WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier ranger cva-61

  1. Dark Skies Rangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Creating awareness about the importance of the protection of our dark skies is the main goal of the Dark Skies Rangers project, a joint effort from the NOAO and the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Hundreds of schools and thousands of students have been reached by this program. We will focus in particular on the experience being developed in Portugal where several municipalities have now received street light auditing produced by students with suggestions on how to enhance the energy efficiency of illumination of specific urban areas. In the International Year of Light we are investing our efforts in exporting the successful Portuguese experience to other countries. The recipe is simple: train teachers, engage students, foster the participation of local community and involve local authorities in the process. In this symposium we hope to draft the cookbook for the near future.

  2. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  3. Of Power Rangers and V-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of violence on elementary students which used the television program Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, and found increased aggression which parents should be concerned about. Offers suggestions for parents and teachers, including taking action against violent programming, utilizing technology which bans unwanted…

  4. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries (With Regions Table)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  5. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Forest Service Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine AGENCY: Forest... mining operations on their mining claims on and near Jesus Mesa in the Mount Taylor Ranger District of... mining operation on the Mount Taylor Ranger District. DATES: Comments concerning the scope of...

  6. Mighty Morphin Power Ranger Play: Research and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Explores the question of whether or not Mighty Morphin Power Rangers-type aggressive play is developmentally appropriate for the early childhood classroom. Compares results from research in child development to the reality of television programming, highlighting the relationship between television violence and children's aggressive behavior. (AA)

  7. Range Riders and Game Wardens: A Brief History of Fort Bragg’s Forest Ranger Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    19 Figure 29: Ranger Roger Fish, 1971 (photo comrtesy of the Fort Bragg Paraglide , Photo by CliffRhodes...20 Figure 30: Ranger M.C. Windley, 1971 (photo courte.Dy ofthe Fort Bragg Paraglide , photo by Chff Rhodes) ............... 20 Figure 31: Evelyn...Ellington, 1971 (photo courtegy of the Fort Bragg Paraglide ,photo by Ckff Rhodes) ..................... 21 Figure 32: Ranger’s wife feeding a young

  8. Natural resources youth training program (NRYTP), resource rangers 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    In 2010, for a second year, the natural resources youth training program (NRYTP) was developed in northern Manitoba thanks to Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO) and the collaboration of 42 sponsors. 16 aboriginal youth representing six northern communities took part in the five-week program located at the Egg Lake camp. The objective was to provide these resources rangers with knowledge and training in the most widespread resource sectors in northern Manitoba, including mining, forestry and hydropower. Trainers and experts provided by industry partners offered training sessions, hands-on work experience and other activities to help resource rangers to acquire a better understanding of the employability in this field in the northern region and the knowledge and skills the resource-based careers require. Life and professional skills training was given by the camp staff and local professionals. On-site elders and cultural events also allowed the integration of a northern Cree cultural component. Three staff members, a cook and elders assisted daily the resource rangers. Many improvements and refinements have been made since the success of the 2009 program, including the involvement of a larger number of communities, program contributors and program graduates. The program length has doubled and the number of jobs created has increased, important cultural aspects were introduced and the overall expenses were reduced.

  9. 76 FR 23273 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, Oregon; Mt. Bachelor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, Oregon; Mt... Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Shane Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock..., Recreation Team Leader, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE Third Street Suite...

  10. 77 FR 58354 - Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for... Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District and FHWA are withdrawing their intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Tinderholt, Project Leader, Bend- Fort Rock Ranger District,...

  11. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Conroy, Team Leader or Jackie Groce, Acting District Ranger, at the Mystic Ranger District office in... October and November 2011, scoping period. Comments received will assist the planning team to develop the... Register in February 2012 (See discussion below). Early Notice of Importance of Public Participation...

  12. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ..., Team Leader or Lynn D. Kolund, District Ranger, at the Hell Canyon Ranger District office in Custer, SD... received will assist the planning team to identify key issues and opportunities used to refine the proposal..., 2011. ] Early Notice of Importance of Public Participation in Subsequent Environmental Review...

  13. 78 FR 24717 - Crescent Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Klamath County, Oregon; Marsh Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Marsh, one of the largest high elevation wetland/marsh complexes in the continental United States. In... Forest Service Crescent Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Klamath County, Oregon; Marsh Project... statement (EIS) for a project called Marsh, in the southwestern portion of the Crescent Ranger District...

  14. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Forest Service Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation... statement. SUMMARY: The Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest, proposes to salvage timber... comments-rockv-mountain-rio-qrande-conejos-peak@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to 719-852-6250, with...

  15. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and Old Dry Creek. The... responsible official will decide whether and how to reissue grazing permits in the Cox, Craig, Mill Creek...

  16. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  17. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to future wildland fires. Vegetation treatments... Management Project includes treatments previously proposed as the Whitetail Hazardous Fuels Reduction...

  18. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... comments-pacificnorthwest-deschutes-sisters@fs.fed.us . Please put ``Popper Vegetation Management Project... effects will take place. The Popper Vegetation Management Project decision and the reasons for the... Forest Service Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation...

  19. Organizational Culture and Leadership Practices in the 75th Ranger Regiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DATE 5 June 1998 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4 August 1997-5 June 1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizational Culture and...and believe in being proactive problem solvers. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 75th Ranger Regiment, Organizational Culture , Unit Culture, Leadership, Shared...Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 298-102 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES IN THE 75TH RANGER REGIMENT A thesis presented

  20. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    geoscience disciplines. Another project novelety is that the seismographs (Cossack Ranger II) would be assembled in Bulgaria thus ensuring low prices and local maintenance skills. SENSES will also introduce electronic learning modules for instructions at school levels on earthquake risks and hazard mitigations. This appears to be a most efficient way of informing the public at large about various types of natural hazards. In this presentations, we give details on the geophoned based seismograph Codssack Ranger II, record analysis, seismic processing scheme in a high school environment and the most difficult part promote geoscience for high school students.

  1. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency- constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC- EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  2. 75 FR 1587 - Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls Hardwoods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Forest Service Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls... Statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Medford-Park Falls Ranger... within the Park Falls Hardwoods project area. The primary purpose of this proposal is to...

  3. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7527] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest.... Forest Service (FS) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposed action to...

  4. Meet the "Reading Rangers": Curriculum for Teaching Comprehension Strategies to Urban Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Butler, Allison G.; Tine, Michele T.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative reading comprehension curriculum that recruits social cognition in the teaching of visualizing, making inferences, and literature concepts was created, thereby achieving the first aim of the research. The Reading Rangers (RR) program was based on three research-based learning principles that were relied on in converting reading…

  5. 75 FR 68319 - Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare...

  6. The Impact of Leaders on Organizational Culture: A 75th Ranger Regiment Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Organizational founders and initial leaders have lasting impact on organizational culture through the transformation of their initial beliefs and... organizational culture and are taught to new members as the correct way to think and believe in certain situations. In the 75th Ranger Regiment, the initial

  7. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  8. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost... statement. SUMMARY: The Birch, Willow, Lost Project proposes to treat vegetation communities in the four sub.... FR 7476 (Lower Willow Creek) would have 1.7 miles Spot Reconstructed. FR 8200 (Willow Creek)...

  9. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of fire adapted ecosystems while simultaneously reducing hazardous fuels on the Bradshaw Ranger District. The project area encompasses about...

  10. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest... Environmental Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project in the Federal Register (75 FR... Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75...

  11. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... project area. The exploratory drilling in this area would be phased over the course of six years; 51 holes... drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8...

  12. 76 FR 22363 - Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain... forested conditions on and surrounding Bill Williams Mountain by reducing hazardous fuels and moving... approximately 4 miles south-southwest of the city of Williams, Arizona. The Proposed Action includes...

  13. Spanish Translation and Feasibility Study of "Ranger Rick's Nature Magazine." Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Virginia C.

    The study was designed to evaluate the acceptance, appropriateness, and use of an experimental Spanish edition of the April 1980 "Ranger Rick's Nature Magazine"; to identify similarities and differences in the reactions to the translated edition of various groups within the Hispanic population; and to collect the recommendations for the Spanish…

  14. "The Lone Ranger" Rides Again: Recurring Images of the Justice Hero in "The Equalizer."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Glenn

    A study compared the two television series, "The Lone Ranger" and "The Equalizer" to see whether the protagonists conform to the American archetype of the justice hero--defined as the hero who deals with crime in society. A formula analysis of the two television texts reveals that both heroes are male, scrupulous, independent,…

  15. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Smith River National Recreation Area Restoration and Motorized Travel Management Project AGENCY: Forest...-pacificsouthwest-six-rivers@fs.fed.us . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized Travel... UARs totaling 80 miles. The project encompasses the Smith River NRA and Gasquet Ranger...

  16. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  17. 75 FR 31418 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek-Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Forest Service Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek... Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Mill Creek--Council Mountain... Council, Idaho. The Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project proposes to...

  18. View invariant gesture recognition using the CSEMSwissRanger SR-2 camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of range information acquired by a CSEM SwissRanger SR-2 camera for view invariant recognition of one and two arms gestures. The range data enables motion detection and 3D representation of gestures. Motion is detected by double difference range images and filtered...

  19. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  20. Note: Inter-satellite laser range-rate measurement by using digital phase locked loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Rong; Duan, Hui-Zong; Xiao, Xin-Long; Wei, Bing-Bing; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This note presents an improved high-resolution frequency measurement system dedicated for the inter-satellite range-rate monitoring that could be used in the future's gravity recovery mission. We set up a simplified common signal test instead of the three frequencies test. The experimental results show that the dominant noises are the sampling time jitter and the thermal drift of electronic components, which can be reduced by using the pilot-tone correction and passive thermal control. The improved noise level is about 10(-8) Hz/Hz(1/2)@0.01Hz, limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the sampling circuit.

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  2. Analysis of GRACE Range-rate Residuals with Emphasis on Reprocessed Star-Camera Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Flury, J.; Naeimi, M.; Bandikova, T.; Guerr, T. M.; Klinger, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since March 2002 the two GRACE satellites orbit the Earth at rela-tively low altitude. Determination of the gravity field of the Earth including itstemporal variations from the satellites' orbits and the inter-satellite measure-ments is the goal of the mission. Yet, the time-variable gravity signal has notbeen fully exploited. This can be seen better in the computed post-fit range-rateresiduals. The errors reflected in the range-rate residuals are due to the differ-ent sources as systematic errors, mismodelling errors and tone errors. Here, weanalyse the effect of three different star-camera data sets on the post-fit range-rate residuals. On the one hand, we consider the available attitude data andon other hand we take the two different data sets which has been reprocessedat Institute of Geodesy, Hannover and Institute of Theoretical Geodesy andSatellite Geodesy, TU Graz Austria respectively. Then the differences in therange-rate residuals computed from different attitude dataset are analyzed inthis study. Details will be given and results will be discussed.

  3. 75 FR 5758 - Bridger-Teton National Forest, Big Piney Ranger District, WY; Piney Creeks Vegetation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...The Big Piney Ranger District is proposing to implement vegetation management in the Piney Creek drainages throughout the next five-seven years. The need for vegetation management in this area has previously been identified and studied in the Bridger-Teton Forest Plan implemented in 1990, in public meetings held on the revision of the Forest Plan in 2008 and comprehensive evaluation reports......

  4. 77 FR 2508 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Potential, Other Undeveloped Areas, Heritage Resources, Recreation/Human Safety and Climate Change. Scoping... located approximately four (4) air miles southeast of the city of Powers, Oregon, on the Powers Ranger..., refinement of the proposed action, and a change in the responsible official, the district is publishing...

  5. Rescue Rangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese rescuers rush to assist disaster-stricken countries Avideo clip on Liu Xiangyang’s computer displays a moment he is very proud of. The clip shows an Iranian boy running after some vehicles, holding China’s national flag in his hands and chanting "China, China..."

  6. Geometric Parameter Identification of a 6-DOF Space Robot Using a Laser-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric parameters of a space robot change with the terrible temperature change in orbit, which will cause the end-effector pose (position and orientation error of a space robot, and so weakens its operability. With this in consideration, a new geometric parameter identification method is presented based on a laser-ranger attached to the end-effector. Then, independence of the geometric parameters is analyzed, and their identification equations are derived. With the derived identification Jacobian matrix, the optimal identification configurations are chosen according to the observability index O3. Subsequently, through simulation the geometric parameter identification of a 6-DOF space robot is implemented for these identification configurations, and the identified parameters are verified in a set of independent reference configurations. The result shows that in spite of distance measurement alone, pose accuracy of the space robot still has a greater improvement, so the identification method is practical and valid.

  7. The design and construction of the MICE Electron-Muon Ranger

    CERN Document Server

    Asfandiyarov, R; Blondel, A; Bolognini, D; Cadoux, F; Debieux, S; Drielsma, F; Giannini, G; Graulich, J S; Husi, C; Karadzhov, Y; Lietti, D; Masciocchi, F; Nicola, L; Messomo, E Noah; Prest, M; Rothenfusser, K; Sandstrom, R; Vallazza, E; Verguilov, V; Wisting, H

    2016-01-01

    The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter installed in the beam line of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The experiment will demonstrate ionization cooling, an essential technology needed for the realization of a Neutrino Factory and/or a Muon Collider. The EMR is designed to measure the properties of low energy beams composed of muons, electrons and pions, and perform the identification particle-by-particle. The detector consists of 48 orthogonal layers of 59 triangular scintillator bars. The readout is implemented using FPGA custom made electronics and commercially available modules. This article describes the construction of the detector from its design up to its commissioning with cosmic data.

  8. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  9. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andy Walker

    2014-03-05

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  10. Forest cover from landsat thematic mapper data for use in the Catahoula Ranger District geographic information system. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    A forest cover classification of the Kisatchie National Forest, Catahoula Ranger District, was performed with Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Data base retrievals and map products from this analysis demonstrated used of Landsat for forest management decisions.

  11. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  12. An Investigation of the Ranger V-770-8 Engine Installation for the Edo XOSE-1 Airplane II : Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, John S.

    1945-01-01

    Investigations were made to determine the cowling and cooling characteristics of the Ranger V-770-8 engine installation in an observation seaplane. Final cowl configurations possessed ample engine and oil-cooler pressure drops for cooling in the critical normal-power climb condition with any of the three baffle configurations tested. The indicated critical Mach number of the cowling was found to be 0.70 as determined by the pressure on the lower lip of the inlet.

  13. Synthesis of Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks with Stream Splits Based on Rangers of Stream Supply Temperatures and Heat Capacity Flowrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志红; 罗行; 华贵; W.Roetzel

    2004-01-01

    A new superstructure model of heat exchanger networks (HEN) with stream splits based on rangers of streams supply temperatures and heat capacity flow rates is presented. The simultaneous optimal mathematical model of flexible HEN synthesis is established too. Firstly, the streams with rangers of supply temperatures and/or the streams with the rangers of heat capacity flow rates are pretreated; Secondly, several rules are proposed to establish the superstructure model of HEN with splits and the simultaneous optimal mathematical model of flexible HEN; Thirdly, the improving genetic algorithm is applied to solve the mathematical model established at the second step effectively, and the original optimal structure of HEN based on the maximum operation limiting condition can be obtained easily; Finally, the rules of heat exchange unit merged and the heat load of heat exchanger relaxed are presented, the flexible configuration of HEN satisfied the operation condition between the upper and down bounds of supply temperature and heat capacity flow rates can be obtained based on the original optimal structure of HEN by means of these rules. A case study demonstrates the method presented in this paper is effective

  14. Dynamical effects of General Relativity on the satellite-to-satellite range and range-rate in the GRACE mission

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the satellite-to-satellite range \\rho and range-rate \\dot\\rho of the twin GRACE A/B spacecrafts through their dynamical equations of motion. The present-day accuracies in measuring such observables are \\sigma_\\rho <= 1-10 micron, \\sigma_\\dot\\rho <= 1 micron s^-1. Studies for a follow-on of such a mission points toward a range-rate accuracy of the order of \\sigma_\\dot\\rho = 1 nm s^-1 or better. We also compute the dynamical range and range-rate perturbations caused by the first six zonal harmonic coefficients J_L, L=2,3,4,5,6,7$ of the classical multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential in order to evaluate their aliasing impact on the relativistic effects. Conversely, we also quantitatively assessed the possible a-priori \\virg{imprinting} of GTR itself, not solved-for in all the GRACE-based Earth's gravity models produced so far, on the estimated values of the low degree zonals of the geopotential. T...

  15. The Lone Ranger Mission: Understanding Synthetic Polymer Microbe Interactions In the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, R.; Neal, A.; Stam, C. N.; Ferry, J. G.; Schlegel, R.; Tsapin, A. I.; Park, S.; Bhartia, R.; Salas, E.; Hug, W.; Behar, A. E.; Nadeau, J.

    2011-12-01

    Pollution is one of the most ubiquitous and insidious problems currently facing the oceans. As synthetic polymer debris degrades, it becomes increasingly accessible to organisms that forage or absorb food particles. However, research on this significant environmental pollution problem has not been able to keep up with the scope of the issue, since some of the first studies published in 1972 by Edward Carpenter. In January 2011, The Lone Ranger Atlantic Expedition, a collaboration between Blue Ocean Sciences (BOS) and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) transected the Atlantic Ocean covering 3,100 nautical miles sampling the first 15cm of the water column to investigate microbial interactions with synthetic polymer marine debris. Using established and novel techniques of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we were able to image and locate material degradation of pre-production, association of microbial biofilms, and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POP's) on environmental microplastics. We then used Spectroscopic Organic Analysis and ArcGIS mapping systems to observe the material degradation and the associated biofilm lattice on the environmental microplastics. This data sheds light on possible mechanisms of material weathering of synthetic polymers in deep ocean environments and new methods for identifying POP's association with them. These new techniques are highly transferable to many studies on material biofilm interactions in the environment.

  16. A visual odometry method based on the SwissRanger SR4000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cang; Bruch, Michael

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a pose estimation method based on a 3D camera - the SwissRanger SR4000. The proposed method estimates the camera's ego-motion by using intensity and range data produced by the camera. It detects the SIFT (Scale- Invariant Feature Transform) features in one intensity image and match them to that in the next intensity image. The resulting 3D data point pairs are used to compute the least-square rotation and translation matrices, from which the attitude and position changes between the two image frames are determined. The method uses feature descriptors to perform feature matching. It works well with large image motion between two frames without the need of spatial correlation search. Due to the SR4000's consistent accuracy in depth measurement, the proposed method may achieve a better pose estimation accuracy than a stereovision-based approach. Another advantage of the proposed method is that the range data of the SR4000 is complete and therefore can be used for obstacle avoidance/negotiation. This makes it possible to navigate a mobile robot by using a single perception sensor. In this paper, we will validate the idea of the pose estimation method and characterize the method's pose estimation performance.

  17. Autonomous Navigation Based on SEIF with Consistency Constraint for C-Ranger AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV has to solve two essential problems in underwater environment, namely, localization and mapping. SLAM is one novel solution to estimate locations and maps simultaneously based on motion models and sensor measurements. Sparse extended information filter (SEIF is an effective algorithm to reduce storage and computational costs of large-scale maps in the SLAM problem. However, there exists the inconsistency in the SEIF since the rank of the observability matrix of linearized error-state model in SLAM system is higher than that of the nonlinear SLAM system. By analyzing the consistency of the SEIF-based SLAM from the perspective of observability, a SLAM based on SEIF with consistency constraint (SEIF-CC SLAM is developed to improve the estimator’s consistency. The proposed algorithm uses the first-ever available estimates to calculate SEIF Jacobians for each of the state variables, called the First Estimates Jacobian (FEJ. Then, the linearized error-state model can keep the same observability as the underlying nonlinear SLAM system. The capability of autonomous navigation with the proposed algorithm is validated through simulations experiments and sea trials for a C-Ranger AUV. Experimental results show that the proposed SEIF-CC SLAM algorithm yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared with the SEIF-based SLAM.

  18. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 1 Ranger 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Ranger 3 ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located between 30 and 50 m below the surface. The ground water U concentration and (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the top 10 m of the weathered zone are reported for 357 samples collected over 4 wet seasons, at 5 depths, along a transect in-line with the hydraulic gradient and along the centre line of the ore body and its associated dispersion halo. The results show that the weathered zone displays a general U isotope feature for this type of ore body with the (234)U/(238)U AR for the ground water and amorphous phase of the solid matrix being less than 1. The ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is independent of the annual monsoonal climate and depth within the range surface to 10 m. In the vicinity of the U ore body the ground water (234)U/(238)U AR is 0.75 and is very similar to the (234)U/(238)U AR of the amorphous phase of the solid (0.76). The (234)U/(238)U ARs of the amorphous phase and ground water rise and separate to values of 0.88 and 1.02 at the end of the transect. The rise and separation in (234)U/(238)U AR are interpreted as evidence that the source of the U in the ground water is from the water-soluble sub-phase of the amorphous phase and that the ground water flow is too fast to allow the processes occurring across the solid-water interface to reach chemical equilibrium. The data set is a robust characterisation of the coarse and fine detail of the (234)U/(238)U AR signature in the weathered zone of U ore bodies.

  19. An Investigation of the Ranger V-770-8 Engine Installation for the Edo XOSE-1 Airplane I : Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, M. Arnold; Conway, Robert N.

    1945-01-01

    Engine temperature data and cooling correlating analyses of the engine and oil cooler are presented in connection with an investigation of the cowling and cooling of the ranger V-770-8 engine installation in the Edo XOSE-1 airplane. Three types of baffles were installed in the course of the tests: the conventional, the turbulent-flow, and the NACA diffuser baffles. Each of the types was of merit in cooling a different region on the cylinder. Incorporation of the best features of the three types into one baffle, a method which appears to be feasible, would provide improvements in cylinder cooling.

  20. Quadrinhos Nacionais no Ciberespaço: uma análise de Combo Ranger nos âmbitos digital e impresso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Elísio dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das estratégias adotadas para a criação das histórias em quadrinhos para a internet, e tem como objeto de estudo Combo Rangers. As semelhanças e diferenças entre sua versão impressa e a virtual são analisadas neste texto. A escolha dessa história deve-se por Combo Rangers ter sido a história em quadrinhos brasileira pioneira a ser realizada em ambas as maneiras, impressa e vendida em bancas e livrarias, e disponibilizada no ambiente virtual, com acesso gratuito.

  1. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy EE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Elöd Ernö Nagy,1,2 Attila Rácz,3 Edit Urbán,4 Gabriella Terhes,4 Timea Berki,5 Emöke Horváth,6 Anca M Georgescu,7 Iringó E Zaharia-Kézdi71Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Târgu-Mureş, 2Laboratory of Medical Analysis, Mures Clinical County Hospital, 3II. Psychiatry Clinic, Mures Clinical County Hospital, Târgu Mureş, Romania; 4Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, 5Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Immunology and Biotechnology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; 6Department of Pathology, 7I. Clinic of Infectious Disease, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Târgu Mureş, RomaniaAbstract: The identification and distinction of the pathological conditions underlying acute psychosis are often challenging. We present the case of a 35-year-old ranger who had no history of acute or chronic infectious disease or any previous neuropsychiatric symptoms. He arrived at the Psychiatry Clinic and was admitted as an emergency case, displaying bizarre behavior, hallucinations, paranoid ideation, and delusional faults. These symptoms had first appeared 7 days earlier. An objective examination revealed abnormalities of behavior, anxiety, visual hallucinations, choreiform, and tic-like facial movements. After the administration of neuroleptic and antidepressant treatment, he showed an initial improvement, but on day 10 entered into a severe catatonic state with signs of meningeal irritation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. An electroencephalogram showed diffuse irritative changes, raising the possibility of encephalitis. Taking into consideration the overt occupational risk, Borrelia antibody tests were prescribed and highly positive immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG titers were obtained from serum, along with IgG and antibody index positivity in cerebrospinal fluid. In parallel, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies and a whole

  2. A summary of Alaska's unique cruise ship program : wastewater, air emissions, and ocean rangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Increased environmental awareness has led to concerns over the impacts of cruise ships on Alaska's marine environment. Federal legislation has been passed to ensure that large cruise ships no longer dump bilge water in areas within 3 nautical miles from the state's shoreline. The state has also been legislation to regulate sewage releases from both small and large vessels. The state requires registration, fees, and plans for emissions, and hazardous and solid wastes. As a result of the regulations, all large cruise ships discharging wastewater in Alaska had advanced wastewater treatment systems by 2003. The systems consist of solids separation, enhanced aerobic digestion, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection systems. The quality of sewage dramatically improved in the region. Ocean rangers are now inspecting approximately 88 per cent of cruise ships visiting the Alaska region. Details of recent wastewater compliance actions were presented, as well as data on wastewater and waste emission limits. tabs., figs.

  3. Caustic waterflooding demonstration project: Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Third annual report, June 1978-May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.

    1979-12-01

    A caustic-enhanced waterflooding pilot test is being conducted in the Ranger Reservoir of the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Evaluation of entrapment and entrainment caustic flooding in Ranger Zone cores was continued. The caustic-only (entrapment) core floods failed to demonstrate improved behavior. Based on the unfavorable results of all tests of the entrapment mechanism, further laboratory work and flooding in the pilot with caustic alone have been eliminated from the project's plans. Some of the year's caustic-salt (entrainment) core floods in contrast showed both substantial recovery and WOR improvement. The poorer overall entrainment core flood results obtained in the year may be due to the core material, a smaller preflush volume used or the crude oil employed. Core flood testing where sodium silicate is substituted for some of the sodium hydroxide, was continued. The primary set of caustic water-oil dehydration tests was completed. The test softening of produced waters was completed and the results evaluated; produced water softening was found to be an economically feasible alternative to the use of fresh water. The preflush injection facilities became operational in January 1979 with the pilot's preflush officially begun April 15, 1979. The alkaline injection facility was expanded in scope to permit use of both sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide; its completion in late 1979 is anticipated with the alkaline-salt injection scheduled to begin at that time. The base case reservoir simulator prediction of the pilot under continued waterflooding was completed. This prediction provided the base line from which incremental alkaline flood production will be determined, as the test has now been declared a qualified tertiary enhanced recovery project by DOE's Economic Regulatory Administration. Major well repair/redrill work continued to be necessary exceeding earlier increased cost estimates.

  4. Novel Tools in Determining the Physiological Demands and Nutritional Practices of Ontario FireRangers during Fire Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. H.; Larivière, C.; Leduc, C. R.; McGillis, Z.; Eger, T.; Godwin, A.; Larivière, M.; Dorman, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The seasonal profession of wildland fire fighting in Canada requires individuals to work in harsh environmental conditions that are physically demanding. The purpose of this study was to use novel technologies to evaluate the physiological demands and nutritional practices of Canadian FireRangers during fire deployments. Methods Participants (n = 21) from a northern Ontario Fire Base volunteered for this study and data collection occurred during the 2014 fire season and included Initial Attack (IA), Project Fire (P), and Fire Base (B) deployments. Deployment-specific energy demands and physiological responses were measured using heart-rate variability (HRV) monitoring devices (Zephyr BioHarness3 units). Food consumption behaviour and nutrient quantity and quality were captured using audio-video food logs on iPod Touches and analyzed by NutriBase Pro 11 software. Results Insufficient kilocalories were consumed relative to expenditure for all deployment types. Average daily kilocalories consumed: IA: 3758 (80% consumption rate); P: 2945±888.8; B: 2433±570.8. Average daily kilocalorie expenditure: IA: 4538±106.3; P: 4012±1164.8; B: 2842±649.9. The Average Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein was acceptable: 22–25% (across deployment types). Whereas the AMDR for fat and carbohydrates were high: 40–50%; and low: 27–37% respectively, across deployment types. Conclusions This study is the first to use the described methodology to simultaneously evaluate energy expenditures and nutritional practices in an occupational setting. The results support the use of HRV monitoring and video-food capture, in occupational field settings, to assess job demands. FireRangers expended the most energy during IA, and the least during B deployments. These results indicate the need to develop strategies centered on maintaining physical fitness and improving food practices. PMID:28107380

  5. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  6. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  7. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...... index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  8. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  9. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin

    2006-01-01

    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  10. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  11. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  12. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  13. Use of the GlideScope®-Ranger for pre-hospital intubations by anaesthesia trained emergency physicians – an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Sebastian G.; Nickel, Eike A.; Leissner, Kay B; Schwerdtfeger, Katrin; Bauer, Martin; Roessler, Markus S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-hospital endotracheal intubation is more difficult than in the operating room (OR). Therefore, enhanced airway management devices such as video laryngoscopes may be helpful to improve the success rate of pre-hospital intubation. We describe the use of the Glidescope®-Ranger (GS-R) as an alternative airway tool used at the discretion of the emergency physician (EP) in charge. Methods: During a 3.5 year period, the GS-R was available to be used either as the primary or backup to...

  14. Analysis of Errors of Deep Space X-Band Range-Rate Measurement%深空X频段测速数据误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊敏; 王宏; 李海涛; 赵华

    2013-01-01

    X-band is the primary frequency band used by deep space TT&C (Tracking, Telemetry and Command) systems. X-band range-rate measurement is more accurate than those of S-band as validated in X-band deep space TT&C system experiments of Chang'E-2 spacecraft. The precision of range-rate measurement is about 1 mm/s. For X-band range-rate, theoretical error caused by Doppler effect approximate calculation formula is analyzed. This error could become 1 cm/s during translunar and lunar-orbiting phases. Furthermore, measurement residual error is analyzed based on the precision ephemerides of post orbit determination for X-band deep space TT&C system experiment of Chang'E-2 spacecraft. The results show that the range-rate residual error induced by the approximation increases by 1 mm/s compared to what is calculated by equations. It is close to the actual measurement precision. Therefore, the Doppler effect approximate calculation formula is no longer applicable and the exact formula should be used in the lunar and deep space exploration projects in the future.%X频段是深空测控的主用频段,其多普勒测速精度远高于S频段,这一结论在“嫦娥二号”任务X频段深空测控技术试验中得到了验证,测速精度约为1 mm/s.针对X频段高精度测速,本文分析了目前采用的径向速度近似计算公式,理论分析其产生的误差在地月转移和环月轨道段可达1 cm/s.通过“嫦娥二号”任务X频段测控技术试验,以事后精密轨道为基准进行残差分析,结果表明,相比精确公式,近似公式计算测速数据的残差会增加1 mm/s,已与X频段测速精度本身相当,因此,多普勒测速近似计算在X频段测量中已不再适用,应使用本文中列出的精确计算公式.

  15. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  16. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  18. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  19. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  1. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.200 Carrier functions. A contract between CMS and a carrier specifies the functions to be performed by the carrier. The contract may include any or all of...

  2. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  3. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  4. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  5. Comparison of the McGrath® Series 5 and GlideScope® Ranger with the Macintosh laryngoscope by paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation performed by paramedics using the Macintosh blade for direct laryngoscopy is associated with a high incidence of complications. The novel technique of video laryngoscopy has been shown to improve glottic view and intubation success in the operating room. The aim of this study was to compare glottic view, time of intubation and success rate of the McGrath® Series 5 and GlideScope® Ranger video laryngoscopes with the Macintosh laryngoscope by paramedics. Methods Thirty paramedics performed six intubations in a randomised order with all three laryngoscopes in an airway simulator with a normal airway. Subsequently, every participant performed one intubation attempt with each device in the same manikin with simulated cervical spine rigidity using a cervical collar. Glottic view, time until visualisation of the glottis and time until first ventilation were evaluated. Results Time until first ventilation was equivalent after three intubations in the first scenario. In the scenario with decreased cervical motion, the time until first ventilation was longer using the McGrath® compared to the GlideScope® and AMacintosh (p ® device (p Conclusions The learning curve for video laryngoscopy in paramedics was steep in this study. However, these data do not support prehospital use of the McGrath® and GlideScope® devices by paramedics.

  6. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  7. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  8. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  9. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  10. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  11. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  12. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  13. 3D representation of geochemical data, the corresponding alteration and associated REE mobility at the Ranger uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Louise A.; Cleverley, James S.; Pownceby, Mark; MacRae, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Interrogation and 3D visualisation of multiple multi-element data sets collected at the Ranger 1 No. 3 uranium mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, show a distinct and large-scale chemical zonation around the ore body. A central zone of Mg alteration, dominated by extensive clinochlore alteration, overprints a biotite-muscovite-K-feldspar assemblage which shows increasing loss of Na, Ba and Ca moving towards the ore body. Manipulation of pre-existing geochemical data and integration of new data collected from targeted `niche' samples make it possible to recognise chemical architecture within the system and identify potential fluid conduits. New trace element and rare earth element (REE) data show strong fractionation associated with the zoned alteration around the deposit and with fault planes that intersect and bound the deposit. Within the most altered portion of the system, isocon analysis indicates addition of elements including Mg, S, Cu, Au and Ni and removal of elements including Ca, K, Ba and Na within a zone of damage associated with ore precipitation. In the more distal parts of the system, processes of alteration and replacement associated with the mineralising system can be recognised. REE element data show enrichment in HREE centred about a characteristic peak in Dy in the high-grade ore zone while LREEs are enriched in the outermost portions of the system. The patterns recognised in 3D in zoning of geochemical groups and contoured S, K and Mg abundance and the observed REE patterns suggest a fluid flow regime in which fluids were predominately migrating upwards during ore deposition within the core of the ore system.

  14. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  15. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  16. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  17. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  18. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  19. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  20. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  1. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  2. Carrier synchronization for STBC OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jueping; Song Wentao; Li Zan; Ge Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    All-digital carrier synchronization strategies and algorithms for space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are proposed in this paper. In our scheme, the continuous pilots (CP) are saved, and the complexity of carrier synchronization is reduced significantly by dividing the process into three steps. The coarse carrier synchronization and the fine carrier synchronization algorithms are investigated and analyzed in detail. Simulations show that the carrier can be locked into tracking mode quickly, and the residual frequency error satisfies the system requirement in both stationary and mobile environments.

  3. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  4. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  5. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  7. At What Cost a Carrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...began to pay o!. By 1999 only 4 tons of bombs were needed to accomplish the mission, regardless of the weather at the target. Couple this fact with...there, how many bombs does it drop? | 7 #e &rst fact that needs to be understood in answer- ing these questions is that piloting an aircra" onto the

  8. Hydrogen - A sustainable energy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.

  9. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  10. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  11. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  12. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  13. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  14. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    (APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds......Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... uptakes (P(UP)) at apical and basolateral membranes, apparent permeabilities (P(APP)) and corresponding intracellular end-point accumulations (P(EPA)) of radioactive labeled compounds were studied. Possible effects of other anionic compounds were investigated. Apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) for ES...

  15. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  16. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  17. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  18. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  19. UXO Precise Position Tracking Ranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    magnetometer or a Geonics EM-61 electromagnetic metal detector . The initial focus was on acquiring high accuracy, fixed point navigation and large area...Is integrated with Geometrics G-858 magnetometer and Geonics EM-61 electromagnetic metal detector • Provides ~20 cm positioning accuracy (1 σ

  20. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  1. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  2. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  3. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  4. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... the first order asymmetry severalfold (“second order asymmetry”). It was shown that a substrate competitive mode of action involving competition both for the enzyme and for the enzyme-bound carrier will result in a behaviour resembling the observed “second order asymmetry”. It is felt, therefore...

  5. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  6. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  7. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  8. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  9. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  10. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  11. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  12. What It Means to be a Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Planning Daily Living Strategies Genetic Counselor Research Biomarker Research Program News, Reports and Commentaries Previously Funded ... with the premutation are at increased risk for depression. It is therefore recommended that any premutation carrier ...

  13. Simulation of dual transponder carrier ranging measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu ZHAO; Xiao-jun JIN; Zhong-he JIN

    2009-01-01

    The most dominant error source for microwave ranging is the frequency instability of the oscillator that generates the carrier phase signal. The oscillator noise is very difficult to filter due to its extremely low frequency. A dual transponder carrier ranging method can effectively minimize the oscillator noise by combing the reference phase and the to-and-fro measurement phase from the same single oscillator. This method does not require an accurate time tagging system, since it extracts phases on the same satellite. This paper analyzes the dual transponder carrier ranging system by simulation of the phase measurements with comprehensive error models. Both frequency domain and time domain noise transfer characteristics were simulated to compare them with dual one-way ranging. The simulation results in the two domains conformed to each other and demonstrated that a high level of accuracy can also be achieved by use of the dual transponder carrier ranging system, with relatively simple instruments.

  14. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  15. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  16. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  17. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-01-01

    The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in wh...

  18. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  19. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  20. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  1. 基于能量守恒的星间距离变率与地球重力场频谱关系的建立与分析%Establishment and Analysis of the Spectral Relationship Between Range-Rate and Gravity Potential Based on Energy Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁津生; 钟波; 罗志才; 罗佳

    2009-01-01

    The spectral relationship between range-rate measurements and the gravity potential for low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking mission was established based on the energy conservation theory. Then the performances of satellite separation, the orbital altitude, and the accuracy of range-rate measurements in recovering the earth's gravity field were simulated and analyzed by this method. Finally, the cumulative geoid errors of the reference mode were obtained by using the configuration parameters of the GRACE mission. By comparing the cumulative geoid errors of the reference mode and GGMO2S and EIGEN-GRACEO2S models, it basically reflected the performance of GRACE and proved the feasibility of this method.

  2. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  3. 基于温度和热容流率同时变化的有分流换热网络弹性设计的研究%Synthesis of Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks with Stream Splits Based on Rangers of Stream Supply Temperatures and Heat Capacity Flowrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志红; 罗行; 华贲; W.Roetzel

    2004-01-01

    A new superstructure model of heat exchanger networks (HEN) with stream splits based on rangers of streams supply temperatures and heat capacity flow rates is presented. The simultaneous optimal mathematical model of flexible HEN synthesis is established too. Firstly, the streams with rangers of supply temperatures and/or the streams with the rangers of heat capacity flow rates are pretreated; Secondly, several rules are proposed to establish the superstructure model of HEN with splits and the simultaneous optimal mathematical model of flexible HEN; Thirdly, the improving genetic algorithm is applied to solve the mathematical model established at the second step effectively, and the original optimal structure of HEN based on the maximum operation limiting condition can be obtained easily; Finally, the rules of heat exchange unit merged and the heat load of heat exchanger relaxed are presented, the flexible configuration of HEN satisfied the operation condition between the upper and down bounds of supply temperature and heat capacity flow rates can be obtained based on the original optimal structure of HEN by means of these rules. A case study demonstrates the method presented in this paper is effective

  4. 林火扑救队伍跟踪及护林员巡护管理系统研究%Research on Forest Fire Suppression Team Tracking and Ranger Patrol Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璠; 舒立福; 邓忠坚; 周汝良; 张明远

    2014-01-01

    针对林火火情复杂、容易导致扑救人员伤亡的情况,基于GPS(Global Positioning System,全球定位系统)技术、嵌入式系统开发技术和GIS(Geographic Information System,地理信息系统)开发技术,研究并开发出林火扑救队伍跟踪及护林员巡护监督系统。该系统由两部分组成,一是扑火队伍和护林员随身携带的前端跟踪器,它能实时精确地采集扑火队伍的位置,并将编号等其他信息组帧后,通过GSM(Global System for Mobile Communication,全球移动通信系统)网络的SMS(Short Message Service,短消息服务)通道回传;二是后台跟踪监督管理系统,通过回传的数据,在地形图、遥感图像等底图上生成扑火队伍和护林员的位置标记及活动轨迹。最终形成的系统可为扑火指挥人员和林区日常管理人员提供准确的信息参考。该系统解决了以往设计方法中跟踪器通信距离短或不稳定、可携带性差等问题,同时在后台跟踪监督管理系统中设置了电子围栏功能,为实现扑火队伍的自动安全警示、对林区日常巡护工作的自动监督提供一种方法。%In response to the fact that complex forest fire can easily lead to casualties and injuries of fire suppression personnel, the fire suppression team tracking and ranger patrol supervision system has been under research and realized, based on the GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, the embedded system technology and GIS (Geographic Information System) technology development. The system consists of two parts. The first part is the front-end tracker that fire suppression team and rangers keep with. It can accurately in real time collect positions of the fire suppression team. After framing other information including serial numbers, it feeds back the information through the SMS(Short Message Service) of the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) network. The second part

  5. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  6. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section 64.1140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any...

  7. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  8. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  9. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  10. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  11. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  12. [Therapy of hepatitis B virus carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, N M; Petiĭ, S I

    1986-01-01

    Examination of 200 gastroenterological patients with a suspected chronic diffuse liver disease has demonstrated that only in 18.9% of the patients with chronic hepatitis, the disease was induced by the virus. Based on the experience gained with the treatment of 7 patients with chronic hepatitis B it is concluded that sanitation may be performed with levamisole. However, the data obtained in the course of the 5-year observation over sanitation of HBsAg carriers (25 subjects) do not provide any convincing evidence in favour of levamisole sanitation. The authors hold that at the blood transfusion stations the prophylaxis of serum hepatitis falls short of ideal. Selection of the donors according to CCIE does not give any guarantee against the viral hepatitis B carrier state. Like patients with viral hepatitis B, the HBsAg carriers badly need active prophylactic-and-treatment medical examination with the use of the antiviral agents.

  13. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  14. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  15. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  16. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high...

  17. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  18. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are a...

  19. Roch Carrier, Popular Language, and Joual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, Max

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the language problems in Roch Carrier's French Canadian short stories, as well as his concise, nostalgic writing style. The article gives examples of vocabulary in his characters' dialogue; reviews the evolvement of French in Quebec and the question of "joual," in particular; and focuses on expressions posing difficulty for…

  20. A NEW SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONALIZED ANTIGEN CARRIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRIJFHOUT, JW; BLOEMHOFF, W

    1991-01-01

    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  1. Microemulsions as Potential Carriers of Nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alexandraki, Voula

    2016-01-01

    Water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions based on either refined olive oil (ROO) or sunflower oil (SO), distilled monoglycerides (DMG), and ethanol were used as nisin carriers in order to ensure its effectiveness as a biopreservative. This work presents experimental evidence on the effects of ethanol...

  2. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  3. Dextran: A promising macromolecular drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Suneela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades intensive efforts have been made to design novel systems able to deliver the drug more effectively to the target site. The ongoing intense search for novel and innovative drug delivery systems is predominantly a consequence of the well-established fact that the conventional dosage forms are not sufficiently effective in conveying the drug compound to its site of action and once in the target area, in releasing the active agent over a desired period of time. The potential use of macromolecular prodrugs as a means of achieving targeted drug delivery has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Macromolecules such as antibodies, lipoproteins, lectins, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, natural as well as synthetic polymers offer potential applicabilities as high molecular weight carriers for various therapeutically active compounds. Dextrans serve as one of the most promising macromolecular carrier candidates for a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to their excellent physico-chemical properties and physiological acceptance. The present contribution attempts to review various features of the dextran carrier like its source, structural and physico-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetic fate and its applications as macromolecular carrier with special emphasis on dextran prodrugs.

  4. A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, A.; Reggiani, L. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia. Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali; Kuhn, T. [Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ. (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II; Varani, L. [Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier II (France). Centre d`Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique

    1996-12-01

    A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers K = 2{pi}{sup 2}k{sub B}{sup 2}T / (3h) is rigorously derived within a correlation-function formalism. Similar to the case of the universal electrical conductance G = 2e{sup 2} / h this result pertains to one-dimensional, ballistic, and degenerate conditions for non-interacting particles.

  5. Itaconic acid carrier ampholytes for isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, O

    1977-04-11

    Commercial carrier ampholytes, obtained by coupling polyethylene polyamines to acrylic acid, exhibit a conductivity minimum in the pH range 5.5-6.5 owing to the lack of appropriate pK values of the polyamine in this pH region. By replacing acrylic with itaconic acid, it has been possible to effect substantial improvements in the pH range 5.5-6.5 as itaconic acid has a pK2 value of 5.45. Upon coupling, the pK of the gramma-carboxyl group remains virtually unaltered. With itoconic acid carrier ampholytes it has been possible to improve the conductivity in the pH range 5.5-6.5 by as much as 400% compared with conventional carrier ampholytes. It is suggected that the commercial products should be supplemented with itaconic acid carrier ampholytes in order to obtain a more uniform conductivity and buffering capacity in the pH range 3-10.

  6. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics and dielectric properties of GaN epilayers with different carrier concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Tang, S. H.

    2009-09-01

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex conductivity and dielectric function of n-type GaN with various carrier concentrations on sapphire substrate. The measured complex conductivity, which is due to the free carriers, is well fitted by simple Drude model. The contribution from the lattice vibration to the complex dielectric function increases with the decrease in free carrier concentration. A better fitting of the frequency-dependent complex dielectric response was obtained by considering both of the Drude and the classical damped oscillator model.

  8. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2004-01-01

    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  9. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  10. Resistivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility of electrochemically deposited CdTe films

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Makoto; Uosaki, Kohei; Kita, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    The electrical type, resistivity, and donor or acceptor concentration of CdTe films deposited electrochemically at various potentials were measured. The carrier mobilities of the films were determined from these results. The deposition potential dependence of the mobility was small and the deposition potential dependence of the resistivity was mainly controlled by the deposition potential dependence of the donor or acceptor concentration. The carrier mobilities were very small compared with t...

  11. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  12. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, A; Zuppardo, M; Gillett, G G; Broome, M A; Almeida, M P; Paternostro, M; White, A G; Paterek, T

    2013-12-01

    The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without direct transfer-or communication-of entanglement. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here, we experimentally entangle two communicating parties sharing three initially separable photonic qubits by exchange of a carrier photon that is unentangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement through noisy environments.

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A drug carrier system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are a type of nanoparticles. They are submicron colloidal carriers which are composed of physiological lipids, dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solutions. SLN have wide range of advantages over other types of nanoparticles. These include availability of large-scale production methods and no signs of cytotoxicity, which are main hindrances in the application of other types of nanoparticles. Hot and cold homogenization techniques are mainly employed for its production. They are mainly evaluated on the basis of their drug release profile and particle internal structure. The products based on SLN are under development. They have a very wide range of applications in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They can be applied for any purpose, for which nanoparticles have a distinct advantage. Thus, SLN can be used extensively as an alternative to the existing drug carrier systems, providing more flexibility with respect to the area of applications and also aspects for commercialization.

  14. Controlling carrier dynamics at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Enrique; Bonn, Mischa

    2016-10-01

    This Special issue is motivated by the occasion of the International Conference on Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Nanoscale (CCDNano), held in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) in September 2015. As chairs for the CCDNano meeting, we aimed at bringing together experts from different scientific fields in order to trigger interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations; the ultimate goal of the conference was to serve as a platform to advance and help unifying methodologies and theories from different research sub-fields. We also aimed at a deeper understanding of charge dynamics to contribute to the development of improved or novel nanostructured devices. This special issue keeps that spirit, and intends to provide an overview of ongoing research efforts regarding charge carrier dynamics at the nanoscale.

  15. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  16. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  17. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  18. DETECTION OF COMPLEXES OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES WITH POLYMERIC CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlizlo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The new method for detection of cationic oligoelectrolytes conjugates with oligodeoxyonucleotides, based on free diffusion of these substances in 0.8% agarose gels is developed. It enables to simplify and reduce the cost of visual identification of the best carrier among various polymer compounds and to uncover the fact of complex formation between the interacting agents resulting in formation of a ring precipitation. The universality of the proposed methodological approach is confirmed by interaction of coligodeoxynucleotides with other cationic polymer of natural origin, namely chitosan. Comparative analysis of our approach applicationto turbidimetry data concerning coligodeoxynucleotides complexes and their electrophoresis showed some advantages, among them are the ability to screen simultaneously a large number of polymeric carriers and no need for using of more expensive equipment and materials. To conclude the complexing occurrence it is enough nanomol amounts of oligodeoxynucleotide.

  19. Leasing in low-cost carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, José Frederico Pais

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of aircraft leasing as a financing instrument in the low-cost carriers’ sector. These airlines have been showing a huge growth in the customers’ preferences, while aircraft leasing plays a relevant role in the financing options of airlines. In this study we determined that lease future commitments represent on average 80% of other debt commitments in low-cost carriers. Furthermore, we discovered that the leasing rate in low-cost ai...

  20. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  1. Polymeric micellar drug carriers with fluorescent properties

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana Sofia Lemos Machado; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Manuel; Moura, I; Machado, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembling polymeric surfactants, based on amphiphilic block copolymers into nanosized aggregates in aqueous solution, are of great interest in the biomedical fields as one class of promising carrier systems, for drug delivery, gene therapy and diagnostic biosensors.[1] The incorporation of fluorescent probes into polymeric micelles has been fulfilled either by physically encapsulation or chemically attachment of fluorophores. [2] These micelle-based fluorescent probes not only facili...

  2. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  3. Carrier-free, continuous primary beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A; Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Developing a sustainable continuous fermentation reactor is one of the most ambitious tasks in brewing science, but it could bring great benefits regarding volumetric productivity to modern breweries. Immobilized cell technology is often applied to reach the large densities of yeast needed in a continuous fermentation process. However, the financial cost associated with the use of carriers for yeast immobilization is one of the major drawbacks in the technology. This work suggests that yeast ...

  4. Photoinduced carrier annihilation in silicon pn junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    We report analysis of the photo-induced minority carrier effective lifetime (τeff) in a p+n junction formed on the top surfaces of a n-type silicon substrate by ion implantation of boron and phosphorus atoms at the top and bottom surfaces followed by activation by microwave heating. Bias voltages were applied to the p+ boron-doped surface with n+ phosphorus-doped surface kept at 0 V. The values of τeff were lower than 1 × 10-5 s under the reverse-bias condition. On the other hand, τeff markedly increased to 1.4 × 10-4 s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V and then it leveled off when continuous-wave 635 nm light was illuminated at 0.74 mW/cm2 on the p+ surface. The carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{p + } at the p+ surface region was numerically estimated from the experimental τeff. S\\text{p + } ranged from 4000 to 7200 cm/s under the reverse-bias condition when the carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{n + } at the n+ surface region was assumed to be a constant value of 100 cm/s. S\\text{p + } markedly decreased to 265 cm/s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V.

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  6. Carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    of the molar mixing ratio between the carrier peptide and the therapeutic cargo, whereas the direct conjugation approach ensures an inherent proximity of the carrier peptide to its therapeutic cargo. So far studies addressing the choice of using the co-administration approach over the conjugation approach......-34)) and the widely studied CPP penetratin were employed as therapeutic cargo and carrier peptide, respectively....

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  8. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  9. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  10. 19 CFR 18.2 - Receipt by carrier; manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.2 Receipt by carrier... Carrier (or Exporter) Attorney-in-fact or Agent of Carrier (or Exporter) Date (3) Merchandise delivered... prescribed in subpart D of part 123 of this chapter, relating to merchandise in transit through the...

  11. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel;

    2013-01-01

    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  12. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  13. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.

  14. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES AND NANO LIPID CARRIERS: AS NOVEL SOLID LIPID BASED DRUG CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish B. Singhal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in lipid based drug delivery has developed over the past decade fuelled by a better understanding of the multiple roles lipids may play in enhancing oral bioavailability. Moreover, the emergence of novel excipients with acceptable regulatory and safety profiles coupled with advances in formulation technologies have greatly improved the potential for successful lipid based formulations. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN introduced in 1991 represent an alternative carrier system to traditional colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. SLN combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. This paper reviews the present state of the art regarding production techniques for SLN/ nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC, drug incorporation method and types, stability. The potential of SLN/NLC to be exploited for the different administration routes is also highlighted.

  15. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low-cost...... airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...... and sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages....

  16. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers...... with a sponge-like structure, The pores will actas lubricant reservoirs during severe forming processes. The deposited microporous layer is evaluated by friction tests in the form of ring compression tests and double cup extrusion tests. Furthermore the anti-seizure properties are investigated by single cup...

  17. Hardware Trojan by Hot Carrier Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Shiyanovskii, Y; Papachristou, C; Weyer, D; Clay, W

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how hot carrier injection (HCI) can be exploited to create a trojan that will cause hardware failures. The trojan is produced not via additional logic circuitry but by controlled scenarios that maximize and accelerate the HCI effect in transistors. These scenarios range from manipulating the manufacturing process to varying the internal voltage distribution. This new type of trojan is difficult to test due to its gradual hardware degradation mechanism. This paper describes the HCI effect, detection techniques and discusses the possibility for maliciously induced HCI trojans.

  18. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  19. The solute carrier 6 family of transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Stefan; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of the human genome comprises transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Members of this family play critical roles in neurotransmission, cellular and whole body homeostasis. Malfunction or altered expression...... of these transporters is associated with a variety of diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of the neurotransmitter transporters in this family is an important strategy in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological properties...... of the SLC6 family transporters....

  20. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that...

  1. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) will hold working group...

  2. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: The FMCSA solicits nominations...

  3. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  4. The effect of carrier surface and bulk properties on drug particle detachment from crystalline lactose carrier particles during inhalation, as function of carrier payload and mixing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, B.H.J.; de Boer, Anne; Lambregts, D.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of carrier payload and mixing time on the redispersion of drug particles from adhesive mixtures during inhalation for two different drugs (budesonide and disodium cromoglycate) has been investigated. A special test inhaler which retains carrier crystals during inhalation was used at 30 an

  5. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  6. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  7. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, D., E-mail: dominikb@phys.ethz.ch; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  8. High charge-carrier mobility enables exploitation of carrier multiplication in quantum-dot films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchand Sandeep, C.S.; Ten Cate, S.; Schins, J.M.; Savenije, T.J.; Liu, Y.; Law, M.; Kinge, S.; Houtepen, A.J.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Carrier multiplication, the generation of multiple electron–hole pairs by a single photon, is of great interest for solar cells as it may enhance their photocurrent. This process has been shown to occur efficiently in colloidal quantum dots, however, harvesting of the generated multiple charges has

  9. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  10. Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene): Effects of carrier bimolecular recombination and trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soci, Cesare; Moses, Daniel; Xu, Qing-Hua; Heeger, Alan J.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene) over a broad time range using fast (t>100ps) transient photoconductivity measurements. The carrier density was also monitored (t>100fs) by means of photoinduced absorption probed at the infrared active vibrational modes. We find that promptly upon charge-carrier photogeneration, the initial polaron dynamics is governed by bimolecular recombination, while later in the subnanosecond time regime carrier trapping gives rise to an exponential decay of the photocurrent. The more sensitive transient photocurrent measurements indicate that in the low excitation regime, when the density of photocarriers is comparable to that of the trapping states (˜1016cm-3) , carrier hopping between traps along with transport via extended states determines the carrier relaxation, a mechanism that is manifested by a long-lived photocurrent “tail.” This photocurrent tail is reduced by lowering the temperature and/or by increasing the excitation density. Based on these data, we develop a comprehensive kinetic model that takes into account the bipolar charge transport, the free-carrier bimolecular recombination, the carrier trapping, and the carrier recombination involving free and trapped carriers.

  11. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuangMin Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  12. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, GuangMin; Yuan, Weizheng; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, HongLong

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  13. Characteristics of participants in a gestational carrier program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, A M; Corson, S L

    1992-08-01

    Genetic parents and gestational carriers in our gestational carrier program were evaluated by psychodiagnostic interview and by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview-2 (MMPI-2), a widely used objective psychological test, to identify psychopathology and describe personality characteristics. Overall, participants exhibited no overt psychopathology. Personality differences were found between gestational carriers and genetic mothers and genetic fathers and mothers. Clinical interviews revealed that gestational carriers tended to be the dominant partner in the relationship, were motivated by a wish to help an infertile couple, enjoyed being pregnant, showed narcissistic needs, and expressed a wish for secondary financial gain. The majority of gestational carriers stated that they had considered becoming a traditional surrogate but felt they could not surrender a child that was genetically theirs. These results indicate that there is not any predisposing psychopathology which attracts participants to the gestational carrier program.

  14. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  15. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE-Advanc......Net scenario) that respects the 3GPP specifications. Numerical results show that this algorithm has better performances than the traditional Round Robin and Proportionally Fair resource scheduling algorithms....

  16. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  17. An evaluation of low-cost payload carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, V. H.

    1980-01-01

    Payload carrier designed for space vehicles is essentially cargo carrier that supports, positions, and protects various equipment and materials used in conducting experiments in weightless space environment. Proposed carrier entitled Materials Experiment Assembly II (MEA-II) is considered superior to previously developed models in size, weight, and cost to user. Structure is lightweight with insulated exterior and can be custom sized to meet user needs.

  18. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  19. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  20. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  1. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  2. Take advantage of your insurance carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    The primary objective of the developer of an independent energy facility is to make a profit through the sale of electricity and steam. The most effective way to achieve this objective is to design, build and operate a facility in a way that maximizes its availability and efficiency without increasing expenses. A property carrier has a range of insurance products and engineering services designed not only to transfer risk but to increase availability and efficiency and reduce the cost of operating and maintaining a facility. The independent energy producer can benefit by taking full advantage of traditional and specialty insurance products as well as engineering services that are available today. There is a whole range of insurance products that apply during the various stages of pre-construction, construction, testing and commercial operation, and these are described.

  3. Carrier Induced Magnetism In Correlated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byounghak; Trivedi, Nandini; Zhang, Shiwei; Martin, Richard

    2003-03-01

    We study a two dimensional Hubbard model with magnetic impurities using a combination of single particle and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. Our aim is to determine the interaction between magnetic ions in both strongly interacting hosts, such as magnetic perovskites, and weakly interacting hosts, such as magnetic semiconductors. In the first step, the interactions are treated within an inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock approach and self-consistency is demanded at each site, providing a more accurate treatment of disorder effects compared with other mean-field treatments such as virtual crystal and coherent potential approximations. These are then augmented with determinantal quantum Monte Carlo techniques that treat the electron interactions more accurately. We calculate the exchange coupling as a function of the magnetic impurity concentration, the repulsive electron-electron interaction, carrier concentration, and temperature. We compare the calculated local density of states with STM measurements and also obtain the ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  4. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  5. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  6. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  7. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Fu, Yongping; Wang, Jue; Joshi, Prakriti P.; Niesner, Daniel; Williams, Kristopher W.; Jin, Song; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit carrier properties that resemble those of pristine nonpolar semiconductors despite static and dynamic disorder, but how carriers are protected from efficient scattering with charged defects and optical phonons is unknown. Here, we reveal the carrier protection mechanism by comparing three single-crystal lead bromide perovskites: CH3NH3PbBr3, CH(NH2)2PbBr3, and CsPbBr3. We observed hot fluorescence emission from energetic carriers with ~102-picosecond lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 or CH(NH2)2PbBr3, but not in CsPbBr3. The hot fluorescence is correlated with liquid-like molecular reorientational motions, suggesting that dynamic screening protects energetic carriers via solvation or large polaron formation on time scales competitive with that of ultrafast cooling. Similar protections likely exist for band-edge carriers. The long-lived energetic carriers may enable hot-carrier solar cells with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  8. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; van Essen, AJ; Leschot, NJ; de Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers

  9. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  10. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on simulations and experimental measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra and acoustic spectra i...

  11. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...

  12. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  13. AQUASOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sutariya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiopharmaceutics involves delivery of biopharmaceutical product through different biomaterials like multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, aquasomes, superparamagnetic iron oxide crystals, and liposomes dendrimers. Nanotechnology has emerged fields of biomedical research in the last few decades the presents context is an attempt to present the brief information about nanobiotechnological applications. Aquasomes are nanoparticulate carrier system but instead of being simple nanoparticles these arse three layered self assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. Aquasomes are spherical 60–300 nm particles used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes discovery comprises a principle from microbiology, food chemistry, biophysics and many discoveries including solid phase synthesis, supramolecular chemistry, molecular shape change and self assembly. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds and brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate. Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage. Hydroxyapatite seems, therefore, a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants for drug delivery. The solid core provides the structural stability, while the carbohydrate coating protects against dehydration and stabilizes the biochemically active molecules. This property of maintaining the conformational integrity of bioactive molecules has led to the proposal that aquasomes have potential as a carrier system for delivery of peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Aquasome deliver their content through specific targeting, molecular sheiling and slow

  14. Experimental and Ab Initio Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ana M.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M.; Goddard, William A.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the nonequilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions that allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly nonthermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  15. Experimental and ab initio ultrafast carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Ana M; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the non-equilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions which allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly non-thermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  16. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  17. Carrier-dependent temporal processing in an auditory interneuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Patrick; Gottlieb, Heather; Pollack, Gerald S

    2008-05-01

    Signal processing in the auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was compared at high- and low-carrier frequencies in three different experimental paradigms. First, integration time, which corresponds to the time it takes for a neuron to reach threshold when stimulated at the minimum effective intensity, was found to be significantly shorter at high-carrier frequency than at low-carrier frequency. Second, phase locking to sinusoidally amplitude modulated signals was more efficient at high frequency, especially at high modulation rates and low modulation depths. Finally, we examined the efficiency with which ON1 detects gaps in a constant tone. As reflected by the decrease in firing rate in the vicinity of the gap, ON1 is better at detecting gaps at low-carrier frequency. Following a gap, firing rate increases beyond the pre-gap level. This "rebound" phenomenon is similar for low- and high-carrier frequencies.

  18. Bombarding Cancer: Biolistic Delivery of therapeutics using Porous Si Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilony, Neta; Tzur-Balter, Adi; Segal, Ester; Shefi, Orit

    2013-08-01

    A new paradigm for an effective delivery of therapeutics into cancer cells is presented. Degradable porous silicon carriers, which are tailored to carry and release a model anti-cancer drug, are biolistically bombarded into in-vitro cancerous targets. We demonstrate the ability to launch these highly porous microparticles by a pneumatic capillary gene gun, which is conventionally used to deliver cargos by heavy metal carriers. By optimizing the gun parameters e.g., the accelerating gas pressure, we have successfully delivered the porous carriers, to reach deep targets and to cross a skin barrier in a highly spatial resolution. Our study reveals significant cytotoxicity towards the target human breast carcinoma cells following the delivery of drug-loaded carriers, while administrating empty particles results in no effect on cell viability. The unique combination of biolistics with the temporal control of payload release from porous carriers presents a powerful and non-conventional platform for designing new therapeutic strategies.

  19. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, A.; Florian, M.; Rösner, M.; Lorke, M.; Wehling, T. O.; Gies, C.; Jahnke, F.

    2016-09-01

    When exploring new materials for their potential in (opto)electronic device applications, it is important to understand the role of various carrier interaction and scattering processes. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, the Coulomb interaction is known to be much stronger than in quantum wells of conventional semiconductors like GaAs, as witnessed by the 50 times larger exciton binding energy. The question arises, whether this directly translates into equivalently faster carrier-carrier Coulomb scattering of excited carriers. Here we show that a combination of ab initio band-structure and many-body theory predicts Coulomb-mediated carrier relaxation on a sub-100 fs time scale for a wide range of excitation densities, which is less than an order of magnitude faster than in quantum wells.

  20. Clinical disease presentation and ECG characteristics of LMNA mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Laura; Nikus, Kjell; Holmström, Miia; Jalanko, Mikko; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Koskenvuo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Palojoki, Eeva; Reissell, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi; Heliö, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C of the nuclear lamina are a frequent cause of cardiomyopathy accounting for 5–8% of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Our aim was to study disease onset, presentation and progression among LMNA mutation carriers. Methods Clinical follow-up data from 27 LMNA mutation carriers and 78 patients with idiopathic DCM without an LMNA mutation were collected. In addition, ECG data were collected and analysed systematically from 20 healthy controls. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in event-free survival (death, heart transplant, resuscitation and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy included as events) between LMNA mutation carriers and DCM controls (p=0.5). LMNA mutation carriers presented with atrial fibrillation at a younger age than the DCM controls (47 vs 57 years, p=0.003). Male LMNA mutation carriers presented with clinical manifestations roughly a decade earlier than females. In close follow-up non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was detected in 78% of LMNA mutation carriers. ECG signs of septal remodelling were present in 81% of the LMNA mutation carriers, 21% of the DCM controls and none of the healthy controls giving a high sensitivity and specificity for the standard ECG in distinguishing LMNA mutation carriers from patients with DCM and healthy controls. Conclusions Male LMNA mutation carriers present clinical manifestations at a younger age than females. ECG septal remodelling appears to distinguish LMNA mutation carriers from healthy controls and patients with DCM without LMNA mutations. PMID:28123761

  1. Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

    2013-09-01

    Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

  2. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  3. Is metal nanofluid reliable as heat carrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine, Md J; Chung, Hanshik; Tanshen, Md Riyad; Osman, N A B Abu; Jeong, Hyomin

    2014-05-30

    A pre- and post experimental analysis of copper-water and silver-water nanofluids are conducted to investigate minimal changes in quality of nanofluids before and after an effective heat transfer. A single loop oscillating heat pipe (OHP) having inner diameter of 2.4mm is charged with aforementioned nanofluids at 60% filling ratio for end to end heat transfer. Post experimental analysis of both nanofluids raises questions to the physical, chemical and thermal stability of such suspension for hazardless uses in the field of heat transfer. The color, deposition, dispersibility, propensity to be oxidized, disintegration, agglomeration and thermal conductivity of metal nanofluids are found to be strictly affected by heat transfer process and vice versa. Such degradation in quality of basic properties of metal nanofluids implies its challenges in practical application even for short-term heat transfer operations at oxidative environment as nano-sized metal particles are chemically more unstable than its bulk material. The use of the solid/liquid suspension containing metal nanoparticles in any heat exchanger as heat carrier might be detrimental to the whole system.

  4. POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES AS DRUG CARRIERS:: RELEASE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  5. Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Zhou, K. C.; Huang, S. P.; Liu, F.; Li, Y. M.; Xue, Z. G.; Long, Z. G.

    2004-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite crystalline nanoparticles were created by a precipitation hydrothermal technique and the majority of crystal particles were in the size range of 40-60nm and exhibited a colloidal feature when suspended in water. The gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line cells were cultivated in the presence of10-100 μg ml-1 hydroxyapatite nanoparticle suspension and verified by MTT evaluation for their biocompatibility in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the HA nanoparticles potentially adsorb the green fluorescence protein EGFP-N1 plasmid DNA at pH 2 and 7, but not at pH 12. The DNA-nanoparticle complexes transfected EGFP-N1 pDNA into SGC-7901 cells in vitro with the efficiency about 80% as referenced with Lipofectmine TM 2000. In vivo animal experiment revealed no acute toxic adverse effect 2weeks after tail vein injection into mice, and TEM examination demonstrated their biodistribution and expression within the cytoplasm and also a little in the nuclei of the liver, kidney and brain tissue cells. These results suggest that the HA nanoparticle is a promising material that can be used as gene carrier, vectors.

  6. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan Tzu Dist., 811 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yang, Fann-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiang-Chen [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations (AIM-HI), National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  7. 75 FR 38423 - Minimum Levels of Financial Responsibility for Motor Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 387 RIN 2126-AB05 Minimum Levels of Financial Responsibility for Motor Carriers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final... for motor carriers to allow Canada-domiciled motor carriers and freight forwarders to maintain,...

  8. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Humansystems® Résume La Direction – Besoins en Ressources Terrestres (DBRT) est engagée dans un processus d’acquisition qui livrera une capacité de...transported via a variety of vehicles, typically stored in the individual CR’s home, and cleaned after each use. Differences were observed in Lee...le fusil présentement émis est difficile à maintenir et a besoin de modernisation. La Direction – Besoin en Ressources Terrestres (DBRT) est engagé

  9. Analysis of Ionospheric Delay Estimates from GNSS Carrier Phase Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    There is an increased demand for more precise ionospheric information such as ionospheric augmentation for fast ambiguity convergence and resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP). More precise ionospheric information is also highly desired to improve the understanding of the space weather dynamics and its impacts on various applications such as aviation and communication systems. Carrier phase measurements from GNSS offer the best precision for precise applications. Current ionospheric models, however, are mostly derived from code or carrier-smoothed code measurements. Ionopsheric models based on carrier phase measurements are expected to provide improved accuracy and should be investigated. In this contribution, various data analyses will be conducted on ionospheric estimates from carrier phase measurements. Since carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and they are also affected by fractional biases, proper observation model is necessary and will be developed. With proper observation model, the analysis results are used to investigate the differences and characteristics of the ionospheric estimates between the code and carrier phase derived estimates and subsequently to help develop methods for precise estimation of the biases in carrier phase measurements and the recovery of the ionospheric effects. Data acquired at different geographic locations and under different ionospheric conditions will be processed for numerical analysis.

  10. An Efficient Inter Carrier Interference Cancellation Schemes for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been used widely in wireless communication systems. OFDM is very effective in combating inter-symbol interference and can achieve high data rate in frequency selective channel. For OFDM communication systems, the frequency offsets in mobile radio channels distort the orthogonality between subcarriers resulting in Inter Carrier Interference (ICI. ICI causes power leakage among subcarriers thus degrading the system performance. A well-known problem of OFDM is its sensitivity to frequency offset between the transmitted and received carrier frequencies. There are two deleterious effects caused by frequency offset one is the reduction of signal amplitude in the output of the filters matched to each of the carriers and the second is introduction of ICI from the other carriers. This research work investigates three effective methods for combating the effects of ICI: ICI Self Cancellation (SC, Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation, and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. These three methods are compared in terms of bit error rate performance and bandwidth efficiency. Through simulations, it is shown that the three techniques are effective in mitigating the modulation schemes, the ML and EKF methods perform better than the SC method.Keywords- Orthogonal frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM; Inter Carrier Interference(ICI; Carrier to Interference Power Ratio (CIR;Self Cancellation(SC;Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO; Maximum Likelihood(ML; Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF.

  11. Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian

    Time transfer (TT) is the process of transmitting a timing signal from one place to another place. It has applications to the formation and realization of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), telecommunications, electrical power grids, and even stock exchanges. TT is the actual bottleneck of the UTC formation and realization since the technology of atomic clocks is almost always ahead of that of TT. GPS carrier-phase time transfer (GPSCPTT), as a mainstream TT technique accepted by most national timing laboratories, has suffered from the day-boundary-discontinuity (day-BD) problem for many years. This makes us difficult to observe a remote Cesium fountain clock behavior even after a few days. We find that day-BD comes from the GPS code noise. The day-BD can be lowered by ˜40% if more satellite-clock information is provided and if a few GPS receivers at the same station are averaged. To completely eliminate day-BD, the RINEX-Shift (RS) and revised RS (RRS) algorithms have been designed. The RS/RRS result matches the two-way satellite time/frequency transfer (TWSTFT) result much better than the conventional GPSCPTT result. With the RS/RRS algorithm, we are able to observe a remote Cesium fountain after half a day. We also study the BD due to GPS data anomalies (anomaly-BD). A simple curve-fitting strategy can eliminate the anomaly-BD. Thus, we achieve continuous GPSCPTT after eliminating both day-BD and anomaly-BD.

  12. Distribution of charge carriers in dissipative structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, I K; Kovalev, A S

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that redistribution of the charge carrier concentration takes place in the volume of Te and InSb monocrystals under formation and excitation by the strong field of a dissipative structure in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma. This leads to a situation when the presence of only longitudinal autosolitons in the dissipative structure reduces the charge carrier concentration outside autosolitons while the presence of only transversal autosolitons makes the charge carriers concentration larger. These effects are explained in the following manner: longitudinal autosolitons, occurring in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma created by the Joule heating are considered as cold and transversal autosolitons are considered as hot ones

  13. Laccase immobilized on magnetic carriers for biotechnology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotkova, Jana [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Strossova 239, 530 03 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Sulakova, Romana [Department of Technology of Organic Compounds, Doubravice 41, 533 53 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Korecka, Lucie; Zdrazilova, Pavla; Jandova, Miroslava [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Strossova 239, 530 03 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Lenfeld, Jiri; Horak, Daniel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho nam. 2, 162 06 Praha (Czech Republic); Bilkova, Zuzana [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, University of Pardubice, Strossova 239, 530 03 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: Zuzana.Bilkova@upce.cz

    2009-05-15

    Laccase catalyzing the oxidation of p-diphenols has been applied in many industrial and biotechnology areas. Immobilized form of laccase has overcome the problem with contamination of the final product. Nevertheless sensitive enzymes immobilized to the matrix can be inactivated by the environmental conditions. The aim of this research was to prepare carrier with improved activity and responsible stability even under extreme reaction conditions. Laccase immobilized through carbohydrate moieties on magnetic hydrazide bead cellulose with a final activity of 0.63 I.U./1 ml of settled carrier confirmed that carriers with oriented immobilized enzyme might be useful in routine biocatalytic applications.

  14. Enhanced Uplink Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Sanchez-Moya, Fernando; Villalba-Espinosa, Juan;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate uplink carrier aggregation in the context of dense residential deployments of LTE-Advanced Femtocells. Previous work in the literature based on macro-cells suggested considering UE power limitations to infer which UEs should be allowed to employ multiple component...... carriers. However, due to the very small radius of femtocells, UEs are not expected to become power-limited at all. We propose a decentralized scheme with limited signalling requirements that incorporates power control information, not only to guide the UE-specific carrier selection procedure, but also...

  15. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  16. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  17. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  18. Autonomous Component Carrier Selection for 4G Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Kovacs, Istvan; Pedersen, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    main contribution in this paper, denominated Generalized Autonomous Component Carrier Selection (G-ACCS), is a distributed carrier-based inter-cell interference coordination scheme that represents one step towards cognitive radio networks. The algorithm relies on expected rather than sensed...... interference coupling. This work focuses on the downlink and also provides an extensive characterization of the network performance as a function of the topology as well as the often overlooked temporal traits of traffic. We compare G-ACCS with other carrier-based solutions, including the simplest universal...

  19. 78 FR 71708 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 78 FR 77773 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  1. BER Performance of IEEE 802.11ad for Single Carrier and Multi Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario 802.11n is one of the fastest standards which is widely popular. It provides a theoretical maximum of 450 megabits per second (Mbps, with a typical throughput of 100Mbps. As we know, there is high demand for higher speed due to an increasing of high definition (HD video on smart phone usage and home entertainment. As 802.11n is not able to provide the required speed needed for these uses, thus there is need for technologies which can meet therequirement. IEEE 802.11ad is one of such standards which meet the requirement needed for the above. IEEE 802.11ad standard operates at 60 GHz frequency, promise to deliver from 1 to 7 Gbps. 60 GHz band is one of the largest unlicensed bandwidth with availability of at least 5 GHz of continuous bandwidth worldwide. In this paper we have tested the IEEE 802.11ad system model Bits Error Rate (BER for different modulation technique under several coding scheme for both Single Carrier and Multi Carriers. In this model the modulation technique mainly used are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and the coding scheme used is Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code with different code rate.

  2. A New Improved Variable Frequency Triangular Carrier-PWM with MOPSO Algorithm for Carrier Based PWM Techniques in Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Orfi Yegane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates multi-carrier PWM methods in multi-level inverters. Two new MCPWM methods are introduced. This study proposes a new optimized MCPWM method to improve the output voltage characteristics like THD and LOH. The proposed method is based on variable frequency with a specific range. It means each carrier wave has a determined frequency. It is calling Variable Frequency Triangular Carrier-PWM. MOPSO algorithm is used to optimize the answers. This work considers some different levels of inverters like five, seven and nine levels. The results are compared with SPWM method.

  3. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies.

  4. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1545 - Carrier frequency departure tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier offset, including those stations licensed with a maximum effective radiated power and/or antenna... offset. See Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration, In the Matter of Establishment of a Class...

  6. Attitudes of potential providers toward preconceptual cystic fibrosis carrier screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppelaars, F.; Ader, H.J.; Cornel, M.C.; Henneman, L.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Wal, G. van der; Kate, L. ten

    2004-01-01

    To determine the attitudes of potential providers (general practitioners and Community Health Service workers) towards preconceptual cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening and to determine which factors are associated with a positive attitude. A survey was conducted among 200 general practitioners (

  7. Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav;

    2005-01-01

    Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate...

  8. 42 CFR 480.136 - Disclosure to intermediaries and carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS ACQUISITION, PROTECTION, AND DISCLOSURE OF QUALITY... practitioner if the QIO and the intermediary or carrier (or CMS if the QIO and the intermediary or...

  9. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled {sup 75}Ge and {sup 70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [{sup 74}Ge]/[{sup 70}Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  10. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  11. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College http://archive.org/details/lanchestermodelo00eagl NA

  12. Perlite as a carrier of phosphate-accumulating bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankovic, T.; Hrenovic, J.; Sekovanic, L.; Tofant, A.

    2009-07-01

    The phosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria are important for biological P removal from wastewater. Currently, attention is being drawn to the immobilisation of desired bacteria on different carriers in order to achieve a better efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this study, two size fractions (0.1-1 and 0.1-2 mm) of different forms of expanded perlite (original, autoclaved and magnesium-exchanged) were investigates as possible carriers of P accumulating bacterium. (Author)

  13. Carriers recombination processes in charge trapping memory cell by simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yun-Cheng; Liu Xiao-Yan; Du Gang; Kang Jin-Feng; Han Ru-Qi

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of recombination processes in a charge storage layer, either between trapped electrons and trapped holes or between trapped carriers and free carriers, on charge trapping memory cell's performances by numerical simulation. Recombination is an indispensable mechanism in charge trapping memory. It helps charge convert process between negative and positive charges in the charge storage layer during charge trapping memory programming/erasing operation. It can affect the speed of programming and erasing operations.

  14. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  15. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  16. Dispersion and polarization dependence of mobile carrier optical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, K. C.

    1984-06-01

    Based on the author's earlier work, it is shown that the proper inclusion of carrier scattering should strongly modify the frequency and polarization dependence of optical nonlinearities due to mobile carriers in semiconductors. When the momentum relaxation is much faster than the energy relaxation, the intensity dependent refractive index is enhanced, the induced birefringence becomes a sharp function of the difference frequency ωa-ωb, and a collision induced stimulated Raman effect becomes important.

  17. Effects of copper on the carrier dynamics in black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced.......Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced....

  18. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  19. Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive drift-diffusion-type electroabsorption modulator (EAM) model. The model allows us to investigate both steady-state properties and to follow the sweep-out of carriers after pulsed optical excitation. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of the influence that vari......We present a comprehensive drift-diffusion-type electroabsorption modulator (EAM) model. The model allows us to investigate both steady-state properties and to follow the sweep-out of carriers after pulsed optical excitation. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of the influence...... that various design parameters have on the device properties, in particular how they affect the carrier dynamics and the corresponding field dynamics. A number of different types of results are presented. We calculate absorption spectra and steady-state field screening due to carrier pile-up at the separate......-confinement heterobarriers. We then move on to look at carrier sweep-out upon short-pulse optical excitation. For a structure with one well, we analyze how the well position affects the carrier sweep-out and the absorption recovery. We calculate the field dynamics in a multiquantum-well structure and discuss how the changes...

  20. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2012-08-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic-organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  1. THE USE OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH-CARE SERVICES - CARRIER TESTING FOR THE GENETIC DISORDER HEMOPHILIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAREKAMP, [No Value; SUURMEIJER, TPBM; ROSENDAAL, FR; BROCKERVRIENDS, AHJT

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to explore carrier testing among women who were possible or obligate carriers of the haemophilia gene. Knowledge of the possibility of carrier testing and use of carrier testing were studied separately. In our exploration we were guided by the diffusion theory and

  2. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  3. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  4. 47 CFR 54.903 - Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.903 Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator. (a) To be eligible...

  5. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385 and 386 RIN 2126-AB42 Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... would enable the Agency to suspend or revoke the operating authority registration of motor carriers...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-6 - Criteria-Self-propelled personnel carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Self-propelled personnel carriers. 75... § 75.1403-6 Criteria—Self-propelled personnel carriers. (a) Each self-propelled personnel carrier..., each track-mounted self-propelled personnel carrier should: (1) Be provided with a suitable...

  7. Carrier doping by current injection into LaOFFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareva, Irina; Koval, Yury; Steiner, Christian; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Stuerzer, Tobias; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, LMU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, we were able to change the carrier concentration of hole-doped high-T{sub c} superconductors by injection of large currents along the c-axis. We extend this type of experiments to electron-doped pnictides. From our earlier interpretation we should expect that trapping of electrons caused by current injection would decrease the available carrier concentration. Indeed, by various experiments with superconductors from the LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs family we are able to show that trapped electrons caused by current injection perpendicular to the FeAs planes decrease the carrier concentration. We present a spectacular confirmation of this interpretation by the T{sub c} increase by more than 15 K in heavily overdoped La{sub 0.74}F{sub 0.26}FeAs. We performed similar experiments with the recently discovered 1048 layered pnictides of the composition Ca{sub 10}(FeAs){sub 10}(Pt{sub 4}As{sub 8}). The general tendency of carrier doping by trapped electrons was confirmed. A rather interesting discovery was the evolution of hysteretic c-axis IV-characteristics. This is a strong indication of intrinsic Josephson effects. We discuss these results in terms of a change of anisotropy by carrier doping.

  8. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  9. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  10. [Importance of drug carriers in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusai, T; Durand, R; Boulard, Y; Paul, M; Bories, C; Rivollet, D; Houin, R; Deniau, M

    1995-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by hemoflagellate protozoa which are obligatory parasites of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Leishmaniasis causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The treatment of choice remains pentavalent antimonials, but high toxicity and failures have been reported. An alternative to conventional treatment is delivery anti-leishmania agents using colloidal carrier systems. Carriers improve drug activity against intracellular disease involving the mononuclear phagocyte system. The principle of drug delivery by carrier systems has been applied successfully for anticancer drugs. Recently complete remission of polyresistant visceral leishmaniasis was obtained by injection of liposomal amphotericin B. At present, no colloidal drug carrier for antimony derivatives is available, but pentamidine can be linked experimentally to methacrylate polymer nano-particles. Drug-loaded nanoparticles have been shown to be effective against amastigote leishmania both in vitro and in vivo. Another colloidal system of major interest for drug delivery, the liposome has already been loaded with amphotericin B and used for human therapy. The concept of particulate drug carriers opens the way for new chemotherapeutic approaches in the field of parasitology.

  11. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  12. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C., E-mail: simeon.bakerfinch@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia); McIntosh, Keith R. [PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia); Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C. [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10{sup 18} and 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  13. Fundamental Limitations to Plasmonic Hot-Carrier Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Schatz, George C

    2016-05-19

    Detailed balance between photon-absorption and energy loss constrains the efficiency of conventional solar cells to the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, if solar illumination can be absorbed over a wide spectrum by plasmonic structures, and the generated hot-carriers can be collected before relaxation, the efficiency of solar cells may be greatly improved. In this work, we explore the opportunities and limitations for making plasmonic solar cells, here considering a design for hot-carrier solar cells in which a conventional semiconductor heterojunction is attached to a plasmonic medium such as arrays of gold nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms and fundamental limitations of this cell are studied using a nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the numerical results indicate that this cell can significantly improve the absorption of solar radiation without reducing open-circuit voltage, as photons can be absorbed to produce mobile carriers in the semiconductor as long as they have energy larger than the Schottky barrier rather than above the bandgap. However, a significant fraction of the hot-carriers have energies below the Schottky barrier, which makes the cell suffer low internal quantum efficiency. Moreover, quantum efficiency is also limited by hot-carrier relaxation and metal-semiconductor coupling. The connection of these results to recent experiments is described, showing why plasmonic solar cells can have less than 1% efficiency.

  14. [Carriers of Neisseria meningitidis among children from a primary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; López, Omar; Sotolongo, Franklin; Mirabal, Mayelin; Bencomo, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted among 318 children from the "Mártires del Corynthia" Primary School under the authorization of the Municipal Division of Education and the informed consent of their parents aimed at knowing the prevalence of meningoccoco carriers in school children, determining the epidemiological markers of the isolated strains and establishing the possible relation existing between the carrier and variables, such as age, sex, acute respiratory infection history, hacinamiento, amigdalectomy, inhibitory effect of of the accompanying flora and the secretory state of ABH antigens in saliva. All of them underwent nasopharyngeal exudate and a saliva sample was taken. In adition, the paents were surveyed about the risks factors to be investigated. 6.9 % of meningoccoco carriers were found and the NA:NT:P1:NST:L3,7,9 strains predominated. The risk factors with statistically significant results regarding the condition of carrier Neisseria meningitidis carrier were age, acute respiratory infection history, and the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria lactamica of the accompanying bacterial flora in the nasopharynx of the children under study.

  15. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  16. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  17. Local-oscillator-free wireless-optical-wireless data link at 1.25 Gbit/s over a 40 GHz carrier employing carrier preservation and envelope detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Prince, Kamau;

    2008-01-01

    A local-oscillator-free wireless-optical-wireless system at 1.25 Gb/s over a 40 GHz carrier and 100 km of NZDSF is demonstrated employing optical half-wave rectification, carrier remodulation and envelope detection.......A local-oscillator-free wireless-optical-wireless system at 1.25 Gb/s over a 40 GHz carrier and 100 km of NZDSF is demonstrated employing optical half-wave rectification, carrier remodulation and envelope detection....

  18. Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Nathaniel M; Song, Justin C W; Ma, Qiong; Nair, Nityan L; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Levitov, Leonid S; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2011-11-01

    We report on the intrinsic optoelectronic response of high-quality dual-gated monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junction devices. Local laser excitation (of wavelength 850 nanometers) at the p-n interface leads to striking six-fold photovoltage patterns as a function of bottom- and top-gate voltages. These patterns, together with the measured spatial and density dependence of the photoresponse, provide strong evidence that nonlocal hot carrier transport, rather than the photovoltaic effect, dominates the intrinsic photoresponse in graphene. This regime, which features a long-lived and spatially distributed hot carrier population, may offer a path to hot carrier-assisted thermoelectric technologies for efficient solar energy harvesting.

  19. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di

    2016-09-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  20. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  1. Prospects of carrier screening of aspartylglucosaminuria in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, M; Grön, K; Syvänen, A C; Peltonen, L; Aula, P

    1993-01-01

    The frequency of carriers of the AGUFin mutation, the predominant mutation causing aspartylglucosaminuria in Finland, was determined in a population sample comprising 553 newborns from a delivery hospital in southern Finland, and 607 from a hospital in northern Finland. The AGUFin point mutation was identified from cord blood samples using the PCR-based, solid-phase minisequencing method. Nineteen carriers of the AGUFin mutation were detected, 8 (1:69) in the sample from the southern and 11 (1:55) from the northern population, respectively. The solid-phase minisequencing method proved to be rapid and convenient for the detection of the AGUFin mutation, and can readily be applied in large-scale carrier screening at the population level.

  2. Spectral dependence of carrier lifetimes in silicon for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, John F.; Li, Yu-Tai; Dagenais, Mario; Hamadani, Behrang H.

    2016-12-01

    Charge carrier lifetimes in photovoltaic-grade silicon wafers were measured by a spectral-dependent, quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Narrow bandwidth light emitting diodes were used to excite excess charge carriers within the material, and the effective lifetimes of these carriers were measured as a function of wavelength and intensity. The dependence of the effective lifetime on the excitation wavelength was then analyzed within the context of an analytical model relating effective lifetime to the bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity of the material. The agreement between the model and the experimental data provides validation for this technique to be used at various stages of the solar cell production line to investigate the quality of the passivation layers and the bulk properties of the material.

  3. DESIGN OF WAVELET PACKET BASED MODEL FOR MULTI CARRIER MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHIR NARAYAN MOHANTY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In current scenario Multi-Carrier modulation (MCM is considered an effective technique for both wire and wireless communications. It divides the entire bandwidth into several parallel sub-channels. This splitting is by dividing the transmit data into several parallel low-bit-rate data streams and then to modulate the carrierscorresponding to those sub-channels. Though MCM technique uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM model, it is very sensitive to Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO, that leads to a severedistortion in subcarrier orthogonality and causes inter channel interference (ICI. In this paper, Wavelet Packet Transform is designed for the model of MCM as a novel alternative to the most exiting Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technique, because of its time frequency representation and lower side lobes intransmitted signals, that reduces inter carrier interference (ICI, and inter symbol interference (ISI. Performance analysis is investigated for such model. Simulation results show a significant enhancement in terms of spectral efficiency.

  4. Is oral absorption of vigabatrin carrier-mediated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, M. K.; Juul, R. V.; Thale, Z. I.;

    2015-01-01

    by significant increases in the apparent Michaelis constant. Based on the mechanistic model, a high capacity low affinity carrier is proposed to be involved in intestinal vigabatrin absorption. PAT1-ligands increased the Michaelis constant of vigabatrin after oral co-administration indicating that this carrier......The aim of the study was to investigate the intestinal transport mechanisms responsible for vigabatrin absorption in rats by developing a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model of vigabatrin oral absorption. The PK model was used to investigate whether vigabatrin absorption was carrier......-mediated and if the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) was involved in the absorption processes. Vigabatrin (0.3-300 mg/kg) was administered orally or intravenously to Sprague Dawley rats in the absence or presence of PAT1-ligands l-proline, l-tryptophan or sarcosine. The PK profiles of vigabatrin were described...

  5. LNG Carrier Market: The Next Main Battleground For Shipbuilding Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guang

    2012-01-01

    Last year, 51 LNG carriers were delivered in the world. From January to February this year, more than 10 LNG carriers have been deliveredglobally. Some shipowners are planning to expand LNG carrier fleet, which is a stark contrast to the look of the three main ship types which is embarrassing. As the recognized clean fuel, natural gas plays an important role in carbon politics and low carbon economy. At present, LNG powered vessel is growing vigorously. LNG fueled vessels have also emerged in Europe. Now, discussion about natural gas application on inland water transport is gradually warming up. Although there are still many technical problems to be solved about LNG powered vessel, the trend is irreversible.

  6. Cultural aspects of healthy BRCA carriers from two ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro de Souza, Alicia; Groleau, Danielle; Loiselle, Carmen G; Foulkes, William D; Wong, Nora

    2014-05-01

    We explored the experiences of Ashkenazi Jewish and French Canadian women and meanings attributed to their hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk. We purposively sampled 40 BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation carriers and conducted theoretically driven semistructured interviews. According to content analysis, participants from these two ethnocultural groups held divergent meanings associated with being a BRCA carrier and different views pertaining to the illness experience and risk awareness. All participants identified a genetic basis; however, the French Canadian women also expressed other causes. The French Canadian women reported not knowing other carriers in their social environment, whereas the Ashkenazi Jewish women emphasized a strong sense of community contributing to their ethnic risk awareness. Based on these findings, we suggest that French Canadian women could benefit from greater awareness of the HBOC genetic risk and that health care providers should consider ethnically related and individual-based experiences and meanings during counseling.

  7. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  8. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping

    OpenAIRE

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found incre...

  9. Vaccination Strategies against Malaria: novel carrier(s) more than a tour de force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rajeev K; Garg, Neeraj K; Sahu, Tejram

    2012-08-20

    The introduction of vaccine technology has facilitated an unprecedented multi-antigen approach to develop an effective vaccine against complex systemic inflammatory pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. that cause severe malaria. The capacity of multi subunit DNA vaccine encoding different stage Plasmodium antigens to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interferon-γ responses in mice, monkeys and humans has been observed. Moreover, genetic vaccination may be capable of eliciting both cell mediated and humoral immune responses. The cytotoxic T cell responses are categorically needed against intracellular hepatic stage and humoral response with antibodies targeted against antigens from all stages of malaria parasite life cycle. Therefore, the key to success for any DNA based vaccine is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient delivery system. This has encouraged the development of non-viral DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques such as liposome, virosomes, microsphere and nanoparticles. Efficient and relatively safe DNA transfection using lipoplexes makes them an appealing alternative to be explored for gene delivery. Also, liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been deployed and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer. In this review we discussed various aspects that could be decisive in the formulation of efficient and stable carrier system(s) for the development of malaria vaccine.

  10. Advantages of expanded universal carrier screening: what is at stake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hout, Sanne; Holtkamp, Kim Ca; Henneman, Lidewij; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J

    2016-01-01

    Expanded universal carrier screening (EUCS) entails a twofold expansion of long-standing (preconception) carrier screening programmes: it not only allows the simultaneous screening of a large list of diseases ('expanded'), but also refers to a pan-ethnic screening offer ('universal'). Advocates mention three main moral advantages of EUCS as compared with traditional (targeted and/or ancestry-based) forms of carrier screening: EUCS will (1) maximise opportunities for autonomous reproductive choice by informing prospective parents about a much wider array of reproductive risks; (2) provide equity of access to carrier testing services; (3) reduce the risk of stigmatisation. This empirical ethics study aims to widen this account and provide a balanced picture of the potential pros and cons of EUCS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 health (policy) professionals and representatives of patient organisations about their views on carrier screening including a possible EUCS scenario. Stakeholders acknowledged the potential benefits of EUCS, but also expressed five main moral concerns: (1) Does EUCS respond to an urgent problem or population need? (2) Is it possible to offer couples both understandable and sufficient information about EUCS? (3) How will societal views on 'reproductive responsibility' change as a result of EUCS? (4) Will EUCS lead to a lower level of care for high-risk populations? (5) Will EUCS reinforce disability-based stigmatisation? While having the potential to overcome some moral limits inherent in traditional carrier screening, EUCS comes with moral challenges of its own. More research is needed to (further) anticipate the ethical and practical consequences of EUCS.

  11. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Daniel W.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  12. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each......The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...

  13. Addressing Carrier Aggregation with Narrow-band Tunable Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the operating bandwidth of antennas is particularly challenging when the antenna is confined in a very restricted volume, as is the case for mobile phones. However, increasing the bandwidth provides higher data rates to the users. Consequently, the carrier aggregation technology has been...... standardized. This paper proposes an antenna design that can address the bandwidth issue of new radio frequency standards, while coping with carrier aggregation requirements. Specifically, the paper presents a dual-antenna system, where each antenna exhibits a dual resonance. The low-bands of the radio...

  14. Carrier Density and Plasma Frequency of Aluminum Nanofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao DU; Jun GONG; Chao SUN; Rongfang HUANG; Lishi WEN; W.Y.Cheung; S.P.Wong

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the prerequisite and mode of electromagnetic response of Al nanofilms to electromagnetic wave field was suggested.Reflectance, transmittance in infrared region and carrier density of the films was measured. With the carrier density of the films, the dependence of their plasma frequencies on the film thickness was obtained. On the other hand, the dependence of absorptance on the frequency of electromagnetic wave field was set up by using the measured reflectance and transmittance,which provided plasma frequency-film thickness relation as well. Similarity of both plasma frequency-film thickness relations proved plasma resonance as a mode of electromagnetic response in Al nanofilms.

  15. Deterministic approaches for noncoherent communications with chaotic carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiongying; Qiu Shuisheng; Francis. C. M. Lau

    2005-01-01

    Two problems are proposed. The first one is the noise decontamination of chaotic carriers using a deterministic approach to reconstruct pseudo trajectories, the second is the design of communications schemes with chaotic carriers. After presenting our deterministic noise decontamination algorithm, conventional chaos shift keying (CSK) communication system is applied. The difference of Euclidean distance between noisy trajectory and decontaminated trajectory in phase space could be utilized to non-coherently detect the sent symbol simply and effectively. It is shown that this detection method can achieve the bit error rate performance comparable to other non-coherent systems.

  16. Evaluation of carrier-mediated siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    RNA delivered by use of carriers remains an analytical challenge. The purpose of the present study was to optimize and validate an analytical protocol based on stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR) to quantitatively monitor the carrier-mediated intracellular si......RNA delivery. An in vitro cell culture model system expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to develop the assay, which was based on the intracellular quantification of a full-length double-stranded Dicer substrate siRNA by stem-loop RT qPCR. The result is a well-documented protocol...

  17. Improved Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-ming; LIU Yuan-an

    2004-01-01

    A new carrier frequency offset estimation algorithm in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. The proposed algorithm is an improvement of the Michele Morelli (M&M) algorithm. It also uses a training symbol which is divided into L>2 identical parts to estimate the carrier frequency offset, and the estimation range is ±L/2 the subcarrier spacing, but the performance of the proposed Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithm is more robust and complex efficient than the M&M algorithm.

  18. Widely Tunable Infrared Antennas Using Free Carrier Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewi, Tomer; Iyer, Prasad P; Butakov, Nikita A; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A; Schuller, Jon A

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate tuning of infrared Mie resonances by varying the carrier concentration in doped semiconductor antennas. We fabricate spherical silicon and germanium particles of varying sizes and doping concentrations. Single-particle infrared spectra reveal electric and magnetic dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole resonances. We subsequently demonstrate doping-dependent frequency shifts that follow simple Drude models, culminating in the emergence of plasmonic resonances at high doping levels and long wavelengths. These findings demonstrate the potential for actively tuning infrared Mie resonances by optically or electrically modulating charge carrier densities, thus providing an excellent platform for tunable metamaterials.

  19. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  20. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

    2010-06-02

    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  1. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  2. Carrier recovery systems for arbitrarily mapped APK signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Y.; Namiki, J.

    1982-10-01

    This paper introduces new carrier recovery techniques for general amplitude-phase keying (APK) modulation signals. The APK's include not only normal QAM but also arbitrarily mapped APK's, including an unsymmetrical APK. Difficulty in phase error detection due to signal mapping complexity, undesirable stable-lock point existence, and the contradiction between a fast acquisition and an accurate steady state performance can be overcome. For that purpose, an acquisition mode and a steady-state mode are used. Furthermore, read-only memories (ROM) are used for recognizing various system states. Random sampling controlled PLL noise performance and acquisition mode carrier recovery circuit pull-in performance with hysteresis property was obtained.

  3. Downlink transmission in multi-carrier systems with reduced feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    in this paper we address the problem of reducing the feedback for the downlink transmission in multi-carrier systems. In these systems multiple Component Carriers (CCs) are aggregated together to form a wide spectrum. Consequently, a large feedback overhead is required to report the channel quality...... information over such a wide bandwidth. We first generalize two existing feedback reduction techniques, and then propose a new one. These techniques use different feedback schemes across the CCs, or allow some CCs to be un-reported, for the purpose of reducing the amount of feedback. Performance...

  4. Nonlinear carrier dynamics in a quantum dash optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Ek, Sara; Yvind, Kresten;

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental pump-probe spectroscopy of a quantum dash optical amplifier biased at transparency are presented. Using strong pump pulses we observe a competition between free carrier absorption and two-photon induced stimulated emission that can have drastic effects on the transmission...... dynamics. Thus, both enhancement as well as suppression of the transmission can be observed even when the amplifier is biased at transparency. A simple theoretical model taking into account two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption is presented that shows good agreement with the measurements....

  5. The Role of Fast Carrier Dynamics in SOA Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup;

    2004-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated and the propert......We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated...

  6. Airlines Performance and Eflciency Evaluation using a MCDA Methodology. The Case for Low Cost Carriers vs Legacy Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Miguel; Baltazar, Maria E.; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The air transport has suffered a remarkable transformation over the past decade. Thewaywe travel today is quite different from how we did ten years ago. Due to the rise of low cost carriers, the market of air transportation has been constantly changing and presently witnessing the transformation of legacy carriers in order to manage to continue operating. The main purpose of thiswork is to show the differences in efficiency for different performance areas on a case study comprised of six different airline carriers, legacy and low cost, using a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDA) tool - Measuring Attractiveness by a Category Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH). With the results obtained in this study, it is expected to show the work that is being carried out to obtain a model that would measure the efficiency of one or various airline companies in a defined period of time, using a set of performance indicators, to which specialists in the area previously have given weights.

  7. Phonon spectral functions of photo-generated hot carrier plasmas: effects of carrier screening and plasmon-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung

    2017-02-01

    We investigate spectral behavior of phonon spectral functions in an interacting multi-component hot carrier plasma. Spectral analysis of various phonon spectral functions is performed considering carrier-phonon channels of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic deformation-potential, and piezoelectric Coulomb couplings. Effects of phonon self-energy corrections are examined at finite temperature within a random phase approximation extended to include the effects of dynamic screening, plasmon-phonon coupling, and local-field corrections of the plasma species. We provide numerical data for the case of a photo-generated electron-hole plasma formed in a wurtzite GaN. Our result shows the clear significance of the multiplicity of the plasma species in the phonon spectral functions of a multi-component plasma giving rise to a variety of spectral behaviors of carrier-phonon coupled collective modes. A useful sum rule on the plasma-species-resolved dielectric functions is also found.

  8. China’s Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    weapons acquisition budget during that time. The annual cost for regular training , maintenance, repairs, and fuel for two carrier battle groups can be...Technology], no. 2 (2008); and Ding Guoliang, Hu Yefa, and Liu Xiaojing, “ Maglev Electromagnetic Catapult System Structure Design and Magnetic Field

  9. High carrier frequency of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phedonos, A A P; Shammas, C; Skordis, N; Kyriakides, T C; Neocleous, V; Phylactou, L A

    2013-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. The carrier frequency of CYP21A2 mutations has been estimated to be 1:25 to 1:10 on the basis of newborn screening. The main objective of this study was to determine the carrier frequency in the Cypriot population of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Three hundred unrelated subjects (150 males and 150 females) from the general population of Cyprus were screened for mutations in the CYP21A2 gene and its promoter. The CYP21A2 genotype analysis identified six different mutants and revealed a carrier frequency of 9.83% with the mild p.Val281Leu being the most frequent (4.3%), followed by p.Qln318stop (2.5%), p.Pro453Ser (1.33%), p.Val304Met (0.83%), p.Pro482Ser (0.67%) and p.Met283Val (0.17%). The notable high CYP21A2 carrier frequency of the Cypriot population is one of the highest reported so far by genotype analysis. Knowledge of the mutational spectrum of CYP21A2 will enable to optimize mutation detection strategy for genetic diagnosis of 21-OHD not only in Cyprus, but also the greater Mediterranean region.

  10. Salmonella carriers among expatriate workers in Al-Qatif area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albreiki Hassan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella infection and diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. All expatriates applying for work permits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA have to undergo a governmental compulsory health check program. Aim of the study: To estimate the number of salmonella carriers who had previously been diagnosed as free of infection. Subjects and methods: Over a period of two years, a total of 17, 918 workers in Al-Qatif area, in the Eastern Province were tested for salmonella on stool samples. Results: Three hundred and twenty eight were found to be asymptomatic carriers of salmonella. The highest frequency was found among workers from Egypt (13.1 % while Filipinos and Indians were the lowest carriers (1.2%. Salmonella serogroups E, C 1 and C2 were most common ( 29%, 29% and 23.5% respectively followed by serogroups B, D and C (13%, 3.7% and 1% respectively. No Shigella species were isolated. All carriers were given antibiotics and were instructed in prophylactic hygiene measures. After completing the course of antibiotics, they were retested and found to be clear of infection. Conclusion: The health check system in this area will contribute towards the prevention of outbreaks of infection by salmonella

  11. Manipulation of Carrier Density near Ferroelectric/Semiconductor Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesim, Mehmet; Misirlioglu, I. Burc; Mantese, Joseph; Alpay, S. Pamir

    Switchable polarization of a ferroelectric (FE) opens up the opportunity to control the charge density and transport characteristics at the FE/metal and FE/semiconductor (SC) heterointerfaces. Carrier manipulation near such regions can be used in high density non-volatile memories, switchable diodes, and photovoltaic devices. FEs can be utilized as gate oxides in a metal oxide field-effect transistor configuration for non-volatile memory applications with lower gate voltages compared to that of transistors with linear dielectrics. The channel conductance can be modulated reversibly, for instance, by tuning the magnitude and spatial distribution of polarization in the FE. In this study, we show that FE heterostructures can be used to manipulate the conductivity of a FE/SC interface. We employ a non-linear thermodynamic model based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) theory to obtain the equilibrium polarization of heterostructures. The carriers along the heterostructures are mapped through coupling the LGD equation with the Maxwell equations and Fermi - Dirac distribution of charged carriers/ionized dopants in the FE and SC. We consider various configurations including FE/SC/paraelectric and FE/SC/FE stacks to investigate the carrier distribution and band bending near such interfaces. The resulting properties are explained through the phase transition characteristics and domain structure of the stacks.

  12. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the nucleotide position 559 in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3), which changes the amino acid sequence of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter protein from a valine to a phenylalanine in position 180. The elite U.S. Holstein sire Penstate Ivanhoe Star was identified as the common ancestor of the current CVM carriers. Because his offspring, mainly those of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, were used in many countries, CVM has potentially spread into China. In the present study, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, 10 CVM carriers were found among 68 at-risk Chinese Holstein bulls, and 282 carriers were found among 602 at-risk cows. The results of this study indicate that the CVM gene exists in the Chinese Holstein population.

  13. Highly efficient carrier multiplication in PbS nanosheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.; Bielewicz, T.; Klinke, C.; Grozema, F.C.; Houtepen, A.J.; Schins, J.M.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising for use in cheap and highly efficient solar cells. A high efficiency can be achieved by carrier multiplication (CM), which yields multiple electron-hole pairs for a single absorbed photon. Lead chalcogenide nanocrystals are of specific interest, since their b

  14. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul

    2016-01-01

    . However, older participants with IAs had higher chorea scores compared to controls (p = 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that aging was the most contributing factor to increased UHDRS motor scores (p = 0.002). On the other hand, 1-year follow-up data analysis showed IA carriers had greater...

  15. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  16. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarder and carrier; compensation. 515.42 Section 515... Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice Freight Forwarding Fees and Compensation § 515.42...

  17. Carrier-selective contacts for Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, F.; Simon, M.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S. W.

    2014-05-01

    Carrier-selective contacts (i.e., minority carrier mirrors) are one of the last remaining obstacles to approaching the theoretical efficiency limit of silicon solar cells. In the 1980s, it was already demonstrated that n-type polysilicon and semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon emitters form carrier-selective emitters which enabled open-circuit voltages (Voc) of up to 720 mV. Albeit promising, to date a polysilicon emitter solar cell having a high fill factor (FF) has not been demonstrated yet. In this work, we report a polysilicon emitter related solar cell achieving both a high Voc = 694 mV and FF = 81%. The passivation mechanism of these so-called tunnel oxide passivated contacts will be outlined and the impact of TCO (transparent conductive oxide) deposition on the injection-dependent lifetime characteristic of the emitter as well as its implications on FF will be discussed. Finally, possible transport paths across the tunnel oxide barrier will be discussed and it will be shown that the passivating oxide layer does not lead to a relevant resistive loss and thus does not limit the solar cell's carrier transport. Contrary to amorphous silicon-based heterojunction solar cells, this structure also shows a good thermal stability and, thus, could be a very appealing option for next generation high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  18. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  19. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  20. Risk of asthma in heterozygous carriers for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Orholm; Qayum, Sadaf; Bouchelouche, Pierre Nourdine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a higher prevalence of asthma than the background population, however, it is unclear whether heterozygous CF carriers are susceptible to asthma. Given this, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity of the association of CF...

  1. The Use of Synthetic Carriers in Malaria Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Powles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine research has been ongoing since the 1980s with limited success. However, recent improvements in our understanding of the immune responses required to combat each stage of infection will allow for intelligent design of both antigens and their associated delivery vaccine vehicles/vectors. Synthetic carriers (also known as vectors are usually particulate and have multiple properties, which can be varied to control how an associated vaccine interacts with the host, and consequently how the immune response develops. This review comprehensively analyzes both historical and recent studies in which synthetic carriers are used to deliver malaria vaccines. Furthermore, the requirements for a synthetic carrier, such as size, charge, and surface chemistry are reviewed in order to understand the design of effective particle-based vaccines against malaria, as well as providing general insights. Synthetic carriers have the ability to alter and direct the immune response, and a better control of particle properties will facilitate improved vaccine design in the near future.

  2. Mobile charge carriers in pulse-irradiated poly- and oligothiophenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M.P. de; Laan, G.P. van der; Wegewijs, B.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Bäuerle, P.; Rep, D.B.A.; Fichou, D.

    1999-01-01

    Lower limits of the intrinsic charge carrier mobility in the solid phase of a series of oligothiophene compounds were determined with the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity technique, PR-TRMC. The mobility values fall roughly into two regimes and show no correlation with the numbe

  3. The growth limits of the low cost carrier model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that a

  4. Genetic counseling in carriers of reciprocal translocations involving two autosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pourjafari

    2012-01-01

    Couples in which one partner is the carrier of such balanced translocation have increased risks of infertility, recurrent abortion, and delivery of chromosomally abnormal offspring. Genetic counseling of such couples, therefore, presents a unique challenge and should be considered in dealing with such families.

  5. Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the increased light emission for Sip–i–n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size decr

  6. Incident response: crew scheduling and rerouting of hazmat carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherali, Hanif D.; Subramanian, Shivaram; Kachroo, Pushkin

    1998-01-01

    Incident response strategies deal with the resource allocation and minimum risk re-routing of hazardous material carriers in response to traffic incidents. Such strategies also address the effect of loss in coverage due to the non- availability of response vehicles. In addition, the effect of an incident on hazmat carriers that are presented in the local vicinity is that the resulting traffic congestion considerably increases the risk of exposure for motorists. In such a situation, the hazmat carrier needs to be re- routed through a safer path. We have proposed mathematical models that address each of the two problems. The incident response model identifies an optimal allocation of response agency units and their routing in the even of traffic incidents in real-time, while also taking into consideration the response requirements for future demands. The hazmat re- routing model determines an optimal diversion route in a network using multiple risk-based objective functions to re- route Hazmat carriers in the event of an incident occurring along the prescribed route. Mathematical programming formulations are presented for each case, and solution procedures are outlined. Some computational experience is also provided.

  7. 49 CFR 1200.1 - Financial statements released by carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except in reports to this Board, based on generally accepted accounting principles for which there is... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial statements released by carriers. 1200.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS GENERAL...

  8. High power terahertz induced carrier multiplication in Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    2015-01-01

    The application of an intense THz field results a nonlinear transmission in high resistivity silicon. Upon increasing field strength, the transmission falls from 70% to 62% due to carrier generation through THz-induced impact ionization and subsequent absorption of the THz field by free electrons....

  9. ACTIVE TARGETING WITH PARTICULATE CARRIER SYSTEMS IN THE BLOOD COMPARTMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CROMMELIN, DJA; SCHERPHOF, G; STORM, G

    1995-01-01

    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation. Targe

  10. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects of of as...

  11. Infrared spectroscopic study of carrier scattering in gated CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwangnam; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Wonki; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Hwang, E. H.; Choi, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured Drude absorption of gated CVD graphene using far-infrared transmission spectroscopy and determined the carrier scattering rate (γ ) as a function of the varied carrier density (n ). The n -dependent γ (n ) was obtained for a series of conditions systematically changed as (10 K, vacuum) → (300 K, vacuum) → (300 K, ambient pressure), which reveals that (1) at low-T, charged impurity (=A /√{n } ) and short-range defect (=B √{n } ) are the major scattering sources which constitute the total scattering γ =A /√{n }+B √{n } , (2) among various kinds of phonons populated at room-T , surface polar phonon of the SiO2 substrate is the dominantly scattering source, and (3) in air, the gas molecules adsorbed on graphene play a dual role in carrier scattering as charged impurity center and resonant scattering center. We present the absolute scattering strengths of those individual scattering sources, which provides the complete map of scattering mechanism of CVD graphene. This scattering map allows us to find out practical measures to suppress the individual scatterings, the mobility gains accompanied by them, and finally the ultimate attainable carrier mobility for CVD graphene.

  12. 28 CFR 25.55 - Responsibilities of insurance carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contain the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity... individual or entity acting as an insurance carrier conducting business within the United States shall... salvage automobile; (4) The name of the individual or entity from whom the automobile was obtained and...

  13. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  14. A generalized carrier frequency offset estimator for uplink OFDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Prasad, Ramjee

    This paper proposes a generalized carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimator for the uplink of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) wireless systems. Using the maximum likelihood criterion, the estimator estimates CFOs using the phase shift between two observation windows at distance...

  15. Direct View of Hot Carrier Dynamics in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Cilento, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before th...

  16. Risks of lynch syndrome cancers for msh6 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baglietto (Laura); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); J.G. Dowty (James); D.M. White (Darren); A. Wagner (Anja); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); A.H.J.T. Vriends (Anette); N.R. Cartwright (Nicola); R.A. Barnetson (Rebecca); S.M. Farrington (Susan); A. Tenesa (Albert); H. Hampel (Heather); D. Buchanan (Daniel); S. Arnold (Sven); J. Young (Joanne); M.D. Walsh (Michael); J. Jass (Jeremy); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); Y. Antill (Yoland); I.M. Winship (Ingrid); G.G. Giles (Graham); J. Goldblatt (Jack); S. Parry (Susan); G. Suthers (Graeme); B. Leggett (Barbara); M. Butz (Malinda); M. Aronson (Melyssa); J.N. Poynter (Jenny); J.A. Baron (John); L. Le Marchand (Loic); R. Haile (Robert); S. Gallinger (Steve); J.L. Hopper (John); J. Potter (John); A. de La Chapelle (Albert); H. Vasen (Hans); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); S.N. Thibodeau (Stephen); M.A. Jenkins (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Germline mutations in MSH6 account for 10%-20% of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers caused by hereditary DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Because there have been only a few studies of mutation carriers, their cancer risks are uncertain. Methods: We identified 113 families

  17. Metal Hydrides as hot carrier cell absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Wen, Xiaoming; Shrestha, Santosh; Conibeer, Gavin; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2016-09-01

    The hot Carrier Solar Cell (HCSC) allows the photon-induced hot carriers (the carriers with energy larger than the band gap) to be collected before they completely thermalise. The absorber of the HCSC should have a large phononic band gap to supress Klemens Decay, which results in a slow carrier cooling speed. In fact, a large phononic band gap likely exists in a binary compound whose constituent elements have a large mass ratio between each other. Binary hydrides with their overwhelming mass ratio of the constituent elements are important absorber candidates. Study on different types of binary hydrides as potential absorber candidates is presented in this paper. Many binary transition metal hydrides have reported theoretical or experimental phonon dispersion charts which show large phononic band gaps. Among these hydrides, the titanium hydride (TiHX) is outstanding because of its low cost, easy fabrication process and is relatively inert to air and water. A TiHX thin film is fabricated by directly hydrogenating an evaporated titanium thin film. Characterisation shows good crystal quality and the hydrogenation process is believed to be successful. Ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is used to study the electron cooling time of TiHX. The result is very noisy due to the low absorption and transmission of the sample. The evolution of the TA curves has been explained by band to band transition using the calculated band structure of TiH2. Though not reliable due to the high noise, decay time fitting at 700nm and 600nm shows a considerably slow carrier cooling speed of the sample.

  18. Research on Energy Efficiency Design Index for Sea-going LNG Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Yanyun Yu; Guan Guan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  19. Performance Analysis of MC-CDMA in the Presence of Carriers Phase Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of carriers phase error on MC-CDMA performance in downlink mobile communications. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit-Error-Rate (BER) are analyzed taking into account the effect of carrier phase errors. It is shown that the MC-CDMA system is very sensitive to a carrier frequency offset, the system performance rapidly degrades and strongly depends on the number of carriers. For a maximal load, the degradation caused by carrier phase jitter is independent of the number of the carriers.

  20. The Research on Intelligent Controlled DDS of Polymer Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; LUO Juan; XU Cheng-yin; CHEN Yuan-wei; TANG Chang-wei; WAN Chang-xiu

    2004-01-01

    The intelligent controlled drug delivery systems (DDS) are a series of the preparations including microcapsules or nanocapsules composed of intelligent polymers and medication. The properties of preparations can change with the external stimuli, such as pH value, temperature,chemical substance, light, electricity and magnetism etc. According to this properties, the DDS can be intelligently controlled. This paper has reviemed research on syntheses and applications of intelligent controlled DDS of polymer carriers.Drug delivery system with pH stimuliThe volume of polymer hydrogel can change with the pH value of external environment. The sensitive polymer hydrogels to pH are often as carriers. The polymer hydrogel carrying medicine is especially suitable for taking orally. In order to protect medicine from losing activation, we enwrapped medicine into polymer hydrogel with acidic group. In the acidic environment of stomach,the volume of polymer hydrogel contracts because of the hydrogen bond. The medicine in the polymer hydrogel cannot disperse out. When it goes to the intestine of basic environment, the hydrogen bond will be broken, and the medicine can release.Drug delivery system with temperatureTemperature sensitive polymer hydrogel can change its volume with changing of environmental temperature. This kind of polymer hydrogel can be also used as a carrier of medicine. At a low temperature, the polymer chains form hydrogen bond with water to swell to let medicine disperse out from the hydrogel. On the other hand, the hydrogen bond will be broken and polymer chain will lose water to contract with temperature's increasing. And the medicine will not disperse out. For example,the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) is the hydrogel that is swelled at lower temperature and contracted at higher temperature. PNIPAAm has the lower critical solution temperature(LCST).We can adjust its LCST to control PNIPAAm hydrogel's swelling or contraction to let medicine release or not

  1. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from...

  2. Double-hulling of the bulk carriers%散货船的双壳化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫中华

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the technical background of the double-hulling of the bulk carriers and describes the 3 major problems for its design. It finally compares the characteristics of the single/double hull bulk carriers by listing.

  3. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight... assessment of applicants' knowledge of regulations and industry practices for persons seeking registration... interested parties concerning potential test topics, the relationship between the knowledge...

  4. Photo-generated carriers lose energy during extraction from polymer-fullerene solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melianas, Armantas

    2015-11-05

    In photovoltaic devices, the photo-generated charge carriers are typically assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. In conventional materials, this assumption is experimentally justified as carrier thermalization completes before any significant carrier transport has occurred. Here, we demonstrate by unifying time-resolved optical and electrical experiments and Monte Carlo simulations over an exceptionally wide dynamic range that in the case of organic photovoltaic devices, this assumption is invalid. As the photo-generated carriers are transported to the electrodes, a substantial amount of their energy is lost by continuous thermalization in the disorder broadened density of states. Since thermalization occurs downward in energy, carrier motion is boosted by this process, leading to a time-dependent carrier mobility as confirmed by direct experiments. We identify the time and distance scales relevant for carrier extraction and show that the photo-generated carriers are extracted from the operating device before reaching thermal equilibrium.

  5. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for... Internet Association's Consumer Code for Wireless Service will satisfy this requirement. Other commitments.... In doing so, the Commission shall consider the benefits of increased consumer choice, and the...

  6. Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Kakkar, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (......We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (...

  7. 77 FR 14012 - Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission's Wireless Telecommunications and... Telecommunications Carrier (ETC) Designation from the Commission for participation in Mobility Fund Phase I...

  8. Reproductive and hormonal factors, and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Rookus, Matti; Andrieu, Nadine;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated...... in a small number of studies. METHODS: We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox...... proportional hazards framework. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had...

  9. Injection of majority carriers through InSe-GaSe heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakumenko, V.L.; Tagaev, V.G.

    1982-10-01

    Injection of majority carriers through heterojunction under intensive illumination conditions is discussed. Experimental results of injection of majority carriers through InSe-GaSe heterojunctions have been presented.

  10. Carrier density driven lasing dynamics in ZnO nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, Marcel; Michalsky, Tom; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    We report on the temporal lasing dynamics of high quality ZnO nanowires using time-resolved micro-photoluminescence technique. The temperature dependence of the lasing characteristics and of the corresponding decay constants demonstrate the formation of an electron-hole plasma to be the underlying gain mechanism in the considered temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. We found that the temperature dependent emission onset-time ($t_{\\text{on}}$) strongly depends on the excitation power and becomes smallest in the lasing regime, with values below 5 ps. Furthermore, the observed red shift of the dominating lasing modes in time is qualitatively discussed in terms of the carrier density induced change of the refractive index dispersion after the excitation laser pulse. This theory is supported by extending an existing model for the calculation of the carrier density dependent complex refractive index for different temperatures. This model coincides with the experimental observations and reliably describes the evolu...

  11. Sources of carrier F-19 in F-18 fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, J. M.; Shoner, S. C.; Krohn, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorine-18 is used for many PET radiopharmaceuticals. Theoretically 18F should be carrier free and a good candidate for nanochemistry. However, 18F has 10 to 1000 times more stable fluorine atoms than radioactive atoms. In order to understand the source of carrier fluoride and other ions associated with 18F radiosynthesis, anion concentrations of different components of 18F target systems as well as solvents and chemicals used in radiosynthesis were measured. Results: The enriched water used for production of 18F had low levels of anions. In general, the sources of anions, particularly of fluoride, were the chemical reagents used for synthesis and trace contaminants in tubing, valves and fittings. A major component of contamination was nitrate from irradiation of dissolved nitrogen gas in the target water.

  12. Carrier-envelope Phase Drift Detection of Picosecond Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A bandwidth-independent, linear and scalable method for carrier-envelope phase drift measurement demonstrated. Our experiments reveal that carrier-envelope phase drift of a picosecond pulse train can be directly obtained from the spectrally resolved interference pattern of a length-stabilized multiple-beam interferometer. The retrieved phase from the pattern correlates well with the strongly CEP-sensitive coupling signal between the frequency combs of the picosecond oscillator and an ultra-high finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer. Our results can lead to the generation of a robust CEP-stabilized seed pulse train for high resolution comb spectroscopy as well as to compact Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

  13. Characterization data on the topical carrier DDC642

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Desmet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains original data, figures and methods used in the characterization of the liposomal carrier ‘DDC642’ for topical applications, described in “An elastic liposomal formulation for RNAi-based topical treatment of skin disorders: proof-of-concept in the treatment of psoriasis” (Desmet et al., 2016 [1]. Several elastic liposomal formulations have been evaluated for their ability to encapsulate and deliver RNA interference (RNAi molecules to cultured primary skin cells. The efficiency and effectiveness of these liposomes were compared to that of our previously characterized liposomes, the ‘SECosomes’ (SEC (Geusens et al., 2010 [2]. After selection of a potential superior carrier, based on encapsulation and transfection efficiency data (Desmet et al., 2016 [1], the selected DDC642 liposomes were characterized more in-depth. Herein, a detailed characterization of the DDC642 liposome and RNAi-loaded lipoplexes is given, including the matching protocols.

  14. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A PROMISING CARRIER FOR INTRACELLULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakar Jadupati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is on its way to make a big impact in Biotech, Pharmaceutical and Medical diagnostics sciences. Nanotechnology holds a tremendous potential when it applied in the fields of drug delivery. In this review it has been discussed how nanotechnology can implemented to design formulations which can effectively carry drug molecule to the targeted cell organelles. Introduction of certain functional groups or addition of surface active agents may alter the characteristics of the carrier molecule, thus increasing the sensitivity to site selection of the carrier. It has been predicted that in the near future, nanoparticles with the ability of carrying multiple drug molecules, will be designed. They can maintain the delivery of drugs at specific time interval.

  16. An Efficient Paging Algorithm for Multi-Carrier CDMA System

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Rashid, Gazi Maniur; Moinuddin, Muhammad; Amin, Md Ziaul; Nahid, Abdullah Al

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the increasing demand of wireless communication services multi-carrier systems are being used. Radio resources are very limited and efficient usages of these resources are inevitable to get optimum performance of the system. Paging channel is a low-bandwidth channel and one of the most important channels on which system performance depends significantly. Therefore it is vulnerable to even moderate overloads. In this paper, an efficient paging algorithm, Concurrent Search, is proposed for efficient use of paging channel in Multi- carrier CDMA system instead of existing sequential searching algorithm. It is shown by the simulation that the paging performance in proposed algorithm is far better than the existing system.

  17. Carrier mediated reduction of stiffness in nanoindented crystalline Si(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, S., E-mail: s-kataria2k2@yahoo.co.in; Dhara, Sandip, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-07-21

    We report the observation of carrier mediated decrease in the stiffness of crystalline (c)-Si(100) under nanoindentation. The apparent elastic moduli of heavily doped (∼1 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}) p- and n-type c-Si are observed to be lower by 5.3%–7.5% than the estimated value for intrinsic (∼1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}) c-Si. The deviation observed with respect to elastic modulus remarkably matches with the estimated value while considering the electronic elastic strain effect on carrier concentration as an influence of negative pressure coefficient of band gap for Si (Γ-X). The value is predominantly higher than the reported value of a decrease of 1%–3% in stiffness as an effect of impurity in c-Si.

  18. Optimal Filtering in Pilot-Aided Carrier Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Spalvieri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with carrier recovery based on pilot symbols in single-carrier systems. Wiener's method is used to determine the optimal unconstrained filter in estimation of phase noise assuming that a sequence of equally spaced pilot symbols is available. Our analysis allows to capture two effects that are not considered in the existing literature: the impact of aliasing due to sampling of the phase noise sequence at the pilot rate and the cyclostationary nature of the estimate hence of its performance. Experimental results are derived also for the case, where the filter is constrained to the cascade of two moving averages. These results show that, in the considered example, the mean-square phase error of the constrained filter is within 0.35 dB from the MSE of the optimal filter.

  19. An Improvement of Spatial Carrier Phase-shifting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Kemao; WU Xiaoping

    2001-01-01

    Spatial-carrier phase-shifting method (SCPM) retrieves the phase distribution from carrier interferograms by assuming that the phases of the processed pixel and its adjacent pixels are uniform,which introduces considerable theoretical error. A new method is presented in this paper to improve the SCPM accuracy: (1) A quadric curve is used to describe the phase distribution of the adjacent pixels; (2) The linear and quadric terms of the phase are considered as phase shifter errors; (3)Suitable phase shifting algorithms insensitive to these errors are selected. Two "5-step" algorithms are used and their properties are analyzed. An example ofphase retrieving by SCPM is given and the result shows that SCPM has high theoretical accuracy. With the potential high accuracy, ability of measuring dynamic phase andcomputational simplicity, SCPM will become a much more useful phase measurement method.

  20. Sources of carrier F-19 in F-18 fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J. M.; Shoner, S. C.; Krohn, K. A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Center, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 356004, Seattle, WA 98195-6004 (United States)

    2012-12-19

    Fluorine-18 is used for many PET radiopharmaceuticals. Theoretically {sup 18}F should be carrier free and a good candidate for nanochemistry. However, {sup 18}F has 10 to 1000 times more stable fluorine atoms than radioactive atoms. In order to understand the source of carrier fluoride and other ions associated with {sup 18}F radiosynthesis, anion concentrations of different components of {sup 18}F target systems as well as solvents and chemicals used in radiosynthesis were measured. Results: The enriched water used for production of {sup 18}F had low levels of anions. In general, the sources of anions, particularly of fluoride, were the chemical reagents used for synthesis and trace contaminants in tubing, valves and fittings. A major component of contamination was nitrate from irradiation of dissolved nitrogen gas in the target water.

  1. Chaotic carrier pulse position modulation communication system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Larson, Lawrence E.; Rulkov, Nikolai F.; Sushchik, Mikhail M.; Tsimring, Lev S.; Volkovskii, Alexander R.

    2001-01-01

    A chaotic carrier pulse position modulation communication system and method is disclosed. The system includes a transmitter and receiver having matched chaotic pulse regenerators. The chaotic pulse regenerator in the receiver produces a synchronized replica of a chaotic pulse train generated by the regenerator in the transmitter. The pulse train from the transmitter can therefore act as a carrier signal. Data is encoded by the transmitter through selectively altering the interpulse timing between pulses in the chaotic pulse train. The altered pulse train is transmitted as a pulse signal. The receiver can detect whether a particular interpulse interval in the pulse signal has been altered by reference to the synchronized replica it generates, and can therefore detect the data transmitted by the receiver. Preferably, the receiver predicts the earliest moment in time it can expect a next pulse after observation of at least two consecutive pulses. It then decodes the pulse signal beginning at a short time before expected arrival of a pulse.

  2. Novel pectin-based carriers for colonic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wujie; Mahuta, Kirsten Mary; Mikulski, Brandon Anthony; Harvestine, Jenna Nicole; Crouse, James Zachary; Lee, Jung Chull; Kaltchev, Matey Georgiev; Tritt, Charles Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Pectin-based hydrogel carriers have been studied and shown to have promising applications for drug delivery to the lower GI tract, especially to the colonic region. However, making sure these hydrogel carriers can pass through the upper GI tract and reach the targeted regions, after oral administration, still remains a challenge to overcome. A solution to this problem is to promote stronger cross-linking interactions within the pectin-based hydrogel network. The combined usage of a divalent cation (Ca(2+)) and the cationic biopolymer oligochitosan has shown to improve the stability of pectin-based hydrogel systems - suggesting that these two cross-linkers may be used to eventually help improve pectin-based hydrogel systems for colonic drug delivery methods.

  3. Encapsulation of antioxidants in gastrointestinal-resistant nanoparticulate carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Eliana B; Severino, Patrícia; Basso, Rafael; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to cause several human pathologies. For this reason, antioxidants have gained utmost importance because of their potential as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in many diseases. Examples of their application include their use in diabetic patients, as aging drugs, in cancer diseases, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, autoimmune disorders, and also in inflammation. Antioxidants have limited absorption profiles, therefore low bioavailability and low concentrations at the target site. Efforts have been done towards loading antioxidant molecules in advanced nanoparticulate carriers, e.g., liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, self-emulsifying drug delivery system. Examples of -successful achievements include the encapsulation of drugs and other active ingredients, e.g., coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and vitamin A, resveratrol and polyphenols, curcumin, lycopene, silymarin, and superoxide dismutase. This review focuses on the comprehensive analysis of using nanoparticulate carriers for loading these molecules for oral administration.

  4. Information Carriers and Identification of Information Objects: An Ontological Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doerr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Even though library and archival practice, as well as Digital Preservation, have a long tradition in identifying information objects, the question of their precise identity under change of carrier or migration is still a riddle to science. The objective of this paper is to provide criteria for the unique identification of some important kinds of information objects, independent from the kind of carrier or specific encoding. Our approach is based on the idea that the substance of some kinds of information objects can completely be described in terms of discrete arrangements of finite numbers of known kinds of symbols, such as those implied by style guides for scientific journal submissions. Our theory is also useful for selecting or describing what has to be preserved. This is a fundamental problem since curators and archivists would like to formally record the decisions of what has to be preserved over time and to decide (or verify) whether a migration (transformation) preserves the intended information conte...

  5. Carrier Frequency Offset Compensation for an Interleaved OFDMA Uplink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Da; CAO Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the carrier frequency offset (CFO) compensation in the up-link of the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system with interleaved subcarrier as-signment. The presence of CFOs between the transmitters and the uplink receiver will destroy the orthogo-nality among the different subcarriers, resulting in inter-carrier interference and multiuser interference. This paper proposes a pseudoinverse CFO compensation method based on the signal structure. The proposed method can compensate the CFOs of all users simultaneously and isolate the signals from all users at the same time. Compared with the existing CFO compensation methods, the new method provides a consider-able signal-to-noise ratio gain on the bit error rate performance and has a relatively low implementation complexity.

  6. Observing the quantization of zero mass carriers in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David L; Kubista, Kevin D; Rutter, Gregory M; Ruan, Ming; de Heer, Walt A; First, Phillip N; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2009-05-15

    Application of a magnetic field to conductors causes the charge carriers to circulate in cyclotron orbits with quantized energies called Landau levels (LLs). These are equally spaced in normal metals and two-dimensional electron gases. In graphene, however, the charge carrier velocity is independent of their energy (like massless photons). Consequently, the LL energies are not equally spaced and include a characteristic zero-energy state (the n = 0 LL). With the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene grown on silicon carbide, we directly observed the discrete, non-equally-spaced energy-level spectrum of LLs, including the hallmark zero-energy state of graphene. We also detected characteristic magneto-oscillations in the tunneling conductance and mapped the electrostatic potential of graphene by measuring spatial variations in the energy of the n = 0 LL.

  7. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Tie-ge; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu; Feng, Min

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles calculation based on density functional theory, we study the magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene and its dependence on carrier accumulation. We show that carrier accumulation not only impacts the magnitude of magnetic anisotropy but also switches its sign. Hole accumulation enhances the perpendicular anisotropy up to ˜16 meV per Gd atom, while electron accumulation switches the anisotropy from perpendicular to in-plane direction. Moreover, we find that the first order perturbation of spin-orbit coupling interaction induces a pseudo-gap at Γ for the perpendicular magnetization, which leads to the the anomalous magnetic anisotropy for the neutral composite. Our findings pave the way for magneto-electric materials based on rare-earth-decorated graphene for voltage-controlled spintronics.

  8. Phenobarbital use and neurological problems in FMR1 premutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Lein, Pamela; Teshima, Laura Yuriko González; Isaza, Carolina; Rosa, Lina; Polyak, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi; Girirajan, Santhosh; Silva, Marisol; Tassone, Flora

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene located at Xq27.3. Patients with the premutation in FMR1 present specific clinical problems associated with the number of CGG repeats (55–200 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers have elevated FMR1 mRNA expression levels, which have been associated with neurotoxicity potentially causing neurodevelopmental problems or neurological problems associated with aging. However, cognitive impairments or neurological problems may also be related to increased vulnerability of premutation carriers to neurotoxicants, including phenobarbital. Here we present a study of three sisters with the premutation who were exposed differentially to phenobarbital therapy throughout their lives, allowing us to compare the neurological effects of this drug in these patients. PMID:26802682

  9. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  10. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies.

  11. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles calculation based on density functional theory, we study the magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene and its dependence on carrier accumulation. We show that carrier accumulation not only impacts the magnitude of magnetic anisotropy but also switches its sign. Hole accumulation enhances the perpendicular anisotropy up to ∼16 meV per Gd atom, while electron accumulation switches the anisotropy from perpendicular to in-plane direction. Moreover, we find that the first order perturbation of spin-orbit coupling interaction induces a pseudo-gap at Γ for the perpendicular magnetization, which leads to the the anomalous magnetic anisotropy for the neutral composite. Our findings pave the way for magneto-electric materials based on rare-earth-decorated graphene for voltage-controlled spintronics.

  12. CaSCADE: Compressed Carrier and DOA Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Shahar; Yair, Or; Cohen, Deborah; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2016-01-01

    Spectrum sensing and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation have been thoroughly investigated, both separately and as a joint task. Estimating the support of a set of signals and their DOAs is crucial to many signal processing applications, such as Cognitive Radio (CR). A challenging scenario, faced by CRs, is that of multiband signals, composed of several narrowband transmissions spread over a wide spectrum each with unknown carrier frequencies and DOAs. The Nyquist rate of such signals is hi...

  13. Multiphonon hopping of carriers in CuO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, T.; Yildiz, A.; Şahin, Ş. H.; Serin, N.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed a detailed study of the electrical conduction process in CuO thin films deposited by the sol-gel dip coating technique in a temperature range 280-420 K. The electrical conduction is analyzed within the framework of various hopping conduction models. Multiphonon hopping conduction mechanism is found to dominate the electrical transport in the entire temperature region. Our results are consistent with this model of hopping conduction mechanisms with weak carrier-lattice coupling.

  14. Digital Carrier Modulation and Sampling Issues of Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Rong, Runjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    digital carrier modulation schemes for controlling conventional (direct) and indirect matrix converters with minimized semiconductor commutation count and smooth sextant transitions with no erroneous states produced. For guaranteeing the latter two features, correct digital sampling instants and state...... sequence reversal must be chosen appropriately, as demonstrated in the paper for the two different topological options,which, to date, have not yet been discussed in the existing literature. To validate the concepts discussed, experimental testing on the implemented conventional and indirect matrix...

  15. Digital carrier modulation and sampling issues of matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Rong, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    digital carrier modulation schemes for controlling conventional and sparse matrix converters with minimized semiconductor commutation count and smooth sextant transitions with no erroneous states produced. For guaranteeing the latter two features, correct digital sampling instants and state sequence...... reversal must be chosen appropriately, as demonstrated in the paper for the two different topological options, which to date, have not yet been discussed in the existing literature. To validate the concepts discussed, experimental testing on the implemented conventional and sparse matrix laboratory...

  16. Global regular solutions for the nonhomogeneous Carrier equation

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    We study in a n + 1 -dimensional cylinder Q global solvability of the mixed problem for the nonhomogeneous Carrier equation u t t − M ( x , t , || u ( t ) || 2 ) Δ u + g ( x , t , u t ) = f ( x , t ) without restrictions on a size of initial data and f ( x , t ) . For any natural n, we prove existence, uniqueness and the exponential decay of the energy for global generalized solutions. When n=2 , we pro...

  17. Surface Depletion Correction to Carrier Profiles by Hall Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    electrically active carriers below the surface per unit surface area. Next, a thin layer of the implanted material is removed by a chemical etch. A...3Y 2 ) bo A’ 64 b -- (2j8 3 2 -6) 2 A where A = 10$ - 12)Y2 -18. Equation (3) may now be integrated to obtain an analitic V.-’.4 function, in terms of

  18. TRANSMISSION OF DATA USING POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Serrao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as a general and technical reference to transmission of data using a power line carrier communication system which is a preferred choice over Wireless or other Home Networking technologies due to the ease of installation, availability of AC outlets, higher throughput, low cost, reliability and security. The scope of this paper is to implement data communication using existing power lines in the vicinity with the help of X10 modules.

  19. Enhanced carrier transport along edges of graphene devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jungseok; Jung, Suyong; Woo, Sungjong; Baek, Hongwoo; Ha, Jeonghoon; Song, Young Jae; Son, Young-Woo; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A; Kuk, Young

    2012-04-11

    The relation between macroscopic charge transport properties and microscopic carrier distribution is one of the central issues in the physics and future applications of graphene devices (GDs). We find strong conductance enhancement at the edges of GDs using scanning gate microscopy. This result is explained by our theoretical model of the opening of an additional conduction channel localized at the edges by depleting accumulated charge by the tip.

  20. Field of View Requirements for Carrier Landing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams Air Force Base. The visual image for the simulation was provided by a data base which crea&.ed the aircraft carrier...USS Forrestal (CVA-59) in the ASPT computer-image-generation systor.m. The pilots in these three groups’ were trained under different conditions. Two...Advanced Simalator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) would be ideal for this effort, and later, Lt Col Samuel T. Hannan and Capt Ricky A. Perry were assigned

  1. Squalane as a possible carrier of bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Uji, H; Antoh, M; Hasegawa, H; Kise, T; Eda, S

    1993-07-01

    Gelatin capsules containing squalane partially purified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) complex were placed on the perimuscular membrane of rats. Two kinds of control, gelatin capsules containing only BMP and those bearing squalane only, were used. The embedded areas were histopathologically examined at 3 and 6 wk after the operation. The observations revealed that the squalane/BMP complex elicited wide heterotopic bone formation with bone marrow tissue, suggesting that squalane is a possible carrier of BMP for clinical applications.

  2. Encouraging creative reuse of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation shows how to encourage reuse of different types of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten. In the theoretical part I have introduced the concepts of creativity, divergent thinking and the meaning of reuse. I have outlined the problems concerning shopping bags and named the most common types, from which we made creative products. I outlined the motoric development in a child wherein I focused on eye-hand coordination, which is very important for a child's complete development....

  3. Maternal and perinatal outcomes amongst haemoglobinopathy carriers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, S M P J; de Jonge, A; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2010-11-01

    With the introduction of screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies (HbP), more women will be aware of their HbP status. The genetic risk for women who are carriers of HbP is well known. However, midwives and obstetricians need to know whether there are other risks involved in the pregnancies of women who are carriers of HbP. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that being a carrier of HbP has no consequences for the health of pregnant women and the outcome of their pregnancies. A systematic search was carried out until August 2008 in the Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. All references were inspected to identify further studies. The authors of key publications were contacted for any unpublished research. Selection of studies was made on the basis of the following criteria: Cohort and case-control studies, pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy, exposure: HbAS or thalassaemia minor and the following outcomes: urinary tract infection (UTI), anaemia, (pre-)eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature labour, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, miscarriage, neonatal death, low Apgar score, neural tube defects. Quality assessment and data extraction were carried out by two researchers. A total of 780 subjects were identified of which nine were included in the study. A protective effect of sickle cell trait was found for premature birth, low Apgar score and perinatal mortality rate. No significant effect was found for low birth weight, growth retardation, UTI or high blood pressure. The risk of anaemia and bacteriuria was increased. In conclusion, the risks amongst pregnant HbP carriers are low. Midwives and obstetricians need to be aware of the risk of anaemia and UTI.

  4. Antiphospholipid antibodies in Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Atta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0% hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95%CI: 21.5-25.4 MPL, only three carriers (<3% had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95%CI: 20.5-25.5 GPL. Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004. IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0% hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95%CI: 52.7-103.9 SAU. Twenty patients (18.0% had IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95%CI: 23.3-70.3 SMU, while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  5. Improving live attenuated bacterial carriers for vaccination and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loessner, Holger; Endmann, Anne; Leschner, Sara; Bauer, Heike; Zelmer, Andrea; zur Lage, Susanne; Westphal, Kathrin; Weiss, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated bacteria are well established as vaccines. Thus, their use as carriers for prophylactic and therapeutic macromolecules is a logical consequence. Here we describe several experimental applications of bacteria to carry heterologous macromolecules into the murine host. First, Listeria monocytogenes are described that are able to transfer eukaryotic expression plasmids into host cells for gene therapy. High multiplicities of infection are still required for efficient gene transfer and we point out some of the bottlenecks that counteract a more efficient transfer and application in vivo. Then, we describe Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) as an expression plasmid transfer vehicle for oral DNA vaccination of mice. We demonstrate that the stabilization of the plasmid transformants results in an improved immune response. Stabilization was achieved by replacing the origin of replication of the original high-copy-number plasmid by a low-copy-number origin. Finally, we describe Salmonella carriers for the improved expression of heterologous proteins. We introduce a system in which the plasmid is carried as a single copy during cultivation but is amplified several fold upon infection of the host. Using the same in vivo inducible promoter for both protein expression and plasmid amplification, a substantial increase in antigen expression in vivo can be achieved. A modification of this approach is the introduction of inducible gene expression in vivo with a low-molecular-weight compound. Using P(BAD) promoter and L-arabinose as inducer we were able to deliberately activate genes in the bacterial carrier. No background activity could be observed with P(BAD) such that an inducible suicide gene could be introduced. This is adding an important safety feature to such live attenuated carrier bacteria.

  6. Effect of Copper on the Carrier Lifetime in Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, Saydulla;

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. During annealing, silicon microstructures are formed on the surface. We use time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to study the photoconductivity dynamics in black silicon. We find that when a copper film is deposited on top of the a-Si:......-Si:H layer prior to laser annealing, the carrier lifetime of black silicon is significantly reduced....

  7. Aptamers as Both Drugs and Drug-Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acid oligos. They may serve as both drugs and drug-carriers. Their use as diagnostic tools is also evident. They can be generated using various experimental, theoretical, and computational techniques. The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment which uses iterative screening of nucleic acid libraries is a popular experimental technique. Theory inspired methodology entropy-based seed-and-grow strategy that designs aptamer templates to bind specifically to targets is another one. Aptamers are predicted to be highly useful in producing general drugs and theranostic drugs occasionally for certain diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and so on. They bind to various targets like lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, small organic compounds, and even entire organisms. Aptamers may also serve as drug-carriers or nanoparticles helping drugs to get released in specific target regions. Due to better target specific physical binding properties aptamers cause less off-target toxicity effects. Therefore, search for aptamer based drugs, drug-carriers, and even diagnostic tools is expanding fast. The biophysical properties in relation to the target specific binding phenomena of aptamers, energetics behind the aptamer transport of drugs, and the consequent biological implications will be discussed. This review will open up avenues leading to novel drug discovery and drug delivery.

  8. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  9. Porous carriers for controlled/modulated drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, G; Pathak, K

    2009-11-01

    Considerable research efforts have been directed in recent years towards the development of porous carriers as controlled drug delivery matrices because of possessing several features such as stable uniform porous structure, high surface area, tunable pore size and well-defined surface properties. Owing to wide range of useful properties porous carriers have been used in pharmaceuticals for many purposes including development of floating drug delivery systems, sustained drug delivery systems. Various types of pores like open, closed, transport and blind pores in the porous solid allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. Pharmaceutically exploited porous adsorbents includes, silica (mesoporous), ethylene vinyl acetate (macroporous), polypropylene foam powder (microporous), titanium dioxide (nanoporous). When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. The porous carriers are used to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, to increase the dissolution of relatively insoluble powders and conversion of crystalline state to amorphous state.

  10. Porous carriers for controlled/modulated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research efforts have been directed in recent years towards the development of porous carriers as controlled drug delivery matrices because of possessing several features such as stable uniform porous structure, high surface area, tunable pore size and well-defined surface properties. Owing to wide range of useful properties porous carriers have been used in pharmaceuticals for many purposes including development of floating drug delivery systems, sustained drug delivery systems. Various types of pores like open, closed, transport and blind pores in the porous solid allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. Pharmaceutically exploited porous adsorbents includes, silica (mesoporous, ethylene vinyl acetate (macroporous, polypropylene foam powder (microporous, titanium dioxide (nanoporous. When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. The porous carriers are used to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, to increase the dissolution of relatively insoluble powders and conversion of crystalline state to amorphous state.

  11. Altered erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in carriers of thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Jacqueline S; Cominal, Juçara G; Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina; Olbina, Gordana; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Nandi, Vijay; Westerman, Mark; Rivella, Stefano; de Souza, Ana Maria

    2015-06-01

    The thalassemia syndromes (α- and β-thalassemia) are the most common and frequent disorders associated with ineffective erythropoiesis. Imbalance of α- or β-globin chain production results in impaired red blood cell synthesis, anemia, and more erythroid progenitors in the blood stream. While patients affected by these disorders show definitive altered parameters related to erythropoiesis, the relationship between the degree of anemia, altered erythropoiesis, and dysfunctional iron metabolism has not been investigated in both α-thalassemia carriers (ATC) and β-thalassemia carriers (BTC). Here, we demonstrate that ATC have a significantly reduced hepcidin and increased soluble transferrin receptor levels but relatively normal hematological findings. In contrast, BTC have several hematological parameters significantly different from controls, including increased soluble transferrin receptor and erythropoietin levels. These changes in both groups suggest an altered balance between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The index sTfR/log ferritin and (hepcidin/ferritin)/sTfR are, respectively, increased and reduced relative to controls, proportional to the severity of each thalassemia group. In conclusion, we showed in this study, for the first time in the literature, that thalassemia carriers have altered iron metabolism and erythropoiesis.

  12. Photo-doped carrier dynamics in Mott insulatoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Eiki; Ishihara, Sumio

    2013-03-01

    Electron/hole doping in Mott insulators, for example two-dimensional cuprates, has been well investigated in relation to high-Tc superconductivity. Especially related to photo-doping, many experiments on photo-induced phase transition in strongly correlated systems have been made. In the usual photo-doping setup, the system is excited with fs-laser pulse and generated electron-hole pairs affect properties of materials. Recently, another type of photo-doped experiment with heterostructure has been made, and hole or electron carriers are dynamically injected through the heterostructure. In this theoretical study, we examine photo-doped carrier dynamics in the t-J model with dynamically doped holes. We formulate dynamics of the carriers by non-equilibrium Green functions. We take an initial state of holes and decompose the non-equilibrium Green's function into a series of equilibrium Green's functions by using Wick's theorem. The effect of the initial distribution appears from the higher terms in the series. We treat magnons with the self-consistent Born approximation. The non-equilibrium Green function derived in this way shows double time dependence. We will present physical quantities in transient process, for example, one-particle excitation spectra for holes.

  13. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  14. Multi-carrier Modulation (MCM) Signaling using OFDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, H.; Gowda, Chandrakanth H.; Gurumurthy, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    OFDM is novel multicarrier modulation (MCM) technique. It has strong advantage of being a generic transmission scheme whose actual characteristics can be widely customized to fulfill several requirements and constraints of an advanced communication system. It adopts wavelet packet function as carriers which have the characteristic of good orthogonality and time-frequency localization. It can be seen from both theoretical analysis and software simulation that multi-carrier modulation and demodulation technique based on wavelet packet transform has unique advantage and great potential in improving the performance of communication system. This paper demonstrates the operation of a Wavelet Packet based multi-carrier modulation (WP-MCM) scheme. The wavelet packets are derived from multistage tree-structured paraunitary filter banks by choosing the right tree structure which would minimize the bit error between the desired and received signal for a particular channel condition. The performance of the system is simulated and analyzed for the AWGN channel. Through simulation results, we demonstrate the efficacy and the flexibility of the proposed wavelet packet based mechanism. The Bit Error rate (BER) performance is shown to be comparable, and even at times better, to conventional Fourier based OFDM. Comparison of different family of wavelets has been carried out and Meyer wavelet seems to be the most suitable wavelet through simulation results.

  15. Survival in Norwegian BRCA1 mutation carriers with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Anne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies of survival in women with BRCA1 mutations have shown either reduced survival or no difference compared to controls. Programmes for early detection and treatment of inherited breast cancer, have failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in survival in BRCA1 mutation carriers. One hundred and sixty-seven women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer from 1980 to 2001 were identified. Tumour characteristics, treatment given and survival were recorded. A control group comprising three hundred and four women matched for age, time of diagnosis and stage were used to compare survival. BRCA1 mutation carriers were found to have a poorer prognosis, which could be explained by neither the mode of surgical treatment nor the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. BRCA1 mutation carriers with node negative breast cancer had worse overall survival than controls. Our findings confirm the serious prognosis of BRCA1-associated breast cancer even when diagnosed at an early stage, and that type of treatment does not influence prognosis.

  16. Injectable nanomaterials for drug delivery: carriers, targeting moieties, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, David M; Sundaram, Padma; Byrne, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutics such as nucleic acids, proteins/peptides, vaccines, anti-cancer, and other drugs have disadvantages of low bio-availability, rapid clearance, and high toxicity. Thus, there is a significant need for the development of efficient delivery methods and carriers. Injectable nanocarriers have received much attention due to their vast range of structures and ability to contain multiple functional groups, both within the bulk material and on the surface of the particles. Nanocarriers may be tailored to control drug release and/or increase selective cell targeting, cellular uptake, drug solubility, and circulation time, all of which lead to a more efficacious delivery and action of therapeutics. The focus of this review is injectable, targeted nanoparticle drug delivery carriers highlighting the diversity of nanoparticle materials and structures as well as highlighting current therapeutics and targeting moieties. Structures and materials discussed include liposomes, polymersomes, dendrimers, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and gold nanoparticles. Additionally, current clinical trial information and details such as trial phase, treatment, active drug, carrier sponsor, and clinical trial identifier for different materials and structures are presented and discussed.

  17. Optimization of magnetite carrier precipitation process for transuranic waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Aase, S.A.; Babcock, B.D.; Conner, C.; Sedlet, J.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-12-31

    Transuranic (TRU) waste that is being generated at Argonne National Laboratory has a TRU activity ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 7} nCi/g with a wide variety of chemical compositions. Currently, the waste is stored in highly acidic solutions that must be neutralized for intermediate storage. A magnetite carrier precipitation process has been adapted to concentrate TRU isotopes in a noncorrosive solid phase. In this paper, the authors report the results of a series of laboratory tests done to optimize the process. The parameters they optimized included (1) magnetite concentration used to precipitate the TRUs from solution, (2) formation of magnetite (in situ or ex situ), (3) processing pH, and (4) temperature and mixing time of the carrier precipitation. They also studied the effects of anions, cations, and complexing agents in the waste solutions on the carrier precipitation and the effect of magnetite solids loading on the filtration equipment. An overview is given of the planned full-scale process, which will be operated in a glovebox.

  18. Preparation and application of functionalized nano drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudong Gong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Targeting at category memory characteristics and preparation methods of functionalized nano drugs, preparation technology of functionalized nano drug carriers is studied, and then important role of functionalized nano drug carrier in preparation of medicine is studied. Methods: Carry out the relevant literature search with computer, change limited language in the paper to Chinese and necessarily remove repetitive studies. Results: After first review of 1260 retrieved literature, it can be found that nano drug is with accurate quantity, relatively good targeting, specificity and absorbency. Necessary research of nano drug carriers can prevent and treat disease to a certain extent. Conclusion: Preparation of functionalized nanocarrier is simple and convenient, which can improve frequency of use of nano preparation technology and provide better development space for medical use. Therefore, nanocarriers should be combined with drugs with relatively strong specificity in clinics, in order to be able to conduct effective research on nanometer intelligent drug, effectively promote long-term development of nano biotechnology, and then provide favorable, reliable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This work is a continuation of a previous paper by the authors [1] which analyzed the suitability of the Chemical Looping technology in biomass tar reforming. Four different oxygen carriers were tested with toluene as tar model compound: 60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg......–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe) and their tendency to carbon deposition was analyzed in the temperature range 873–1073K. In the present paper, the reactivity of these carriers to other compounds in the gasification gas is studied, also with special emphasis on the tendency to carbon deposition. Experiments...... were carried out in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Ni-based carriers showed a tendency to form carbon in the reaction with CH4, especially Ni60. The addition of water in H2O/CH4 molar ratios of 0.4–2.3 could decrease the carbon deposited, but not in the case of Ni60. Mn-based sample reacted...

  20. Characteristic analysis of magnetorheological fluid based on different carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 张进秋; 贾进峰

    2008-01-01

    In order to prepare special MRFs to satisfy the demands of tracked vehicle,two different carrier fluids were used to prepare MRFs.Preparation of MRF,which are based on carrier of special shock absorption fluid and 45# transformer oil,was finished.And characteristics of these samples were tested and analyzed.The results show that Tween-80 and Span-80 can improve the sedimentary stability,and the larger mass fraction can also increase the sedimentary stability.Using 45# transformer oil instead of special shock absorption fluid as a carrier of MRF,the shear yield stress remains nearly constant but the viscosity and the sedimentary stability are reduced.The MRF with diameter of 2.73 μm shows better sedimentary stability than that of the MRF with diameter of 2.30 μm,or 4.02 μm.Stearic acid obviously improves sedimentary stability and off-state viscosity,but has no function on the shear yield stress.In magnetic field of 237 kA/m,the shear yield stress of MRF based on special shock absorption fluid is 18.34 kPa and the shear yield stress of MRF based on 45# transformer oil is 14.26 kPa.

  1. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  2. 76 FR 18826 - Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... distribution of fees paid by for-hire and private motor carriers, brokers, freight forwarders, and leasing companies. The UCR Plan and Agreement replaced the Single State Registration System (SSRS), which was... carriers, motor private carriers, brokers, freight forwarders, and leasing companies that are involved...

  3. 77 FR 20881 - Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... distribution of fees paid by for-hire and private motor carriers, brokers, freight forwarders, and leasing companies. The UCR Plan and Agreement replaced the Single State Registration System (SSRS), which was... carriers, motor private carriers, brokers, freight forwarders, and leasing companies that are involved...

  4. 78 FR 72146 - Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) Changes to Improve Uniformity in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) Changes to... Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) to allow the Agency to upload the results of... enforcement agency into FMCSA's information systems and the subsequent adjudication happens much later with...

  5. 49 CFR 369.10 - Public release of motor carrier of property data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public release of motor carrier of property data... REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.10 Public release of motor carrier of property data. (a) In general. Unless otherwise provided in this section, the data contained in a report filed under §...

  6. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  7. 78 FR 20372 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  8. 78 FR 75441 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier...

  9. 78 FR 76701 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier...

  10. 78 FR 25782 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  11. 78 FR 68134 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  12. 78 FR 19354 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  13. 49 CFR 391.65 - Drivers furnished by other motor carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drivers furnished by other motor carriers. 391.65 Section 391.65 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  14. Advances in studies of phospholipids as carriers in skin topical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:This article provides an overview of characteristics of phospholipids,the characteristics and influential factors of liposome and microemulsion as carriers for skin delivery of drugs,and the latest advances of the phospholipids carriers in transdermal delivery systems.The perspective is that phospholipids carriers may be capable of a wide range of applications in the transdermal defivery system.

  15. 47 CFR 54.314 - State certification of support for rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.314... area of a rural incumbent local exchange carrier within their jurisdiction to receive support pursuant... jurisdiction. A rural incumbent local exchange carrier not subject to the jurisdiction of a state or...

  16. 47 CFR 54.313 - State certification of support for non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.313... area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier within their jurisdiction to receive support... subject to State jurisdiction. A non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier not subject to...

  17. 78 FR 27137 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Satellite Carriers AGENCY: U.S. Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... to audit the Statements of Account and royalty fees that cable operators and satellite carriers... received from copyright owners, cable operators, and satellite carriers. The Copyright Office...

  18. 77 FR 60333 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Satellite Carriers AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... satellite carriers. DATES: Reply comments on the proposed rule published at 77 FR 35643, June 14, 2012, must... of Account and royalty fees that cable operators and satellite carriers deposit with the...

  19. 14 CFR 399.12 - Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation by air carriers for landing... Relating to Operating Authority § 399.12 Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign..., landing rights abroad for United States flag air carriers will be acquired through negotiation by the...

  20. 47 CFR 20.11 - Interconnection to facilities of local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.11 Interconnection to facilities of local exchange... carrier shall pay reasonable compensation to a commercial mobile radio service provider in connection with terminating traffic that originates on facilities of the local exchange carrier. (2) A commercial mobile...

  1. 37 CFR 201.11 - Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satellite carrier statements... PROVISIONS § 201.11 Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary... royalty fees in the Copyright Office as required by the satellite carrier license of section 119(b)(1)...

  2. 41 CFR 109-40.303-3 - Most fuel efficient carrier/mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Most fuel efficient...-3 Most fuel efficient carrier/mode. When more than one mode, or more than one carrier within a mode... cost, the carrier/mode determined to be the most fuel efficient will be selected. In determining...

  3. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery âto carriers for transportation to market.â 780... “to carriers for transportation to market.” The term “delivery * * * to carriers for transportation to market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees...

  4. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9,...

  5. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs..., through July 31, 2012.\\1\\ On August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  6. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... PRCBs from the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the...

  7. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. As a... retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  8. 47 CFR 54.517 - Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. 54.517 Section 54.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....517 Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. (a) Non-telecommunications carriers shall...

  9. 47 CFR 54.201 - Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally. 54.201 Section 54.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.201 Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally. (a) Carriers eligible...

  10. 78 FR 26705 - Telecommunications Carriers Eligible for Support; Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Several...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Telecommunications Carriers Eligible for Support; Lifeline and Link Up Reform and... requirement of the Commission's rules that the service area of an eligible telecommunications carrier (ETC... as pending and future requests by telecommunications carriers that seek limited designation, as...

  11. 42 CFR 405.831 - Waiver of right to appear at carrier hearing and present evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the right to appear is to be in writing and filed with the hearing officer or the carrier. Such waiver... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of right to appear at carrier hearing and... Appeals Under the Medicare Part B Program § 405.831 Waiver of right to appear at carrier hearing...

  12. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B;

    2008-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia constitutes the third most prevalent neurodegenerative disease with dementia. We compared cortical structural changes in nine presymptomatic CHMP2B frontotemporal dementia mutation positive individuals with seven mutation negative family members. Using serial MRI scans...... with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...... rates in the presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers were statistically significant, though of a lower magnitude than those previously reported in patients of other types of frontotemporal dementia. Cortical thickness measurements revealed cortical thinning in mutation carriers bilaterally...

  13. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  14. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-03-01

    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging.

  15. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGa/GaN multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay...... of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well...

  16. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, H. P.; Turchinovich, D.; Cooke, D. G.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2009-11-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model.

  17. Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porte, H P; Turchinovich, D; Cooke, D G; Jepsen, P Uhd, E-mail: hpor@fotonik.dtu.d [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersteds Plads 343, DK 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model.

  18. Preparation and Drug-release Behavior of β-TCP Ceramics Drug Carrier in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qihuan; YAN Xin; YAN Yuhua; DAI Honglian; JIANG Xin; LI Shipu

    2012-01-01

    β-TCP ceramics drug carrier was first prepared and characterized.SEM showed that β-TCP carrier was in porous amorphous structure with diameters around 10 μm.The physical properties including apparent porosity,volume-weight,tensile strength and the permeability were measured and the results indicated those properties fit the clinical usage of β-TCP drug carrier.Furthermore,drug release experiment in vitro showed that the carrier could prolong drug release in simulated body fluid which provides basis for the clinical use of β-TCP ceramics as drug carrier.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 in the urine of non-carriers and chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus in Maringa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Padovani Giolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to aflatoxins (AFs in the diet may favour the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and the acute exacerbation of hepatitis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV carriers. Measurement of biomarkers such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, in urine allows for the assessment of populations exposed to aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in the urine of HBV carrier and non-carrier patients. One group included 43 randomly selected HBV carriers treated at two hospitals in the city of Maringa, Brazil, from March to June 2008. Control group consisted of 29 healthy adult volunteers with anti-HBs positive and HBsAg negative test results. Detection of AFM1 was performed by fluorescence using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and post-column derivation with the Kobra Cell®. Of the 72 samples analysed, 05/29 (17.2% AFM1 positive samples were from HBV non-carriers, and 16/43 (37.2% of samples were from chronic HBV carriers. This study showed AFM1 in the urine of the two surveyed population. However, there is evidence that the chronic HBV carriers have a higher risk of developing HCC due to additive interaction between AFs and HBV.A exposição às aflatoxinas (AFs na dieta é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC e a exacerbação da hepatite aguda em indivíduos portadores do vírus da hepatite B (VHB. O uso de biomarcadores, como a aflatoxina M1 (AFM1 na urina, produto de biotransformação da aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, permite avaliar se a população está exposta às AFs. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar ocorrência de AFM1 na urina de portadores e não portadores crônicos do VHB. Foi selecionado um grupo, de forma aleatória, representado por 43 portadores do VHB atendidos em dois hospitais da cidade de Maringá, Brasil, no período de Março a Junho/2008. O grupo controle foi composto por 29 voluntários adultos saud

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Bellotti, Enrico, E-mail: bellotti@bu.edu [ECE Department, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Rd, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sub-picosecond dynamics of photo-excited carriers in GaN. In the theoretical model, interaction with an external ultrafast laser pulse is treated coherently and to account for the scattering mechanisms and dephasing processes, a generalized Monte-Carlo simulation is used. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We study the effect of different scattering mechanisms on the carrier densities. In the case that the excitation energy satisfies the threshold for polar optical scattering, phonon contribution is the dominant process in relaxing the system, otherwise, carrier-carrier mechanism is dominant. Furthermore, we present the temperature and pulse power dependent normalized luminescence intensity. The results are presented over a range of temperatures, electric field, and excitation energy of the laser pulse. For comparison, we also report the experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN samples. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experiment in normalized luminescence intensity results. Therefore, we show that we can explain the dynamics of the photo-excited carriers in GaN by including only carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions and a relatively simple two-band electronic structure model.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-12-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sub-picosecond dynamics of photo-excited carriers in GaN. In the theoretical model, interaction with an external ultrafast laser pulse is treated coherently and to account for the scattering mechanisms and dephasing processes, a generalized Monte-Carlo simulation is used. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We study the effect of different scattering mechanisms on the carrier densities. In the case that the excitation energy satisfies the threshold for polar optical scattering, phonon contribution is the dominant process in relaxing the system, otherwise, carrier-carrier mechanism is dominant. Furthermore, we present the temperature and pulse power dependent normalized luminescence intensity. The results are presented over a range of temperatures, electric field, and excitation energy of the laser pulse. For comparison, we also report the experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN samples. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experiment in normalized luminescence intensity results. Therefore, we show that we can explain the dynamics of the photo-excited carriers in GaN by including only carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions and a relatively simple two-band electronic structure model.

  2. Environmental Influence on Automatic Landing Error of the Carrier-Borne Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhimin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the movement model of aircraft carrier and stern flow model under the influence of marine sport. Also, we focus on the influence of marine sports and aft flow on the landing error of the carrier-borne aircraft under the guidance of the automatic landing system in different sea state level by numerical simulation and calculation. The analysis result is meaningful to the aircraft carrier due to the fact that environmental factors have a great influence on the error of carrier-borne aircraft landing on aircraft carrier, especially; marine sports and aft flow always affect the movement of an aircraft carrier and landing process of carrier-borne aircraft.

  3. Energy-resolved hot carrier relaxation dynamics in monocrystalline plasmonic nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Méjard, Régis; Petit, Marlène; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Cluzel, Benoît; Demichel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hot carriers are energetic photo-excited carriers driving a large range of chemico-physical mechanisms. At the nanoscale, an efficient generation of these carriers is facilitated by illuminating plasmonic antennas. However, the ultrafast relaxation rate severally impedes their deployment in future hot-carrier based devices. In this paper, we report on the picosecond relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in plasmonic monocrystalline gold nanoantennas. The temporal dynamics of the hot carriers is experimentally investigated by interrogating the nonlinear photoluminescence response of the antenna with a spectrally-resolved two-pulse correlation configuration. We measure time-dependent nonlinearity orders varying from 1 to 8, which challenge the common interpretation of multi-photon gold luminescence. We demonstrate that the relaxation of the photo-excited carriers depends of their energies relative to the Fermi level. We find a 60 % variation in the relaxation rate for electron-hole pair energies ranging from c.a....

  4. Analysis of Carrier Deployment Strategies for LTE-A HetNets with Multicell Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how to best utilize two carriers (F1 and F2) in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) where both macro and small cells are deployed. Two well known multi-cell cooperation techniques are applied: enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) on carriers that are co-channel de......This paper studies how to best utilize two carriers (F1 and F2) in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) where both macro and small cells are deployed. Two well known multi-cell cooperation techniques are applied: enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) on carriers that are co......-variant traffic conditions. For the considered HetNet scenario, the carrier deployment strategy resulting in the best downlink end-user throughput performance is found to be co-channel for low load conditions, and one carrier deployed at the macro and two carriers deployed at small cells (called hybrid deployment...

  5. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccard, Matthieu [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Koswatta, Priyaranga [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Holman, Zachary [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-04-06

    "The first step towards building a high-efficiency solar cell is to develop an absorber with few recombination-active defects. Many photovoltaic technologies have already achieved this (monocrystalline Si, III-V materials grown on lattice-matched substrates, perovskites, polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS); those that have not (a-Si:H, organics) have been limited to low open-circuit voltage. The second step is to develop contacts that both inhibit surface recombination and allow for low-resistance collection of either only electrons or only holes. For most photovoltaic technologies, this step is both more difficult and less explored than the first, and we are unaware of a prescribed methodology for selecting materials for contacts to solar cells. We elucidate a unified, conceptual understanding of contacts within which existing contacting schemes can be interpreted and future contacting schemes can be imagined. Whereas a split of the quasi-Fermi levels of holes and electrons is required in the absorber of any solar cell to generate a voltage, carriers are eventually collected through a metallic wire in which no such quasi-Fermi-level split exists. We define a contact to be all layers between the bulk of the absorber and the recombination-active interface through which carriers are extracted. The quasi-Fermi levels must necessarily collapse at this interface, and thus the transition between maximal quasi-Fermi-level splitting (in the absorber) and no splitting occurs entirely in the contact. Depending on the solar cell architecture, the contact will usually extend from the surface of the absorber to the surface of a metal or transparent conductive oxide layer, and may include deposited or diffused doped layers (e.g., as in crystalline and thin-film Si cells) and heterostructure buffer layers (e.g., the CdS layer in a CdTe device). We further define a passivating contact as one that enables high quasi-Fermi-level splitting in the absorber (large “internal” voltage

  6. Lipid formulation as a drug carrier for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Yoshifumi

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a Drug Delivery System (DDS), a preparative approach attracts the attention in the development of new drugs. DDS focuses on the regulation of the in vivo dynamics, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination, thereby improving the effectiveness and the safety of the drugs by an applicable use of drug preparation technologies. A conventional intravenous dosage form of Amphotericin B (AmB), Fungizone, is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects. Several lipid formulations, such as Liposomal AmB (L-AmB), AmB lipid complex (ABLC), and AmB colloidal dispersion (ABCD), with reduced side effects have been developed. These formulations are reported to have excellent safety and efficacy. However, comparable efficacy can be achieved only when they are administered at high doses than AmB. One of the problems of using these formulations is that they are easily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). An artificial lipoprotein-like particles, a novel drug carrier Lipid Nano-Sphere (LNS), which is 25 - 50 nm in size and is composed of phospholipids and simple lipid. LNS show a higher plasma concentration of drugs and lower uptake by RES-tissue different forms other lipid base drug carriers. In vitro and in vivo, LNS incorporating AmB, NS-718, shows reduced toxicity, while maintaining activity against fungi. LNS have a unique characteristic as an effective carrier of AmB for treatment of fungal infection.

  7. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: impact on carrier children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D; van Langen, Irene M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; de Beaufort, Inez D; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2008-12-15

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive their carrier status, (b) impact on their daily lives, and (c) strategy used to cope with these consequences. Children (aged 8-18) who tested positive for LQTS (n=11), HCM (n=6) or FH (n=16), and their parents participated in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Interview topics included illness perception, use of medication, lifestyle modifications, worries, and coping. Each interview was coded by two researchers. The qualitative analysis was guided by Leventhal's model of self-regulation. The children were overall quite articulate about the disease they were tested for, including its mode of inheritance. They expressed positive future health perceptions, but feelings of controllability varied. Adherence and side-effects were significant themes with regard to medication-use. Refraining from activities and maintaining a non-fat diet were themes concerning lifestyle modifications. Some children spontaneously reported worries about the possibility of dying and frustration about being different from peers. Children coped with these worries by expressing faith in the effectiveness of medication, trying to be similar to peers or, in contrast, emphasizing their "being different." Children generally appeared effective in the way they coped with their carrier status and its implications. Nevertheless, dealing with the daily implications of their condition remains difficult in some situations, warranting continued availability of psychosocial support.

  8. Dynamics of carrier recombination in a semiconductor laser structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhioev, R. I., E-mail: dzhioev@orient.ioffe.ru; Kavokin, K. V.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Poletaev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Carrier-recombination dynamics is studied by the method of optical orientation at room temperature in the active layer of a laser diode structure. The dependence of the degree of electron-spin orientation on the excitation density is attributed to saturation of the nonradiative-recombination channel. The time of electron capture at recombination centers is determined to be τ{sub e} = 5 × 10{sup –9} s. The temperature of nonequilibrium electrons heated by a He–Ne laser is estimated.

  9. The Research of Carrier-grade Unified Communication Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nianling; Wang Xiaohua; Tao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Unified Communication (UC) has been one of the hot topics in telecommunication field, and venders introduce various platforms and products for it. Due to the diversification of platform technologies and lacking of unified application interface, curtent applications are hard to be extended and interconnected. Taking example for China Netcom NGN open service platform, this paper briefly presents how to build up carrier-grade unified communication applications under the direction of operator, which will be the reference to make fast development and large scale deployment for UC services.

  10. Thermal effects on photogeneration of free carriers in organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Pedro H.; da Cunha, Wiliam F.; Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Gargano, Ricardo; Silva, Geraldo M. e.

    2010-06-01

    We performed numerical simulations of two parallel interacting conjugated polymer chains subjected to photoionization. Within the SSH model modified to include thermal effects, an electron is removed from one chain and later absorbed by the other chain. It was obtained that the system relaxes into a free polaron in each chain. For higher electron absorption the system initially relaxes into a pair of half-polarons that spontaneously suffers monomolecular recombination. The time response of the system agrees with experimental results. Although thermal effects are important to carrier creation mechanism, the obtained photogeneration creation time is temperature independent, as suggested experimentally.

  11. Methylization analysis of the FMR1 gene in carrier females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Cappon, S.; Khalifa, M.M. [Kingston General Hospital (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome mutation is associated with an expansion of a CGG repeat sequence and methylation of the CpG island in the promoter of the FMR1 gene. Methylation of the CpG island silences the FMR1 gene, thereby generating the disease phenotypes. Previous studies suggest that the normal FMR1 gene has the properties of an X-linked housekeeping gene that is subject to X inactivation, i.e., its CpG island is unmethylated on the active X chromosome and methylated on the inactive X. Because methylation of the mutant FMR1 gene occurs in both males and females with the full mutation, inactivating the FMR1 gene in these females might be a localized event independent from X inactivation. To test this hypothesis we compared the methylation pattern of two housekeeping genes, PGK1 and androgen receptor (AR) with that of the FMR1 in 46 female carriers of the fragile X syndrome. Twenty eight females were in the premutation range (63-193 repeats) and 16 were carriers of the full mutation (263-996 repeats). The data revealed complete correlation between the methylation pattern of PGK1 and AR. There was also a close correlation between X inactivation pattern detected by PGK1 and/or AR and that detected by FMR1 in female carriers of the premutation. In all female carriers of the full mutation there was complete methylation of the BssHII site in the expanded FMR1 allele. The X chromosome inactivation pattern in these females as detected by PGK1 and/or AR was as follows: in 10 cases the X inactivation was skewed in favor of the mutant FMR1, i.e. the mutant allele was on the inactive X chromosome, in 3 the inactivation was random and in 3 the inactivation was skewed in favor of the normal allele. These data suggest that the methylation of the FMR1 gene in females with the full mutation is a localized event and methylation of the FMR1 gene in these females cannot be used as a predictor of X inactivation.

  12. Dynamic Range Analysis of the Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Plotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the dynamic range of the phase generated carrier (PGC technique on low-pass filters passbands is investigated using a simulation model. A nonlinear character of this dependence, which could lead to dynamic range limitations or measurement uncertainty, is presented for the first time. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided to verify the simulation results and these results are consistent with performed calculations. The method for the calculation of low-pass filters passbands according to the required dynamic range upper limit is proposed.

  13. TIME INTENSITY (TI MEASUREMENTS OF SWEETENERS ON GREEN TEA CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea. For analysis was selected time intensity (TI methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed similar profile shape of natural sweeteners. Different was performance of saccharin. During preference experiment was evaluated that all artificial sweeteners are associated with negative attributes of CATA questionnaire. Perception of sweeteners by male and female assessors was statistically significant.

  14. The recent advances on carrier materials for microencapsulating lipophilic cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Minfeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic ingredients,such as polyunsaturated fatty acids,play an important role in industrialized foods to fortify the nutrients.However,these materials are normally sensitive to oxygen,light or heat to be oxidized,and hard to flow and mix within the bulk food due to the hydrophobic nature.Microencapsulation of lipophilic materials could effectively extend their shelf lives,mask unsatisfied flavors,change their physicochemical properties,and enhance the mixing capacities.This work reviewed the different carrier materials applied in microencapsulating the lipophilic ingredients,and discussed their characteristics and effects on encapsulation efficiencies and release profiles of lipophilic cores.

  15. Charge-carrier screening in single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A; Regan, William; Fedorov, Alexei V; Zettl, A; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2013-04-05

    The effect of charge-carrier screening on the transport properties of a neutral graphene sheet is studied by directly probing its electronic structure. We find that the Fermi velocity, Dirac point velocity, and overall distortion of the Dirac cone are renormalized due to the screening of the electron-electron interaction in an unusual way. We also observe an increase of the electron mean free path due to the screening of charged impurities. These observations help us to understand the basis for the transport properties of graphene, as well as the fundamental physics of these interesting electron-electron interactions at the Dirac point crossing.

  16. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  17. STUDY ON IMMOBILIZED THERMOLYSIN WITH CELLULOSE AS CARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoGuoliang; ZhuoRenxi; 等

    1996-01-01

    With cellulose as carrier,immobilized thermolysin HE I and HE Ⅱ were prepared by diazo coupling or glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction.Using casein as a substrate,the activity recovery of immobilized thermolysin HE I and HE Ⅱ reach 34.5% and 29%,respectively.Some factors which affect the activity of the immobilized thermolysin such as temperature,medium pH,EDTA and calcium acetate were studied.At the same time,the thermal stability and storage stability of the immobilized thermolysin were also investigated.

  18. DNA nanostructure-based imaging probes and drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Pengfei; Jiang, Qiao; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Li, Na; Yu, Haiyin; Ding, Baoquan

    2014-09-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures are well-defined nanoscale shapes, with uniform sizes, precise spatial addressability, and excellent biocompatibility. With these features, DNA nanostructures show great potential for biomedical applications; various DNA-based biomedical imaging probes or payload delivery carriers have been developed. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of DNA-based nanostructures as tools for diagnosis and cancer therapy. The biological effects that are brought about by DNA nanostructures are highlighted by in vitro and in vivo imaging, antitumor drug delivery, and immunostimulatory therapy. The challenges and perspectives of DNA nanostructures in the field of nanomedicine are discussed.

  19. Capacity planning for Carrier Ethernet LTE backhaul networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Ellegaard, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of LTE networks operators need to plan a new, IP-based mobile backhaul. In this paper, we provide recommendation on dimensioning LTE backhaul networks links using three methods: delay-, dimensioning formula- and overbooking factor-based. Results are obtained from OPNET simul...... and verified. Simulation in this work proves that Carrier Ethernet, one of the candidate technologies for mobile backhaul, protects the network from users that want to flood the network with their data and manages to keep the delay experienced by other users low....

  20. Interferometric vibration sensor using phase-generated carrier method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Liu, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tan, Zhongwei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-09-01

    An interferometric fiber-optic vibration sensing system using the phase-generated carrier (PGC) method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing section consists of a Sagnac interferometer combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a length of sensing fiber is shared between the two interferometers. The PGC demodulation scheme is used to demodulate the time-varying phase shifts induced by vibrations. Spatial information can be extracted from the demodulated results. A prototype sensing system with a 628 m long sensing fiber has been tested and a spatial resolution better than 12 m is successfully achieved.

  1. Analysis of chromosomal radiosensitivity of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers in BRCA families with the G2 micronucleus assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Annelot; Depuydt, Julie; Van Maerken, Tom; Poppe, Bruce; Malfait, Fransiska; Van Damme, Tim; De Nobele, Sylvia; Perletti, Gianpaolo; De Leeneer, Kim; Claes, Kathleen B.M.; Vral, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives. BRCA2 is active in homologous recombination, a DNA damage repair pathway, specifically active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. We found a significantly increased radiosensitivity in a cohort of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to individuals without a familial history of breast cancer (P=0.046; Mann-Whitney U test). At the individual level, 50% of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (radiosensitivity score of 1 or 2), whereas 83% of the controls showed no radiosensitivity (P=0.038; one-tailed Fishers exact test). An odds ratio of 5 (95% CI, 1.07–23.47) indicated an association between the BRCA2 mutation and radiosensitivity in healthy mutation carriers. These results indicate the need for the gentle use of ionizing radiation for either diagnostic or therapeutic use in BRCA2 mutation carriers. We detected no increased radiosensitivity in the non-carrier relatives. PMID:28184943

  2. White matter differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers identified with tractography and support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4 is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous work has shown that this allele is associated with functional (fMRI changes as well structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess the diffusion characteristics and the white matter (WM tracts of healthy young (20-38 years ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. No significant differences in diffusion indices were found between young carriers (ApoE4+ and non-carriers (ApoE4-. There were also no significant differences between the groups in terms of normalised GM or WM volume. A feature selection algorithm (ReliefF was used to select the most salient voxels from the diffusion data for subsequent classification with support vector machines (SVMs. SVMs were capable of classifying ApoE4 carrier and non-carrier groups with an extremely high level of accuracy. The top 500 voxels selected by ReliefF were then used as seeds for tractography which identified a WM network that included regions of the parietal lobe, the cingulum bundle and the dorsolateral frontal lobe. There was a non-significant decrease in volume of this WM network in the ApoE4 carrier group. Our results indicate that there are subtle WM differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers and that the WM network identified may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age.

  3. A Versatile Carrier Board and Associated Timer Module Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Evans; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2005-10-10

    Because of a need for fast prototyping due to frequent upgrades and a large variety of users at the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser Facility (FEL), a 4-slot carrier board was designed along the lines of the Industry Pack carriers, with a 6U4HP form factor. In one slot is an Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which communicates with an Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Software (EPICS) interface through the main bus, in the immediate case VME, but potentially PCI and others. The FPGA also provides 64 bits of digital i/o and communicates with a local bus that covers the other 3 slots. In these 3 slots may be placed a variety of daughter boards that may be of a size to span 1, 2 or even all 3 spare slots, depending on the job it has to do. Among the uses implemented in the FEL were a simple digital i/o board (only the first slot occupied), and a timer module occupying 2 slots.

  4. Neurological and endocrine phenotypes of fragile X carrier women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D; Todorova-Koteva, K; Pandya, S; Bernard, B; Ouyang, B; Walsh, M; Pounardjian, T; Deburghraeve, C; Zhou, L; Losh, M; Leehey, M; Berry-Kravis, E

    2016-01-01

    Women who carry fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1)gene premutation expansions frequently report neurological or endocrine symptoms and prior studies have predominantly focused on questionnaire report of medical issues. Premutation carrier (PMC) women (n = 33) and non-carrier controls (n = 13) were recruited and evaluated by a neurologist, neuropsychologist, and endocrinologist. Blood and skin biopsies were collected for molecular measures. Scales for movement disorders, neuropathy, cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, sleep, and quality of life were completed. The average age of the women was 51 years (n = 46) and average CGG repeat size was 91 ± 24.9 in the FMR1 PMC women. Seventy percent of the PMC women had an abnormal neurological examination. PMC women had significantly higher scores on the Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) rating scale, more neuropathy, and difficulty with tandem gait compared to controls. Central sensitivity syndromes, a neuroticism profile on the NEO Personality Profile, and sleep disorders were also prevalent. Discrepancies between subject report and examination findings were also seen. This pilot study suggests that women with the FMR1 premutation may have a phenotype that overlaps with that seen in FXTAS. Additional research with larger sample sizes is warranted to better delineate the clinical features.

  5. Measuring Charge Carrier Diffusion in Coupled Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2013-06-25

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Carrier transport in amorphous silicon utilizing picosecond photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a high-speed electronic measurement capability permitted the direct observation of the transient photoresponse of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with a time resolution of approximately 10ps. This technique was used to measure the initial mobility of photogenerated (2.1eV) free carriers in three types of a-Si having widely different densities of structural defects (i.e., as prepared by: (1) RF glow discharge (a-Si:H); (2) chemical vapor deposition; and (3) evaporation in ultra-high vacuum). In all three types of a-Si, the same initial mobility of approximately 1 cu cm/Vs at room temperature was found. This result tends to confirm the often-made suggestion that the free carrier mobility is determined by the influence of shallow states associated with the disorder in the random atomic network, and is an intrinsic property of a-Si which is unaffected by the method of preparation. The rate of decay of the photocurrent correlates with the density of structural defects and varies from 4ps to 200ps for the three types of a-Si investigated. The initial mobility of a-Si:H was found to be thermally activated. The possible application of extended state transport controlled by multiple trapping and small polaron formation is discussed.

  8. Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures.

  9. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  10. Silica nanoparticle is a possible safe carrier for gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhigang; DAI Heping; TANG Baisha; XIA Kun; XIA Jiahui; LIANG Desheng; LI Yumei; LONG Zhigao; PAN Qian; LIU Xionghao; WU Lingqian; ZHU Shaihong; CAI Fang

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a safe and effective gene therapy carrier, some toxicological and biodynamical experiments were carried out on silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). First we prepared SiNPs with appropriate portions of cyclohexane, deionized water and ethyl silicate, and then transfected the modified SiNPs and GFP plasmid DNA complex into the HT1080 cells to test the effectiveness of transfection for gene therapy. At the same time, we injected the SiNPs into a number of mice through tail vein. Then we made the mice crossed to evaluate the acute, long-term and reproductive toxicity. In vivo distribution analysis and pathological examination were made on both adult mice and their offspring. SiNPs were uniform and had an average diameter of 40 nm, and the modified SiNPs carried exogenous DNA molecules into target cells and the transferred GFP fusion gene was effectively expressed in the cells. The SiNPs injected via tail vein were widely distributed in almost all of tissues, and the injected mice had the ability to reproduce normally. The in vivo and in vitro results of this study clearly show that SiNPs can be used as a safe and effective carrier for gene transfection and gene therapy.

  11. DSPI system based on spatial carrier phase shifting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghong; Li, Junrui; Sun, Jianfei; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is an optical method for measuring small displacement and deformation. It allows whole field, non-contacting measurement of micro deformation. Traditional Temporal phase shifting has been used for quantitative analyses in DSPI. The technique requires the recording of at least three phase-shifted interferograms, which must be taken sequentially. This can lead to disturbances by thermal and mechanical fluctuations during the required recording time. In addition, fast object deformations cannot be detected. In this paper a DSPI system using Spatial Carrier Phase Shifting (SCPS) technique is introduced, which is useful for extracting quantitative displacement data from the system with only two interferograms. The sensitive direction of this system refers to the illumination direction and observation direction. The frequencies of the spatial carrier relates to the angle between reference light and observation direction. Fourier transform is adopted in the digital evaluation to filter out the frequencies links to the deformation of testing object. The phase is obtained from the complex matrix formed by inverse Fourier transform, and the phase difference and deformation are calculated subsequently. Comparing with conventional temporal phase shifting, the technique can achieve measuring the vibration and transient deformation of testing object. Experiment set-ups and results are presented in this paper, and the experiment results have shown the effectiveness and advantages of the SCPS technique.

  12. Material simulation of charge carrier transport properties of polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unge, Mikael; Christen, Thomas; Törnkvist, Christer; ABB Corporate Research Team

    To understand electron and hole transport in solid material requires to know its electronic properties, i.e. the density of states (DOS) and whether the states are spatially localized or delocalized. The states closest to the band edges may be localized, states further away can be delocalized. This transition from localized to delocalized states determines the mobility edge, above the mobility edge the mobility is expected to be high. A real polymer is never perfect; it contains a number of oxidative states, bonding defects and molecular impurities. These imperfections yield electronic states that can appear in the band gap of the polymer, traps. Traps can be shallow, i.e. close to the band edges, from these states the charge carrier easily can jump to a state in the band edge or another shallow state. Other traps can be deep, in these states it is likely that the charge carrier remains and become immobile. All these properties related to the electronic structure of the polymer, including its defects, affects the conductivity of the polymer. Linear scaling Density Functional Theory has been applied to calculate electronic structure of amorphous polyethylene. In particular DOS, trap levels and mobility edges are studied.

  13. Recombination process in solar cells: Impact on the carrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Yuri G. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Velazquez-Perez, Jesus E. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Thickness of Si solar cells is being reduced below 200 {mu}m to reduce costs and improve their performance. In conventional solar cells recombination of photo-generated charge carriers plays a major limiting role in the cell efficiency. High quality thin-film solar cells may overcome this limit if the minority diffusion lengths become large as compared to the cell dimensions, but, strikingly, the conventional model fails to describe the cell electric behaviour under these conditions. Moreover, it is shown that in the conventional model the reverse-saturation current diverges (tends to infinity) in thin solar cells. A new formulation of the basic equations describing charge carrier transport in the cell along with a set of boundary conditions is presented. An analytical closed-form solution is obtained under a linear approximation. In the new framework given, the calculation of the open-circuit voltage of the solar cell diode does not lead to unphysical results. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  15. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  16. Dialdehyde starch nanoparticles: Preparation and application in drug carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dialdehyde starch nanoparticles (DASNP) were prepared by the redox reaction of NaIO4 and starch in water-in-oil microemulsion. IR spectrum showed that DASNP had aldehyde groups, and quantitative alkali consumption showed that its dialdehyde content was about (50±5)%. The average diameter of DASNP determined by SEM was about 100 nm. TGA-DTA showed that its thermal stability was better than starch nanoparticle (StNP) and dialdehyde starch (DAS). Its low biological toxicity was detected by cell experiment. Also the best mass ratio of doxorubicin (DOX) to combined DASNP detected by UV-VIS was 15 : 1, and the product was effective for controlled release of DOX. The cell experiment showed that the drug-carrier particle (DOX-DASNP) can release DOX for a long time and strengthened the effect of the anticancer drug. This work demonstrates that the DASNP, which has good thermal stability, small particle size, low biological toxicity, and slowly anticancer drug-releasing to strengthen drug effect, is a potentially useful carrier for anticancer drug.

  17. Nanoparticles and nanostructured carriers for drug delivery and contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godage, Olga S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; German, Sergey V.; Zuev, Viktor V.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, nanotechnologies are widely used in science and industry. It is known that the application of drug delivery nanostructured carriers for biomedicine is one of the promising areas of nanotechnology. Nanostructured carriers can be used in the diagnosis process for detecting a neoplastic tumor cells in peripheral blood, for contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as for targeted drug delivery to tumor tissues. Agents for the targeted delivery (nanoparticles, liposomes, microcapsules, and etc) can affect the healthy tissues and organs, cause side effects and have a toxic effect. Therefore, it necessary to study the morphological changes that occur not only in the "target", such as a tumor, but also the internal organs, taking place under the influence of both the agents for targeted drug delivery and physical impact induced remote controlled drug release. Thus , the aim of our work is selection of the most promising agents for targeted drug delivery to tumor and contrast agents for in vivo visualization of tumor tissue boundaries , as well as their impact on the organs and tissues as results of nanostructured object biodistribution.

  18. Carrier density driven lasing dynamics in ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Marcel; Sturm, Chris; Michalsky, Tom; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-06-01

    We report on the temporal lasing dynamics of high quality ZnO nanowires using the time-resolved micro-photoluminescence technique. The temperature dependence of the lasing characteristics and of the corresponding decay constants demonstrate the formation of an electron-hole plasma to be the underlying gain mechanism in the considered temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. We found that the temperature-dependent emission onset-time ([Formula: see text]) strongly depends on the excitation power and becomes smallest in the lasing regime, with values below 5 ps. Furthermore, the observed red shift of the dominating lasing modes in time is qualitatively discussed in terms of the carrier density induced change of the refractive index dispersion after the excitation laser pulse. This theory is supported by extending an existing model for the calculation of the carrier density dependent complex refractive index for different temperatures. This model coincides with the experimental observations and reliably describes the evolution of the refractive index after the excitation laser pulse.

  19. Uniparental disomy analysis in carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, K.M.; Pettay, D.; Muralidharan, K. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Although most individuals who carry a balanced familial chromosome rearrangement are phenotypically normal, those who are clinically abnormal raise the question of whether or not the rearrangement plays a causative role. One possible mechanism involves meiotic segregation of a normal homolog along with the rearranged chromosome(s) such that a trisomic conception occurs. Subsequent loss by mitotic nondisjunction of the structurally normal chromosome contributed by the non-carrier parent would then result in uniparental disomy (UPD) in a conceptus carrying a balanced rearrangement. UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 has been demonstrated in several clinically abnormal individuals who carry a familial Robertsonian translocation. We have extended this type of analysis to include other forms of balanced chromosome rearrangements. We report the results of UPD analysis of 14 families who have a phenotypically abnormal child with an apparently balanced rearrangement. The series includes 4 reciprocal translocations, 4 Robertsonian translocations, 2 X;autosome translocations, and 4 inversions. High resolution chromosomes were used to compare breakpoints between parent and offspring to exclude the possibility of further rearrangements. Parental origin of the chromosome(s) involved was determined by DNA polymorphism analysis using PCR or Southern blotting techniques. We found no evidence of UPD in any of the 14 cases. Our data suggest that UPD is not a common explanation for phenotypically abnormal carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements.

  20. Postdeposition dispersion of aerosol medications using surfactant carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Amy L; Garoff, Stephen; Tilton, Robert D; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E

    2008-12-01

    Inhaled aerosol drugs provide a means of directly treating the lungs; however, aerosol deposition and drug distribution can be nonuniform, especially in obstructive lung disease. We hypothesize that surfactant-based aerosol carriers will disperse medications over airway surfaces after deposition through surface tension driven flows, increasing dose uniformity and improving drug distribution into underventilated regions. We considered saline and surfactant aerosol delivery via cannula onto several model airway surfaces including porcine gastric mucus (PGM) and both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). Fluorescent dye and microspheres (d = 100 nm, 1 mum) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess postdeposition dispersion. Aerosol volume median diameters were in the 1-4 mum range. The tested surfactants included sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), tyloxapol, and calfactant. All surfactants tested on PGM (tyloxapol, calfactant, SDS, and CTAB) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (2-20-fold increases; all p surfactants tested on CF HBEs (tyloxapol and calfactant) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (1.6-4.1-fold increases; all p Surfactant carriers enhanced dispersion after aerosol deposition onto model airway surfaces, and may improve the efficacy of inhaled preparations such as inhaled antibiotics for cystic fibrosis.