local experimental data to theory.

  14. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials the electromigration behaviour of the carrier-free 241Am-Am(III) in inert electrolytes, μ = 0.1 (ClO4-), T = 298.1(1) K, was studied. Basing on experimental dependencies of the overall ion mobilities of 241Am-Am(III) on pH between pH 5.5 and 12.9 the stoichiometric hydrolysis constants pβ3 = 28.8(9) and pK1 = 6.9(2) were obtained. For K4 a limitation of pK4 > 13.9(3) was possible, because no formation of anionic hydrolysis products in solutions pH 241Am-Am(III) degrees in the range pH 5.5 - 3 from +6.85(15) up to +5.50(15) · 10-4 cm2s-1V-1. Dependencies of this effect on overall ionic strength, inert electrolyte anion, and temperature of the electrolytes were studied in detail both in acidic and neutral solutions. (author)

  15. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štáfková, Jitka; Mach, Jan; Biran, Marc; Verner, Zdeněk; Bringaud, Frédéric; Tachezy, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key product of glycolysis that regulates the energy metabolism of cells. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, the fate of pyruvate varies dramatically during the parasite life cycle. In bloodstream forms, pyruvate is mainly excreted, whereas in tsetse fly forms, pyruvate is metabolized in mitochondria yielding additional ATP molecules. The character of the molecular machinery that mediates pyruvate transport across mitochondrial membrane was elusive until the recent discovery of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in yeast and mammals. Here, we characterized pyruvate import into mitochondrion of T. brucei. We identified mpc1 and mpc2 homologs in the T. brucei genome with attributes of MPC protein family and we demonstrated that both proteins are present in the mitochondrial membrane of the parasite. Investigations of mpc1 or mpc2 gene knock-out cells proved that T. brucei MPC1/2 proteins facilitate mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Interestingly, MPC is expressed not only in procyclic trypanosomes with fully activated mitochondria but also in bloodstream trypanosomes in which most of pyruvate is excreted. Moreover, MPC appears to be essential for bloodstream forms, supporting the recently emerging picture that the functions of mitochondria in bloodstream forms are more diverse than it was originally thought. PMID:26748989

  16. European retrievable carrier Eureca servicing by Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, L.; Dettmer, J.; Rath, W.

    1987-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that HERMES with a cargo bay configuration as depicted in figure 1 (5 m length, 3 m diam.) with Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) and HERMES Robotic Arm (HERA) is capable to service a small platform like EURECA, which is an NSTS quarter payload. Only 1/3 of the HERMES cargo bay volume and payload mass is required for the accommodation of the payload Orbital Replaceable Units. By implementing two additional hydrazine tanks refuelling can be avoided for a two-years EURECA mission. The overall servicing configuration is described as follows: The European Retrievable Carrier EURECA-B is mechanically attached through its -y-side sill trunnion to the HERMES berthing port. The HERMES cargo bay doors with radiators are opened and oriented to earth. The HERMES Robotic Arm is equipped with a Module Service Tool (MST) ready for Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) exchange. The HERMES berthing port is located at the rear side of the cargo bay in order to achieve best visibility, clearance and accessibility of the HERMES Robotic Arm operation within the cargo bay and the EURECA payload area. The EURECA solar arrays and antennas remain deployed. During the servicing operation, power will be provided by the fully deployed solar arrays. In order to minimize the plume impingement effect, the solar array edge is directed to the HERMES wing.

  17. Multi-carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Abd Elghafar; Salaheldin M. Diab; Sallam, Bassiouny M.; Moawad I. Dessouky; El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Fathi E. Abd El-Samie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new blind adaptive channel shortening approach for multi-carrier systems. Theperformance of the discrete Fourier transform-DMT (DFT-DMT) system is investigated with the proposedDST-DMT system over the standard carrier serving area (CSA) loop1. Enhanced bit rates demonstratedand less complexity also involved by the simulationof the DST-DMT system.

  18. Carrier-based dry powder inhalation: Impact of carrier modification on capsule filling processability and in vitro aerodynamic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, Eva; Wahl, Verena; Zellnitz, Sarah; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of carrier characteristics and dosator capsule filling operation on the in vitro deposition of mixtures containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) and lactose and mannitol as model carrier materials. The carrier surfaces of lactose and mannitol were modified via wet decantation. The impact of the decantation process on the properties of carriers was investigated by laser diffraction, density and powder flow measurements, N2 physisorption, small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences in carrier type and untreated and decanted materials were identified and the SAXS measurements proved to be a promising technology confirming the successful removal of fines. Adhesive carrier API mixtures with carrier-to-API ratio of 99:1 wt% were prepared, mixture homogeneity was tested and subsequently the mixtures were filled into capsules at different process settings. Finally, the influence of the decantation process on the in vitro performance of the adhesive mixtures was tested with a next generation impactor. For lactose, the decantation decreased the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS, whereas the FPF of mannitol as a carrier was only affected by the capsule filling process. In summary, the DPI formulation based on untreated lactose, especially by capsule filling using a dosing chamber to powder layer (compression) ratio of 1:2, proved to be superior in terms of the dosing accuracy (RSD<0.8%) and the in vitro aerodynamic performance (FPF of 12%). PMID:26136200

  19. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED

  20. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  1. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan Tzu Dist., 811 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yang, Fann-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiang-Chen [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations (AIM-HI), National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  2. Nano-lipoidal carriers of tretinoin with enhanced percutaneous absorption, photostability, biocompatibility and anti-psoriatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Kaisar; Singh, Bhupinder; Lohan, Shikha; Sharma, Gajanand; Negi, Poonam; Yachha, Yukhti; Katare, Om Prakash

    2013-11-01

    Tretinoin (TRE) is a widely used retinoid for the topical treatment of acne, psoriasis, skin cancer and photoaging. Despite unmatchable efficacy, it is associated with several vexatious side effects like marked skin erythema, peeling and irritation, eventually leading to poor patient compliance. Its photo-instability and high lipophilicity also pose challenges in the development of a suitable topical product. The present study, therefore, aims to develop biocompatible lipid-based nanocarriers of TRE to improve its skin delivery, photostability, biocompatibility and pharmacodynamic efficacy. The TRE-loaded liposomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipidic carriers (NLCs) were prepared and characterized for micromeritics, surface charge, percent drug efficiency and morphology. Bioadhesive hydrogels of the developed systems were also evaluated for rheological characterization, photostability, ex vivo skin permeation and retention employing porcine skin, and anti-psoriatic activity in mouse tail model. Nanoparticulate carriers (SLNs, NLCs) offered enhanced photostability, skin transport and anti-psoriatic activity vis-à-vis the vesicular carriers (liposomes, ethosomes) and the marketed product. However, all the developed nanocarriers were found to be more biocompatible and effective than the marketed product. These encouraging findings can guide in proper selection of topical carriers among diversity of such available carriers systems. PMID:23973754

  3. Excitation dependent Raman studies of self-seeded grown InN nanoparticles with different carrier concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapu, Kishore K; Polaki, S R; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-07-21

    High quality InN nanoparticles are grown using an atmospheric chemical vapour deposition technique via a self-seeded catalytic approach in the temperature range of 580-650 °C. In this temperature region, the nucleation barrier of InN is overcome by seeding low density In nanoparticles prior to introduction of reactive NH3. Samples with increasing carrier densities are grown, with the help of increasing growth temperature, to understand the role of carrier density in the optical phonon structure. Near-resonance Raman spectra show completely different phonon pictures compared to those for the off-resonance spectra. A Raman forbidden mode of B1(high), because of the possible breakdown of selection rules in the near-resonance conditions, is invoked for the first time. The intensity and frequency of this mode strongly depend on the carrier concentration in the sample. In off-resonance conditions, the A1(LO) mode for the sample with higher carrier concentration is dominated by Fano interference rather than plasmon-phonon coupling. Variation of the intensity of the B1(high) mode is correlated with a band filling effect, which is substantiated by the luminescence studies of the InN samples with different carrier concentrations. PMID:27345503

  4. Importance of Avidity in Endogenous Drug Carrier: Antibody Carrier for CpG Oligonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Roland; Cho, Moo

    2010-01-01

    In animal models, successful anti-cancer monotherapy with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) has been limited to the intratumoral and peritumoral routes of administration. To overcome this limitation, we developed a delivery system utilizing an endogenous antibody as a carrier for CpG ODNs. When a 1:1 conjugate of 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) to a CpG ODN was administered to tumor-bearing mice that were pre-immunized against DNP, intravenous (IV) administration successfully inhibited tumor growth.1 In...

  5. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  6. Analysis of Ionospheric Delay Estimates from GNSS Carrier Phase Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    There is an increased demand for more precise ionospheric information such as ionospheric augmentation for fast ambiguity convergence and resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP). More precise ionospheric information is also highly desired to improve the understanding of the space weather dynamics and its impacts on various applications such as aviation and communication systems. Carrier phase measurements from GNSS offer the best precision for precise applications. Current ionospheric models, however, are mostly derived from code or carrier-smoothed code measurements. Ionopsheric models based on carrier phase measurements are expected to provide improved accuracy and should be investigated. In this contribution, various data analyses will be conducted on ionospheric estimates from carrier phase measurements. Since carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and they are also affected by fractional biases, proper observation model is necessary and will be developed. With proper observation model, the analysis results are used to investigate the differences and characteristics of the ionospheric estimates between the code and carrier phase derived estimates and subsequently to help develop methods for precise estimation of the biases in carrier phase measurements and the recovery of the ionospheric effects. Data acquired at different geographic locations and under different ionospheric conditions will be processed for numerical analysis.

  7. Kinetics of Ca2+ carrier in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadin, M; Pozzan, T; Azzone, G F

    1979-12-25

    The rate of aerobic Ca2+ transport is limited by the rate of the H+ pump rather than by the Ca2+ carrier. The kinetics of the Ca2+ carrier has therefore been studied by using the K+ diffusion potential as the driving force. The apparent Vmax of the Ca2+ carrier is, at 20 degrees C, about 900 nmol (mg of protein)-1 min-1, more than twice the rate of the H+ pump. The apparent Vmax is depressed by Mg2+ and Li+. This supports the view that the electrolytes act as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Ca2+ carrier. The degree of sigmoidicity of the kinetics of Ca2+ transport increases with the lowering of the temperature and proportionally with the concentration of impermeant electrolytes such as Mg2+ and Li+ but not choline. The effects of temperature and of electrolyte do not support the view that the sigmoidicity is due to modifications of the surface potential. Rather, they suggest that Ca2+ transport occurs through a multisubunit carrier, where cooperative phenomena are the result of ligand-induced conformational changes due to the interaction of several allosteric effectors with the carrier subunits. In contrast with La3+ which acts as a competitive inhibitor, Ruthenium Red affects the kinetics by inducing phenomena both of positive and of negative cooperativity. The Ruthenium Red induced kinetics has been reproduced through curve-fitting procedures by applying the Koshland sequential interaction hypothesis to a four-subunit Ca2+ carrier model. PMID:42437

  8. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  9. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  10. DNA-mediated gene transfer without carrier DNA

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    DNA-mediated gene transfer is a procedure which uses purified DNA to introduce new genetic elements into cells in culture. The standard DNA- mediated gene transfer procedure involves the use of whole cell DNA as carrier DNA for the transfer. We have modified the standard DNA- mediated gene transfer procedure to transfer the Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (TK) into TK- murine recipient cells in the absence of whole cell carrier DNA. The majority (8/10) of carrier- free trans...

  11. Do Low Cost Carriers Provide Low Quality Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejashree Sayanak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of whether low cost carriers provide low quality service. Considerable work has been done on various aspects of airline service quality, including: examining the causes of flight delays and cancellations, investigating service quality during irregular airport operations, and exploring the link between on-time performance and airline ticket prices. Little research has been conducted, however, on the performance of low cost carriers. This paper attempts to fill this void in the literature by examining the on-time performance of six million domestic flights in 2006. We find considerable evidence indicating that low cost carriers offer more reliable flight schedules.

  12. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [14C]sucrose, [3H]inulin, and 51Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [3H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  13. Analytical carrier density and quantum capacitance for graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Guangwei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Lu, Nianduan, E-mail: lunianduan@ime.ac.cn; Li, Ling, E-mail: lingli@ime.ac.cn; Liu, Ming [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Laboratory of Nanofabrication and Novel Device Integration, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-01-04

    A disorder based analytical carrier density for graphene is presented here. The carrier density, a basic property of all semiconductors, is obtained based on exponential distribution describing the potential fluctuations induced by impurities and shows good agreement with numerical results. The quantum capacitance is subsequently derived from the carrier density, with a good agreement with experimental measurements. A method for extracting the gate coupling function is also proposed, which relates the internal surface potential with the external applied gate voltage. The essential properties of graphene device physics, such as the temperature, material disorder, and surface potential dependences, are captured in these analytical equations.

  14. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  15. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  16. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  17. Carrier-envelope-phase stabilization via dual wavelength pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Marcus; Brons, Jonathan; Lücking, Fabian; Pervak, Vladimir; Apolonski, Alexander; Udem, Thomas; Pronin, Oleg

    2016-04-15

    A power-scalable concept for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization is presented. It takes advantage of simultaneous pumping of the zero- and first-phonon absorption line of Yb:YAG at 969 and 940 nm. The concept was implemented to lock the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a 45 W average power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator. The lock performance is compared to previous experiments where carrier-envelope-stabilization was realized by means of cavity loss modulation. PMID:27082362

  18. Some Immunological, Hematological And Biochemical Parameters Characteristics Of The HCV Healthy Carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed to identify some immunological, hematological and biochemical characteristics of the HCV healthy carrier state. Thirteen Egyptian HCV seropositive males who fulfilled the criteria of the HCV healthy carrier state were selected from 560 asymptomatic individuals. Fifteen age matched healthy HCV seronegative were used as control. Blood samples were withdrawn from all participants three times at six month interval to provide Leishmania stained smears, citrated plasma and sera. The following parameters were estimated: plasma prothrombin time and concentration, serum ALT and AST, L.E cells, hyper segmented neutrophils, cryo globulins, total IgM, albumin, C3, CIq immune complex and a-fetoprotein. Atypical lymphocyte and hyper segmented neutrophil proportion were determined from microscopical examination of Leishmania stained blood smears. Data from the present study showed that the HCV healthy carriers had significantly higher ALT, AST, prothrombin time, atypical lymphocytes and hyper segmented neutrophil proportion, serum C3, immune complex, IgM and a-fetoprotein than healthy HCV seronegative controls whereas serum albumin content did not change. In conclusion, the present data may suggest a role of the HCV in down regulation of the prothrombin synthesis and up regulation of the C3 production and immune complex formation and serum a-fetoprotein independently from hepatic damage. It also shows that atypical lymphocytes and hyper segmented neutrophils were increased in response to HCV infection

  19. Carrier localization effect in polarized InGaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier localization effects in polarized InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were investigated as a function of well width, d, and In content, x. Using photoreflectance (PR), photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), selective excitation of PL, PL excitation power, and time-resolved PL spectroscopy, the dominance of the localization effect against the built-in field effect on carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1-xN MQWs of different well width (d = 2.0-4.0 nm, x ∼ 0.15) and In content (x ∼ 0.22-0.27, d = 2.5 nm) was revealed. Based on the modeling of the PL spectra by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping and the spectroscopic reference provided by PR, increased In content and well width were found to increase the band potential fluctuations and carrier localization depth. The density of localized states deduced from the simulation was found to be in a fair agreement with the PLE data. The built-in field strength in InGaN QWs containing 15% of In was estimated to be of 0.5 MV/cm. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Identification and characterization of major cat allergen Fel d 1 mimotopes on filamentous phage carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Jernej; Molek, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Korošec, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    Cat allergy is one of the most prevalent allergies worldwide and can lead to the development of rhinitis and asthma. Thus far, only allergen extracts from natural sources have been used for allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, extracts and whole allergens in immunotherapy present an anaphylaxis risk. Identification of allergen epitopes or mimotopes has an important role in development of safe and effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. Moreover, with a suitable immunogenic carrier, the absence of sufficient immune response elicited by short peptides could be surmounted. In this study, we identified five structural mimotopes of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 by immunoscreening with random peptide phage libraries. The mimotopes were computationally mapped to the allergen surface, and their IgE reactivity was confirmed using sera from cat-allergic patients. Importantly, the mimotopes showed no basophil activation of the corresponding cat-allergic patients, which makes them good candidates for the development of hypoallergenic vaccine. As bacteriophage particles are becoming increasingly recognized as immunogenic carriers, we constructed bacteriophage particles displaying multiple copies of each selected mimotope on major phage coat protein. These constructed phages elicited T cell-mediated immune response, which was predominated by the type 1 T cell response. Mimotopes alone contributed to the type 1 T cell response by promoting IL-2 production. Fel d 1 mimotopes, as well as their filamentous phage immunogenic carriers, represent promising candidates in the development of hypoallergenic vaccine against cat allergy. PMID:26908079

  1. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-07-01

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  2. Carrier localization effect in polarized InGaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A.; Kazlauskas, K.; Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Jursenas, S.; Kurilcik, G.; Miasojedovas, S. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Build. III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Springis, M.; Tale, I. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, Riga 1063 (Latvia); Cheng, Yung-Chen; Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Huang, Chi-Feng; Yang, C.C. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-05-01

    Carrier localization effects in polarized InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were investigated as a function of well width, d, and In content, x. Using photoreflectance (PR), photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), selective excitation of PL, PL excitation power, and time-resolved PL spectroscopy, the dominance of the localization effect against the built-in field effect on carrier recombination dynamics in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N MQWs of different well width (d = 2.0-4.0 nm, x {approx} 0.15) and In content (x {approx} 0.22-0.27, d = 2.5 nm) was revealed. Based on the modeling of the PL spectra by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping and the spectroscopic reference provided by PR, increased In content and well width were found to increase the band potential fluctuations and carrier localization depth. The density of localized states deduced from the simulation was found to be in a fair agreement with the PLE data. The built-in field strength in InGaN QWs containing 15% of In was estimated to be of 0.5 MV/cm. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers. PMID:26675218

  4. BER Performance of IEEE 802.11ad for Single Carrier and Multi Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario 802.11n is one of the fastest standards which is widely popular. It provides a theoretical maximum of 450 megabits per second (Mbps, with a typical throughput of 100Mbps. As we know, there is high demand for higher speed due to an increasing of high definition (HD video on smart phone usage and home entertainment. As 802.11n is not able to provide the required speed needed for these uses, thus there is need for technologies which can meet therequirement. IEEE 802.11ad is one of such standards which meet the requirement needed for the above. IEEE 802.11ad standard operates at 60 GHz frequency, promise to deliver from 1 to 7 Gbps. 60 GHz band is one of the largest unlicensed bandwidth with availability of at least 5 GHz of continuous bandwidth worldwide. In this paper we have tested the IEEE 802.11ad system model Bits Error Rate (BER for different modulation technique under several coding scheme for both Single Carrier and Multi Carriers. In this model the modulation technique mainly used are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and the coding scheme used is Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code with different code rate.

  5. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. A porphyrin-based metal-organic framework as a pH-responsive drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxin; Hu, Quan; Jiang, Ke; Yang, Yanyu; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    A low cytotoxic porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-221, which exhibited high PC12 cell viability via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, was selected as an oral drug carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) was chosen as the model drug molecule which was absorbed into inner pores and channels of MOFs by diffusion. PCN-221 showed high drug loading and sustained release behavior under physiological environment without "burst effect". The controlled pH-responsive release of drugs by PCN-221 revealed its promising application in oral drug delivery.

  7. Selección de Genotipos Chilenos de Trigo Portadores del Alelo Glutenina HMW Glu-D1 x5 Mediante Reacción en Cadena de la ADN Polimerasa Selection of Chilean Wheat Genotypes Carriers of the HMW Glutenin Allele Glu-D1 x5 through Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zúñiga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La calidad panadera es un importante elemento para el desarrollo de nuevas variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y se asocia principalmente con un conjunto de proteínas conocidas como gluteninas de elevado peso molecular (HMW, aún cuando existen otras proteínas relacionadas con la calidad panadera. Los procesos actuales de selección de genotipos con calidad panadera se basan en el contenido de gluten de la masa o la identificación de alelos codificadores de gluteninas HMW mediante electroforesis. Se reporta un método basado en la identificación, mediante la reacción en cadena de la ADN polimerasa (PCR, del alelo codificador de la glutenina HMWx5, la cual se asocia con calidad panadera. Mediante el uso de partidores apropiados se amplificó de forma específica un fragmento del promotor de este gen y parte de su extremo 5’. En aquellos genotipos portadores del gen HMWx5 se amplificó un fragmento de aproximadamente 450 pares de bases (pb el cual es consistente con el tamaño esperado a partir de su secuencia depositada en la base de datos Genbank. Su alelo HMWx2 no amplificó producto PCR alguno. El sistema fue validado en un grupo de genotipos de trigos de diverso origen y permitió la rápida e inequívoca identificación de genotipos portadores del alelo HMWx5. El desarrollo del sistema y otros análogos permitirá el desarrollo de sistemas de mejoramiento genético de trigo más efectivos y focalizados.Baking quality is a key factor in the development of improved wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and it is associated with a specific protein fraction known as High Molecular Weight (HMW glutenins, although there are other proteins involved in baking quality. Current selection of wheat germplasm with improved baking quality is based on gluten and dough analyses, or the identification of HMW glutenin alleles using electrophoretic procedures. This report presents the deployment of an allele-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR

  8. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies. PMID:27334385

  9. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, A.; Florian, M.; Rösner, M.; Lorke, M.; Wehling, T. O.; Gies, C.; Jahnke, F.

    2016-09-01

    When exploring new materials for their potential in (opto)electronic device applications, it is important to understand the role of various carrier interaction and scattering processes. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, the Coulomb interaction is known to be much stronger than in quantum wells of conventional semiconductors like GaAs, as witnessed by the 50 times larger exciton binding energy. The question arises, whether this directly translates into equivalently faster carrier–carrier Coulomb scattering of excited carriers. Here we show that a combination of ab initio band-structure and many-body theory predicts Coulomb-mediated carrier relaxation on a sub-100 fs time scale for a wide range of excitation densities, which is less than an order of magnitude faster than in quantum wells.

  10. Allothermal gasification of biomass into chemicals and secondary energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Motivation for polygeneration; Allothermal gasification: the MILENA at ECN; Primary gas cleaning: the OLGA for tar removal; Possible secondary energy carriers; Possible chemicals; Polygeneration concept and its feasibility.

  11. Next-generation carrier screening: are we ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W Prior

    2014-01-01

    Editorial summary Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodology allows for a major expansion in current carrier screening tests. NGS testing has been shown to be analytically accurate and cost-effective, but major challenges include educational and counseling issues.

  12. Synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalkylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of syntheses of heat carrier oils based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) using suitable additives have been reported. Polyalkylene glycols have been prepared by heating diethylene glycol, propylene oxide, glycols, adipic acid and 2-ethyhexanol in the presence of KOH and stannyl octoate as catalyst in the molar ratio to give proper physical properties and viscosity-temperature index. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, as well as other specifications, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporization at 250 oC, 350 oC and changing the specifications after heating at 300 oC for 10 h have also been investigated. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers

  13. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  14. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  15. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous. PMID:26809017

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Variants in Long-Term Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wei, Hsiao-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Wang, Shu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Long-term typhoid carriers can simultaneously excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants with considerable genetic differences, a situation that complicates the interpretation of the subtyping data used in outbreak investigations and disease surveillance.

  17. Plasmonic Hot Carrier Transport and Collection in Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William; Atwater, Harry; Joint CenterArtificial Photosynthesis Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic resonances provide a promising pathway for efficiently capturing photons from solar radiation and improving photo-catalytic activity via hot carrier generation. Previous calculations have provided the prompt energy-momentum distributions of hot carriers, but have left open the question of their transport to collection surfaces [Accepted in Nature Communications]. As the overall efficiency of plasmonic devices is dependent not just on how many carriers are collected but also on their energy distribution, a transport model which tracks this distribution is of key importance. Here, we provide a first-principles model of this transport based upon at the linearized Boltzmann equation with the diffusive and ballistic regimes handled separately, and investigate the role of geometry on plasmonic hot carrier collection.

  18. An Estimation Method for number of carrier frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that utilizes AR model power spectrum estimation based on Burg algorithm to estimate the number of carrier frequency in single pulse. In the modern electronic and information warfare, the pulse signal form of radar is complex and changeable, among which single pulse with multi-carrier frequencies is the most typical one, such as the frequency shift keying (FSK signal, the frequency shift keying with linear frequency (FSK-LFM hybrid modulation signal and the frequency shift keying with bi-phase shift keying (FSK-BPSK hybrid modulation signal. In view of this kind of single pulse which has multi-carrier frequencies, this paper adopts a method which transforms the complex signal into AR model, then takes power spectrum based on Burg algorithm to show the effect. Experimental results show that the estimation method still can determine the number of carrier frequencies accurately even when the signal noise ratio (SNR is very low.

  19. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dominic G; Bell, John C

    2013-01-01

    The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms. PMID:27512657

  20. Carrier screening in preconception consultation in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2012-07-01

    Discussing carrier screening during preconception consultation in primary care has a number of advantages in terms of promoting autonomy and enabling the greatest range of reproductive choices. For those with a family history of an inherited condition, this ought to be a routine discussion; however, this can be expanded to include the wider population, especially for those conditions for which carrier frequencies are considered relatively common. There is published literature from around the world regarding experiences with carrier screening in primary care for cystic fibrosis, haemoglobinopathies, fragile X syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease and spinal muscular atrophy, although many of these have tended to focus on consultations during rather than before pregnancy. Overall, these studies reveal that population carrier screening is well received by the participants with apparent minimal psychosocial harms; however, challenges exist in terms of approaches to ensure couples receive adequate information to make personally relevant decisions and for ongoing health professional engagement. PMID:22183783

  1. Consideration of the gestational carrier: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Gestational carriers have a right to be fully informed of the risks of the surrogacy process and of pregnancy, should receive psychological evaluation and counseling, and should have independent legal counsel. PMID:23541404

  2. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-12-12

    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  3. Study on Papain Immobilization on a Macroporous Polymer Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Liang; YAO, Zihua; Li, Tong

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous resin microbeads of methyl methacrylate-divinyl benzene copolymer were synthesized by radical suspension polymerization of acrolein with divinylbenzene in the presence of a pore-creating agent, petroleum ether. The microbeads had a large specific surface area and large pores covered the entire surface of the resin. This macroporous polymer carrier was aminated by hydrazine hydrate that produced a large number of amino groups on the carrier. Papain was immobilized on the ...

  4. The plant mitochondrial carrier family: functional and evolutionary aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka eHaferkamp; Stephan eSchmitz-Esser

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in respiration and energy production and are involved in multiple eukaryotic but also in several plant specific metabolic pathways. Solute carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane connect the internal metabolism with that of the surrounding cell. Because of their common basic structure, these transport proteins affiliate to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). Generally, MCF proteins consist of six membrane-spanning helices, exhibit typical conserved domain...

  5. Decision feedback loop for tracking a polyphase modulated carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A multiple phase modulated carrier tracking loop for use in a frequency shift keying system is described in which carrier tracking efficiency is improved by making use of the decision signals made on the data phase transmitted in each T-second interval. The decision signal is used to produce a pair of decision-feedback quadrature signals for enhancing the loop's performance in developing a loop phase error signal.

  6. Subtle changes among presymptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwood, S.; Siemers, E; Hodes, M.; Conneally, P; Christian, J.; Foroud, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the neurological and psychometric characteristics of presymptomatic gene carriers and non-gene carriers who are at risk for developing Huntington's disease so as to characterise early signs of disease and to identify markers of neurological function that could be used to assess the impact of experimental therapies on the progression of disease, even among those who are clinically presymptomatic.
METHODS—A sample of people at risk for Huntington's dis...

  7. Carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    -penetrating peptides (CPPs). Two approaches for the carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals are generally explored: Co-administration1 or covalent conjugation2. Co-administration is often the method of choice due to e.g. ease in sample preparation and flexibility in adjustment of the......-34)) and the widely studied CPP penetratin were employed as therapeutic cargo and carrier peptide, respectively....

  8. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jwo-Huei Jou; Sudhir Kumar; Meenu Singh; Yi-Hong Chen; Chung-Chia Chen; Meng-Ting Lee

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML), also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among oth...

  9. Effects of copper on the carrier dynamics in black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced.......Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced....

  10. Hot-carrier reliability in OPTVLD-LDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Junji; Chen Xingbi

    2012-01-01

    An improved structure that eliminates hot-carrier effects (HCE) in optimum variation lateral doping (OPTVLD) LDMOS is proposed.A formula is proposed showing that the surface electric field intensity of the conventional structure is strong enough to make a hot-carrier injected into oxide.However,the proposed structure effectively reduces the maximum surface electric field from 268 to 100 kV/cm and can be realized without changing any process,and thereby reduces HCE significantly.

  11. Adaptive GNSS Carrier Tracking under Ionospheric Scintillation: Estimation vs Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà-Valls, Jordi; Closas, Pau; Fernández-Prades, Carles; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This letter deals with carrier synchronization in Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The main goals are to design robust methods and to obtain accurate phase estimates under ionospheric scintillation conditions, being of paramount importance in safety critical applications and advanced receivers. Within this framework, the estimation versus mitigation paradigm is discussed together with a new adaptive Kalman filter-based carrier phase synchronization architecture that copes with signals cor...

  12. Mucosal genetic immunization through microsphere–based oral carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Rozita; Nograles, Nadine; Hanafi, Aimi; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Abdullah, Syahril

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric carriers in the form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and alginate (ALG) microspheres were used for encapsulation of plasmid DNA for oral mucosal immunization. Access into the intestinal mucosa by pVAX1 eukaryotic expression plasmid vectors carrying gene-coding sequences, either for the cholera enterotoxin B subunit (ctxB) immunostimulatory antigen or the green fluorescent protein (GFP), delivered from both types of microsphere carriers were examined in orally immunized BALB/c m...

  13. Hybrid heuristic for multi-carrier transportation plans

    OpenAIRE

    Landa-Silva, Dario; Wang, Yijun; Donovan, Paul; Kendall, Graham

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid heuristic approach to construct transportation plans for a singlecustomer multi-carrier scenario that arises at 3T Logistics Ltd, a UK company that provides outsourced transportation planning and management services. The problem consists on planning the delivery, using a set of carrier companies, of a set of shipments from a warehouse to different consignees across the UK. The problem tackled resembles a vehicle routing problem with time windows but there are sev...

  14. A Carrier Estimation Method for MF-TDMA Signal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the need of MF-TDMA signal monitoring, this paper investigates the estimation method for frequency offset and carrier phase. The procedure for timing recovery is introduced, and then an effective algorithm is deduced for estimating carrier frequency and phase. The proposed open-loop algorithm demands no preambles and has a wide capture range. In addition, the overall block diagram of a monitoring receiver, which we designed with the proposed estimation algorithm, is presented.

  15. Carrier screening in preconception consultation in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2011-01-01

    Discussing carrier screening during preconception consultation in primary care has a number of advantages in terms of promoting autonomy and enabling the greatest range of reproductive choices. For those with a family history of an inherited condition, this ought to be a routine discussion; however, this can be expanded to include the wider population, especially for those conditions for which carrier frequencies are considered relatively common. There is published literature from around the ...

  16. Flight control system design for autonomous UAV carrier landing

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Pio

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of integrating the UAV fleet into the carrier landing operational structure with respect to navigation and control strategies is addressed. A simulation model was developed which includes an aircraft model, an atmosphere model and an aircraft carrier motion model. The six degree of freedom non-linear aircraft model is based on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Mk 4a Jindivik extended to include rudder, spoiler and thrust vectoring controls, and an undercarria...

  17. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  18. The mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier: function, structure and physiopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Cesare; Iacobazzi, Vito; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Giangregorio, Nicola; Infantino, Vittoria; Convertini, Paolo; Console, Lara; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2011-08-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) is a transport protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that belongs to the mitochondrial carrier protein family. In its cytosolic conformation the carrier consists of a bundle of six transmembrane α-helices, which delimit a water filled cavity opened towards the cytosol and closed towards the matrix by a network of interacting charged residues. Most of the functional data on this transporter come from studies performed with the protein purified from rat liver mitochondria or recombinant proteins from different sources incorporated into phospholipid vesicles (liposomes). The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier transports carnitine and acylcarnitines with acyl chains of various lengths from 2 to 18 carbon atoms. The mammalian transporter exhibits higher affinity for acylcarnitines with longer carbon chains. The functional data indicate that CAC plays the important function of catalyzing transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondria in exchange for intramitochondrial free carnitine. This results in net transport of fatty acyl units into the mitochondrial matrix where they are oxidized by the β-oxidation enzymes. The essential role of the transporter in cell metabolism is demonstrated by the fact that alterations of the human gene SLC25A20 coding for CAC are associated with a severe disease known as carnitine carrier deficiency. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by life-threatening episodes of coma induced by fasting, cardiomyopathy, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness, respiratory distress and seizures. Until now 35 different mutations of CAC gene have been identified in carnitine carrier deficient patients. Some missense mutations concern residues of the signature motif present in all mitochondrial carriers. Diagnosis of carnitine carrier deficiency requires biochemical and genetic tests; treatment is essentially limited to important dietetic measures. Recently, a pharmacological approach based on the

  19. HOT CARRIER SENSITIVITY OF MOSFET's EXPOSED TO SYNCHROTRON-LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, G.; Mahnkopf, R.; Wagemann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron-light irradiation for p- and n-channel MOSFET's on their sensitivity to hot carrier degradation was investigated. The radiation induces additional interface states and a positive oxide charge. Annealing at 450°C reduces the interface state density to its initial value but not the oxide charge. A hot carrier stress can compensate this remaining charge by trapping electrons. This effect produces an enhanced shift of the threshold voltage compared to non-irradiated d...

  20. Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: a 21-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McCann, C L; Hedrick, J; Fairley, C; Nagel, H L; Kushner, J D; Kessel, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a community-based carrier screening program for Tay-Sachs disease, initiated on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus in 1978. The Madison Community Tay-Sachs Screening Program (MCTSSP) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary program that organizes and conducts periodic screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) for the purpose of identifying Tay-Sachs carriers. We present and analyze data on carrier detection with regard to various demographics, including family history of TSD, ancestry, gender, medication exposure, and illness. Individuals participating in the MCTSSP between 1978 and 1999 were primarily of the target population, and the carrier rate was within the expected range (1/25). Despite aggressive publicity efforts and a well-established program, attendance at the screens has declined. A recent survey of Jewish undergraduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison showed poor recall of family screen history and carrier status and reinforced the perception that utilization of the Madison screening program has been low. Ways to increase awareness of and interest in carrier screening for TSD are explored. PMID:11142756

  1. Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, M; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Balducci, E; Micoli, F; Balocchi, C; Santini, L; Masignani, V; Berti, F; Costantino, P

    2016-07-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides. PMID:27317455

  2. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendler Florian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an external magnetic field, the energy of massless charge carriers in graphene is quantized into non-equidistant degenerate Landau levels including a zero-energy level. This extraordinary electronic dispersion gives rise to a fundamentally new dynamics of optically excited carriers. Here, we review the state of the art of the relaxation dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene focusing on microscopic insights into possible many-particle relaxation channels.We investigate optical excitation into a non equilibrium distribution followed by ultrafast carrier- carrier and carrier-phonon scattering processes. We reveal that surprisingly the Auger scattering dominates the relaxation dynamics in spite of the non-equidistant Landau quantization in graphene. Furthermore, we demonstrate how technologically relevant carrier multiplication can be achieved and discuss the possibility of optical gain in Landau-quantized graphene. The provided microscopic view on elementary many-particle processes can guide future experimental studies aiming at the design of novel graphene-based optoelectronic devices, such as highly efficient photodetectors, solar cells, and spectrally broad Landau level lasers.

  3. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of 137Cs makes about 3·10-10 g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of 137Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs

  4. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  5. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added in...... order to obtain a unique selection...

  6. Multi-carrier Communications over Time-varying Acoustic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aval, Yashar M.

    Acoustic communication is an enabling technology for many autonomous undersea systems, such as those used for ocean monitoring, offshore oil and gas industry, aquaculture, or port security. There are three main challenges in achieving reliable high-rate underwater communication: the bandwidth of acoustic channels is extremely limited, the propagation delays are long, and the Doppler distortions are more pronounced than those found in wireless radio channels. In this dissertation we focus on assessing the fundamental limitations of acoustic communication, and designing efficient signal processing methods that cam overcome these limitations. We address the fundamental question of acoustic channel capacity (achievable rate) for single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acoustic channels using a per-path Rician fading model, and focusing on two scenarios: narrowband channels where the channel statistics can be approximated as frequency- independent, and wideband channels where the nominal path loss is frequency-dependent. In each scenario, we compare several candidate power allocation techniques, and show that assigning uniform power across all frequencies for the first scenario, and assigning uniform power across a selected frequency-band for the second scenario, are the best practical choices in most cases, because the long propagation delay renders the feedback information outdated for power allocation based on the estimated channel response. We quantify our results using the channel information extracted form the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE'10). Next, we focus on achieving reliable high-rate communication over underwater acoustic channels. Specifically, we investigate orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the state-of-the-art technique for dealing with frequency-selective multipath channels, and propose a class of methods that compensate for the time-variation of the underwater acoustic channel. These methods are based on multiple

  7. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  8. Care for MRSA carriers in the outpatient sector: a survey among MRSA carriers and physicians in two regions in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Rübsamen, Nicole; Szkopek, Sebastian; Schmalz, Oliver; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Castell, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers in the German outpatient sector and about the impact of MRSA on their daily life. Reimbursement for MRSA related costs in the German outpatient sector is available since 2012, but its impact has not been studied yet. The aim of the study was to analyze the outpatient management of MRSA carriers from both, physicians’ and MRSA carriers’ perspective. Methods Paper-based questionnaires ...

  9. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Infection and Asymptomatic Carriers in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayemi O Ayepola; Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Egwari, Louis O; Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Few reports from Africa suggest that resistance pattern, virulence factors and genotypes differ between Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection. We therefore compared antimicrobial resistance, selected virulence factors and genotypes of S. aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection in Southwest Nigeria. Non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were obtained from infection (n = 217) and asymptomatic carriers (n = 73) during a cross sectional study in Lagos and Ogun Stat...

  10. EVALUATION OF SORPTIVE PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CARRIERS AND COATING MATERIALS FOR LIQUISOLID SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle of liquisolid systems formulation lies in the conversion of the drug in a liquid state into an apparently dry, free-flowing and readily compressible powder by its blending (or spraying) with specific carriers and coating materials. The selection of the most suitable carrier and coating material depends especially on their values of flowable liquid retention potential (Φ), which is defined as the maximum mass of liquid that can be retained per unit mass of powder material, while maintaining an acceptable flowability. The presented work focused on the determination of the maximum amount of propylene glycol (PG), which can be retained by several selected carriers and coating materials while maintaining acceptable flow properties of the liquisolid powder blend. Granulated forms of magnesium aluminometasilicates (Neusilin® US2 and Neusilin® NS2N), dibasic calcium phosphate (Fujicalin®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101) were tested due to their frequent use. Powdered forms of magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® UFL2) and colloidal silica (Aerosil® 200) were used as common coating materials. From the evaluation of liquisolid mixtures with different amounts of liquid, it could be observed that 1 g of Neusilin® US2, Neusilin® UFL2, Neusilin® NS2N, Aerosil® 200, Fujicalin® and Avicel® PH 101 can retain 1.00, 0.97, 0.54, 0.04, 0.25 and 0.12 g of propylene glycol, respectively, while maintaining acceptable flowing properties for further processing. PMID:26642662

  11. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2012-08-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic-organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  12. Incorporating medical interventions into carrier probability estimation for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katki Hormuzd A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mendelian models for predicting who may carry an inherited deleterious mutation of known disease genes based on family history are used in a variety of clinical and research activities. People presenting for genetic counseling are increasingly reporting risk-reducing medical interventions in their family histories because, recently, a slew of prophylactic interventions have become available for certain diseases. For example, oophorectomy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and is now increasingly being offered to women with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer. Mendelian models should account for medical interventions because interventions modify mutation penetrances and thus affect the carrier probability estimate. Methods We extend Mendelian models to account for medical interventions by accounting for post-intervention disease history through an extra factor that can be estimated from published studies of the effects of interventions. We apply our methods to incorporate oophorectomy into the BRCAPRO model, which predicts a woman's risk of carrying mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on her family history of breast and ovarian cancer. This new BRCAPRO is available for clinical use. Results We show that accounting for interventions undergone by family members can seriously affect the mutation carrier probability estimate, especially if the family member has lived many years post-intervention. We show that interventions have more impact on the carrier probability as the benefits of intervention differ more between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusion These findings imply that carrier probability estimates that do not account for medical interventions may be seriously misleading and could affect a clinician's recommendation about offering genetic testing. The BayesMendel software, which allows one to implement any Mendelian carrier probability model, has been extended to allow medical interventions, so future

  13. LITERATURE SEARCH FOR METHODS FOR HAZARD ANALYSES OF AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ - GURIDI,G.; SAMANTA,P.

    2002-07-01

    . Chapter 2 briefly describes ACOSM, and its structure, using the format of the Integrated Definition Function Model (IDEFO). A reader who is familiar with ACOSM may want to skip this chapter and continue with Chapter 3 that discusses the process we used for identifying applicable approaches for hazard analysis of air-carrier operations as modeled in ACOSM. It consisted of the following three main steps: (1) Search the literature containing articles related to hazard- or risk-analysis with potential applicability to air-carrier operations, (2) Review the selected publications and identify those with possible relevance to ACOSM, and (3) Group the selected publications or methods according to certain characteristics, such as their pertinence to specific areas of ACOSM. Chapter 4 discusses the applicability of the identified approaches to ACOSM, the areas of methods development, and comments related to methods development for ACOSM. The following areas were defined to identify the methods that may be applicable for ACOSM: (1) Identification of hazards associated with operations and activities; (2) Hazard-assessment techniques; (3) Modeling dependencies and interrelations leading to vulnerabilities; (4) Risk-management tools; (5) Data-assessment techniques; and (6) Risk-indicator identification. In addition, issues of human reliability and operational culture are relevant for all the above areas. They are expected to be addressed within each of them. We do not include in this report all the lists of publications that we obtained because they are voluminous. We keep them in our records which are available to the interested reader.

  14. Synthesis gas production using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier over circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; HAO Zhengping

    2008-01-01

    A novel process for synthesis gas production over Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier was reported. First, oxygen in the air was chemically fixed and converted to lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over regenerator, and then methane was selectively oxidized to synthesis gas with lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over riser reactor. The results from simulation reaction of CFB by sequential redox reaction on a fixed bed reactor using lanthanum-based perovskite LaFeO3 and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 oxides prepared by sol-gel, suggested that the depleted oxygen species could be regenerated, and methane could be oxidized to synthesis gas by lattice oxygen with high selectivity. The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over CFB using lattice oxygen of the oxygen storage materials instead of gaseous oxygen should be possibly applicable.

  15. Evaluation of risk by point method for selected carrier in mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elimination of the risks endangering the health and life of the employees should be the main task of every employer. A necessary step for handling this task is identification of all dangerous steps referring to particular activities of companies and specification of sources of risks engaged to every identified danger including recent as well as planned safety actions according to Work Code and low No. 126/2006 Z. z. of National Council of the Slovak Republic about safety and protection of health at work. Therefore employers have to accept efficient actions in order to decrease the occurrence of risks to the lowest possible level.. An outline for identification of dangers and risks as well as an evaluation of methods for risk management of work-people professions is proposed in this contribution. (authors)

  16. Influence of carrier volume and nozzle selection on Palmer amaranth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.) is largely viewed as one of the most troublesome weeds in the southeast. Effective control is essential in order to avoid reductions of crop yield. Due to wide-spread resistance to the ALS chemistry, postemergence contact herbicides are often the only i...

  17. Predicted photoreflectance signatures on QD selective contacts for hot carrier solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cánovas Díaz, Enrique; Martí Vega, Antonio; García-Linares Fontes, Pablo; Antolín Fernández, Elisa; Fuertes Marrón, David; Tablero Crespo, César; Luque López, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The CO2 emission of our present energy transformation processes, based mainly on burning fossil fuels, is possibly the main cause of global climatic change. The photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is a clean way of producing which for sustainability should (and most probably will) become a major source of electricity. The sun is a huge resource but relatively diluted and it is reasonable to expect that only high efficiency extraction can be cost effective for mass exploitation. New concep...

  18. 49 CFR 1310.5 - Availability of tariffs at carrier offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. 1310.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.5 Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. (a) Each...

  19. 78 FR 5168 - BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...), calling at U.S. ports. (e) Foreign Carriers means those carriers whose residence is outside the United... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC004 BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the... public that it is conducting the mandatory survey titled Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Revenues...

  20. 49 CFR Schedule A to Subpart B of... - Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data A... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. A Schedule A to Subpart B of Part 1139—Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data Line No. and carrier annual report No. (a) Carrier...

  1. 78 FR 24463 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. TIME AND DATE: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  2. 76 FR 16471 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  3. 77 FR 52116 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. TIME AND DATE: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  4. 75 FR 65551 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... Status: Open to the public. Matters To Be Considered: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  5. 76 FR 69793 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  6. 77 FR 45715 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  7. 77 FR 62601 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. Time and Date: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  8. 77 FR 70529 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. Time and Date: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  9. 77 FR 3326 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  10. 76 FR 55161 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  11. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  12. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  13. Bidding Strategies for Carrier in Combinatorial Transportation Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittawat Ueasangkomsate

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In combinatorial auction for truckload transportation service procurement, we introduce thebidding strategy for carrier facing the hard valuation problem to all possible routes. The modeluses a bid-to-cost ratio of carriers surveyed in Thailand to represent the bidding behavior incombinatorial freight procurement. This model facilitates carrier to value the bid price forinterested packages that involve with pattern of transportation service under different competitiveenvironment. The results of analysis with hypotheses in regression model reveal significantly thata pattern of transportation service, a number of competitors, and a pre-empty backhaul to newlane distance ratio with number of competitors do impact negatively on a bid-to-cost ratio ofcarrier, whereas a pre-empty backhaul to new lane distance ratio does impact positively on a bidto-cost ratio of carrier in combinatorial transportation auction. To find optimal bid price forinterested packages in the incomplete information game, the empirical study in stochasticoptimization problem with Monte Carlo method can provide the best solution for carrier in order toacquire the maximum expected profit in the auction. The results present that the expected profitwith optimal solution of bidder is more than the average benefit in the competition marketobviously. While in turn the results also show that shipper could potentially reduce the cost oftransportation service procurement regarding our solution algorithm considerably.

  14. Non-equilibrium hot carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Prineha; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Jermyn, Adam; Cortes, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A.; Goddard, William A., III

    Decay of surface plasmons to hot carriers is a new direction that has attracted considerable fundamental and application interest, yet a fundamental understanding of ultrafast plasmon decay processes and the underlying microscopic mechanisms remain incomplete. Ultrafast experiments provide insights into the relaxation of non-equilibrium carriers at the tens and hundreds of femtoseconds time scales, but do not yet directly probe shorter times with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we report the first ab initio calculations of non equilibrium transport of plasmonic hot carriers in metals and experimental observation of the injection of these carriers into molecules tethered to the metal surface. Specifically, metallic nanoantennas functionalized with a molecular monolayer allow for the direct probing of electron injection via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the original and reduced molecular species. We combine first principles calculations of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates with Boltzmann transport simulations to predict the ultrafast dynamics and transport of carriers in real materials. We also predict and compare the evolution of electron distributions in ultrafast experiments on noble metal nanoparticles.

  15. RESEALED ERYTHROCYTES AS A POTENTIAL DRUG CARRIER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Gill

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery system has been introduced to overwhelm the drawback of fluctuating drug levels associated with conventional dosage forms. Out of various cellular carrier systems, erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC have been the most widely investigated and found to possess great potential for the delivery of drugs and drug-loaded microspheres. These cellular carriers, having remarkable biocompatibility, biodegradability, and life-span in circulation, can be loaded by a wide spectrum of compounds of therapeutic value using different chemically, as well as physically, based methods. Most of the characteristics of the erythrocytes, including shape, membrane fragility, deformability, and hematologic indices undergo some degree of irreversible changes during the loading procedure. Carrier erythrocytes are prepared simply by collecting blood sample from the organism of interest, separating erythrocytes from plasma, then by using various physical and chemical methods the cells are broken. The drug is entrapped into the erythrocytes and finally resealing the resultant cellular carriers. Hence these carriers are suitably known as Resealed erythrocytes. Surface modification with glutaraldehyde, antibodies, carbohydrates like sialic acid and biotinylation of loaded erythrocytes (biotinylated erythrocytes is possible to achieve various levels of targeting and increased circulation half-life. Upon reinjection the drug loaded erythrocytes serve as slow circulation depots, targets the drug to the reticuloendothelial system (RES, prevents degradation of loaded drug by endogenous chemicals, attain steady state concentration of drug and decrease the toxic-effects of loaded drug.

  16. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy DG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominic G Roy,1,2 John C Bell1–31Centre for Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Biochemistry, Immunology and Microbiology, 3Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms.Keywords: oncolytic virus, cell carrier, systemic delivery, tumor targeting, cancer

  17. Speciation analysis of 129I in seawater by carrier-free AgI-AgCl coprecipitation and accelerator mass spectrometric measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; He, Chaohui;

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed for speciation analysis of 129I in seawater by selective coprecipitation of carrier-free iodide and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of 129I. Iodide was separated from seawater and other species of iodine by coprecipitation of AgI with Ag2SO3...

  18. Profiling the local carrier concentration across a semiconductor quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walrath, J. C.; Lin, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Huang, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Goldman, R. S., E-mail: rsgold@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We profile the local carrier concentration, n, across epitaxial InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) consisting of 3D islands on top of a 2D alloy layer. We use scanning thermoelectric microscopy to measure a profile of the temperature gradient-induced voltage, which is converted to a profile of the local Seebeck coefficient, S. The S profile is then converted to a conduction band-edge profile and compared with Poisson-Schrodinger band-edge simulations. Our combined computational-experimental approach suggests a reduced carrier concentration in the QD center in comparison to that of the 2D alloy layer. The relative roles of free carrier trapping and/or dopant expulsion are discussed.

  19. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  20. Hydrogen monitoring in sodium loops using the carrier gas technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis for hydrogen in liquid sodium is made by combination of membranes permeable to hydrogen and appropriate methods of hydrogen detection. Membranes are usually made of nickel. Hydrogen has been determined with a solid electrolyte cell consisting of a galvanic cell with zirconium oxide ceramic as the electrolyte and of an electrolytic oxygen dosage device with the same electrolyte. The oxygen stream has been controlled with the aid of the signal of the galvanic cell. Thus, a continuous coulometric control of hydrogen in the carrier gas stream has been achieved. A significant interfering factor in applying the carrier gas technique is the possible coverage of the nickel surface of the diffusion cell with oxide. High purity of the carrier gas is necessary for eliminating this effect, especially in the case of low hydrogen content of sodium. (author)

  1. Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Froehlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E'(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1'(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. CARRIER SYNCHRONIZATION IN SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO FOR 8PSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.MUTHAIAH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim behind the growth of software defined radio is the skill to reconfigure radios, thereby increasing the efficiency in the usage of radio resources. In wireless communication the multipath effectproduce interference and also changes in the phase of the signal. In order to correctly recover the transmitted data with minimum error, carrier synchronization is essential. One of the challenging tasks in a communication system is synchronization of the carrier signal. In this paper 8PSK modulation scheme is used for data transmission. Since 8PSK achieves high data rate, the probability of actual signal recovery is quite difficult. Here the carrier recovery for 8PSK modulation has been performed.

  3. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  4. Carrier for registration of optical images and holographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the field of registration of optical information including the holographic one and may be used in the holography, cinematography, micro- and optical electronics, computer engineering. Summary of the invention consists in, that in the carrier containing a dielectric substrate on which there are placed in sequence the first electrode, photoinjection substrate, registration substrate of the chalcogenide vitreous semiconductor and the second electrode, the photoinjection substrate is fabricated of the monocrystalline germanium of the n-type conductivity and the relation of the registration substrate conductivity, during illumination to the photoinjection substrate conductivity in darkness is 0,001. The technical result consists in increasing the carrier photosensibility and in diffraction effectiveness of the information registered on the carrier

  5. Tuning carrier density at complex oxide interface with metallic overlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Jiang, S. W.; Yue, F. J.; Wang, P.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2016-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the electronic transport properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces with several different metal capping layers. The sheet carrier density can be tuned in a wide range by the metallic overlayer without changing the carrier mobility. The sheet carrier density variation is found to be linearly dependent on the size of metal work function. This behavior is explained by the mechanism of the charge transfer between the oxide interface and the metal overlayer across the LaAlO3 layer. Our results confirm the existence of a built-in electric field in LaAlO3 film with an estimated value of 67.7 eV/Å. Since the metallic overlayer is essential for devices, the present phenomena must be considered for future applications.

  6. LNG Carrier Market: The Next Main Battleground For Shipbuilding Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guang

    2012-01-01

    Last year, 51 LNG carriers were delivered in the world. From January to February this year, more than 10 LNG carriers have been deliveredglobally. Some shipowners are planning to expand LNG carrier fleet, which is a stark contrast to the look of the three main ship types which is embarrassing. As the recognized clean fuel, natural gas plays an important role in carbon politics and low carbon economy. At present, LNG powered vessel is growing vigorously. LNG fueled vessels have also emerged in Europe. Now, discussion about natural gas application on inland water transport is gradually warming up. Although there are still many technical problems to be solved about LNG powered vessel, the trend is irreversible.

  7. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-04-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level.

  8. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  9. "I'm Healthy, It's Not Going To Be Me": Exploring experiences of carriers identified through a population reproductive genetic carrier screening panel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Catherine A; Amor, David J; Di Pietro, Louisa; Archibald, Alison D

    2016-08-01

    Advancing genetic testing technologies mean that population-based carrier screening for multiple inherited conditions is now available. As the number of genetic conditions being screened increases, there is a need for research into how people experience these screening programs. This research aimed to explore how women experience simultaneous carrier screening for three inherited conditions: cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). A qualitative approach was adopted using in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten female participants: five SMA carriers, three CF carriers, and two FXS premutation carriers. Eight participants were pregnant when offered screening by their general practitioner or obstetrician and the decision to have screening was described as straightforward. Participants reported experiencing emotional responses such as anxiety and stress while waiting for either their partner's carrier screen result (CF or SMA carriers) or the pregnancy's CVS result (FXS carrier) and sought additional information about the relevant condition during this time. Most participants were in favor of population carrier screening for these conditions, preferably prior to conception. Genetic counselors played an essential role in supporting couples after they received a carrier result given the variable consent processes undertaken when screening was offered. Further research should focus on the development of reliable online information tailored to people receiving carrier results and strategies for raising awareness of the availability of population carrier screening within the community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150953

  10. Evaluation of restoration mechanisms for future services using Carrier Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert; Gestsson, H.M.; Yu, Hao; Rasmussen, Anders; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and classify future service according to their requirements for delay, loss and bandwidth. The most demanding services include IPTV in different forms, hence IPTV is used as a representative for future services. Carrier Ethernet technologies are introduced with special...... focus on its OAM functionalities, and it is evaluated how IPTV performs in case of link failures on a Carrier Ethernet implementation. It is concluded that OAM update times of 10 ms is required to provide acceptable restoration performance in case of errors....

  11. Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Kim; Raines, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    S-peptide (residues 1-20) and S-protein (residues 21-124) are the enzymatically inactive products of the limited digestion of ribonuclease A by subtilisin. S-peptide binds S-protein with high affinity to form ribonuclease S, which has full enzymatic activity. Recombinant DNA technology was used to produce a fusion protein having three parts: carrier, spacer, and target. The two carriers used were the first 15 residues of S-peptide (S15) and a mutant S15 in which Asp 14 had been changed to Asn...

  12. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  13. Carrier Density and Plasma Frequency of Aluminum Nanofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao DU; Jun GONG; Chao SUN; Rongfang HUANG; Lishi WEN; W.Y.Cheung; S.P.Wong

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the prerequisite and mode of electromagnetic response of Al nanofilms to electromagnetic wave field was suggested.Reflectance, transmittance in infrared region and carrier density of the films was measured. With the carrier density of the films, the dependence of their plasma frequencies on the film thickness was obtained. On the other hand, the dependence of absorptance on the frequency of electromagnetic wave field was set up by using the measured reflectance and transmittance,which provided plasma frequency-film thickness relation as well. Similarity of both plasma frequency-film thickness relations proved plasma resonance as a mode of electromagnetic response in Al nanofilms.

  14. Providing Carrier Grade voice Services with Session Initiation Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Perez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    SIP is defined as a protocol that enables end-to-end voice calls as well as for establishing multiparty, multimedia communications in IP-based networks. Presently, SIP is the most widely deployed intra-carrier VoIP protocol but it is also extensively utilized within many carrier networks for transporting voice/video calls over short and long distances. For all of these reasons, SIP can lay a claim to being the global standard for software based voice communication over IP. Furthermore, an...

  15. Negative free carrier absorption in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Rösch, M.; Ohtani, K.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the peculiar case where the free carrier absorption arising from LO phonon absorption-assisted transitions becomes negative and therefore turns into a gain source for quantum cascade lasers. Such an additional source of gain exists when the ratio between the electronic and the lattice temperatures is larger than one, a condition that is usually fulfilled in quantum cascade lasers. We find a gain of few cm-1's at 200 K. We report the development of a terahertz quantum cascade laser operating in the negative free carrier absorption regime.

  16. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold;

    2009-01-01

    amplifiers while keeping the performance measures to excellent levels is therefore of high interest. In this paper a class D audio amplifier utilising Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM) will be analysed, and a prototype Master-Slave Multi Carrier Modulated (MS MCM) amplifier has been constructed and measured for...... performance and out of band spectral amplitudes. The basic principle in MCM is to use programmable logic to combine two or more Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) audio signals at different switching frequencies. In this way the out of band spectrum will be lowered compared with conventional class D amplifiers...

  17. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  18. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each......The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...

  19. A multi-user transmission using chaotic carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeot, Jean-Philippe; Launay, Frederic; Coirault, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    From the unicity and orthogonality properties of chaotic sequences, it is demonstrated that a sum of N chaotic signals generated from a fixed class of chaotic systems is unique. Consequently, within a framework of a multi-user transmission, it is shown that synchronizing N chaotic carriers that emit simultaneously on the same frequency band is feasible. In this paper, the carriers are generated from Chua's circuits and are modulated in amplitude by the information signal. Demodulation is ensured by the minimization of a cost function. Numerical simulations show that this synchronization method is robust in presence of noise and allows the integration of a high number of users.

  20. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  1. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  2. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  3. Carrier-mediated transport of actinides and rare earth elements through liquid and plasticized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first works in this field were realized approximately 25 years ago, when BLOCK et al. reported their studies about carrier-mediated transport (also called pertraction or membrane extraction) of uranium through plasticized membranes with neutral esters derived from phosphoric acid. At this time, the methodical principles of selective pertraction of ionic compounds through so-called bulk liquid membranes containing carriers were known. However, these membranes, similarly as plasticized membranes, have not achieved a broader use. This is probably because bulk liquid membranes are from a technical point of view fairly distant from the idea of a typical membrane system, and plasticized membranes (sometimes also called gel membranes) present great resistance. By the end of the 1960's and at the beginning of the 1970's, LI and CUSSLER worked out the principles for two widely used pertraction techniques, called pertraction through emulsion liquid and supported liquid membranes (ELM and SLM). These two techniques not only have greatest significance in laboratory practice, but they also are interesting for technological aims because of the attainable large phase boundaries, e.g. 103-104 m2/m3. Many ways to arrange membrane systems are described in papers. Recently, the significance of carrier-mediated transport through liquid membranes has grown to have (since 1980) separate section at the International Solvent Extraction Conference. This paper does not deal with mathematical models and the mechanism of pertraction in general, but it gives an overview of results obtained in publications referring to pertraction of two related element groups - actinoids and rare earth elements - using various membrane types. (author) 154 refs

  4. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65 kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250 nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15 kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65 kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15 kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • The modified polyallylamine was synthesized as a gene carrier. • Modification of polyallylamine (15 kDa) with high percentages of hexyl acrylate improved transfection activity remarkably. • Grafting of polymer with acrylate derivatives reduced polymer cytotoxicity especially at percentages of

  5. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Katia; Durante, Lorenzo; Pizzo, Elio; Varcamonti, Mario; Zanfardino, Anna; Sgambati, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Carpentieri, Andrea; Izzo, Viviana; Di Donato, Alberto; Cafaro, Valeria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids), which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200-250 mg/L). After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15-18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96-98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (P)GKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods. PMID:26808536

  6. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskuee, Reza Kazemi [Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dosti, Fatemeh [School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Leila [Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan, E-mail: malaekehb@mums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65 kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250 nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15 kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65 kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15 kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • The modified polyallylamine was synthesized as a gene carrier. • Modification of polyallylamine (15 kDa) with high percentages of hexyl acrylate improved transfection activity remarkably. • Grafting of polymer with acrylate derivatives reduced polymer cytotoxicity especially at percentages of

  7. Glycoproteomic characterization of carriers of the CD15/Lewisx epitope on Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchen Paul G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lewisx trisaccharide, also referred to as the CD15 antigen, is a diagnostic marker used to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from other lymphocytic cancers. However, the role of such fucosylated structures remains poorly understood, in part because carriers of Lewisx structures on Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells have not been identified. Methods GalMBP, an engineered carbohydrate-recognition protein that binds selectively to oligosaccharides with paired terminal galactose and fucose residues, has been used in conjunction with proteomic and glycomic analysis to identify glycoprotein carriers of Lewisx and related glycan structures in multiple Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cell lines. Results Multiple glycoproteins that bind to GalMBP and carry CD15/Lewisx have been identified in a panel of six Reed-Sternberg cell lines. The most commonly identified Lewisx-bearing glycoproteins are CD98hc, which was found in all six cell lines tested, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and DEC-205, which were detected in five and four of the lines, respectively. Thus, several of the most prominent cell adhesion molecules on the lymphomas carry this characteristic glycan epitope. In addition, the Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cell lines can be grouped into subsets based on the presence or absence of less common Lewisx-bearing glycoproteins. Conclusions CD98 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are major carriers of CD15/Lewisx on Reed-Sternberg cells. Binding of DC-SIGN and other glycan-specific receptors to the Lewisx epitopes on CD98 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may facilitate interaction of the lymphoma cells with lymphocytes and myeloid cells in lymph nodes.

  8. Carrier-carrier scattering in the gain dynamics of InxGa1-xAs/AlyGa1-yAs diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Gary D; Sun, C.-K.; Golubovic, B.;

    1996-01-01

    Ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors play a central role in determining transient amplification and pulse-dependent gain saturation in diode lasers. Both carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier scattering are expected to determine the gain dynamics in these systems. We present a relaxation......-Dirac function where the chemical potential and temperature are self-consistently chosen so that both particle number and energy are conserved in the carrier-carrier scattering process. The relaxation approximation makes the problem an effective one-dimensional problem which can then be solved directly for the...

  9. New Carriers and Sensors for Robotic Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romstedt, J.; Schiele, A.; Boudin, N.; Coste, P.; Lindner, R.

    The robotic element of planetary exploration missions does play a crucial role for a successful mission completion. The development of reliable and rugged systems with at the same time low resource requirements and a generous acceptance of harsh environmental conditions is an important constituent of supportive research and development programs. This paper introduces a selection of new technologies developed by ESA support programs to foster the European scientific community and industry. Presented is a focused selection of potential scientific payload carrier modules and its highly integrated scientific instruments designed for in-situ exploration missions to planets and small bodies of our solar system. These developments could serve surface modules with very low resource availability. Low resource requirements and a highly integrated character is an important technology driver of all development plans. The Nanokhod micro-rover is a mobile element capable to explore the surrounding of a stationary lander unit within a radius of 50 meter. Via a tether connection the provision of all communication and power distribution is ensured. The Nanokhod concepts merges the idea of the design of an "as small as possible" mobile element yet keeping the capability to carry a substantial scientific payload suite to analyse the near-by landing site. The engineering model has been build and will undergo a challenging test campaign in the near future. The development of the Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (GIPF), the payload suite designed for the Nanokhod rover, has been finalized and delivered to ESA. It consists of an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer (MIMOS2) and a micro camera (MIROCAM). The instrument front ends have already been thermally qualified at cryogenic temperatures. Beyond a partial heritage from existing flight models all instruments were modified towards an accommodation in the rover's payload cabin and an increased

  10. The Role of Fast Carrier Dynamics in SOA Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup;

    2004-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated and the propert...

  11. Excited carrier dynamics and transport in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Jermyn, Adam; Atwater, Harry; Goddard, William, III

    Surface plasmon resonances provide a pathway to efficiently capture electromagnetic radiation in sub-wavelength structures for energy conversion and photodetection at the nano scale. The complete mechanism involves several microscopic steps spanning length scales from atomic dimensions to tens or hundreds of nanometers, posing challenges for experimental characterization and for first-principles predictions. To provide the basis for predicting and optimizing the complex interplay of materials and geometric effects in plasmon decay-induced excited carrier phenomena, we combined ab initio electronic structure calculations, electromagnetic simulations and Boltzmann transport models. In Au, Ag, Cu and Al nanostructures, we find that initial carrier distributions as well as their subsequent transport, relaxation and thermalization are sensitive to electronic structure, exhibiting strong asymmetries between electrons and holes. We predict energy-dependent spatially-resolved carrier distributions collected in plasmonic nanostructures with strong field inhomogeneities, and explore the possibility of tailoring materials and geometry to collect the carrier distributions needed for such applications as photochemically driven CO2 reduction and water splitting. This material is based upon work performed by JCAP, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993.

  12. Lifetime definition of non-fundamental charge carriers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with simple method of lifetime definition of non-fundamental charge carriers by permanent time quantity of Ni-GeO-GaSe structure on a big signal by deep inversion. This method consists of Ni-GeO-GaSe structure capacity changing registration in time. Chart that helps easily to find lifetime during transitional characteristics is brought

  13. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  14. Conjugate of doxorubicin with a thermosensitive polymer drug carrier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-440. ISSN 0883-9115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV307/96/K226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : doxorubicin * thermosensitive drug carriers * cloud point of polymer solutions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2001

  15. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ33 Air Carrier Contract... instructions for performing contract maintenance that are acceptable to the FAA and to include them in...

  16. Direct View of Hot Carrier Dynamics in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Cilento, Federico;

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before th...

  17. Flip-Chip Carrier Would Match Microwave FET Impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed field-effect transistor consists of three cells which make up one complete FET pellet. Pellet is flip-chip mounted on carrier with source grounded gate and drain posts connected directly to impedance-matching transmission-line segments. Impedance transformers are part of mounting and contact strips.

  18. High power terahertz induced carrier multiplication in Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    2015-01-01

    The application of an intense THz field results a nonlinear transmission in high resistivity silicon. Upon increasing field strength, the transmission falls from 70% to 62% due to carrier generation through THz-induced impact ionization and subsequent absorption of the THz field by free electrons....

  19. Pneumocystis jirovecii Transmission from Immunocompetent Carriers to Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano Ortega, Francisco Javier; Varela Aguilar, José Manuel; Horra Padilla, Carmen de la; Respaldiza Salas, Nieves; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique José; Montes Cano, Marco Antonio; Rivero Rivero, Laura; Gutiérrez Rivero, Sonia; Friaza Patiño, Vicente; Rodríguez Herrera, Alfonso; Morilla Romero de la Osa, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii transmission from colonized grandparents to their infant granddaughter. Genotyping of P. jirovecii showed the same genotypes in samples from the infant and her grandparents. These fi ndings support P. jirovecii transmission from immunocompetent carrier adults to a susceptible child.

  20. Addressing Carrier Aggregation with Narrow-band Tunable Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the operating bandwidth of antennas is particularly challenging when the antenna is confined in a very restricted volume, as is the case for mobile phones. However, increasing the bandwidth provides higher data rates to the users. Consequently, the carrier aggregation technology has bee...

  1. Nonlinear carrier dynamics in a quantum dash optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Ek, Sara; Yvind, Kresten;

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental pump-probe spectroscopy of a quantum dash optical amplifier biased at transparency are presented. Using strong pump pulses we observe a competition between free carrier absorption and two-photon induced stimulated emission that can have drastic effects on the transmission...

  2. 49 CFR 1200.1 - Financial statements released by carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except in reports to this Board, based on generally accepted accounting principles for which there is... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial statements released by carriers. 1200.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS GENERAL...

  3. Improving Student Naval Aviator Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Thomas H.; Foster, T. Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of human performance technology (HPT) to improve qualification rates for learning to land onboard aircraft carriers. This project started as a request for a business case analysis and evolved into a full-fledged performance improvement project, from mission analysis through evaluation. The result was a significant…

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii transmission from immunocompetent carriers to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Laura; de la Horra, Carmen; Montes-Cano, Marco A; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Respaldiza, Nieves; Friaza, Vicente; Morilla, Rubén; Gutiérrez, Sonia; Varela, José M; Medrano, Francisco J; Calderón, Enrique J

    2008-07-01

    We report a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii transmission from colonized grandparents to their infant granddaughter. Genotyping of P. jirovecii showed the same genotypes in samples from the infant and her grandparents. These findings support P. jirovecii transmission from immunocompetent carrier adults to a susceptible child. PMID:18598635

  5. Sildenafil alters retinal function in mouse carriers of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zhu, Yuan; Whatham, Andrew; Bui, Bang V; Fletcher, Erica L; Acosta, Monica L; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra, has been reported to cause transient visual disturbance from inhibition of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), a key enzyme in the visual phototransduction pathway. This study investigated the effects of sildenafil on the rd1(+/-) mouse, a model for carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa which exhibit normal vision but may have a lower threshold for cellular stress caused by sildenafil due to a heterozygous mutation in PDE6. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent decrease in electroretinogram (ERG) responses of normal mice which mostly recovered two days post administration. In contrast, rd1(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly reduced photoreceptor and a supernormal bipolar cell response to sildenafil within 1 h of treatment. Carrier mice retinae took two weeks to return to baseline levels suggesting sildenafil has direct effects on both the inner and outer retina and these effects differ significantly between normal and carrier mice. Anatomically, an increase in expression of the early apoptotic marker, cytochrome C in rd1(+/-) mice indicated that the effects of sildenafil on visual function may lead to degeneration. The results of this study are significant considering approximately 1 in 50 people are likely to be carriers of recessive traits leading to retinal degeneration. PMID:25239397

  6. Nasopharyngeal impression technique for fabrication of a radiation carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for intracavitary application of Iridium 192 seeds in carcinoma of the nasopharynx is described. This technique allows for accurate construction of a nasopharyngeal carrier that permits the radiotherapist to deliver an adequate dose of irradiation to the nasopharynx

  7. STUDY ON CARRIER PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HYDRAULIC OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXi

    1996-01-01

    The surface feature of contaminative oil is analysed and the theory of carrier purification technology for hydraulic oil is put forward.Experiments have been done in laboratory.The main performance of the purified oil has got to a level of new oil.

  8. Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Chambers, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate that the...

  9. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  10. Aromatase expression is increased in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the molecular mechanisms explaining increased incidence of ovarian and breast cancers in carriers of BRCA1 gene mutations had not been clearly understood. Of significance is the finding that BRCA1 negatively regulates aromatase expression in vitro. Our objective was to characterise aromatase gene (CYP19A1) and its promoter expression in breast adipose and ovarian tissue in BRCA1 mutation carriers and unaffected controls. We measured aromatase transcripts, total and promoter-specific (PII, PI.3, PI.4) in prophylactic oophorectomy or mastectomy, therapeutic mastectomy, ovarian and breast tissue from unaffected women. We demonstrate that the lack of functional BRCA1 protein correlates to higher aromatase levels in 85% of BRCA1 mutation carriers. This increase is mediated by aberrant transcriptional regulation of aromatase; in breast adipose by increases in promoter II/I.3 and I.4-specific transcripts; and in the ovary with elevation in promoter I.3 and II-specific transcripts. Understanding the link between BRCA1 and aromatase is significant in terms of understanding why carcinogenesis is restricted to estrogen-producing tissues in BRCA1 mutation carriers

  11. Genetic counseling in carriers of reciprocal translocations involving two autosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pourjafari

    2012-01-01

    Couples in which one partner is the carrier of such balanced translocation have increased risks of infertility, recurrent abortion, and delivery of chromosomally abnormal offspring. Genetic counseling of such couples, therefore, presents a unique challenge and should be considered in dealing with such families.

  12. A new look at gravel pack carrier fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerman, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    For gravel pack carrier fluids, less viscosity is needed downhole than for suspending and pumping high gravel loadings on the surface. To achieve this dual viscosity need, breakers are added to degrade the viscosifying polymers. Unfortunately, viscosity breakback criteria are not well defined. In addition to the type and concentration of breaker and temperature, the apparent viscosity breakback time of a polymer solution also depends on the shear rate at which the viscosity is measured. As a result, industry breakback data generally disagree because of the variety of instruments and shear rates used to measure viscosity. This paper discusses two new viscosity breakback criteria for gravel packing carrier fluids: The time for the apparent viscosity at 0.03 sec/sup -1/ to decrease to 1000 cp, and start of compaction of the settled gravel bed. These criteria correlate well with fluid performance and apply to slurries with different initial viscosities (including crosslinked gels), brine densities, and gravel sizes. Data useful for formulating gravel pack carrier fluids are also presented. Although this paper does not define optimum downhole carrier fluid properties, the new criteria reflect downhole conditions better than most previous criteria. They should give better correlation with model studies and field experience, and, in turn, lead to a better understanding of the requirements for optimum downhole performance.

  13. 19 CFR 18.1 - Carriers; application to bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be transported from one port to another in the United States under cover of an A.T.A. or TECRO/AIT... nonbonded common or contract carriers. The A.T.A. or TECRO/AIT carnet shall be responsible for...

  14. Interaction of imatinib with human organic ion carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hu (Shuiying); R.M. Franke (Ryan); K.K. Filipski (Kelly); S.J. Orwick; E.A. de Bruijn (Ernst); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); H. Burger (Herman); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The activity of imatinib in leukemia has recently been linked with expression of the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) gene SLC22A1. Here, we characterized the contribution of solute carriers to imatinib transport in an effort to further understand mechanisms involved in the i

  15. Salmonella carriers among expatriate workers in Al-Qatif area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albreiki Hassan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella infection and diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. All expatriates applying for work permits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA have to undergo a governmental compulsory health check program. Aim of the study: To estimate the number of salmonella carriers who had previously been diagnosed as free of infection. Subjects and methods: Over a period of two years, a total of 17, 918 workers in Al-Qatif area, in the Eastern Province were tested for salmonella on stool samples. Results: Three hundred and twenty eight were found to be asymptomatic carriers of salmonella. The highest frequency was found among workers from Egypt (13.1 % while Filipinos and Indians were the lowest carriers (1.2%. Salmonella serogroups E, C 1 and C2 were most common ( 29%, 29% and 23.5% respectively followed by serogroups B, D and C (13%, 3.7% and 1% respectively. No Shigella species were isolated. All carriers were given antibiotics and were instructed in prophylactic hygiene measures. After completing the course of antibiotics, they were retested and found to be clear of infection. Conclusion: The health check system in this area will contribute towards the prevention of outbreaks of infection by salmonella

  16. On the mass of elementary carriers of gravitational interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoholovets, V

    2001-01-01

    Based on the theory of submicroscopic quantum mechanics recently constructed by the author the mass of elementary spatial excitations called inertons, which accompany a moving particle, is estimated herein. These excitations are treated as carriers of both inertial and gravitational properties of the particle.

  17. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying hazardous materials required to be placarded or marked in accordance with 49 CFR 177.823 and not... containing explosives in Class 1, Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50 and 173.53... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing....

  18. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  19. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  20. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO2/ha,year) and costs for CO2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO2) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  1. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, I E; Frenkel, V Ya

    1991-01-01

    I.E. Tamm is one of the great figures of 20th-century physics and the mentor of the late A.D. Sakharov. Together with I.M. Frank, he received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for the explanation of the Cherenkov effect. This book contains an annotated selection of his most important contributions to physics literature and essays on his contemporaries - Mandelstam, Einstein, Landau and Bohr as well as his contributions to the Pugwash conferences. About a third of the selections originally appeared in Russian and are now available to Western readers. This volume includes a preface by Sir Rudolf Peierls, a biography compiled by Tamm's former students, V.Ya. Frenkel and B.M. Bolotovskii, and a complete bibliography. This monograph on quantum theory, science history, particles and fields and the Cherenkov effect is intended for students, researchers, mathematicians and natural scientists in general.

  2. Selective Memoization

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Umut A.; Blelloch, Guy E.; Harper, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents language techniques for applying memoization selectively. The techniques provide programmer control over equality, space usage, and identification of precise dependences so that memoization can be applied according to the needs of an application. Two key properties of the approach are that it accepts and efficient implementation and yields programs whose performance can be analyzed using standard analysis techniques. We describe our approach in the context of a functional ...

  3. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Yokoi, Fuji; Nozaki, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Masako

    1987-10-01

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (approx. 15 Ci/..mu..mole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed.

  4. No-carrier-added radiobromination via the Gattermann reaction. Synthesis of 75Br- and 77Br-bromperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gattermann reaction was applied to the non-carrier-added radiobromination of bromperidol. The synthesis with diazotized precursor, no-carrier-added 75Br- or 77Br-, and copper powder proved to give the radiobrominated neuroleptic drug in high radiochemical yield of 60 - 70 %, and in high specific activity (∼ 15 Ci/μmole). The radiobromination also proved to be regio-selective. In the reaction, the copper catalyst was observed to play an important role. Formation of unlabeled by-products due to stable chlorine or bromine contamination in the reaction mixture was also studied by neutron activation analysis. Removal of such undesirable halogen nuclides and separation of the unavoidably-formed chlorinated compound from the radiobrominated bromperidol is discussed. (author)

  5. Diisocyanate mediated polyether modified gelatin drug carrier for controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vediappan; Subramanian, Kaliappagounder

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin is an extensively studied biopolymer hydrogel drug carrier due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity of its biodegraded products formed in vivo. But with the pristine gelatin it is difficult to achieve a controlled and desirable drug release characteristics due to its structural and thermal lability and high solubility in aqueous biofluids. Hence it is necessary to modify its solubility and structural stability in biofluids to achieve controlled release features with improved drug efficacy and broader carrier applications. In the present explorations an effort is made in this direction by cross linking gelatin to different extents using hitherto not studied isocyanate terminated poly(ether) as a macrocrosslinker prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) and isophorone diisocyanate in dimethyl sulfoxide. The crosslinked samples were analyzed for structure by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermal behavior through thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The cross linked gelatins were biodegradable, insoluble and swellable in biofluids. They were evaluated as a carrier for in vitro drug delivery taking theophylline as a model drug used in asthma therapy. The crosslinking of gelatin decreased the drug release rate by 10-20% depending upon the extent of crosslinking. The modeled drug release characteristics revealed an anomalous transport mechanism. The release rates for ampicillin sodium, 5-fluorouracil and theophylline drugs in a typical crosslinked gelatin carrier were found to depend on the solubility and hydrophobicity of the drugs, and the pH of the fluid. The observed results indicated that this material can prove its mettle as a viable carrier matrix in drug delivery applications. PMID:24493973

  6. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors. PMID:23043648

  7. Carrier-facilitated transport of plutonium(IV) through tributyl phosphate/dodecane liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective transport of Pu4+ over other long-lived fission product contaminants has been accomplished from aqueous acidic solutions through an organic bulk liquid membrane (BLM) and flat-sheet immobilized liquid membrane (ILM) containing tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the mobile carrier and dodecane as the membrane solvent. Extremely dilute to moderately concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions (10-5 mol dm-3) in about 2 mol dm-3 HNO3 are used as the source phase. With increase in carrier concentration in the organic membrane both, the amount of plutonium that can be extracted into the membrane and the viscosity of the organic solution increases. These opposing effects result in maximum plutonium permeation with about 30% TBP in dodecane while enhanced acidity of the strip side adversely affects the partitioning of the cation into the product side. Among the several aqueous reagents tested, 0.5 mol dm-3 ascorbic acid is found to be the most efficient strippant. The stoichiometry of the Pu4+-TBP complex in the liquid membrane system has been established as Pu(NO3)4.2TBP. The lack of any contamination from even appreciable amounts of possible fission product contaminants is a feature of this novel separation technique. (author). 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. PMID:26663734

  9. Imaging the local density of free charge carriers in doped InAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, Benedikt; Taubner, Thomas [I. Institute of Physics (1A), RWTH Aachen Univerity, Sommerfeldstrasse 14, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Sladek, Kamil; Haas, Fabian; Schaepers, Thomas; Hardtdegen, Hilde [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are promising candidates for future nanoelectronic devices. While the bottom-up approach for their growth could simplify the device fabrication, their quantitative characterization remains challenging. We use scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) to investigate the local density of free electrons in Si-doped InAs nanowires grown by selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE). In s-SNOM the evanescent electric field at the apex of an illuminated tip is used to probe a sample at a strongly sub-wavelength resolution. This method is highly sensitive to variations in the sample permittivity around Re(ε) ∼ -2. The use of tunable mid-infrared lasers therefore allows addressing the plasma frequency of free charge carriers in highly doped nanowires. Here, we demonstrate that the sensitivity of s-SNOM is sufficient to detect a slight unintended variation in the carrier concentration during the growth process. Furthermore, using model calculations, we give an estimate of the local density of free electrons.

  10. Challenges in preclinical to clinical translation for anticancer carrier-mediated agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew T; Madden, Andrew J; Zamboni, William C

    2016-09-01

    Major advances in carrier-mediated agents (CMAs), which include nanoparticles and conjugates, have revolutionized drug delivery capabilities over the past decade. While providing numerous advantages over their small-molecule counterparts, there is substantial variability in how individual CMA formulations and patient characteristics affect the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) (efficacy and toxicity) of these agents. Development or selection of animal models is used to predict the effects within a particular human disease. A breadth of studies have begun to emphasize the importance of preclinical animal models in understanding and evaluating the interaction between CMAs and the immune system and tumor matrix, which ultimately influences CMA PK (clearance and distribution) and PD (efficacy and toxicity). It is fundamental to study representative preclinical tumor models that recapitulate patients with diseases (e.g., cancer) and evaluate the interplay between CMAs and the immune system, including the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), chemokines, hormones, and other immune modulators. Furthermore, standard allometric scaling using body weight does not accurately predict drug clearance in humans. Future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction of CMA carriers within individual preclinical models and their biological systems, such as the MPS and tumor microenvironment, and their application to allometric scaling across species. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:642-653. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1394 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846457

  11. Performance Analysis of MC-CDMA in the Presence of Carriers Phase Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of carriers phase error on MC-CDMA performance in downlink mobile communications. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit-Error-Rate (BER) are analyzed taking into account the effect of carrier phase errors. It is shown that the MC-CDMA system is very sensitive to a carrier frequency offset, the system performance rapidly degrades and strongly depends on the number of carriers. For a maximal load, the degradation caused by carrier phase jitter is independent of the number of the carriers.

  12. Influence of quasi-bound states on the carrier capture into quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.

    2002-01-01

    An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes are...... believed to be mediated by carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier interaction (Auger processes). In systems of higher dimensionality, carrier relaxation via emission of LO (Longitudinal Optical) phonons is dominant. However, due to the discrete QD density of states, this process is often considered impossible...

  13. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally confirming to prospective passenger reserved space on... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to... orally confirming to prospective passenger reserved space on scheduled flights. It is the policy of...

  14. Preparation and characterization of L-Leucine-modified amphiprotic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieve as a drug carrier for ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhigang; Ji, Yongsheng; Guan, Min; Huang, Huayu; Zhao, Chuande; Zhang, Haixia

    2010-03-01

    In this study, an amphiphilic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 material (AMPBIF-SBA-15) was synthesized through post-synthesis method as a drug carrier. Ribavirin was selected as the model drug and whose release from both unmodified and functionalized SBA-15 was evaluated in four media solutions with different pH or ionic strength. The release process indicated that AMPBIF-SBA-15 was a pH-sensitive drug carrier, which showed a phased low-release effect to ribavirin in the simulated body fluid (PBS, pH 7.4) solution. The materials were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements and elemental analysis. This study provided a novel drug carrier for ribavirin to improve curative effect of ribavirin.

  15. Preparation and characterization of L-Leucine-modified amphiprotic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieve as a drug carrier for ribavirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an amphiphilic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 material (AMPBIF-SBA-15) was synthesized through post-synthesis method as a drug carrier. Ribavirin was selected as the model drug and whose release from both unmodified and functionalized SBA-15 was evaluated in four media solutions with different pH or ionic strength. The release process indicated that AMPBIF-SBA-15 was a pH-sensitive drug carrier, which showed a phased low-release effect to ribavirin in the simulated body fluid (PBS, pH 7.4) solution. The materials were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements and elemental analysis. This study provided a novel drug carrier for ribavirin to improve curative effect of ribavirin.

  16. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  18. The Research on Intelligent Controlled DDS of Polymer Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; LUO Juan; XU Cheng-yin; CHEN Yuan-wei; TANG Chang-wei; WAN Chang-xiu

    2004-01-01

    The intelligent controlled drug delivery systems (DDS) are a series of the preparations including microcapsules or nanocapsules composed of intelligent polymers and medication. The properties of preparations can change with the external stimuli, such as pH value, temperature,chemical substance, light, electricity and magnetism etc. According to this properties, the DDS can be intelligently controlled. This paper has reviemed research on syntheses and applications of intelligent controlled DDS of polymer carriers.Drug delivery system with pH stimuliThe volume of polymer hydrogel can change with the pH value of external environment. The sensitive polymer hydrogels to pH are often as carriers. The polymer hydrogel carrying medicine is especially suitable for taking orally. In order to protect medicine from losing activation, we enwrapped medicine into polymer hydrogel with acidic group. In the acidic environment of stomach,the volume of polymer hydrogel contracts because of the hydrogen bond. The medicine in the polymer hydrogel cannot disperse out. When it goes to the intestine of basic environment, the hydrogen bond will be broken, and the medicine can release.Drug delivery system with temperatureTemperature sensitive polymer hydrogel can change its volume with changing of environmental temperature. This kind of polymer hydrogel can be also used as a carrier of medicine. At a low temperature, the polymer chains form hydrogen bond with water to swell to let medicine disperse out from the hydrogel. On the other hand, the hydrogen bond will be broken and polymer chain will lose water to contract with temperature's increasing. And the medicine will not disperse out. For example,the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) is the hydrogel that is swelled at lower temperature and contracted at higher temperature. PNIPAAm has the lower critical solution temperature(LCST).We can adjust its LCST to control PNIPAAm hydrogel's swelling or contraction to let medicine release or not

  19. Personnel selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahan Lall

    1952-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest times some kind of a test has always been used for selecting incumbents of certain posts. The oldest method of selection, known to us, was an examination in school or college subjects. When the number of candidates for any post was small the method employed was the viva voce examination. In this situation, the examiner combined the functions of testing the knowledge of the candidate in certain academic subjects and of assessing the traits of personality displayed by the individual during the examination. As the number of candidates increased the viva voce examination was found time-consuming and inadequate. Public examinations were, consequently, organized. Written question papers were distributed and the candidates were required to write answers in note-books. The answer-books were subsequently scrutinized by the examiner. The testing of the standard of achievement attained by a candidate in particular subject was thus accomplished, but the personal contact between the examiner and the examinee was lost.

  20. Remotely Controlled Isomer Selective Molecular Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Verena; Borca, Bogdana; Pentegov, Ivan; Michnowicz, Tomasz; Kraft, Ulrike; Klauk, Hagen; Wahl, Peter; Schlickum, Uta; Kern, Klaus

    2016-01-13

    Nonlocal addressing-the "remote control"-of molecular switches promises more efficient processing for information technology, where fast speed of switching is essential. The surface state of the (111) facets of noble metals, a confined two-dimensional electron gas, provides a medium that enables transport of signals over large distances and hence can be used to address an entire ensemble of molecules simultaneously with a single stimulus. In this study we employ this characteristic to trigger a conformational switch in anthradithiophene (ADT) molecules by injection of hot carriers from a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip into the surface state of Cu(111). The carriers propagate laterally and trigger the switch in molecules at distances as far as 100 nm from the tip location. The switching process is shown to be long-ranged, fully reversible, and isomer selective, discriminating between cis and trans diastereomers, enabling maximum control. PMID:26619213