WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier mishaps longitudinal

  1. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  2. X-31 Mishap: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental X-31 High Angle of Attack Research Aircraft crashed during a 1995 test mission flight conducted by NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The pilot lost control of the airplane and was forced to eject, sustaining a permanent back injury that ended his flying career. Prior to this incident the airplane had a perfect record of several hundred non-eventful flights supported by an experienced team. During the subsequent investigation by a mishap committee it was discovered that a series of cascading events contributed to this accident. Some of the identified contributing factors that resulted in this mishap are common to aircraft design and to flight-test in general. The mistakes and the solutions are presented here so that the flight-test community may consider and learn from them. The primary cause of the crash was icing and, ultimately, a complete blockage of the pitot-static nose probe. The icing was caused by a freak weather phenomenon that was neither expected nor known to exist on the day of the mishap. The normal probe had been replaced with a special Kiel probe to allow total pressure measurements of up to 70 degrees angle of attack for flight-test purposes. The Kiel probe did not include a heater, because it was assumed that the airplane would not be flown in the clouds or in conditions conducive to icing. This assumption was later proven to be incorrect. The iced Kiel probe caused incorrect gain scheduling in the flight control system, resulting in an unstable aircraft. This failure was essentially undetected because of a faulty design in the flight control system architecture. There were, however, also a number of other issues that lead up to this situation that never should have happened. This presentation discusses what the issues were that contributed to the incident. After the incident was investigated, some of these issues were addressed and some changes were made. The second X-31 aircraft flew the remainder of the flight tests

  3. Helios High Altitude Long Endurance Mission Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Barton E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the failure of the Helios solar aircraft failure. Included are pictures of the aircraft, inflight, and after the mishap, analysis of the root causes of the mishap, contributing factors, recommendations and lessons learned in respect to crew training, and assessing the level of risk.

  4. Fourier-transform-based model for carrier transport in semiconductor heterostructures: Longitudinal optical phonon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, X.; Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T.

    2016-06-01

    We present scattering rates for electrons at longitudinal optical phonons within a model completely formulated in the Fourier domain. The total intersubband scattering rates are obtained by averaging over the intrasubband electron distributions. The rates consist of the Fourier components of the electron wave functions and a contribution depending only on the intersubband energies and the intrasubband carrier distributions. The energy-dependent part can be reproduced by a rational function, which allows for the separation of the scattering rates into a dipole-like contribution, an overlap-like contribution, and a contribution which can be neglected for low and intermediate carrier densities of the initial subband. For a balance between accuracy and computation time, the number of Fourier components can be adjusted. This approach facilitates an efficient design of complex heterostructures with realistic, temperature- and carrier density-dependent rates.

  5. Digital Reconstruction Supporting Investigation of Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, William D.; Luecking, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    In support of investigations of mishaps like the crash of the space shuttle Columbia, a process based on digital reconstruction from recovered components has been developed. The process is expected to reduce the need for physical reconstruction from recovered parts, reduce the time and cost of determining the cause of a mishap, and provide information useful in redesigning to prevent future mishaps. The process involves utilization of pre-existing techniques, hardware, and software to capture sizes and shapes of recovered parts in sets of digital data. The data are manipulated to enable rendering of captured geometric information by use of computer-aided design (CAD) and viewing software. The digitization of a part and study of its spatial relationship with other parts is taken to one of three levels of successively greater detail, depending on its importance to the investigation. The process includes a trajectory-analysis subprocess in which information from the digital reconstruction is combined with locations of recovered parts to reduce the area that must be searched to find other specified parts that have not yet been recovered. The digital product of the process is compatible with preexisting CAD and solid-model-rendering software.

  6. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  7. The effects of carrier gas and liquid feed flow rates on longitudinal patterns of CNT growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report detailed longitudinal profiles of four samples of carbon nanotubes (CNT) arrays synthesized using ferrocene-xylene in 850 deg. C. Point-to-point analysis of the CNTs grown in 'growth windows' (GWs) were performed using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, and high-resolution TEM techniques. All samples showed a maximum array height around the middle of their GWs. The height profiles comprised a secondary peak/shoulder, attributed to evolution of C2 byproducts. The results showed that pyrolytic deposition of amorphous carbon as well as catalytic growth of CNTs strongly depend on the local temperature along the GW. It was also observed that the CNT grew longer at the higher flow rate of the carrier gas while the GWs became wider and extended towards the end of the reactor. On the other hand, the higher liquid flow rate reduced the average diameter and length of the CNTs. While residence time was revealed to be important, no significant analogy was found between samples with the same feed dilution. The termination of GWs was attributed to the inhibition of amorphous carbon as well as temperature drop below ∼815 deg. C.

  8. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  9. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  10. Assessing the influence of human factors and experience on Predator mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Robert P.

    This applied dissertation was designed to assess the influence of human factors and experience on Predator mishaps as measured by unsafe acts and the frequency and cost of mishaps. The use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in military operations is expanding rapidly, and this trend will likely continue given increases in funding for UAV development from 3 billion in the 1990s to over 12 billion for 2004-2009. High UAV mishap numbers have generated multiple reviews of unmanned operations in the past few years, but even within common platforms, different analysts attributed these mishaps to differing causes. Sixty-four Air Force Predator Class A, B, C mishaps occurred from the introduction of this system into the operational Air Force inventory in 1997 through the end of fiscal year 2006. Reports were reviewed to identify trends. Substantial changes over time were observed regarding annual mishap rates, annual mishap counts, causal factors and impacts due to experience levels. Mishap rates across the past three years dropped to less than one-half the rate across earlier years. Mishap counts, however, steadily increased, as did Predator flying hours. Early mishap reports typically cited mechanical problems and operator station design issues. Mechanical problems were much less frequently cited in the last three years. Rather, 80% of recent mishaps cited causal human error factors. Equipment interface problems were still cited as causal or major contributing factors in almost half of recent mishaps. Recent mishap reports often cited shortfalls in human factors attributes including skill and knowledge to include checklist error, task prioritization, lack of training for task attempted, and inadequate system knowledge, situational awareness focused on channelized attention, and crew coordination. These trends come in a period characterized by a rapidly growing crew force and highlight the need to revisit both individual and team Predator training objectives and consider

  11. Criminal prosecution arising from medical mishaps: a Japanese perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    In Japan, the number of physicians being investigated on suspicion of medical malpractice has increased. Specifically, the criminal prosecutions arising from professional negligence resulting in bodily injury or death have also increased. Article 21 of the Japanese Physician's Act compels a doctor to notify the district police when he diagnoses a death to be 'unnatural'. Originally this provision was to increase public safety through crime detection, but one recent criminal case broadened the application of this article to include the death from a mishap during medical treatment. This criminal case made a tremendous impact on physicians, as the convictions and sentences forced physicians to notify the police even when it is not certain the patient died of the malady or of the medical misconduct itself. Besides, we wonder if such obligation of doctors to notify such 'unnatural' death from medical mishap may be against a person's privilege against self-incrimination which is assured by Japanese Constitutional Law (article 38). PMID:16440862

  12. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  13. Web-Based Information Management of Maintenance Errors in Aviation Mishaps

    OpenAIRE

    Zolla, George; Flanders, Pat; Boex, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a safety information management system designed to capture maintenance factors that contribute to aircraft mishaps. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension taxonomy (HFACS-ME), an effective framework for classifying and analyzing the presence of maintenance errors that lead to mishaps, incidents, and personal injuries, is the theoretical foundation. An existing desktop mishap application is updated, a prototype web-base...

  14. Quantum states of charge carriers and longitudinal conductivity in double periodic n-type semiconductor lattice structures in electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum states of charge carriers in double periodic semiconductor superlattices of n-type quantum dots with Rashba spin–orbit coupling in an electron gas have been calculated in the one-electron approximation in the presence of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. For these structures in weak constant electric field, the solution to the quasi-classical kinetic Boltzmann equation shows that the states of carriers in magnetic Landau minibands with negative differential conductivity are possible

  15. Loss of Signal: Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip C. (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    The editors of Loss of Signal wanted to document the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia mishap. The book is intended to be an accurate and easily understood account of the entire process of recovering and analyzing the human remains, investigating and analyzing what happened to the crew, and using the resulting information to recommend ways to prevent mishaps and provide better protection to crewmembers. Our goal is to capture the passions of those who devoted their energies in responding to the Columbia mishap. We have reunited authors who were directly involved in each of these aspects. These authors tell the story of their efforts related to the Columbia mishap from their point of view. They give the reader an honest description of their responsibilities and share their challenges, their experiences, and their lessons learned on how to enhance crew safety and survival, and how to be prepared to support space mishap investigations. As a result of this approach, a few of the chapters have some redundancy of information and authors' opinions may differ. In no way did we or they intend to assign blame or criticize anyone's professional efforts. All those involved did their best to obtain the truth in the situations to which they were assigned.

  16. The Use of Crow-AMSAA Plots to Assess Mishap Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Crow-AMSAA (CA) plots are used to model reliability growth. Use of CA plots has expanded into other areas, such as tracking events of interest to management, maintenance problems, and safety mishaps. Safety mishaps can often be successfully modeled using a Poisson probability distribution. CA plots show a Poisson process in log-log space. If the safety mishaps are a stable homogenous Poisson process, a linear fit to the points in a CA plot will have a slope of one. Slopes of greater than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with increasing occurrence. Slopes of less than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with decreasing occurrence. Changes in slope, known as "cusps," indicate a change in process, which could be an improvement or a degradation. After presenting the CA conceptual framework, examples are given of trending slips, trips and falls, and ergonomic incidents at NASA (from Agency-level data). Crow-AMSAA plotting is a robust tool for trending safety mishaps that can provide insight into safety performance over time.

  17. An assessment of the relationship between safety climate and mishap risk in U.S. Naval Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Paul; Samuel E. Buttrey; O'Dea, Angela; Kennedy, Quinn

    2011-01-01

    This study used a prospective design to assess whether 12 items from the Command Safety Assessment Survey (CSAS) can be used to differentiate between U.S. Naval aviation squadrons who have had a mishap within a recent period of time, and those that have not. Logistic regression modeling was carried out using the survey responses of U.S. Naval aircrew (n = 23,442) and mishap data. The models that were used to attempt to predict severe and moderately severe mishaps together, performed better...

  18. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Phillip C.; Patlach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014 presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews. This poster presents an outline of Loss of Signal contents and highlights from each of five sections - the mission and mishap, the response, the investigation, the analysis and the future.

  19. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing complexity of many safety critical systems poses new problems for mishap analysis. Techniques developed in the sixties and seventies cannot easily scale-up to analyze incidents involving tightly integrated software and hardware components. Similarly, the realization that many failures have systemic causes has widened the scope of many mishap investigations. Organizations, including NASA and the NTSB, have responded by starting research and training initiatives to ensure that their personnel are well equipped to meet these challenges. One strand of research has identified a range of mathematically based techniques that can be used to reason about the causes of complex, adverse events. The proponents of these techniques have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. Mathematical proofs can reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have opposed the introduction of these techniques by identifying social and political aspects to incident investigation that cannot easily be reconciled with a logic-based approach. Traditional theorem proving mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators routinely use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper summarizes some of the benefits that logics provide, describes their weaknesses, and proposes a number of directions for future research.

  20. Lessons learned or lessons noted: A retrospective case study of the stored organizational memory of the causes of mishaps in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan Burgess

    This study of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) organizational memory explores how the root causes of NASA mishaps have changed from the creation of NASA in 1958 through 2002. Official Mishap Board Reports document in stored organizational memory the organization's analyses of the causes of the mishaps. Using Parsons' Social Action Theory for its theoretical frame, and the Schwandt Organizational Learning Systems Model as the theoretical lens, this study provides a meta-analysis of 112 Type A mishap reports to discern what patterns in this stored organizational memory have emerged over time. Results indicate marked stability in the causes of mishaps until the latter portion of the study period. The theory of revolutionary change is considered to explain this apparent shift. Discussion includes the roles organizational culture, sensemaking and identity played in data collection and knowledge management challenges as well as in the lack of change in mishap causes.

  1. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned for the STS-I07 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlach, Robert; Stepaniak, Philip C.; Lane, Helen W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014, presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goals of this book are to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews.

  2. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet. PMID:10596766

  3. Design of automatic control system for longitudinal landing on carrier%舰载机自动着舰纵向控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄得刚; 章卫国; 邵山; 王志刚; 张秀林

    2014-01-01

    When a aircraft carrier sails in the sea at a certain speed for uniform linear motion, the sea wave motivates the ship to motion in 3 degree of freedom and accompanying the interference of low altitude atmosphere turbulent flow and airwake at the same time, which makes the landing environment of carrier aircraft fair adverse. That proposes a huge challenge for the control system of autolanding. For the special problem, a method of the Command Filter Integral backstepping and Sliding Mode Control is presented in this paper. First, the command filter to deal with the problem of calculation expansion in backstepping method is adopted in this method, and then introduces of sliding mode control to handle the problems of matched uncertainty and external disturbance. In order to depress the shake of sliding mode control, using the idea of higher order sliding mode control in this paper, introducing an additional virtual control equation of state to make the outputs of control system work on the integration device, which could not only depress the chattering, but also dispose the matched and unmatched uncertainty. At last, the global stability of the proposed method is proved on the whole and the effectiveness is tested by the simulations.%航空母舰在大海上以一定速度作匀速直线运动时,海浪激励舰体作三自由度摆动运动,同时伴有低空大气紊流和舰尾流的干扰,使得舰载机着舰的环境十分恶劣,这样对自动着舰控制系统提出了极大的挑战。针对这一特殊问题,本文提出一种指令滤波积分反步滑模控制方法,首先该方法采用指令滤波处理反步的计算膨胀问题,然后引入滑模控制来解决外界扰动和匹配不确定性问题。考虑到降低滑模控制引起的抖动,本文利用高阶滑模控制的思想,在传统的反步方法上增加了一个附加虚拟控制状态方程,将控制器的最终输出作用在一个积分器上

  4. Technical Findings, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations Resulting from the Helios Prototype Vehicle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Ishmael, Stephen D.; Henwood, Bart; Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Tiffany, Geary C.; Madura, John; Gaier, Matthew; Brown, John M.; Wierzbanowski, Ted

    2007-01-01

    The Helios Prototype was originally planned to be two separate vehicles, but because of resource limitations only one vehicle was developed to demonstrate two missions. The vehicle consisted of two configurations, one for each mission. One configuration, designated HP01, was designed to operate at extremely high altitudes using batteries and high-efficiency solar cells spread across the upper surface of its 247-foot wingspan. On August 13, 2001, the HP01 configuration reached an altitude of 96,863 feet, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a winged aircraft. The other configuration, designated HP03, was designed for long-duration flight. The plan was to use the solar cells to power the vehicle's electric motors and subsystems during the day and to use a modified commercial hydrogen-air fuel cell system for use during the night. The aircraft design used wing dihedral, engine power, elevator control surfaces, and a stability augmentation and control system to provide aerodynamic stability and control. At about 30 minutes into the second flight of HP03, the aircraft encountered a disturbance in the way of turbulence and morphed into an unexpected, persistent, high dihedral configuration. As a result of the persistent high dihedral, the aircraft became unstable in a very divergent pitch mode in which the airspeed excursions from the nominal flight speed about doubled every cycle of the oscillation. The aircraft s design airspeed was subsequently exceeded and the resulting high dynamic pressures caused the wing leading edge secondary structure on the outer wing panels to fail and the solar cells and skin on the upper surface of the wing to rip away. As a result, the vehicle lost its ability to maintain lift, fell into the Pacific Ocean within the confines of the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility, and was destroyed. This paper describes the mishap and its causes, and presents the technical recommendations and lessons learned for improving the design

  5. Software in military aviation and drone mishaps: Analysis and recommendations for the investigation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software plays a central role in military systems. It is also an important factor in many recent incidents and accidents. A safety gap is growing between our software-intensive technological capabilities and our understanding of the ways they can fail or lead to accidents. Traditional forms of accident investigation are poorly equipped to trace the sources of software failure, for instance software does not age in the same way that hardware components fail over time. As such, it can be hard to trace the causes of software failure or mechanisms by which it contributed to accidents back into the development and procurement chain to address the deeper, systemic causes of potential accidents. To identify some of these failure mechanisms, we examined the database of the Air Force Accident Investigation Board (AIB) and analyzed mishaps in which software was involved. Although we have chosen to focus on military aviation, many of the insights also apply to civil aviation. Our analysis led to several results and recommendations. Some were specific and related for example to specific shortcomings in the testing and validation of particular avionic subsystems. Others were broader in scope: for instance, we challenged both the investigation process (aspects of) and the findings in several cases, and we provided recommendations, technical and organizational, for improvements. We also identified important safety blind spots in the investigations with respect to software, whose contribution to the escalation of the adverse events was often neglected in the accident reports. These blind spots, we argued, constitute an important missed learning opportunity for improving accident prevention, and it is especially unfortunate at a time when Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) are being integrated into the National Airspace. Our findings support the growing recognition that the traditional notion of software failure as non-compliance with requirements is too limited to capture the

  6. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  8. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with...... offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy...... to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the...

  9. Eastern minds in western cockpits: A cross-cultural comparison of aviation mishaps by applying human factors analysis and classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

    2006-01-01

    Aviation accident rates are varied in different regions; Asia and Africa have higher rates than Europe and America. There has been a great deal of discussion about the role of culture in aviation mishaps, however, culture is hardly ever mentioned as a causal factor of accidents. It is hypothesized that different cultures will show different patterns in the underlying causal factors in aircraft accidents. Method: This research examined statistical differences in the 18 categories of HFACS acro...

  10. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  11. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  12. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  13. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  14. Influence of quasi-bound states on the carrier capture into quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.

    2002-01-01

    An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes are...... believed to be mediated by carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier interaction (Auger processes). In systems of higher dimensionality, carrier relaxation via emission of LO (Longitudinal Optical) phonons is dominant. However, due to the discrete QD density of states, this process is often considered impossible...

  15. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined.......To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  16. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  17. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  18. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy. PMID:20523607

  19. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  20. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  1. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...

  2. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2?. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1?.

  3. Longitudinal categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sutradhar, Brajendra C

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book in longitudinal categorical data analysis with parametric correlation models developed based on dynamic relationships among repeated categorical responses. This book is a natural generalization of the longitudinal binary data analysis to the multinomial data setup with more than two categories. Thus, unlike the existing books on cross-sectional categorical data analysis using log linear models, this book uses multinomial probability models both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. A theoretical foundation is provided for the analysis of univariate multinomial responses, by developing models systematically for the cases with no covariates as well as categorical covariates, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. In the longitudinal setup, both stationary and non-stationary covariates are considered. These models have also been extended to the bivariate multinomial setup along with suitable covariates. For the inferences, the book uses the generalized quasi-likelihood as w...

  4. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  5. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as...

  6. Information and Its Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the structure of a data transmission source, carrier, and receiver; (2) a quantitative measure for the amount of data, followed by some quantitative examples of data transmission processes; (3) the concept of data current; (4) data containers; and (5) how this information can be used to structure physics courses. (JN)

  7. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gubik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  8. Longitudinal Beam Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tecker, F.

    2016-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  9. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  10. Comparison of human solute carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Schlessinger, Avner; Matsson, Pär; Shima, James E.; Pieper, Ursula; Yee, Sook Wah; Kelly, Libusha; Apeltsin, Leonard; Stroud, Robert M.; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Solute carriers are eukaryotic membrane proteins that control the uptake and efflux of solutes, including essential cellular compounds, environmental toxins, and therapeutic drugs. Solute carriers can share similar structural features despite weak sequence similarities. Identification of sequence relationships among solute carriers is needed to enhance our ability to model individual carriers and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their substrate specificity and transport. Here, we desc...

  11. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...

  12. Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Froehlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E'(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1'(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of carrier LO phonon system in high electric field in polar semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, M.; Katayama, S.

    2001-03-01

    The dynamics of carriers excited by an ultrashort laser pulse is simulated numerically in the presence of a strong electric field. The carrier density matrices (DMs) are treated within the equation of motion method by taking interaction with longitudinal optical (LO) phonons into account. It is shown that the temporal evolution of an electron DM exhibits a strong modification owing to LO phonon emissions in addition to interferences between the interband polarization and the optical pulse field in the external strong electric field.

  15. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  16. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-03-01

    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26923413

  17. Longitudinal Lisfranc injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Nikhil R; Manoli, Arthur; Holmes, James R

    2014-01-01

    Most Lisfranc or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint injuries result from a horizontally directed force in which the metatarsals are displaced relative to the midfoot. The injury pattern that is described in this article is one of a longitudinal force through the first ray and cuneiform. A reliable measure to recognize the longitudinal Lisfranc variant injury has been the height difference between the distal articular surfaces of the first and second cuneiform bones in an anteroposterior (AP) weight-bearing radiograph. This measure helps identify subtle injuries in which there is a proximal and medial subluxation of the first cuneiform-metatarsal complex. Delayed diagnosis and treatment have been associated with poorer results and significant functional consequences. This article describes a simple radiographic measurement to recognize the longitudinal injury pattern and to aid in determining whether operative intervention is required. PMID:25785475

  18. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Influence of quasibound states on the carrier capture in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.V.; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of carriers in quantum-dot quasibound states with longitudinal optical phonons is investigated. For a level separation between the quasibound state and a discrete quantum-dot state in the vicinity of the phonon energy, a strong electron-phonon coupling occurs. A mixed electron...

  20. Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Jirauschek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for self-consistently including the optical cavity field into Monte Carlo-based carrier transport simulations. This approach allows for an analysis of the actual lasing operation in quantum cascade lasers, considering effects such as gain saturation and longitudinal mode competition. Simulation results for a terahertz quantum cascade laser are found to be consistent with experiment.

  1. Determining the approach speed envelope of carrier aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Yao Hailin; Duan Zhuoyi

    2013-01-01

    Many factors,such as deck motion and air wave,influence the determination of the approach speed which has an important effect on landing safety. Until recently,there are no design criteria about approach speed of carrier aircraft in the current standards and available publications. Therefore,the requirements of stall margin, longitudinal acceleration ability,altitude correction and field-of-view on approach speed were researched. Based on the flight dynamics model,the flight simulations were conducted to study the effect of the response time of en-gine,wave off requirements,elevator efficiency and deflection rate on the approach speed. The results presented that the approach longitudinal acceleration and altitude correction ability had crucial influence on the approach speed envelope of the aircraft. The limitations of the control requirements,field-of-view requirements and gear were also given through the simulation and analysis. Based on the above results,the approach speed envelope were determined.

  2. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...... worked out with respect to net transport rate, initial rate, unidirectional fluxes including back-flow through the pump, maximum accumulation ratio, competitive inhibition and acceleration, counter transport, and metabolic poisoning. The energetics of the system are treated. The fact that the system...

  3. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  4. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  5. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  6. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  7. Sustainable bioenergy carriers from wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M.A.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Abreu, A. A.; Costa, J.C.; Sousa, D. Z.; Alves, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies for renewable energy production is crucial for decreasing the reliance in fossil fuels and improving global sustainability. Waste materials are valuable resources that can be used for the production of energy carriers. Organic wastes can be anaerobically digested to ultimately produce methane. Hydrogen can be recovered from this process, if methanogenesis is inhibited. These energy carriers can also be derived from recalcitrant materials in a two step-proce...

  8. Longitudinal microwave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A derivation of the relationship between growth rate and impedance is given. The only other instability considered here is the resonance effect produced by excessive tune shift due to space charge. We assume, without discussion, the (Δν)/sub max/ = .25; that is, this resonance growth is avoided (stability) by limiting the ring charge. On the other hand, the longitudinal microwave instability is assumed to be present (cannot be stabilized). Thus, the latter involves a limiting impedance to keep the growth rate low enough. The maximum allowed impedance for a maximum allowed growth rate is listed

  9. Antedependence models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Dale L

    2009-01-01

    The First Book Dedicated to This Class of Longitudinal ModelsAlthough antedependence models are particularly useful for modeling longitudinal data that exhibit serial correlation, few books adequately cover these models. By gathering results scattered throughout the literature, Antedependence Models for Longitudinal Data offers a convenient, systematic way to learn about antedependence models. Illustrated with numerous examples, the book also covers some important statistical inference procedures associated with these models.After describing unstructured and structured antedependence models an

  10. Motor Carrier Evaluation Program procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (DOE-TMD) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned material. In the performance of these duties, the DOE-TMD has established an exemplary safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials. The DOE recognizes that its responsibility for hazardous material does not end when the shipments leave the DOE sites. A special partnership is needed between the DOE, the DOE contractors, and the carriers chosen to transport hazardous materials. As in any partnership, it is critical that DOE know essential information about its partner in this joint venture. In fulfillment of its responsibility for the safe transportation of radioactive materials as well as other hazardous commodities and wastes routinely shipped from many DOE locations nationwide, the DOE-TMD has developed this policy for a motor carrier evaluation program. It is the intent of the DOE-TMD that this Motor Carrier Evaluation Program be implemented at all DOE locations to the fullest extent practicable. This program will assist in the evaluation of carriers transporting Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material, because these shipments frequently are in the ''public eye.'' The program will also evaluate truckload (TL) quantity transporters of hazardous materials, including radioactive material and chemical wastes. The program has also recently been expanded to include motor carriers transporting less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities of these materials

  11. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  12. Carrier sense data highway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  13. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  14. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  16. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  17. Electron-phonon energy transfer in hot-carrier solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luque López, Antonio; Martí Vega, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells may yield very high efficiency if the heat transfer from electrons to phonons is low enough. In this paper we calculate this heat transfer for the two inelastic mechanisms known to limit the electric conductivity: the multi-valley scattering in non-polar semiconductors and the coupling of electrons to longitudinal optical phonons in polar semiconductors. Heat transfer is ruled by matrix elements deduced from electric conductivity measurements. The cell power extracted ...

  18. Longitudinal Vortices in Granular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Forterre, Yoel; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    We present a new instability observed in rapid granular flows down rough inclined planes. For high inclinations and flow rates, the free surface of the flow experiences a regular deformation in the transverse direction. Measurements of the surface velocities imply that this instability is associated with the formation of longitudinal vortices in the granular flow. From the experimental observations, we propose a mechanism for the longitudinal vortex formation based on the concept of granular ...

  19. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at BNL, August 9--13, 1976. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber. A discussion is given of the mechanism governing the instability, and calculations as well as measurements of the longitudinal coupling impedances in the ISABELLE rings are described

  20. Immigrant earnings: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R; Lee, Yew Liang; Paul W. Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia to analyze the determinants of the level and growth in earnings of adult male immigrants in their first 3.5 years in Australia. The theoretical framework is based on the immigrant adjustment model, which incorporates both the transferability of immigrant skills and selectively in migration. The cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses generate similar findings. The level and relative growth of earnings are higher for immigran...

  1. Longitudinal motion in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description is given of the longitudinal motion of an idealized synchronous particle, exactly in step with the radiofrequency field of a circular accelerator, and a domain in phase and energy, called a bucket, around this particle within which particles are focused around the synchronous particle. This general picture is then made more precise and quantitative. The equations of longitudinal motion and their solutions and the resulting motion are discussed, followed by applications and amplication of the theory. 7 refs., 8 figs

  2. Carrier Deformability in Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Deformability is a key property of drug carriers used to increase the mass penetration across the skin without disrupting the lipid barrier. Highly deformable vesicles proved to be more effective than conventional liposomes in delivering drugs into and across the mammalian skin upon topical non occlusive application. In the past five years, highly deformable vesicles have been used for local delivery of drugs on joint diseases, skin cancer, atopic dermatitis, would healing, psoriasis, scar treatment, fungal, bacteria and protozoa infections. Promising topical vaccination strategies rely also in this type of carriers. Here we provide an overview on the main structural and mechanical features of deformable vesicles, to finish with an extensive update on their latest preclinical applications. PMID:26675226

  3. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  4. Gemini surfactants as gene carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Piskorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants are a new class of amphiphilic compounds built from two classic surfactant moieties bound together by a special spacer group. These compounds appear to be excellent for creating complexes with DNA and are effective in mediating transfection. Thanks to their construction, DNA carrier molecules built from gemini surfactants are able to deliver genes to cells of almost any DNA molecule size, unattainable when using viral gene delivery systems. Moreover, they are much safer for living organisms.

  5. Recursive SDN for Carrier Networks

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, James; Liu, Zhi; Panda, Aurojit; Koponen, Teemu; Raghavan, Barath; Rexford, Jennifer; Shenker, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Control planes for global carrier networks should be programmable (so that new functionality can be easily introduced) and scalable (so they can handle the numerical scale and geographic scope of these networks). Neither traditional control planes nor new SDN-based control planes meet both of these goals. In this paper, we propose a framework for recursive routing computations that combines the best of SDN (programmability) and traditional networks (scalability through hierarchy) to achieve t...

  6. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Castro; M. E. Tornadijo; Fresno, J. M.; H. Sandoval

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The ph...

  7. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  8. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  9. IOCs keep the faith despite mishaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short article discusses some of the expensive setbacks suffered by some international oil companies with interests in the developing Brazilian oil industry. Devon Energy was hit by the loss of two blocks when the Brazilian Environment Agency decided that a marine habitat was at risk, although Petrobras had drilled there for many years. Unocal suffered through the delay of a drilling permit. The complicated tax structure and the 'murky' import procedures are also sources of disquiet -the Brazilian tax structure and environmental policies are discussed in detail. The situation is made worse by the comparatively more investment-attractive discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico and West Africa. Despite the problems, most companies appear to have accepted the disappointments as part of a learning process and plan to stay in Brazil. Shell, El Paso, Phillips, TotalFinaElf, Kerr McGee, Unocal and Texaco all have plans to drill new wells

  10. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  11. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  12. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans; Steffansen, Bente

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... with K(m) 44microM and 38microM, respectively. BCRP inhibition affected both absorptive an exsorptive P(EPA) and P(APP) for ES. Glipizide apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) were not inhibitable. Basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was inhibitable, its P(EPA) prevented, and P(UP) was saturable with K(m) 56......microM, but exsorptive P(APP) was not affected. Carrier mediated exsorption kinetics for ES are seen at both apical and basolateral membranes, resulting in predominant exsorption despite presence of absorptive carrier(s). Carrier mediated basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was observed, but glipizide P...

  13. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, R.

    1976-01-01

    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.

  14. Longitudinal Wobbling in $^{133}$La

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, S; Garg, U; Bhat, G H; Frauendorf, S; Li, W; Sheikh, J A; Sethi, J; Saha, S; Singh, Purnima; Choudhury, D; Matta, J T; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dar, W >; Singh, V; Sihotra, S

    2016-01-01

    Excited states of $^{133}$La have been investigated to search for the wobbling excitation mode in the low-spin regime. Wobbling bands with $n_\\omega$ = 0 and 1 are identified along with the interconnecting $\\Delta I$ = 1, $E2$ transitions, which are regarded as fingerprints of the wobbling motion. An increase in wobbling frequency %of the $n_\\omega$ = 1 band with spin implies longitudinal wobbling for $^{133}$La, in contrast with the case of transverse wobbling observed in $^{135}$Pr. This is the first observation of a longitudinal wobbling band in nuclei. The experimental observations are accounted for by calculations using the quasiparticle triaxial rotor with harmonic frozen approximation and the triaxial projected shell model approaches, which attribute the appearance of longitudinal wobbling to the early alignment of an h$_{11/2}$ neutron pair.

  15. Neural nets and chaotic carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ""Neural Nets and Chaotic Carriers"" develops rational principles for the design of associative memories, with a view to applying these principles to models with irregularly oscillatory operation so evident in biological neural systems, and necessitated by the meaninglessness of absolute signal levels. Design is based on the criterion that an associative memory must be able to cope with 'fading data', i.e., to form an inference from the data even as its memory of that data degrades. The resultant net shows striking biological parallels. When these principles are combined with the Freeman speci

  16. Carrier frequencies, holomorphy and unwinding

    CERN Document Server

    Coifman, Ronald R; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2016-01-01

    We prove that functions of intrinsic-mode type (a classical models for signals) behave essentially like holomorphic functions: adding a pure carrier frequency $e^{int}$ ensures that the anti-holomorphic part is much smaller than the holomorphic part $ \\| P_{-}(f)\\|_{L^2} \\ll \\|P_{+}(f)\\|_{L^2}.$ This enables us to use techniques from complex analysis, in particular the \\textit{unwinding series}. We study its stability and convergence properties and show that the unwinding series can stabilize and show that the unwinding series can provide a high resolution time-frequency representation, which is robust to noise.

  17. Technetium diagnostic agent and carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable sup(99m)Tc-labelled radioactive diagnostic agent is produced by contacting sup(99m)Tc-containing pertechnetate with a non-radioactive carrier comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent and a stabilizer. The stabilizer is chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters. A mole ratio of more than 100 moles ascorbic or erythorbic acid to 1 mole of reducing agent provides a stable composition at high levels of radioactivity

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  20. Longitudinal feedback system for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.A.; Cornacchia, M.; Millich, A.

    1979-02-01

    Whether the wide bandwidth longitudinal feedback system described in this paper is made to act on the individual modes in frequency domain or on the individual bunches in time domain, it represents a clean and efficient way of damping the longitudinal oscillations without influencing other beam parameters such as bunch shape or synchrotron frequency distribution. The frequency domain feedback presents the advantage of providing information on which modes are unstable and on their risetimes, which may be helpful in locating dangerous resonators in the ring.

  1. Longitudinal compression of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the longitudinal compression of ion beams which is necessary in some designs of drivers intended to realize inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions. Taking space-charge forces in the beams into account, two compression schemes are investigated: the first preserves the longitudinal phase-space area of the beams, and the second allows an increase of the phase-space area. The compression-system parameters are optimized for an example of a driver for inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions with an energy of 10 MJ and with a pulse length of 25 ns on the target

  2. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families

  3. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  4. Longitudinal and Transverse Nuclear Shadowing

    OpenAIRE

    Barone, V.; M.; Genovese

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear shadowing arises from multiple scattering of the hadronic fluctuations of the virtual photon in a nucleus. We predict different longitudinal and transverse shadowing and an A-dependence of R which can be up to a 50% effect. The possibility of detecting nuclear effects on R at HERA is discussed.

  5. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  6. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  7. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al2O3) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  8. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar

    1993-01-01

    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  9. Free carrier absorption in quantum cascade structures

    OpenAIRE

    Carosella, F.; Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Ferreira, R.; Dupont, E; K. Unterrainer; Strasser, G.; Wacker, Andreas; Bastard, G.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the free carrier absorption in Quantum Cascade Lasers is very small and radically different from the classical Drude result on account of the orthogonality between the direction of the carrier free motion and the electric field of the laser emission. A quantum mechanical calculation of the free carrier absorption and inter-subband oblique absorption induced by interface defects, coulombic impurities and optical phonon absorption/emission is presented for QCL's with a double quant...

  10. Secure quantum carriers for quantum state sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Karimipour, Vahid; Marvian, Milad

    2010-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum carrier and show that messages can be uploaded and downloaded from this carrier and while in transit, these messages are hidden from external agents. We explain in detail the working of the quantum carrier for different communication tasks, including quantum key distribution, classical secret and quantum state sharing among a set of $n$ players according to general threshold schemes. The security of the protocol is discussed and it is shown that only the legi...

  11. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J.; Lowden, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of ...

  12. Multi-carrier technologies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, Carl R; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wiegandt, David A; Zekavat, S Alireza; Shattil, Steve

    2006-01-01

    1. Introduction. 2. Overview of Multi-Carrier Technologies. 3. High-Performance High-Capacity MC-CDMA for Future Generations: The CI Approach. 4. High Performance, High Throughput TDMA via Multi-Carrier Implementations. 5. High-Performance, High-Capacity DS-CDMA via Multicarrier Implementation. 6. High-Performance, High-Throughput OFDM with Low PAPR via Carrier Interferometry Phase Coding. 7. The Marriage of Smart Antenna Arrays and Multi-Carrier Systems: Spatial Sweeping, Transmit Diversity, and Directionality. Index.

  13. Exploring Longitudinal Risk-return Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben J.; Bettis, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk and a...... can lead to the inverse longitudinal risk-return relationships observed empirically. We discuss this apparent paradox and the possible resolution between mindless and conscious behavior as plausible causes of the longitudinal Bowman Paradox....

  14. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.204... carrier, the effective and prospective fares of the adopted carrier shall be changed to reflect the...

  15. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  16. Longitudinal misalignment based strain sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jeffrey Pratt

    1989-01-01

    A practical fiber optic strain sensor has been developed to measure strains in the range of 0.0 to 2.0 percent strain with a resolution ranging between 10 and 100 microstrain depending on sensor design choices. This intensity based sensor measures strain by monitoring strain induced longitudinal misalignment in a novel fiber interconnection. This interconnection is created by aligning fibers within a segment of hollow core fiber. Related splice loss mechanisms are investigated ...

  17. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  18. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang; Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Rasmussen, Anders; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  19. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  20. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  1. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  2. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  3. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  4. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  5. Effects of carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in graphene under pulse photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in intrinsic graphene after pulse photoexcitation and reveal effects of intraband carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in the terahertz region, by conducting simulation based on the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that by changing the dielectric constant of the surrounding materials the rate of carrier-carrier scattering can be controlled and the relaxation dynamics differs for cases with low and high dielectric constants. It is also found that the Pauli blocking of photogeneration in case of the pulse photoexcitation causes decrease in the photocarrier concentration and thus weakening of population inversion with higher dielectric constant.

  6. 49 CFR 369.2 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating revenues after applying the revenue deflator formula shown in Note A. (3) When a business combination occurs such as a merger, reorganization, or consolidation, the surviving carrier shall...

  7. Cognitive impairment in the preclinical stage of dementia in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Teasdale, Thomas W; Johannsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    -3). Subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests in 2002, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that the mutation carriers scored lower on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory than a control group consisting of not-at-risk family...... members and spouses. Longitudinal analyses showed a gradual decline in psychomotor speed, working memory capacity and global executive measures in the group of non-demented mutation carriers that was not found in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in domain scores...... on memory or visuospatial functions. On an individual level the cognitive changes over time varied considerably. CONCLUSION: Subjects with CHMP2B mutation show cognitive changes dominated by executive dysfunctions, years before they fulfil diagnostic criteria of FTD. However, there is great...

  8. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao; Fu, Rong; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2009-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  9. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  10. ISRAEL’S NATIONAL WATER CARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    The National Water Carrier of Israel (Ha Movil Ha' Artzi). It is the main water project of Israel and its main task is to transfer water from the rainy north to the center and to the arid south. The National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israel's water system. The original goal was to provide irrigation water to Negev. Today 80% of the water is utilized for Israel's domestic consumption. Most of the water works in Israel are combined with the National Water Carrier for about...

  11. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  12. Carrier diffusion and higher order transversal modes in spectral dynamics of the semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Jens; Danielsen, Magnus

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic and spectral behavior of the semiconductor stripe laser has been investigated. For this purpose the rate equations have been generalized to include several longitudinal and transversal modes, spontaneous emission into the active modes, and position dependence of the electron density...... through a term describing the charge-carrier diffusion in the plane of the active layer. The parameters used for solving these equations are found by theoretical and experimental considerations. The results show a broadening of the spectrum together with a significant content of higher order transversal...

  13. Time Resolved Studies of Carrier Dynamics in III -v Heterojunction Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Duncan James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Picosecond time-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study transient processes in Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As/InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and in bulk Ga_{.47}In _{.53}As and GaSb. To facilitate the experimental studies, apparatus was constructed to allow the detection of transient luminescence with 3ps time resolution. A frequency upconversion technique was employed. Relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As by optic phonons has been investigated, and, at carrier densities ~3 times 10^{18}cm ^{-3} is found to be a considerably slower process than simple theory predicts. The discrepancy is resolved by the inclusion of a non-equilibrium population of longitudinal optic phonons in the theoretical description. Slow energy loss is also observed in a 154A MQW under similar conditions, but carriers are found to relax more quickly in a 14A MQW with a comparable repeat period. The theory of non-equilibrium mode occupation is modified to describe the case of a MQW and is found to agree with experiment. Carrier relaxation in GaSb is studied and the importance of occupation of the L _6 conduction band valley in this material is demonstrated. The ambipolar diffusion of a photoexcited carrier plasma through an InP capping layer was investigated using an optical time-of-flight technique. This experiment also enables the efficiency of carrier capture by a Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As quantum well to be determined. A capture time of 4ps was found.

  14. Transverse and longitudinal vibrations in amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Beltukov, Y. M.; De Fusco, C; Tanguy, A.; Parshin, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We show that harmonic vibrations in amorphous silicon can be decomposed to transverse and longitudinal components in all frequency range even in the absence of the well defined wave vector ${\\bf q}$. For this purpose we define the transverse component of the eigenvector with given $\\omega$ as a component, which does not change the volumes of Voronoi cells around atoms. The longitudinal component is the remaining orthogonal component. We have found the longitudinal and transverse components of...

  15. Clusters of dislocations in a carrier wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters of point dislocations (wave vortices) may be present within an otherwise perfect plane scalar wave, a carrier wave in two dimensions, which may be evanescent. The question arises: is it possible to deduce the orientation of the distant undisturbed carrier wave purely from local information about the cluster itself? For groups of two and four dislocations in a carrier wave, this may be done by using no other information than the local phase map or the individual positions of the singularities. The maximum number possible in a cluster with a carrier wave is 4 and the total strength (topological charge) of a cluster is always zero or ± 2. The study includes an examination of degenerate dislocations of strength zero or ± 1

  16. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the...... substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine and......, with the result that a certain asymmetry of inhibition (stronger inhibition of exit than of entrance) is to be expected. This asymmetry was termed “first order asymmetry”. In experiments with each of the three inhibitors an asymmetry of inhibition in the expected direction was observed which however...

  17. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  18. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location

  19. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.

    1983-12-01

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  20. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  1. Airport Congestion When Carriers Have Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes airport congestion when carriers are nonatomistic, showing how the results of the road-pricing literature are modified when the economic agents causing congestion have market power. The analysis shows that when an airport is dominated by a monopolist, congestion is fully internalized, yielding no role for congestion pricing under monopoly conditions. Under a Cournot oligopoly, however, carriers are shown to internalize only the congestion they impose on themselves. A toll ...

  2. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  3. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  4. Hot carrier solar cell absorbers: investigation of carrier cooling properties of candidate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibeer, G.; Shrestha, Santosh; Huang, Shujuan; Patterson, Robert; Xia, Hongze; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Gupta, Neeti; Smyth, Suntrana; Liao, Yuanxun; Lin, Shu; Wang, Pei; Dai, Xi; Chung, Simon; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The hot carrier cell aims to extract the electrical energy from photo-generated carriers before they thermalize to the band edges. Hence it can potentially achieve a high current and a high voltage and hence very high efficiencies up to 65% under 1 sun and 86% under maximum concentration. To slow the rate of carrier thermalisation is very challenging, but modification of the phonon energies and the use of nanostructures are both promising ways to achieve some of the required slowing of carrier cooling. A number of materials and structures are being investigated with these properties and test structures are being fabricated. Initial measurements indicate slowed carrier cooling in III-Vs with large phonon band gaps and in multiple quantum wells. It is expected that soon proof of concept of hot carrier devices will pave the way for their development to fully functioning high efficiency solar cells.

  5. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  6. Introduction to Longitudinal Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the longitudinal dynamics of the particles in an accelerator and, closely related to that, the issue of synchronization between the particles and the accelerating field. Beginning with the trivial case of electrostatic accelerators, the synchronization condition is explained for a number of driven accelerators like Alvarez linacs, cyclotrons and finally synchrotrons and storage rings, where it plays a crucial role. In the case of the latter, the principle of phase focusing is motivated qualitatively as well as on a mathematically more correct level and the problem of operation below and above the transition energy is discussed. Throughout, the main emphasis is more on physical understanding rather than on a mathematically rigorous treatment.

  7. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  8. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  9. Adiabatic Excitation of Longitudinal Bunch Shape Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By modulating the rf voltage at near twice the synchrotrons frequency we are able to modulate the longitudinal bunch shape. We show experimentally that this can be done while preserving the longitudinal emittance when the rf voltage modulation is turned on adiabatically. Experimental measurements will be presented along with theoretical predictions

  10. Transverse and longitudinal vibrations in amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Fusco, C.; Tanguy, A.; Parshin, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    We show that harmonic vibrations in amorphous silicon can be decomposed to transverse and longitudinal components in all frequency range even in the absence of the well defined wave vector q. For this purpose we define the transverse component of the eigenvector with given ω as a component, which does not change the volumes of Voronoi cells around atoms. The longitudinal component is the remaining orthogonal component. We have found the longitudinal and transverse components of the vibrational density of states for numerical model of amorphous silicon. The vibrations are mostly transverse below 7 THz and above 15 THz. In the frequency interval in between the vibrations have a longitudinal nature. Just this sudden transformation of vibrations at 7 THz from almost transverse to almost longitudinal ones explains the prominent peak in the diffusivity of the amorphous silicon just above 7 THz.

  11. Longitudinal Phase Space Studies at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Roensch, J R

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) is to test and to optimize photo injectors for Free-Electron Lasers (FELs). The demands on such a photo injector are small transverse emittances, short bunches and a high bunch charge. A FEL is driven by an accelerator which consists of a rf gun followed by an acceleration section and a magnetic bunch compressor. For the effective bunch compression detailed studies of the longitudinal phase space have to be performed. The correlation between the positions of the particles in the bunch and their longitudinal momenta has to be understood and the non-linearities of the longitudinal phase space have to be analysed. A special apparatus for longitudinal phase space tomography at 5 MeV using a dipole, a Cherenkov radiator, an optical transmission line and a streak camera was developed. Results of longitudinal phase space measurements are presented and compared with simulations.

  12. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  13. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  14. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... sessions announced on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 285), and elsewhere in today's Federal Register, and to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. Charge carrier transport in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials exhibiting charge carrier mobility ranging from 10−3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs, i.e., between those of amorphous and crystalline materials, had been missing before the 1990s when the electronic conduction in liquid crystals was discovered. Since then, various liquid crystalline materials including discotic and calamitic liquid crystals have been studied in order to clarify their charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystalline mesophases. In this article, the historical background of the discovery of electronic conduction in liquid crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic conductions, unique properties of the charge carrier transport, the effect of molecular alignment on it, and the conduction mechanism in liquid crystalline mesophases are shortly described on the basis of the experimental and theoretical studies accumulated in these two decades, noting that the missing materials were liquid crystals. - Highlights: • Liquid crystals exhibit charge mobility ranging from 10–3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs. • Electronic (intrinsic) and ionic (extrinsic) conductions in liquid crystals • Unique charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystals • Effect of molecular alignment in mesophases on charge carrier transport • Conduction mechanism in smectic liquid crystals

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  18. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either the...

  19. Longitudinal research and data collection in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article reviews examples of and experience with longitudinal research in family medicine. The objective is to use this empirical information to formulate recommendations for improving longitudinal research. METHODS: The article discusses 3 longitudinal studies from the Nijmegen academi

  20. Elastic scattering by hot electrons and apparent lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons in gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurgin, Jacob B., E-mail: jakek@jhu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  1. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  2. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  3. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  4. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  5. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  6. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi......, significant homogeneous line broadening of the order of several meV can result....

  7. Myocardial structural alteration and systolic dysfunction in preclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hang Yiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the presence of myocardial structural alterations and subtle myocardial dysfunction during familial screening in asymptomatic mutation carriers without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen HCM families with pathogenic mutation were studied and 46 patients with phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen+ and 47 patients without phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen- were observed. Twenty-five control subjects, matched with the Mut+/Phen- group, were recruited for comparison. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate conventional parameters, myocardial structural alteration by calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS and global and segmental longitudinal strain by speckle tracking analysis. All 3 groups had similar left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction. Basal anteroseptal cIBS was the highest in Mut+/Phen+ patients (-14.0±4.6 dB, p-19.0 dB basal anteroseptal cIBS or >-18.0% basal anteroseptal longitudinal strain had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 72% in differentiating Mut+/Phen- group from controls. CONCLUSION: The use of cIBS and segmental longitudinal strain can differentiate HCM Mut+/Phen- patients from controls with important clinical implications for the family screening and follow-up of these patients.

  8. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  9. Longitudinal dynamics and tomography in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stogin, J. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Sen, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, R. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report too on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

  10. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele–specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. Results: A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: −7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: −8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. Conclusions: APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype–specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:27433544

  11. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  12. Managing photons and carriers for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Isabell; Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah; Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Tumkur, Thejaswi; Wang, Wei-Ren; Wray, Parker

    While small plasmonic nanoparticles efficiently generate energetic hot carriers, light absorption in a monolayer of such particles is inefficient, and practical utilization of the hot carriers in addition requires efficient charge-separation. Here we describe our approach to address both challenges. By designing an optical cavity structure for the plasmonic photoelectrode, light absorption in these particles can be significantly enhanced, resulting in efficient hot electron generation. Rather than utilizing a Schottky barrier to preserve the energy of the carriers, our structure allows for their direct injection into the adjacent electrolyte. On the substrate side, the plasmonic particles are in contact with a wide band gap oxide film that serves as an electron blocking layer but accepts holes and transfers them to the counter electrode. The observed photocurrent spectra follow the plasmon spectrum, and demonstrate that the extracted electrons are energetic enough to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. A similar structure can be designed to achieve broadband absorption enhancement in monolayer MoS2. Time permitting, I will discuss charge carrier dynamics in hybrid nanoparticles composed of plasmonic / two-dimensional materials, and applications of photo-induced force microscopy to study photocatalytic processes.

  13. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  14. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire; T. Bruce Grindley

    2014-01-01

    Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  15. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben;

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  16. Biodegradable PEG-based drug carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Braunová, Alena; Ulbrich, Karel; Jelínková, Markéta; Říhová, Blanka; Seymour, L. W.

    Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2005, s. 7-9. [Conference on New Approaches to Drug Delivery "Nanomedicines of the Future". Glasgow (GB), 18.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable polymers * drug carriers Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  17. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  18. Energy dissipation by a longitudinal Raman process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a longitudinal Raman process is introduced to encompass the indirect transmission of energy from slow electrons to nuclei through the reversible polarization of surrounding electrons. Experimental approaches are sought to assess this process quantitatively

  19. Modeling Disease Progression with Longitudinal Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Etzioni, Ruth; Morrell, Christopher; Müller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease and disease status at diagnosis. We establish a link between the longitudinal responses and the natural history of the disease by using an underlying latent disease process which describes the onset of the disease and models the transition to an advanced stage of the disease as dependent on the biomarker levels. We...

  20. The muonic longitudinal shower profiles at production

    CERN Document Server

    Andringa, S; Conceição, R; Pimenta, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the longitudinal profile of muon production along the shower axis is studied. The characteristics of this distribution is investigated for different primary masses, zenith angles, primary energies, and different high energy hadronic models. It is found that the shape of this distribution displays universal features similarly to what is known for the electromagnetic profile. The relation between the muon production distribution and the longitudinal electromagnetic evolution is also discussed.

  1. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda B. Amstadter; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal ( 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajec...

  2. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    L Postiglione; Savastano, S; A. Scognamiglio; G. Nutile; Carpinelli, A; Esposito, A.; del Puente, A; Padula, S.; Oriente, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA) and Osteoporosis (OP) is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy). Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2...

  3. Digital Longitudinal Tomography Using Backprojection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampp, Thomas Dalton

    1987-09-01

    Conventional tomography allows a single section to be demonstrated on film with a single sweep of an x -ray tube. Each sweep of the x-ray tube exposes the patient to approximately one rad of radiation dose. This tomographic method has been extended by using a backprojection method to allow six degrees of freedom in the selection of the plane to be synthesized. As many planes as desired can be retrospectively tomosynthesized from a single sweep of the apparatus. This can greatly reduce the dose to the patient as well as eliminate patient motion artifacts that would occur with individually acquired slices using the traditional analogue film method. A linear tomographic table was modified by the addition of a digital imaging chain so that a set of projection images could be acquired with each sweep of the apparatus. The digital images were manipulated by a computer to tomosynthesize retrospectively any desired plane. This advanced tomographic system would complement CT which cannot yet match the resolution of this system for longitudinal studies. Various special phantoms were imaged in order to provide data which were used to determine the operating characteristics of this particular system. The characteristics measured are the system gray level response, sampling density, modulation transfer function, small area contrast, detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, noise Wiener spectrum, and slice thickness. This laboratory piece of equipment could significantly detect approximately 1.7% contrast with a 1 mm pixel size. The MTF values and limiting resolution were approximately one -third of what can be obtained with current CT scanners. The system performed precisely as the computer simulations indicated. The dynamic range of the display is less than that of the image. Windowing of the final image can increase displayed contrast up to the limits imposed by noise. This is an improvement compared to film. With current state -of-the-art equipment, a little engineering and

  4. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2004-01-01

    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  5. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  6. Detachment factors for enhanced carrier to carrier transfer of CHO cell lines on macroporous microcarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Landauer, K.; Dürrschmid, M.; Klug, H.; Wiederkum, S.; Blüml, G.; Doblhoff-Dier, O.

    2002-01-01

    In this publication different detachment factors were tested for enhancing carrier to carrier transfer for scale-up of macroporous microcarrier based bioprocesses. Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, CHO-K1 and a genetically engineered CHO-K1 derived cell line (CHO-MPS), producing recombinant human Arylsulfatase B, were examined. The cells were grown on Cytoline 1microcarriers (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) in protein-free and chemically defined medium respectively. Fully colonised...

  7. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  8. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  9. Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Carrier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive biological indicators of the absence/presence or progress of the disease that could be used to support diagnosis and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment are of utmost importance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This neuromuscular disorder affects male children, causing weakness and disability, whereas female relatives are at risk of being carriers of the disease. A biomarker with both high sensitivity and specificity for accurate prediction is preferred. Until now creatine kinase (CK levels have been used for DMD diagnosis but these fail to assess disease progression. Herein we examined the potential applicability of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, myostatin (GDF-8 and follistatin (FSTN as non-invasive biomarkers to distinguish between DMD steroid naïve patients and healthy controls of similar age and also for carrier detection. Our data suggest that serum levels of MMP-9, GDF-8 and FSTN are useful to discriminate DMD from controls (p < 0.05, to correlate with some neuromuscular assessments for DMD, and also to differentiate between Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD patients. In DMD individuals under steroid treatment, GDF-8 levels increased as FSTN levels decreased, resembling the proportions of these proteins in healthy controls and also the baseline ratio of patients without steroids. GDF-8 and FSTN serum levels were also useful for carrier detection (p < 0.05. Longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are necessary to confirm that these molecules correlate with disease progression. The biomarkers presented herein could potentially outperform CK levels for carrier detection and also harbor potential for monitoring disease progression.

  10. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470 Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (a) Except for contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community-rated), the carrier is required...

  11. Screening-induced carrier transport in silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Boltzmann transport equation in the MRT approximation, we present a theory to investigate low-field carrier transport in dual-gated silicene FETs by taking into account screened charged impurity scattering, which is the most likely scattering mechanism limiting the conductivity. Static RPA dielectric screening is also included in the conductivity calculation to study temperature-dependent silicene transport. It is found that both calculated conductivity and band gap not only depend strongly on carrier sheet density, but also depend strongly on effective offset density. More importantly, screening-induced metal-insulator-transition phenomena in buckled silicene can be observed theoretically, which is similar to that obtained in monolayer graphene. (paper)

  12. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  13. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author)

  14. Carrier synchronization and detection of polyphase signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Digital communication networks used for the distribution of high-speed digital information are currently the subject of design studies for many civil and military applications. This paper presents results that are useful in such studies as well as in network planning. In particular, the paper is concerned with the problems of carrier synchronization and noisy reference detection of polyphase signals. Reconstruction of coherent references for the detection of polyphase signals is considered and analyzed for three carrier reconstruction loops, namely, Nth power (multiply-and-divide) loops, generalized Costas (I-Q) loops, and extensions of data-aided (modulation wipeoff) loops. General expressions for the error probability are developed when the reconstructed reference signals are noisy.

  15. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  16. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  17. High carrier mobilities in black diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Oliver A.; Jackman, Richard B.; Nebel, Christoph; Foord, John S.

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen plasma treatment of diamond renders the surface p-type, with the carriers emerging with little thermal activation, in sharp contrast to the use of boron for the formation of p-type material. To date, it has been thought that only the highest quality 'white' polycrystalline material is useful for electronic device applications, with many regarding single-crystal diamond as ultimately the substrate material of choice. In this paper it is shown that when p-type material is produced through hydrogenation, this is not the case. 'Black' polycrystalline diamond, which can be grown much more rapidly than white, shows carrier concentrations and mobility values similar to both white polycrystalline diamond and single-crystal material. This result has important implications for the provision of low-cost black-diamond substrates for device applications.

  18. Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier Rideshare System

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Maj Travis

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives the background and details of the Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier to be flown on the National Recoinnassance Office Launch 36 with the Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite Auxiliary Payload. The CubeSats included are from a number of labs, universities and government entities for the purpose of technology demonstration, science experimentation and operational proof of concepts. This mission will pave the way for rideshare on NRO missions and other Atlas V launches.

  19. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Eckmann, D.M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanoge...

  20. Crude Carrier Consolidation and Capital Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T T Gilje; J Dinwoodie; J Challacombe

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of consolidation strategies amongst crude carrier operators anxious to reduce costs and attract institutional capital. Could consolidation combat erratic tonnage demand, mounting regulatory pressure to provide quality service at reduced costs, rising costs of finance and unpredictable long-term returns that deter institutional capital? A questionnaire survey of capital providers' and charterers' attitudes towards consolidation found that long-term vessel emplo...

  1. Electroactuation with Single Charge Carrier Ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alpha A; Colby, Ralph H.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple theory of electromechanical transduction for single-charge-carrier double-layer electroactuators is developed, in which the ion distribution and curvature are mutually coupled. The obtained expressions for the dependence of curvature and charge accumulation on the applied voltage, as well as the electroactuation dynamics, are compared with literature data. The mechanical- or sensor- performance of such electroactuators appears to be determined by just three cumulative parameters, wit...

  2. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interacti...

  3. Software defined networking: meeting carrier grade requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Staessens, Dimitri; Sharma, Sachin; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Networking is a networking paradigm which allows network operators to manage networking elements using software running on an external server. This is accomplished by a split in the architecture between the forwarding element and the control element. Two technologies which allow this split for packet networks are ForCES and Openflow. We present energy efficiency and resilience aspects of carrier grade networks which can be met by Openflow. We implement flow restoration and ru...

  4. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...

  5. 24 CFR 17.46 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim... from the carrier or insurer before his claim under this subpart is settled, the amount or...

  6. 44 CFR 11.75 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prosecute rights available against a carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim been timely or...

  7. 29 CFR 15.25 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable... the loss from the carrier or insurer before his or her claim under this subpart is settled, the...

  8. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee; Fratu, Octavian

    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE...

  9. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan;

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  10. Legionella pneumophila Secretes a Mitochondrial Carrier Protein during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Dolezal; Margareta Aili; Janette Tong; Jhih-Hang Jiang; Marobbio, Carlo M.T.; Sau Fung Lee; Ralf Schuelein; Simon Belluzzo; Eva Binova; Aurelie Mousnier; Gad Frankel; Giulia Giannuzzi; Ferdinando Palmieri; Kipros Gabriel; Thomas Naderer

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Mitochondrial carrier proteins evolved during endosymbiosis to transport substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. As such the proteins are associated exclusively with eukaryotic organisms. Despite this, we identified putative mitochondrial carrier proteins in the genomes of different intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. We named the mitochondrial carrier protein from L. pneumophila LncP and...

  11. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  12. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes on Antarctic glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Glasser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'' are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1 as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2 as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  13. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238U72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  14. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers--innovative generations of solid lipid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhaye, S S; Vaidya, Reshma; Sutar, Sagar; Patwardhan, Arati; Kadam, V J

    2008-10-01

    The first generation of solid lipid carrier systems in nanometer range, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN), was introduced as an alternative to liposomes. SLN are aqueous colloidal dispersions, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids. SLN are manufactured by techniques like high pressure homogenization, solvent diffusion method etc. They exhibit major advantages such as modulated release, improved bioavailability, protection of chemically labile molecules like retinol, peptides from degradation, cost effective excipients, improved drug incorporation and wide application spectrum. However there are certain limitations associated with SLN, like limited drug loading capacity and drug expulsion during storage, which can be minimized by the next generation of solid lipids, Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC are lipid particles with a controlled nanostructure that improves drug loading and firmly incorporates the drug during storage. Owing to their properties and advantages, SLN and NLC may find extensive application in topical drug delivery, oral and parenteral administration of cosmetic and pharmaceutical actives. Cosmeceuticals is emerging as the biggest application target of these carriers. Carrier systems like SLN and NLC were developed with a perspective to meet industrial needs like scale up, qualification and validation, simple technology, low cost etc. This paper reviews present status of SLN and NLC as carrier systems with special emphasis on their application in Cosmeceuticals; it also gives an overview about various manufacturing techniques of SLN and NLC. PMID:18855604

  15. Bunched beam longitudinal instability: Coherent dipole motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors present a new formulation for the longitudinal coherent dipole motion, where a quadrature response of the environmental impedance is shown to be the effective longitudinal impedance for the beam instability. The Robinson-Pedersen formulation for the longitudinal dipole motion is also presented, the difference of the two approaches is discussed in the comparison. The results by using the Sacherer integral equation for the coherent dipole motion can generate the same results as by using the other two approaches, except for a scaling difference. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation

  16. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from 1H, 2H, and 3He were measured at Q2 = 0.4 (GeV/c)2 for two values of the invariant mass, (bar W) = 1.15 GeV and (bar W) = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in 3>He at (bar W) = 1.60 GeV. The (bar W) = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production

  17. Emittance minimisation with longitudinal dipole field variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of horizontal emittance beyond the conventional limit is pursued by introducing a longitudinal variation of the field in a bending magnet. For a given dipole field, the search for the minimal emittance is formulated analytically under different boundary conditions, starting from the achromat condition, preferred for light source rings. With a dipole field rapidly decaying along the longitudinal position, it is shown that the emittance can be further reduced, essentially by rendering the H function to be out of phase with the third power of the local curvature. Under the minimal emittance condition analytically obtained, the optimal dipole field distribution is searched numerically with a polynomial function, analysing at the same time the mechanism of the emittance reduction. The minimal emittance is argued as a function of the required peak field and the field distribution. Adaptability of longitudinally varying dipole fields in a standard magnet lattice for light sources is also addressed

  18. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    paper, we evaluate the performance of uplink CA in LTE-Advanced systems with different CC allocation schemes. We first present the radio resource management (RRM) framework of multi-component carrier LTE-Advanced systems, with special attention on CC selection, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and......Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this...... traffic conditions....

  19. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal stent deformation during coronary bifurcation stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Prafull; Gupta, Ankush; Goyal, Praveg; Panda, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    A distortion of implanted coronary stent along its longitudinal axis during coronary intervention is known as longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). LSD is frequently seen with newer drug eluting stents (DES), specifically with PROMUS Element stent. It is usually caused by impact of guide catheter tip, or following passage of catheters like balloon catheter, IVUS catheter, guideliner, etc. We hereby report a case of LSD during coronary bifurcation lesion intervention, using two-stents technique. Patient had acute stent thrombosis as a complication of LSD, which was successfully managed. PMID:26811144

  1. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  2. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...... allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown to be...

  3. Carrier Transport Mechanism in Single Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Elucidated by Visualized Carrier Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved microscopic second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) measurement was conducted to evaluate temperature dependence of the anisotropic carrier transport process in 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene single crystalline domains for two orthogonal directions. Enhancement of the electric field induced SHG (EFI-SHG) signal at the electrode edge at low temperature suggests the presence of potential drop in the injection process. We directly evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility by taking into account the potential drop, and concluded that the Marcus theory is appropriate to interpret the carrier transport in anisotropic TIPS pentacene thin film. TRM-SHG method is a facile and effective way to directly visualize transport process in anisotropic materials and to evaluate injection and transport processes simultaneously. PMID:27451638

  4. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation and...

  5. Studies on carrier free promethium-147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was intended to study the state of Pm-147 in solution and its adsorbed state on membrane filters by varying the concentrations of Pm-147 solution and its pH. Also, the study on the coprecipitation of Pm-147 with Fe(OH)3 was carried out by varying amounts of Fe(OH)3 and pH of the solution. The carrier-free Pm-147 exists in an ionic state of pm3+ in solution, and is adsorbed on membrane filter in filtration process. The adsorbed state of Pm-147 on the membrane filter shows various ionic state at a constant ionic strength of 0.1M NaCl, that is, Pm3+ state exists until pH value of 5.0, then gradually Pm(OH)2+ state appears between pH value of 5.0 to 6.0, and the state of Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)3 would be expected at the higher pH value of 6.0. Coprecipitation of Pm-147 on Fe(OH)3 is an adsorption penomenon in an ionic state of Pm3+ in acidic condition. At higher pH and larger amount of Fe carrier, the adsorbed state of Pm-147 shows Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)2+ state. As a results of the present studies, it is seen that the characteristic of carrier free radioisotopes is not due to the radioactivity, but due to the adsorption of ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes. Therefore, the knowledge on the ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes could help for the solution of decontamination in handing and chemical procedure with radioisotopes. (author)

  6. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  7. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  8. Investigation of sugar sulfur carrier in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of galvanotechnics it is necessary to have nickel which is easely subjected to the anode dissolving (the so called depolarized nickel). In the industry, nickel of such a quality is produced by the method of electrolytic sedimentation from the nickel solution in the presence of sulfur carriers, usually in the presence of saccharin. To study behaviour of saccharin in the process of electrolysis, investigations of saccharin labelled by sulfur-35 have been done. These investigations have permitted to determine the type and quantity of products of decomposition formed, as well as to determine possibilities for rising the quantity of introducer sulfur due to the variants of technological process

  9. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  10. Distraction osteogenesis using a longitudinal corticotomy

    OpenAIRE

    AL-SAATI, Ma'ad F.; Magnussen, Robert A; LUSTIG, Sebastien; Testa, Rodolphe; Al-Saati, Gazal; Al-Saati, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a longitudinal corticotomy (S-Z osteotomy) results in more rapid consolidation following distraction osteogenesis of short tibiae. Sixty-seven lengthening procedures were performed in 51 patients ranging in age from nine to 38 (mean 25) years.

  11. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  12. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelis François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use kinetic theory in order to study the role of quantum fluctuations in the isotropization of the pressure tensor in a system subject to fast longitudinal expansion, such as the matter produced in the early stages of a heavy ion collision.

  13. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynley

    2010-01-01

    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

  14. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  15. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelis, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We use kinetic theory in order to study the role of quantum fluctuations in the isotropization of the pressure tensor in a system subject to fast longitudinal expansion, such as the matter produced in the early stages of a heavy ion collision.

  16. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  17. Gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E J; Reid, H; Pow, I; Klemt, A

    2002-08-01

    Between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order Artiodactyla at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) of wildebeest (Connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. Gamma herpesvirus DNA was detected in the known, or suspected, carrier species: roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), musk ox (Ovibos muschatus) and mouflon (Ovis musimon). In six other species: lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) yak (Bos grunniens), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros), DNA was present in some newborn calves and over 30% of adults, strongly suggesting a carrier state. In contrast five Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and two swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) died of MCF during the study. A virus isolated from scimitar-horned oryx calves produced cytopathic effects in scimitar-horned oryx kidney cell-culture and caused MCF in a rabbit. PMID:12208112

  18. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  19. Analysing the risk of LNG carrier operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In accordance with these risk models, available information from different sources has been structured in the form of event trees for different generic accident categories. In this way, high-risk areas pertaining to LNG shipping operations have been identified. The major contributions to the risk associated with LNG shipping are found to stem from five generic accident categories, i.e. collision, grounding, contact, fire and explosion, and events occurring while loading or unloading LNG at the terminal. Of these, collision risk was found to be the highest. According to the risk analysis presented in this paper, both the individual and the societal risk level associated with LNG carrier operations lie within the As Low As Reasonable Practicable (ALARP) area, meaning that further risk reduction should be required only if available cost-effective risk control options could be identified. This paper also includes a critical review of the various components of the risk models and hence identifies areas of improvements and suggests topics for further research

  20. Charged carrier spin dynamics in ZnO quantum wells and epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungtaek; Puls, J.; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal charged carrier spin dynamics is studied for ZnO quantum wells and epilayers using the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton X- and the neutral donor bound exciton D0X , respectively. The hole spin relaxation is derived from the optical orientation of X- and D0X photoluminescence, whereas the spin relaxation of the resident electrons and donor electrons is accessed via the bleaching of the spin selective excitation process. Hole spin relaxation times of τ1s ,h of 80 and 140 ps are found for D0X and X-, respectively, which are practically independent of a magnetic field B∥ applied along the ZnO c ⃗ axis. Much longer longitudinal electron spin relaxation times in the 1 μ s range are uncovered if the hyperfine interaction is suppressed by a proper B∥. A field strength of ≈2 mT is large enough proving the extremely small value of the Overhauser field in ZnO. This is related to the very restricted number of magnetic nuclei interacting with the electron inside the volume of the exciton complex.

  1. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  2. Features of charge carrier transport determined from carrier extraction current in .mu.c-Si:H

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juška, G.; Arlauskas, K.; Nekrašas, N.; Stuchlík, Jiří; Niquille, X.; Wyrsch, N.

    299-302, - (2002), s. 375-379. ISSN 0022-3093 Grant ostatní: VMSF(LT) 01SP-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mobility of majority carriers * photoconductivity transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2002

  3. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... residential and single-line business lines multiplied by the difference between the residential and single-line business End User Common Line rate cap and the lesser of $6.50 or the non-price cap local exchange... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap...

  4. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  5. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A

    2015-11-01

    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. PMID:26183299

  6. TAILOR THE LONGITUDINAL ANAYSIS FOR NIH LONGITUDINAL NORMAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

    2014-01-01

    There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewi...

  7. Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard Barry

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines how measurement error biases longitudinal estimates of union effects. It develops numerical examples, statistical models, and econometric estimates which indicate that measurement error is a major problem in longitudinal data sets, so that longitudinal analyses do not provide the research panacea for determining the effects of unionism (or other economic forces) some have suggested. There are three major findings:1) The difference between the cross-section and longitudinal...

  8. Relationship between structural coherence and intrinsic carrier transport in an isolated poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Ichimura, Yasutaka; Nakagawa, Shino; Noguchi, Keiichi; Heike, Seiji; Hashizume, Tomihiro

    2011-03-01

    Our study is focused on the relationship between the structural coherence and intrinsic carrier transport in a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) nanofiber, particularly in an isolated nanofiber, formed in various ratios of good and poor solvent mixtures. The P3HT nanofiber, which is formed in solvent mixtures, had a whisker structure with the length of several μm, the height decreased from 9 to 2 nm as estimated by scanning force microscope observation, and the structural coherent length along the longitudinal axis increased from 40 to 59 Å as determined by x-ray-diffraction measurement, with increasing ratio of the good solvent. The I-V characteristics measured by the four-probe method showed that the activation energy of hopping conduction, which was considerably related with the structural disorder, decreased with increasing ratio of the good solvent. Moreover, the field-effect-transistor characteristics of the nanofiber showed that the carrier mobility increased with increasing ratio of the good solvent, and the nanofiber formed under the good-solvent-rich condition showed the mobility from 3.8×10-2 to 5.6×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1. The tendency of the mobility to increase has been explained on the basis of the change in the structural coherent length and thermal activation energy, assuming the model that regarded the nanofiber as a one-dimensional array of electronically coherent regions and incoherent defects, and hence the relationship between the structural coherence and carrier transport has been clarified.

  9. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF CARRIER-BASED AIRCRAFT DURING LANDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段萍萍; 聂宏; 魏小辉

    2013-01-01

    In view of the complexity of landing on the deck of aircraft carrier ,a systematic model ,composed of six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier-based aircraft ,four-degree-of-freedom model of landing gears and six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier , is established in the Matlab-Simulink environment , with damping function of landing gears and dynamic characteristics of tires being considered .The model ,where the car-rier movement is introduced ,is applicable for any abnormal landing condition .Moreover ,the equations of motion and relevant parameter are also derived .The dynamic response of aircraft is calculated via the variable step-size Runge-Kuta algorithm .The effect of attitude angles of aircraft and carrier movement during the process of landing is illustrated in details .The analytical results can provide some reference for carrier-based aircraft design and main-tenance .

  10. Avoiding asymmetry-induced bias in longitudinal image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Martin; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal image processing procedures frequently transfer or pool information across time within subject, with the dual goals of reducing the variability and increasing the accuracy of the derived measures. In this note, we discuss common difficulties in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream.

  11. Ring RF and longitudinal dynamics in the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average beam currents of 40 A will be present in the Spallation Neutron Source. Even though the entire cycle time is only one synchrotron oscillation the longitudinal phase space determines peak beam current and momentum spread. Both factors play a role in space charge and instability dynamics. Longitudinal simulations with beam loading and longitudinal space charge have been done in the design phase

  12. Computer assisted analysis of hand radiographs in infantile hypophosphatasia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand radiographs of 49 carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia and 67 non-carriers were evaluated using two Apple IIe Computer Programs and Apple Graphics Tablet. CAMPS was used to determine the bone lengths and calculate the metacarpophalangeal profiles. A newly developed program (ADAM) was used to determine bone density based on percent cortical area of the second metacarpal. Carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia had significantly less dense bones. (orig.)

  13. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  14. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  15. Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Bamber, Lisa; Harding, Marilyn; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Kunji, Edmund R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein–detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes' radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known struct...

  16. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  17. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  18. Microemulsions as carriers for therapeutic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Surinder K; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    The thrust for finding newer drug delivery systems for exiting therapeutic molecules has opened a wide window for colloidal systems. Due to the presence of different domains of variable polarity in the microemulsion systems, they show a huge potential to be used as drug delivery vehicles for a variety of drugs. The use of microemulsion as drug delivery vehicles through a number of routes has engaged a large number of research groups in this area. Microemulsion media finds several applications ranging from drug delivery to drug nanoparticle templating due to its ability to enhance solubility, stability and bioavailability. This review on patent articles recounts the patent literature dealing with different kind of microemulsion carriers used via different routes, solubility and permeability enhancement and its use as a template for nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:19807681

  19. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  20. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    aggregated. This paper presents a summary of the supported CA scenarios as well as an overview of the CA functionality for LTE-Advanced with special emphasis on the basic concept, control mechanisms, and performance aspects. The discussion includes definitions of the new terms primary cell (PCell) and......Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are...... secondary cell (SCell), mechanisms for activation and deactivation of CCs, and the new cross-CC scheduling functionality for improved control channel optimizations. We also demonstrate how CA can be used as an enabler for simple yet effective frequency domain interference management schemes. In particular...

  1. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  2. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers' module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson's disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes, whereas AD

  3. Light emission from hot carriers in polar semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Paolo; Di Carlo, Aldo; Vogl, Peter; Zandler, G.

    1993-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of hot-carrier induced light emission in III-V semiconductor devices. Carrier heating under the intense electric fields present under high bias conditions are studied via a selfconsistent Monte Carlo simulation. The carrier distribution functions obtained from the simulation are then incorporated into a pseudo-potential algorithm that describes the direct optical transitions and calculates the corresponding spectra. We show that the light emission due to hot carriers is dominated by direct radiative interband transitions within the conduction and valence bands. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for GaAs MESFET and GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs.

  4. Preparation of microorganism free carrier for biofertilizer product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier is free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming was used as a carrier for the biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation has been used to produce a ?clean? or sterile carrier. The sterilization effect of the carrier was checked by using serial dilution technique. Carriers that were irradiated at 50 kGy of gamma irradiation were found to be sterile. The shelf life of the sterile carriers was also determined. After six months the compost carriers were still free from microbial contamination. (Author)

  5. Carrier-Density-Dependent Lattice Stability in InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrafast decay of the x-ray diffraction intensity following laser excitation of an InSb crystal has been utilized to observe carrier dependent changes in the potential energy surface. For the first time, an abrupt carrier dependent onset for potential energy surface softening and the appearance of accelerated atomic disordering for a very high average carrier density have been observed. Inertial dynamics dominate the early stages of crystal disordering for a wide range of carrier densities between the onset of crystal softening and the appearance of accelerated atomic disordering

  6. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  7. Fertility preservation in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Salvagno, Francesca; Delle Piane, Luisa; Casano, Simona; Evangelista, Francesca; Pittatore, Giulia; Razzano, Alessandra; Marchino, Gian L; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    According to enhanced long-term survival rates of these patients, interest in fertility preservation for young women facing gonadotoxic therapies is increasing. Women who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have a specifically increased lifetime risk of developing breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. Moreover, they are at high risk of undergoing premature infertility due to the medical interventions that are often performed in order to reduce cancer risk or treat an already existing malignancy. Fertility issues are relevant for healthy BRCA mutation carriers, whose family-planning decisions are often influenced by the need of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at young age. In BRCA mutation carriers who have a breast cancer at young age, the oncostatic treatment is associated with a significant ovarian toxicity linked to chemotherapy as well as to the long lasting hormonotherapy and to the need of delaying pregnancy for several years. Prompt counselling about different fertility preservation options should be offered to all young girls and women at high risk of ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Validated techniques to preserve fertility include oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, while experimental techniques include ovarian suppression with GnRH-analogs during chemotherapy and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The choice of the best strategy depends on age, type of chemotherapy, partner status, cancer type, time available for fertility preservation intervention and the risk of ovarian metastasis. All available options should be offered and can be performed alone or in combination. A crucial point is to avoid a significant delay to cancer treatment. PMID:26997146

  8. Batch By Batch Longitudinal Emittance Blowup MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Jaussi, M; Molendijk, J

    2012-01-01

    The transverse bunch emittance increases significantly at 450 GeV from the time of injection till the ramp due to IBS. By selectively blowing up the longitudinal emittance of the incoming batch at each injection, it should be possible to reduce the transverse emittance growth rates due to IBS. An MD was conducted on April 22nd 2012 to test the feasibility and performance of the batch-by-batch longitudinal emittance blowup. There were three main goals during the MD. First, to test the developed hardware, firmware, and software for the batch-by-batch blowup. Then, to measure the transverse emittance growth rates of blown-up and "witness" batches to quantify any improvement, and finally to test the ALLInjectSequencer class, which deals with the complicated gymnastics of introducing or masking the new batch to various RF loops.

  9. Does carrier size matter? A fundamental study of drug aerosolisation from carrier based dry powder inhalation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela; Hoe, Susan; Wong, William; Young, Paul M

    2011-07-15

    There is plenty of evidence supporting the notion that the size of the carrier influences the aerosolisation performance of drug from a drug-carrier blend. Interestingly, that evidence is contradictory in places and the study of such mechanisms is fraught by the compounding variables associated with comparing crystalline powders (e.g. as size is varied so may the shape, surface chemistry, roughness and the amount of fine excipients). To overcome these limitations, a series of model polystyrene spheres were used to study the influence of size on aerosol performance. Three polystyrene sphere carriers (TS-80, TS-250 and TS-500, describing their approximate diameters) were characterised using laser diffraction, atomic force microscopy, colloid probe microscopy, electron microscopy, true density and dynamic vapour sorption. The model carriers were blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (67.5:1 ratios) and the aerosolisation performance was tested using a multistage liquid impinger at a range of flow rates (40-100 lmin(-1)). Physico-chemical analysis of the carriers indicated that all carriers were spherical with similar roughness and densities. Furthermore, the adhesion force of drug to the carrier surfaces was independent of carrier size. Significant differences in drug aerosolisation were observed with both flow rate and carrier size. In general, as carrier size was increased, aerosol performance decreased. Furthermore, as flow rate was increased so did performance. Such observations suggest that higher energy processes drive aerosolisation, however this is likely to be due to the number of impaction events (and associated frictional and rotational forces) rather than the actual collision velocity (since the larger carriers had increased momentum and drag forces). This study shows that, in isolation of other variables, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolisation performance is observed. PMID:21501674

  10. Carrier-added and no-carrier-added syntheses of [18F]spiroperidol and [18F]haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syntheses of [18F]haloperidol and [18F]spiroperidol in both no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms have been accomplished. The no-carrier-added [18F]butyrophenone neuroleptics were prepared in low (18F-neuroleptics were prepared in better (5-17%) yields by 18F-for-19F nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The preparation of all synthetic precursors, and procedures for radiolabeling are fully described. (author)

  11. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

  12. Fmcw Mmw Radar For Automotive Longitudinal Control

    OpenAIRE

    David, William

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information on millimeter wave (MMW) radar for automotive longitudinal control. It addresses the fundamental capabilities and limitations of millimeter waves for ranging and contrasts their operation with that of conventional microwave radar. The report analyzes pulsed and FMCW radar configurations, and provides detailed treatment of FMCW radar operating at MMW frequency, its advantages and disadvantages as they relate to range and velocity measurements.

  13. GEE for GWAS using Longitudinal Phenotype Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sitlani, Colleen M.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Avery, Christy L; Noordam, Raymond; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal cohort studies have both genome-wide measures of genetic variation and repeated measures of phenotypes and environmental exposures. Genome-wide association study analyses have typically used only cross-sectional data to evaluate quantitative phenotypes and binary traits. Incorporation of repeated measures may increase power to detect associations, but also requires specialized analysis methods. Here we discuss one such method – generalized estimating equations...

  14. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  15. Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, D. A.; Loder, R T; Crandall, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    We performed a clinical and radiographic review of 15 patients (19 limbs) with longitudinal deficiency of the tibia treated between 1981 and 2001. Ten limbs with Kalamchi type I deficiencies were managed by through-knee amputation. Five type II deficiencies were treated by foot ablation and tibiofibular synostosis, either at the same time or staged, but prosthetic problems may arise from varus alignment and prominence of the proximal fibula. Patients with type III deficiencies (four cases) we...

  16. Longitudinal Laser Shaping in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Chen, Pisin

    2000-01-01

    We study the energetics of wake excitation during the laser-plasma interaction in application to laser wakefield accelerators. We find that both the wake amplitude and the accelerating efficiency (transformer ratio) can be maximized by properly shaping the longitudinal profile of the driving laser pulse. The corresponding family of laser pulse shapes is derived in the nonlinear regime of laser-plasma interaction. Such shapes provide theoretical upper limit on the magnitude of the wakefield an...

  17. Longitudinal damping system for the Fermilab Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general idea behind the damping system is to take from the beam-spectrum the instability frequency components (synchrotron sidebands), and to feed them back with the proper phase to create negative feedback. The paper describes the different building blocks of a new longitudinal damping system in the Fermilab Booster and the main design considerations. The system design has been completed. The prototype is currently being built and tested. First system integration with the Booster is expected in August 1991

  18. Temporal dependence in longitudinal paired comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Regina; Francis, Brian; Katzenbeisser, Walter

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a new approach to the analysis of longitudinal paired comparison data, where comparisons of the same objects by the same judges are made on more than one occasion. As an alternative to other recent approaches to such data, which are based on Kalman filter- ing, our approach treats the problem as one of multivariate multinomial data, allowing dependence terms between comparisons over time to be incorporated. The resulting model can be fitted as a Poisson log-linear model an...

  19. Diagnosis of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Helen; Witherick, Jonathan; Wilkins, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is a neurological condition characterised by a contiguous inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord. LETM is often associated with the autoimmune central nervous system disease neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and rarely with multiple sclerosis. The discovery of the NMO-IgG antibody, provides a useful serological marker of LETM associated with the NMO disease spectrum (LETM and/or optic neuritis). Here, the authors report two cases of LETM, which dif...

  20. Longitudinal studies of trauma in police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Marmar

    2012-01-01

    Background : Results will be presented on a prospective longitudinal study of risk and resilience for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 400 police academy recruits, assessed during academy training and followed during the first 7 years of police service. Methods : Utilizing Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) we have established three symptom trajectories, highly resilient, initially distressed with gradual improvement, and increasing distress. Results : We will present find...

  1. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase-Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-03-30

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein-protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP-triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  2. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  3. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  4. Modeling HIF relevant longitudinal dynamics in UMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foremost challenge for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) is achieving sufficiently low emittances and small energy spreads in the presence of intense space-charge, to achieve the high deposition densities necessary for pellet ignition. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) uses intense low-energy electron beams to access the scaled physics of HIF drivers. In particular, the long path-length propagation in UMER presents an opportunity to study, at realistic scales, the longitudinal beam dynamics and manipulations required for such a driver. With the use of induction modules, as in the ion machines such as NDCX-II, the resulting bunch dynamics show evidence of space-charge waves excited by an initial mismatch between the detailed initial beam distribution at the bunch ends and the applied focusing waveforms, persisting with multiple damped reflections propagating along the bunch flat-top. Using the induction module we are able to suppress space-charge waves with great accuracy, at amplitudes that include wave steepening prior to the formation of solitary wave trains. The longitudinal dynamics largely dominates when no containment fields are applied, coupling through the natural chromaticity of the ring even within the first turn. After subsequent turns, the bunch elongates and wraps the circumference of the machine multiple times; eventually reaching a point of instability that has also been shown through simulation, obtaining excellent agreement when the detailed longitudinal dynamics of the experiment are carefully incorporated into the model

  5. Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Leigh; Ware, Robert; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Dobson, Annette

    2005-02-01

    Observational longitudinal research is particularly useful for assessing etiology and prognosis and for providing evidence for clinical decision making. However, there are no structured reporting requirements for studies of this design to assist authors, editors, and readers. The authors developed and tested a checklist of criteria related to threats to the internal and external validity of observational longitudinal studies. The checklist criteria concerned recruitment, data collection, biases, and data analysis and descriptive issues relevant to study rationale, study population, and generalizability. Two raters independently assessed 49 randomly selected articles describing stroke research published from 1999 to 2003 in six journals: American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Stroke, Annals of Neurology, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. On average, 17 of the 33 checklist criteria were reported. Criteria describing the study design were better reported than those related to internal validity. No relation was found between study type (etiologic or prognostic) or word count and quality of reporting. A flow diagram for summarizing participant flow through a study was developed. Editors and authors should consider using a checklist and flow diagram when reporting on observational longitudinal research. PMID:15671260

  6. A Longitudinal Density Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, Adam; Boccardi, Andrea

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator, ion bunches circulate in two counter-rotating beams and are brought into collision. Each bunch is confined within a bucket by the longitudinal focusing effect of the radio frequency (RF) cavities. The RF period is 2.5 ns, while the minimum bunch spacing is 25 ns. Thus, 9 out of every 10 buckets should be empty, as well as additional gaps to allow for the rise-time of injection and dump kickers. In practice, however, small numbers of particles can occupy these supposedly empty buckets, causing problems for machine protection and for the absolute calibration of the LHC’s luminosity. The Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) is a new monitor, designed to measure the longitudinal distribution of particles in the LHC with a sufficiently high dynamic range to quantify the relative particle population in the supposedly empty buckets. A non-interceptive measurement is made possible by the use of synchrotron radiation (SR...

  7. Longitudinal ligaments of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament in disk herniation is important in deciding between surgical or percutaneous management of HNP. The normal ligaments studied on spine specimens are better seen on long repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) images and appear as linear structures with very low signal intensity on all pulse sequences surrounding the outer anulus. The authors prospectively imaged 20 HNPs in 18 patients who underwent surgery. In eight cases, the posterior longitudinal ligament was seen intact around the HNP on both short TR, short TE and long TR, short TE images. All were subligamentous at surgery. MR imaging demonstrated disruption of the longitudinal ligament in ten cases because of interruption, absence around the disk fragment, or interposition between disk and fragment. The ligament was disrupted at surgery in only eight of these cases. The two false-positive images showed a pseudointerruption related to a chemical shift antifact. The two remaining studies were qualified as questionable. The overall sensitivity of MR imaging was 100%, and its specificity was 77%

  8. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O' Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-11-12

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

  9. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accounts for 50–65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes

  10. Medical Mishap and Negligence: It happens in the Outpatients too

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-06-01

    When we consider medical negligence and clinical error we think of busy hospitals late at night and at week-ends. We think of crowded emergency medicine departments, complex surgery and the critically ill ICU patient. We think of prescribing errors in the administration of potent intravenous therapy. We think of high risk specialties such as obstetrics, anaesthesia and surgery. We are less likely to think of outpatients\\/ ambulatory care or a non-interventionist specialty as an important source of litigation. This is remiss on our part. Risks in this setting have gone relatively unnoticed. There 30 times more outpatients than inpatients annually. In the US there are 900 million outpatient visits compared with 30 million inpatients. It is not surprising that this quantum of patient-doctor interaction should also be a source of litigation claims. Furthermore it is likely to continue rising with the increased numbers of procedures now being undertaken at outpatients.

  11. Genesis Contingency Planning and Mishap Recovery: The Sample Curation View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, E. K.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Calaway, M.; Rodriques, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Planning for sample preservation and curation was part of mission design from the beginning. One of the scientific objectives for Genesis included collecting samples of three regimes of the solar wind in addition to collecting bulk solar wind during the mission. Collectors were fabricated in different thicknesses for each regime of the solar wind and attached to separate frames exposed to the solar wind during specific periods of solar activity associated with each regime. The original plan to determine the solar regime sampled for specific collectors was to identify to which frame the collector was attached. However, the collectors were dislodged during the hard landing making identification by frame attachment impossible. Because regimes were also identified by thickness of the collector, the regime sampled is identified by measuring fragment thickness. A variety of collector materials and thin films applied to substrates were selected and qualified for flight. This diversity provided elemental measurement in more than one material, mitigating effects of diffusion rates and/or radiation damage. It also mitigated against different material and substrate strengths resulting in differing effects of the hard landing. For example, silicon crystal substrates broke into smaller fragments than sapphire-based substrates and diamond surfaces were more resilient to flying debris damage than gold. The primary responsibility of the curation team for recovery was process documentation. Contingency planning for the recovery phase expanded this responsibility to include not only equipment to document, but also gather, contain and identify samples from the landing area and the recovered spacecraft. The team developed contingency plans for various scenarios as part of mission planning that included topographic maps to aid in site recovery and identification of different modes of transport and purge capability depending on damage. A clean tent, set-up at Utah Test & Training Range to control the environment for processing the sample return capsule and cleanly installing a nitrogen purge to the canister, was used to control the environment for extracting collector fragments from the damaged canister and to document and package over 10,000 collector fragments.

  12. Carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering in the low-density and low-temperature regime for resonantly pumped semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorke, M.; Jahnke, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Gartner, P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); National Institute for Materials Physics, POB MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Seebeck, J.

    2009-02-15

    We study carrier relaxation due to Coulomb scattering and interaction with LO-phonons in semiconductor quantum dots at low temperatures. Scattering for different relaxation process are evaluated for various carrier distributions that correspond to stages of the typical relaxation kinetics after optical excitation with a weak pulse, generating on average less than one electron per quantum dot. Even when the spacing of the quantum dot energy levels does not match the LO-phonon energy, we.nd that carrier-LO-phonon scattering, in addition to electronelectron and electron-hole interaction, provides efficient carrier relaxation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers.

  14. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  15. Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    various design parameters have on the device properties, in particular how they affect the carrier dynamics and the corresponding field dynamics. A number of different types of results are presented. We calculate absorption spectra and steady-state field screening due to carrier pile-up at the separate...

  16. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5 Section 252.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers....

  17. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section 252.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air...

  18. 27 CFR 26.117 - Action by carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Procedure at Port of Arrival § 26.117 Action by carrier. The carrier of the merchandise specified on the Form 487B shall, at the time of unlading at the port of...

  19. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  20. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on simulations and experimental measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra and acoustic spectra is...

  1. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  2. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  3. 50 CFR 14.105 - Consignment to carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.105 Consignment to carrier. (a) No carrier shall accept any live wild mammal or bird for transport to the United States that has not been examined within... attendant. (c) A sick or injured wild mammal or bird shall be permitted transport to the United States...

  4. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-12-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  5. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  6. Current Consumption Measurements with a Carrier Aggregation Smartphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mejias, Rafael; Guo, Yu; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben; Ángel Maestro Ruiz de Temiño, Luis

    Carrier Aggregation (CA) is introduced in LTE release 10 to improve data rates by allowing the User Equipment (UE) to receive data on more than one LTE carrier. The related increased complexity is expected to affect the UE current consumption, but yet no empirical evaluation has been published on...

  7. Quality of service modeling and analysis for carrier ethernet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.

    2008-01-01

    Today, Ethernet is moving into the mainstream evolving into a carrier grade technology. Termed as Carrier Ethernet it is expected to overcome most of the shortcomings of native Ethernet. It is envisioned to carry services end-to-end serving corporate data networking and broadband access demands as w

  8. AQUASOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sutariya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiopharmaceutics involves delivery of biopharmaceutical product through different biomaterials like multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, aquasomes, superparamagnetic iron oxide crystals, and liposomes dendrimers. Nanotechnology has emerged fields of biomedical research in the last few decades the presents context is an attempt to present the brief information about nanobiotechnological applications. Aquasomes are nanoparticulate carrier system but instead of being simple nanoparticles these arse three layered self assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. Aquasomes are spherical 60–300 nm particles used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes discovery comprises a principle from microbiology, food chemistry, biophysics and many discoveries including solid phase synthesis, supramolecular chemistry, molecular shape change and self assembly. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds and brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate. Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage. Hydroxyapatite seems, therefore, a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants for drug delivery. The solid core provides the structural stability, while the carbohydrate coating protects against dehydration and stabilizes the biochemically active molecules. This property of maintaining the conformational integrity of bioactive molecules has led to the proposal that aquasomes have potential as a carrier system for delivery of peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Aquasome deliver their content through specific targeting, molecular sheiling and slow

  9. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and...... attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to...

  10. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel;

    2014-01-01

    . The algorithm is tested in a mixed line rate optical transmission scenario employing dual polarization 448 Gb/s 16-QAM signal surrounded by eight on-off keying channels in a 50 GHz grid. It is shown that joint carrier synchronization and data detection are more robust towards optical transmitter......In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...... impairments and nonlinear phase noise, compared to digital phase-locked loop (PLL) followed by hard decisions. Additionally, soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and detection offers an improvement of 0.5 dB in terms of input power compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier...

  11. Experimental and ab initio ultrafast carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Ana M; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the non-equilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions which allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly non-thermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  12. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  13. Fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A. P.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2012-10-01

    Sunlight-generated hot-carrier transport in strongly absorbing direct band-gap GaAs—among the most optimal of semiconductors for high-efficiency solar cells—is simulated with an accurate full-band structure self-consistent Monte Carlo method, including short- and long-range Coulomb interaction, impact ionization, and optical and acoustic phonon scattering. We consider an ultrapure 100-nm-thick intrinsic GaAs absorber layer designed with quasiballistic carrier transport that achieves complete photon absorption down to the band edge by application of careful light trapping and that has a generous hot-carrier retention time of 10 ps prior to the onset of carrier relaxation. We find that hot-carrier solar cells can be severely limited in performance due to the substantially reduced current density caused by insufficient extraction of the widely distributed hot electrons (holes) through the requisite energy selective contacts.

  14. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested. PMID:22113629

  15. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: mrc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: tmachida@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  16. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  17. Long-Lived Hot Carriers in III-V Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Fonseka, H A; Gao, Q; Mura, F; Tan, H H; Rubini, S; Martelli, F; Jagadish, C; Capizzi, M; Polimeni, A

    2016-05-11

    Heat management mechanisms play a pivotal role in driving the design of nanowire (NW)-based devices. In particular, the rate at which charge carriers cool down after an external excitation is crucial for the efficiency of solar cells, lasers, and high-speed transistors. Here, we investigate the thermalization properties of photogenerated carriers by continuous-wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) in InP and GaAs NWs. A quantitative analysis of the PL spectra recorded up to 310 K shows that carriers can thermalize at a temperature much higher than that of the lattice. We find that the mismatch between carrier and lattice temperature, ΔT, increases exponentially with lattice temperature and depends inversely on the NW diameter. ΔT is instead independent of other NW characteristics, such as crystal structure (wurtzite vs zincblende), chemical composition (InP vs GaAs), shape (tapered vs columnar NWs), and growth method (vapor-liquid-solid vs selective-area growth). Remarkably, carrier temperatures as high as 500 K are reached at the lattice temperature of 310 K in NWs with ∼70 nm diameter. While a population of nonequilibrium carriers, usually referred to as "hot carriers", is routinely generated by high-power laser pulses and detected by ultrafast spectroscopy, it is quite remarkable that it can be observed in cw PL measurements, when a steady-state population of carriers is established. Time-resolved PL measurements show that even in the thinnest NWs carriers have enough time (∼1 ns) after photoexcitation to interact with phonons and thus to release their excess energy. Nevertheless, the inability of carriers to reach a full thermal equilibrium with the lattice points to inhibited phonon emission primarily caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio of small diameter NWs. PMID:27104870

  18. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials the electromigration behaviour of the carrier-free 241Am-Am(III) in inert electrolytes, μ = 0.1 (ClO4-), T = 298.1(1) K, was studied. Basing on experimental dependencies of the overall ion mobilities of 241Am-Am(III) on pH between pH 5.5 and 12.9 the stoichiometric hydrolysis constants pβ3 = 28.8(9) and pK1 = 6.9(2) were obtained. For K4 a limitation of pK4 > 13.9(3) was possible, because no formation of anionic hydrolysis products in solutions pH 241Am-Am(III) degrees in the range pH 5.5 - 3 from +6.85(15) up to +5.50(15) · 10-4 cm2s-1V-1. Dependencies of this effect on overall ionic strength, inert electrolyte anion, and temperature of the electrolytes were studied in detail both in acidic and neutral solutions. (author)

  19. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štáfková, Jitka; Mach, Jan; Biran, Marc; Verner, Zdeněk; Bringaud, Frédéric; Tachezy, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key product of glycolysis that regulates the energy metabolism of cells. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, the fate of pyruvate varies dramatically during the parasite life cycle. In bloodstream forms, pyruvate is mainly excreted, whereas in tsetse fly forms, pyruvate is metabolized in mitochondria yielding additional ATP molecules. The character of the molecular machinery that mediates pyruvate transport across mitochondrial membrane was elusive until the recent discovery of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in yeast and mammals. Here, we characterized pyruvate import into mitochondrion of T. brucei. We identified mpc1 and mpc2 homologs in the T. brucei genome with attributes of MPC protein family and we demonstrated that both proteins are present in the mitochondrial membrane of the parasite. Investigations of mpc1 or mpc2 gene knock-out cells proved that T. brucei MPC1/2 proteins facilitate mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Interestingly, MPC is expressed not only in procyclic trypanosomes with fully activated mitochondria but also in bloodstream trypanosomes in which most of pyruvate is excreted. Moreover, MPC appears to be essential for bloodstream forms, supporting the recently emerging picture that the functions of mitochondria in bloodstream forms are more diverse than it was originally thought. PMID:26748989

  20. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  1. European retrievable carrier Eureca servicing by Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, L.; Dettmer, J.; Rath, W.

    1987-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that HERMES with a cargo bay configuration as depicted in figure 1 (5 m length, 3 m diam.) with Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) and HERMES Robotic Arm (HERA) is capable to service a small platform like EURECA, which is an NSTS quarter payload. Only 1/3 of the HERMES cargo bay volume and payload mass is required for the accommodation of the payload Orbital Replaceable Units. By implementing two additional hydrazine tanks refuelling can be avoided for a two-years EURECA mission. The overall servicing configuration is described as follows: The European Retrievable Carrier EURECA-B is mechanically attached through its -y-side sill trunnion to the HERMES berthing port. The HERMES cargo bay doors with radiators are opened and oriented to earth. The HERMES Robotic Arm is equipped with a Module Service Tool (MST) ready for Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) exchange. The HERMES berthing port is located at the rear side of the cargo bay in order to achieve best visibility, clearance and accessibility of the HERMES Robotic Arm operation within the cargo bay and the EURECA payload area. The EURECA solar arrays and antennas remain deployed. During the servicing operation, power will be provided by the fully deployed solar arrays. In order to minimize the plume impingement effect, the solar array edge is directed to the HERMES wing.

  2. Multi-carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Abd Elghafar; Salaheldin M. Diab; Sallam, Bassiouny M.; Moawad I. Dessouky; El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Fathi E. Abd El-Samie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new blind adaptive channel shortening approach for multi-carrier systems. Theperformance of the discrete Fourier transform-DMT (DFT-DMT) system is investigated with the proposedDST-DMT system over the standard carrier serving area (CSA) loop1. Enhanced bit rates demonstratedand less complexity also involved by the simulationof the DST-DMT system.

  3. Carrier-based dry powder inhalation: Impact of carrier modification on capsule filling processability and in vitro aerodynamic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, Eva; Wahl, Verena; Zellnitz, Sarah; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of carrier characteristics and dosator capsule filling operation on the in vitro deposition of mixtures containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) and lactose and mannitol as model carrier materials. The carrier surfaces of lactose and mannitol were modified via wet decantation. The impact of the decantation process on the properties of carriers was investigated by laser diffraction, density and powder flow measurements, N2 physisorption, small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences in carrier type and untreated and decanted materials were identified and the SAXS measurements proved to be a promising technology confirming the successful removal of fines. Adhesive carrier API mixtures with carrier-to-API ratio of 99:1 wt% were prepared, mixture homogeneity was tested and subsequently the mixtures were filled into capsules at different process settings. Finally, the influence of the decantation process on the in vitro performance of the adhesive mixtures was tested with a next generation impactor. For lactose, the decantation decreased the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS, whereas the FPF of mannitol as a carrier was only affected by the capsule filling process. In summary, the DPI formulation based on untreated lactose, especially by capsule filling using a dosing chamber to powder layer (compression) ratio of 1:2, proved to be superior in terms of the dosing accuracy (RSD<0.8%) and the in vitro aerodynamic performance (FPF of 12%). PMID:26136200

  4. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED

  5. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  6. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan Tzu Dist., 811 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yang, Fann-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiang-Chen [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations (AIM-HI), National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  7. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F.; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    See Schott and Fox (doi:10.1093/brain/awv405) for a scientific commentary on this article. Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer’s disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition (11C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants

  8. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    See Schott and Fox (doi:10.1093/brain/awv405) for a scientific commentary on this article.Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants

  9. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  10. Design of the PS longitudinal damper

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal damper cavity for the new coupled-bunch feedback of the PS machine has to provide a correcting RF voltage to the circulating bunches to suppress the excitation of bunch oscillations. In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, it has been decided to install a dedicated wideband kicker cavity (0.5-5.5MHz) driven by solid-state amplifiers and providing up to 5 kV peak RF voltage. This paper describes the beam characteristics, the high power system requirements, its design and the foreseen protections.

  11. Resonant longitudinal Zitterbewegung in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.

    2015-01-08

    The Zitterbewegung of a wave packet in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated. The coupling between edge states and bulk states results in intriguing properties. Apart from the oscillation in position perpendicular to the direction of motion, we also observe an oscillation along the direction of propagation which is not present in semiconductor nanowires or infinite graphene sheets. We also observe a resonance of its amplitude with respect to the central momentum of the wave packet. We show here that this longitudinal Zitterbewegung is caused by the interplay between bulk and edge states, which is a unique property of a zigzag nanoribbon.

  12. Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, D A; Loder, R T; Crandall, R C

    2003-01-01

    We performed a clinical and radiographic review of 15 patients (19 limbs) with longitudinal deficiency of the tibia treated between 1981 and 2001. Ten limbs with Kalamchi type I deficiencies were managed by through-knee amputation. Five type II deficiencies were treated by foot ablation and tibiofibular synostosis, either at the same time or staged, but prosthetic problems may arise from varus alignment and prominence of the proximal fibula. Patients with type III deficiencies (four cases) were treated by foot ablation. Prosthetic problems relating to proximal or distal tibiofibular instability may necessitate additional surgical intervention. PMID:12879290

  13. RHIC OPERATION WITH LONGITUDINALLY POLARIZED PROTONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.BAI,M.BEEBE-WANG,J.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Polarized proton beams have been accelerated, stored and collided at 100GeV per beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with longitudinal polarization. The essential equipment includes four Siberian snakes, eight spin rotators and fast relative polarimeters in each of the two RHIC rings as well as local polarimeters at the STAR and PHENIX detectors. This paper summarizes the performance of RHIC as a polarized proton collider in the FY03 run with emphasis on polarization issues. Preliminary data from the FY04 run is also shown.

  14. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) was designed to study the adaptation process of the immigrant second generation which is defined broadly as United States-born children with at least one foreign-born parent or children born abroad but brought at an early age to the United States. The original survey was conducted with large samples of second-generation immigrant children attending the 8th and 9th grades in public and private schools in the metropolitan areas of Miami/Ft. Laude...

  15. Longitudinal photo-documentation: recording living walls

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Susan; Flynn, Danny A.

    2015-01-01

    This working paper advocates a methodological approach to the study of street art and graffiti that is based on the documentation of single sites over time. Longitudinal photo-documentation is a form of data collection that allows street art and graffiti to be examined as visual dialogue. By capturing everyday forms of public mark making alongside both more recognizably ‘artistic’ images, and more visually ‘offensive’ tags, we aim to attend to graffiti and street art’s existence within a fiel...

  16. Importance of Avidity in Endogenous Drug Carrier: Antibody Carrier for CpG Oligonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Roland; Cho, Moo

    2010-01-01

    In animal models, successful anti-cancer monotherapy with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) has been limited to the intratumoral and peritumoral routes of administration. To overcome this limitation, we developed a delivery system utilizing an endogenous antibody as a carrier for CpG ODNs. When a 1:1 conjugate of 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) to a CpG ODN was administered to tumor-bearing mice that were pre-immunized against DNP, intravenous (IV) administration successfully inhibited tumor growth.1 In...

  17. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  18. An Efficient Inter Carrier Interference Cancellation Schemes for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been used widely in wireless communication systems. OFDM is very effective in combating inter-symbol interference and can achieve high data rate in frequency selective channel. For OFDM communication systems, the frequency offsets in mobile radio channels distort the orthogonality between subcarriers resulting in Inter Carrier Interference (ICI. ICI causes power leakage among subcarriers thus degrading the system performance. A well-known problem of OFDM is its sensitivity to frequency offset between the transmitted and received carrier frequencies. There are two deleterious effects caused by frequency offset one is the reduction of signal amplitude in the output of the filters matched to each of the carriers and the second is introduction of ICI from the other carriers. This research work investigates three effective methods for combating the effects of ICI: ICI Self Cancellation (SC, Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation, and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. These three methods are compared in terms of bit error rate performance and bandwidth efficiency. Through simulations, it is shown that the three techniques are effective in mitigating the modulation schemes, the ML and EKF methods perform better than the SC method.Keywords- Orthogonal frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM; Inter Carrier Interference(ICI; Carrier to Interference Power Ratio (CIR;Self Cancellation(SC;Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO; Maximum Likelihood(ML; Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF.

  19. Analysis of Ionospheric Delay Estimates from GNSS Carrier Phase Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    There is an increased demand for more precise ionospheric information such as ionospheric augmentation for fast ambiguity convergence and resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP). More precise ionospheric information is also highly desired to improve the understanding of the space weather dynamics and its impacts on various applications such as aviation and communication systems. Carrier phase measurements from GNSS offer the best precision for precise applications. Current ionospheric models, however, are mostly derived from code or carrier-smoothed code measurements. Ionopsheric models based on carrier phase measurements are expected to provide improved accuracy and should be investigated. In this contribution, various data analyses will be conducted on ionospheric estimates from carrier phase measurements. Since carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and they are also affected by fractional biases, proper observation model is necessary and will be developed. With proper observation model, the analysis results are used to investigate the differences and characteristics of the ionospheric estimates between the code and carrier phase derived estimates and subsequently to help develop methods for precise estimation of the biases in carrier phase measurements and the recovery of the ionospheric effects. Data acquired at different geographic locations and under different ionospheric conditions will be processed for numerical analysis.

  20. Kinetics of Ca2+ carrier in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadin, M; Pozzan, T; Azzone, G F

    1979-12-25

    The rate of aerobic Ca2+ transport is limited by the rate of the H+ pump rather than by the Ca2+ carrier. The kinetics of the Ca2+ carrier has therefore been studied by using the K+ diffusion potential as the driving force. The apparent Vmax of the Ca2+ carrier is, at 20 degrees C, about 900 nmol (mg of protein)-1 min-1, more than twice the rate of the H+ pump. The apparent Vmax is depressed by Mg2+ and Li+. This supports the view that the electrolytes act as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Ca2+ carrier. The degree of sigmoidicity of the kinetics of Ca2+ transport increases with the lowering of the temperature and proportionally with the concentration of impermeant electrolytes such as Mg2+ and Li+ but not choline. The effects of temperature and of electrolyte do not support the view that the sigmoidicity is due to modifications of the surface potential. Rather, they suggest that Ca2+ transport occurs through a multisubunit carrier, where cooperative phenomena are the result of ligand-induced conformational changes due to the interaction of several allosteric effectors with the carrier subunits. In contrast with La3+ which acts as a competitive inhibitor, Ruthenium Red affects the kinetics by inducing phenomena both of positive and of negative cooperativity. The Ruthenium Red induced kinetics has been reproduced through curve-fitting procedures by applying the Koshland sequential interaction hypothesis to a four-subunit Ca2+ carrier model. PMID:42437

  1. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  2. Effectiveness of emergency medicine in longitudinal integrated clerkships

    OpenAIRE

    Banh, Kenny; Ramirez, Rene; Thabit, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated third-year students’ experience with the emergency medicine (EM) component in integrated longitudinal programs. The study aimed to see if EM could be integrated into third-year integrated longitudinal programs while addressing accreditation standards and increasing interest in EM.Methods: The authors surveyed students who participated in an integrated longitudinal program at University of California San Francisco School of Medicine (UCSF) from 2010 to 2012. ...

  3. Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Ravinder K.; Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

    2013-01-01

    Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the...

  4. Impedance studies for the PS Finemet loaded longitudinal damper

    CERN Document Server

    Persichelli, S; Paoluzzi, M; Salvant, B

    2014-01-01

    The impedance of the Finemet® loaded longitudinal damper cavity, installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron straight section 02 during the Long Shutdown 2013-2014, has been evaluated [1]. Time domain simulations with CST Particle Studio have been performed in order to get the longitudinal and transverse impedance of the device and make a comparison with the longitudinal impedance that was measured for a single cell prototype.

  5. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  6. DNA-mediated gene transfer without carrier DNA

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    DNA-mediated gene transfer is a procedure which uses purified DNA to introduce new genetic elements into cells in culture. The standard DNA- mediated gene transfer procedure involves the use of whole cell DNA as carrier DNA for the transfer. We have modified the standard DNA- mediated gene transfer procedure to transfer the Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (TK) into TK- murine recipient cells in the absence of whole cell carrier DNA. The majority (8/10) of carrier- free trans...

  7. Do Low Cost Carriers Provide Low Quality Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejashree Sayanak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of whether low cost carriers provide low quality service. Considerable work has been done on various aspects of airline service quality, including: examining the causes of flight delays and cancellations, investigating service quality during irregular airport operations, and exploring the link between on-time performance and airline ticket prices. Little research has been conducted, however, on the performance of low cost carriers. This paper attempts to fill this void in the literature by examining the on-time performance of six million domestic flights in 2006. We find considerable evidence indicating that low cost carriers offer more reliable flight schedules.

  8. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [14C]sucrose, [3H]inulin, and 51Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [3H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  9. Analytical carrier density and quantum capacitance for graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Guangwei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Lu, Nianduan, E-mail: lunianduan@ime.ac.cn; Li, Ling, E-mail: lingli@ime.ac.cn; Liu, Ming [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Laboratory of Nanofabrication and Novel Device Integration, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-01-04

    A disorder based analytical carrier density for graphene is presented here. The carrier density, a basic property of all semiconductors, is obtained based on exponential distribution describing the potential fluctuations induced by impurities and shows good agreement with numerical results. The quantum capacitance is subsequently derived from the carrier density, with a good agreement with experimental measurements. A method for extracting the gate coupling function is also proposed, which relates the internal surface potential with the external applied gate voltage. The essential properties of graphene device physics, such as the temperature, material disorder, and surface potential dependences, are captured in these analytical equations.

  10. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  11. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  12. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  13. Carrier-envelope-phase stabilization via dual wavelength pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Marcus; Brons, Jonathan; Lücking, Fabian; Pervak, Vladimir; Apolonski, Alexander; Udem, Thomas; Pronin, Oleg

    2016-04-15

    A power-scalable concept for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization is presented. It takes advantage of simultaneous pumping of the zero- and first-phonon absorption line of Yb:YAG at 969 and 940 nm. The concept was implemented to lock the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a 45 W average power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator. The lock performance is compared to previous experiments where carrier-envelope-stabilization was realized by means of cavity loss modulation. PMID:27082362

  14. Mixture latent autoregressive models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia

    2011-01-01

    Many relevant statistical and econometric models for the analysis of longitudinal data include a latent process to account for the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in a dynamic fashion. Such a process may be continuous (typically an AR(1)) or discrete (typically a Markov chain). In this paper, we propose a model for longitudinal data which is based on a mixture of AR(1) processes with different means and correlation coefficients, but with equal variances. This model belongs to the class of models based on a continuous latent process, and then it has a natural interpretation in many contexts of application, but it is more flexible than other models in this class, reaching a goodness-of-fit similar to that of a discrete latent process model, with a reduced number of parameters. We show how to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model by the joint use of an Expectation-Maximisation algorithm and a Newton-Raphson algorithm, implemented by means of recursions developed in the hidden Mark...

  15. Bootstrap inference longitudinal semiparametric regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Rahmawati; Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Zain, Ismaini; Budiantara, I. Nyoman

    2016-02-01

    Semiparametric regression contains two components, i.e. parametric and nonparametric component. Semiparametric regression model is represented by yt i=μ (x˜'ti,zt i)+εt i where μ (x˜'ti,zt i)=x˜'tiβ ˜+g (zt i) and yti is response variable. It is assumed to have a linear relationship with the predictor variables x˜'ti=(x1 i 1,x2 i 2,…,xT i r) . Random error εti, i = 1, …, n, t = 1, …, T is normally distributed with zero mean and variance σ2 and g(zti) is a nonparametric component. The results of this study showed that the PLS approach on longitudinal semiparametric regression models obtain estimators β˜^t=[X'H(λ)X]-1X'H(λ )y ˜ and g˜^λ(z )=M (λ )y ˜ . The result also show that bootstrap was valid on longitudinal semiparametric regression model with g^λ(b )(z ) as nonparametric component estimator.

  16. Longitudinal emission tomography of thyroid and heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis three devices are discussed for longitudinal emission tomography, one of which has been developed for myocardial imaging and the other two for thyroid imaging. Longitudinal emission tomography is a technique which enables three-dimensional reconstruction of the radioactivity distribution within an organ from two-dimensional distributions on a detector surface. In Ch. 1 a general survey is given of the clinical environment in which the devices will be used. Ch. 2 discusses a well-known technique for myocardial imaging: seven-pinhole tomography. In Ch. 3 this technique is applied to imaging of the thyroid. Three different reconstruction methods have been applied to the data collected with the system (from phantoms as well as from patients) and the results have been evaluated. Ch. 4 discusses simulation studies which were carried out in order to investigate the potentialities of a time-coded aperture (TCA) system designed for thyroid tomography. In Ch. 5 a prototype is tested of the time coded aperture in a clinical environment. The last chapter presents a comparison between the (thyroid) 7P collimator and the TCA device. (Auth.)

  17. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  18. Tunable Mechanical Filter for Longitudinal Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of vibration isolator called tunable mechanical filter which consists of four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a filter, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the “Pass Bands” and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the “Stop Bands”. The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. The concept of this mechanical filter as presented can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  19. Longitudinal brain MRI analysis with uncertain registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ivor J A; Woolrich, Mark W; Groves, Adrian R; Schnabel, Julia A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach for incorporating measures of spatial uncertainty, which are derived from non-rigid registration, into spatially normalised statistics. Current approaches to spatially normalised statistical analysis use point-estimates of the registration parameters. This is limiting as the registration will rarely be completely accurate, and therefore data smoothing is often used to compensate for the uncertainty of the mapping. We derive localised measurements of spatial uncertainty from a probabilistic registration framework, which provides a principled approach to image smoothing. We evaluate our method using longitudinal deformation features from a set of MR brain images acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. These images are spatially normalised using our probabilistic registration algorithm. The spatially normalised longitudinal features are adaptively smoothed according to the registration uncertainty. The proposed adaptive smoothing shows improved classification results, (84% correct Alzheimer's Disease vs. controls), over either not smoothing (79.6%), or using a Gaussian filter with sigma = 2mm (78.8%). PMID:21995084

  20. Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A; Jones, R.M.; Jones, R M; Pasini, M; Posocco, P A; Voulot, D; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.34 ± 0.08 π ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.36 ± 0.04π ns keV/u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.48 ± 0.2 and 1.55 ± 0.12π ns keV/u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rig...

  1. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  2. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rashmi; Chowdhary, Priyanka; Gurtu, Anuraag; Mehrotra, Nakul; Kishore, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth. PMID:27247808

  3. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth.

  4. Free-charge carrier parameters of n-type, p-type and compensated InN:Mg determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schoehe, S.; Hofmann, T.; Darakchieva, Vanya; X Wang; Yoshikawa, A.; Wang, K.; Araki, T; Nanishi, Y; Schubert, M

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to investigate the free-charge carrier properties of Mg-doped InN films. Two representative sets of In-polar InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mg concentrations ranging from $1.2\\times10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $8\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ are compared. P-type conductivity is indicated for the Mg concentration range of $1\\times10^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $9\\times10^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ from a systematic investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon plasm...

  5. BER Performance of IEEE 802.11ad for Single Carrier and Multi Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario 802.11n is one of the fastest standards which is widely popular. It provides a theoretical maximum of 450 megabits per second (Mbps, with a typical throughput of 100Mbps. As we know, there is high demand for higher speed due to an increasing of high definition (HD video on smart phone usage and home entertainment. As 802.11n is not able to provide the required speed needed for these uses, thus there is need for technologies which can meet therequirement. IEEE 802.11ad is one of such standards which meet the requirement needed for the above. IEEE 802.11ad standard operates at 60 GHz frequency, promise to deliver from 1 to 7 Gbps. 60 GHz band is one of the largest unlicensed bandwidth with availability of at least 5 GHz of continuous bandwidth worldwide. In this paper we have tested the IEEE 802.11ad system model Bits Error Rate (BER for different modulation technique under several coding scheme for both Single Carrier and Multi Carriers. In this model the modulation technique mainly used are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and the coding scheme used is Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code with different code rate.

  6. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies. PMID:27334385

  8. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, A.; Florian, M.; Rösner, M.; Lorke, M.; Wehling, T. O.; Gies, C.; Jahnke, F.

    2016-09-01

    When exploring new materials for their potential in (opto)electronic device applications, it is important to understand the role of various carrier interaction and scattering processes. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, the Coulomb interaction is known to be much stronger than in quantum wells of conventional semiconductors like GaAs, as witnessed by the 50 times larger exciton binding energy. The question arises, whether this directly translates into equivalently faster carrier–carrier Coulomb scattering of excited carriers. Here we show that a combination of ab initio band-structure and many-body theory predicts Coulomb-mediated carrier relaxation on a sub-100 fs time scale for a wide range of excitation densities, which is less than an order of magnitude faster than in quantum wells.

  9. Allothermal gasification of biomass into chemicals and secondary energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Motivation for polygeneration; Allothermal gasification: the MILENA at ECN; Primary gas cleaning: the OLGA for tar removal; Possible secondary energy carriers; Possible chemicals; Polygeneration concept and its feasibility.

  10. Next-generation carrier screening: are we ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W Prior

    2014-01-01

    Editorial summary Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodology allows for a major expansion in current carrier screening tests. NGS testing has been shown to be analytically accurate and cost-effective, but major challenges include educational and counseling issues.

  11. Synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalkylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of syntheses of heat carrier oils based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) using suitable additives have been reported. Polyalkylene glycols have been prepared by heating diethylene glycol, propylene oxide, glycols, adipic acid and 2-ethyhexanol in the presence of KOH and stannyl octoate as catalyst in the molar ratio to give proper physical properties and viscosity-temperature index. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, as well as other specifications, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporization at 250 oC, 350 oC and changing the specifications after heating at 300 oC for 10 h have also been investigated. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers

  12. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  13. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  14. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous. PMID:26809017

  15. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Variants in Long-Term Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wei, Hsiao-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Wang, Shu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Long-term typhoid carriers can simultaneously excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants with considerable genetic differences, a situation that complicates the interpretation of the subtyping data used in outbreak investigations and disease surveillance.

  16. Plasmonic Hot Carrier Transport and Collection in Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William; Atwater, Harry; Joint CenterArtificial Photosynthesis Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic resonances provide a promising pathway for efficiently capturing photons from solar radiation and improving photo-catalytic activity via hot carrier generation. Previous calculations have provided the prompt energy-momentum distributions of hot carriers, but have left open the question of their transport to collection surfaces [Accepted in Nature Communications]. As the overall efficiency of plasmonic devices is dependent not just on how many carriers are collected but also on their energy distribution, a transport model which tracks this distribution is of key importance. Here, we provide a first-principles model of this transport based upon at the linearized Boltzmann equation with the diffusive and ballistic regimes handled separately, and investigate the role of geometry on plasmonic hot carrier collection.

  17. An Estimation Method for number of carrier frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that utilizes AR model power spectrum estimation based on Burg algorithm to estimate the number of carrier frequency in single pulse. In the modern electronic and information warfare, the pulse signal form of radar is complex and changeable, among which single pulse with multi-carrier frequencies is the most typical one, such as the frequency shift keying (FSK signal, the frequency shift keying with linear frequency (FSK-LFM hybrid modulation signal and the frequency shift keying with bi-phase shift keying (FSK-BPSK hybrid modulation signal. In view of this kind of single pulse which has multi-carrier frequencies, this paper adopts a method which transforms the complex signal into AR model, then takes power spectrum based on Burg algorithm to show the effect. Experimental results show that the estimation method still can determine the number of carrier frequencies accurately even when the signal noise ratio (SNR is very low.

  18. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dominic G; Bell, John C

    2013-01-01

    The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms. PMID:27512657

  19. Carrier screening in preconception consultation in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2012-07-01

    Discussing carrier screening during preconception consultation in primary care has a number of advantages in terms of promoting autonomy and enabling the greatest range of reproductive choices. For those with a family history of an inherited condition, this ought to be a routine discussion; however, this can be expanded to include the wider population, especially for those conditions for which carrier frequencies are considered relatively common. There is published literature from around the world regarding experiences with carrier screening in primary care for cystic fibrosis, haemoglobinopathies, fragile X syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease and spinal muscular atrophy, although many of these have tended to focus on consultations during rather than before pregnancy. Overall, these studies reveal that population carrier screening is well received by the participants with apparent minimal psychosocial harms; however, challenges exist in terms of approaches to ensure couples receive adequate information to make personally relevant decisions and for ongoing health professional engagement. PMID:22183783

  20. Consideration of the gestational carrier: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Gestational carriers have a right to be fully informed of the risks of the surrogacy process and of pregnancy, should receive psychological evaluation and counseling, and should have independent legal counsel. PMID:23541404

  1. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-12-12

    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  2. Study on Papain Immobilization on a Macroporous Polymer Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Liang; YAO, Zihua; Li, Tong

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous resin microbeads of methyl methacrylate-divinyl benzene copolymer were synthesized by radical suspension polymerization of acrolein with divinylbenzene in the presence of a pore-creating agent, petroleum ether. The microbeads had a large specific surface area and large pores covered the entire surface of the resin. This macroporous polymer carrier was aminated by hydrazine hydrate that produced a large number of amino groups on the carrier. Papain was immobilized on the ...

  3. The plant mitochondrial carrier family: functional and evolutionary aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka eHaferkamp; Stephan eSchmitz-Esser

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in respiration and energy production and are involved in multiple eukaryotic but also in several plant specific metabolic pathways. Solute carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane connect the internal metabolism with that of the surrounding cell. Because of their common basic structure, these transport proteins affiliate to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). Generally, MCF proteins consist of six membrane-spanning helices, exhibit typical conserved domain...

  4. Decision feedback loop for tracking a polyphase modulated carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A multiple phase modulated carrier tracking loop for use in a frequency shift keying system is described in which carrier tracking efficiency is improved by making use of the decision signals made on the data phase transmitted in each T-second interval. The decision signal is used to produce a pair of decision-feedback quadrature signals for enhancing the loop's performance in developing a loop phase error signal.

  5. Subtle changes among presymptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwood, S.; Siemers, E; Hodes, M.; Conneally, P; Christian, J.; Foroud, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the neurological and psychometric characteristics of presymptomatic gene carriers and non-gene carriers who are at risk for developing Huntington's disease so as to characterise early signs of disease and to identify markers of neurological function that could be used to assess the impact of experimental therapies on the progression of disease, even among those who are clinically presymptomatic.
METHODS—A sample of people at risk for Huntington's dis...

  6. Review of Magnetic Carrier Technologies for Metal Ion Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Broomberg, J.; Gélinas, S.; Finch, James A.; Xu, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic carriers are magnetic materials designed to bind selectively on some non -magnetic materials to make them separable using magnetic separation. It allows magnetic separation, a fast, efficient, high capacity and well-developed industrial technology, to be applied to the separation of materials that are otherwise non-magnetic. One application is in metal ion recovery from dilute effluents. Magnetic carrier technologies offer some advantages over other more conventional metal ion separa...

  7. Carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    -penetrating peptides (CPPs). Two approaches for the carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals are generally explored: Co-administration1 or covalent conjugation2. Co-administration is often the method of choice due to e.g. ease in sample preparation and flexibility in adjustment of the......-34)) and the widely studied CPP penetratin were employed as therapeutic cargo and carrier peptide, respectively....

  8. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jwo-Huei Jou; Sudhir Kumar; Meenu Singh; Yi-Hong Chen; Chung-Chia Chen; Meng-Ting Lee

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML), also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among oth...

  9. Effects of copper on the carrier dynamics in black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced.......Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced....

  10. Hot-carrier reliability in OPTVLD-LDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Junji; Chen Xingbi

    2012-01-01

    An improved structure that eliminates hot-carrier effects (HCE) in optimum variation lateral doping (OPTVLD) LDMOS is proposed.A formula is proposed showing that the surface electric field intensity of the conventional structure is strong enough to make a hot-carrier injected into oxide.However,the proposed structure effectively reduces the maximum surface electric field from 268 to 100 kV/cm and can be realized without changing any process,and thereby reduces HCE significantly.

  11. Adaptive GNSS Carrier Tracking under Ionospheric Scintillation: Estimation vs Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà-Valls, Jordi; Closas, Pau; Fernández-Prades, Carles; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This letter deals with carrier synchronization in Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The main goals are to design robust methods and to obtain accurate phase estimates under ionospheric scintillation conditions, being of paramount importance in safety critical applications and advanced receivers. Within this framework, the estimation versus mitigation paradigm is discussed together with a new adaptive Kalman filter-based carrier phase synchronization architecture that copes with signals cor...

  12. Mucosal genetic immunization through microsphere–based oral carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Rozita; Nograles, Nadine; Hanafi, Aimi; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Abdullah, Syahril

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric carriers in the form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and alginate (ALG) microspheres were used for encapsulation of plasmid DNA for oral mucosal immunization. Access into the intestinal mucosa by pVAX1 eukaryotic expression plasmid vectors carrying gene-coding sequences, either for the cholera enterotoxin B subunit (ctxB) immunostimulatory antigen or the green fluorescent protein (GFP), delivered from both types of microsphere carriers were examined in orally immunized BALB/c m...

  13. Hybrid heuristic for multi-carrier transportation plans

    OpenAIRE

    Landa-Silva, Dario; Wang, Yijun; Donovan, Paul; Kendall, Graham

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid heuristic approach to construct transportation plans for a singlecustomer multi-carrier scenario that arises at 3T Logistics Ltd, a UK company that provides outsourced transportation planning and management services. The problem consists on planning the delivery, using a set of carrier companies, of a set of shipments from a warehouse to different consignees across the UK. The problem tackled resembles a vehicle routing problem with time windows but there are sev...

  14. A Carrier Estimation Method for MF-TDMA Signal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the need of MF-TDMA signal monitoring, this paper investigates the estimation method for frequency offset and carrier phase. The procedure for timing recovery is introduced, and then an effective algorithm is deduced for estimating carrier frequency and phase. The proposed open-loop algorithm demands no preambles and has a wide capture range. In addition, the overall block diagram of a monitoring receiver, which we designed with the proposed estimation algorithm, is presented.

  15. Carrier screening in preconception consultation in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2011-01-01

    Discussing carrier screening during preconception consultation in primary care has a number of advantages in terms of promoting autonomy and enabling the greatest range of reproductive choices. For those with a family history of an inherited condition, this ought to be a routine discussion; however, this can be expanded to include the wider population, especially for those conditions for which carrier frequencies are considered relatively common. There is published literature from around the ...

  16. Flight control system design for autonomous UAV carrier landing

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Pio

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of integrating the UAV fleet into the carrier landing operational structure with respect to navigation and control strategies is addressed. A simulation model was developed which includes an aircraft model, an atmosphere model and an aircraft carrier motion model. The six degree of freedom non-linear aircraft model is based on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Mk 4a Jindivik extended to include rudder, spoiler and thrust vectoring controls, and an undercarria...

  17. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  18. The mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier: function, structure and physiopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Cesare; Iacobazzi, Vito; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Giangregorio, Nicola; Infantino, Vittoria; Convertini, Paolo; Console, Lara; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2011-08-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) is a transport protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that belongs to the mitochondrial carrier protein family. In its cytosolic conformation the carrier consists of a bundle of six transmembrane α-helices, which delimit a water filled cavity opened towards the cytosol and closed towards the matrix by a network of interacting charged residues. Most of the functional data on this transporter come from studies performed with the protein purified from rat liver mitochondria or recombinant proteins from different sources incorporated into phospholipid vesicles (liposomes). The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier transports carnitine and acylcarnitines with acyl chains of various lengths from 2 to 18 carbon atoms. The mammalian transporter exhibits higher affinity for acylcarnitines with longer carbon chains. The functional data indicate that CAC plays the important function of catalyzing transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondria in exchange for intramitochondrial free carnitine. This results in net transport of fatty acyl units into the mitochondrial matrix where they are oxidized by the β-oxidation enzymes. The essential role of the transporter in cell metabolism is demonstrated by the fact that alterations of the human gene SLC25A20 coding for CAC are associated with a severe disease known as carnitine carrier deficiency. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by life-threatening episodes of coma induced by fasting, cardiomyopathy, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness, respiratory distress and seizures. Until now 35 different mutations of CAC gene have been identified in carnitine carrier deficient patients. Some missense mutations concern residues of the signature motif present in all mitochondrial carriers. Diagnosis of carnitine carrier deficiency requires biochemical and genetic tests; treatment is essentially limited to important dietetic measures. Recently, a pharmacological approach based on the

  19. HOT CARRIER SENSITIVITY OF MOSFET's EXPOSED TO SYNCHROTRON-LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, G.; Mahnkopf, R.; Wagemann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron-light irradiation for p- and n-channel MOSFET's on their sensitivity to hot carrier degradation was investigated. The radiation induces additional interface states and a positive oxide charge. Annealing at 450°C reduces the interface state density to its initial value but not the oxide charge. A hot carrier stress can compensate this remaining charge by trapping electrons. This effect produces an enhanced shift of the threshold voltage compared to non-irradiated d...

  20. Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: a 21-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McCann, C L; Hedrick, J; Fairley, C; Nagel, H L; Kushner, J D; Kessel, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a community-based carrier screening program for Tay-Sachs disease, initiated on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus in 1978. The Madison Community Tay-Sachs Screening Program (MCTSSP) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary program that organizes and conducts periodic screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) for the purpose of identifying Tay-Sachs carriers. We present and analyze data on carrier detection with regard to various demographics, including family history of TSD, ancestry, gender, medication exposure, and illness. Individuals participating in the MCTSSP between 1978 and 1999 were primarily of the target population, and the carrier rate was within the expected range (1/25). Despite aggressive publicity efforts and a well-established program, attendance at the screens has declined. A recent survey of Jewish undergraduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison showed poor recall of family screen history and carrier status and reinforced the perception that utilization of the Madison screening program has been low. Ways to increase awareness of and interest in carrier screening for TSD are explored. PMID:11142756

  1. Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, M; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Balducci, E; Micoli, F; Balocchi, C; Santini, L; Masignani, V; Berti, F; Costantino, P

    2016-07-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides. PMID:27317455

  2. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendler Florian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an external magnetic field, the energy of massless charge carriers in graphene is quantized into non-equidistant degenerate Landau levels including a zero-energy level. This extraordinary electronic dispersion gives rise to a fundamentally new dynamics of optically excited carriers. Here, we review the state of the art of the relaxation dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene focusing on microscopic insights into possible many-particle relaxation channels.We investigate optical excitation into a non equilibrium distribution followed by ultrafast carrier- carrier and carrier-phonon scattering processes. We reveal that surprisingly the Auger scattering dominates the relaxation dynamics in spite of the non-equidistant Landau quantization in graphene. Furthermore, we demonstrate how technologically relevant carrier multiplication can be achieved and discuss the possibility of optical gain in Landau-quantized graphene. The provided microscopic view on elementary many-particle processes can guide future experimental studies aiming at the design of novel graphene-based optoelectronic devices, such as highly efficient photodetectors, solar cells, and spectrally broad Landau level lasers.

  3. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of 137Cs makes about 3·10-10 g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of 137Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs

  4. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  5. Linear mixed models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2000-01-01

    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...

  6. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal wall impedance instability is of great interest for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver because complete stabilization of this mode via momentum spread is impractical due to requirements of focusing the beam onto the inertial confinement fusion target. This instability is being studied with the WARPrz particle-in-cell code. The impedance of the induction linac modules is modeled as a wall impedance corresponding to a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel. We discuss simulations of the this instability, including reflections of perturbations off the beam end and the effects of finite temperature, and simulations of errors in intermittently-applied axial confining fields as a seed for this instability. We also present very long simulations in which we look for beam equilibria

  7. Longitudinal response of confined semiflexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thüroff, Florian; Obermayer, Benedikt; Frey, Erwin

    2011-02-01

    The longitudinal response of single semiflexible polymers to sudden changes in externally applied forces is known to be controlled by the propagation and relaxation of backbone tension. Under many experimental circumstances, realized, for example, in nanofluidic devices or in polymeric networks or solutions, these polymers are effectively confined in a channel- or tubelike geometry. By means of heuristic scaling laws and rigorous analytical theory, we analyze the tension dynamics of confined semiflexible polymers for various generic experimental setups. It turns out that in contrast to the well-known linear response, the influence of confinement on the nonlinear dynamics can largely be described as that of an effective prestress. We also study the free relaxation of an initially confined chain, finding a surprising superlinear ~t9/8 growth law for the change in end-to-end distance at short times.

  8. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M; Petersen, J H; Simell, T; Simell, O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function in...... the adult male. In the adult woman, inhibin B is secreted by the granulosa cells. Longitudinal serum levels of inhibin B were measured in healthy boys (n = 15) and girls (n = 15), in cord blood, and every third month during the first 2 yr of life. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone...... high interindividual variation in levels of inhibin B, FSH, and LH within each age. In conclusion, the sustained elevation of inhibin B to supraadult levels in infant boys indicates that the neonatal period may be a developmental window important for Sertoli cell proliferation and maturation. Thus, the...

  9. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  10. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  11. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  12. A Reference Optical System of Laser Doppler Longitudinal Displacement Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存满; 赵洋; 李达成

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new reference optical system is put forward to achieve longitudinal displacement measurement. An optical grating is used for frequency mixing and getting high SNR signals in the measurement. Conditions and methods for getting Doppler beat signals are presented.The experiments indicate that this optical syetem can be used to measure the longitudinal displacement with high accuracy.

  13. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  14. The Work Experiences of New SSI Beneficiaries: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonatan Ben-Shalom; David Stapleton

    2012-01-01

    This issue brief uses longitudinal data to follow a group of Social Security Insurance beneficiaries and examine their efforts to return to work. Compared with shorter-term cross-sectional data, the longitudinal statistics show higher levels of employment and suspensions of benefits due to work.

  15. The modified electromagnetism and the emergent longitudinal wave

    OpenAIRE

    Arbab, Arbab I.; Al-Ajmi, Mudhahir

    2014-01-01

    The classical theory of electromagnetism has been revisited and the possibility of longitudinal photon wave is explored. It is shown that the emergence of longitudinal wave is a consequence of Lorenz gauge (condition) violation. Proca, Vlaenderen & Waser and Arbab theories are investigated.

  16. A nonparametric dynamic additive regression model for longitudinal data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2000-01-01

    dynamic linear models, estimating equations, least squares, longitudinal data, nonparametric methods, partly conditional mean models, time-varying-coefficient models......dynamic linear models, estimating equations, least squares, longitudinal data, nonparametric methods, partly conditional mean models, time-varying-coefficient models...

  17. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  18. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  19. Longitudinal electromagnetic waves in the framework of standard classical electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Simulik, V M

    2016-01-01

    The link between the longitudinal electromagnetic waves and the system of Maxwell equations is demonstrated. The longitudinal wave component of the electric field strength vector is found as the exact solution of the standard Maxwell equations with specific gradient-type case of electric current and charge densities.

  20. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  1. Longitudinal particle simulation for J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam commissioning has been going at the J-PARC RCS. Some longitudinal beam gymnastics and the acceleration has been successfully performed under the high intensity operation. We had developed the longitudinal particle tracking code with the beam loading and the space charge effects. The comparison between the beam test result and the particle tracking simulation is described. (author)

  2. A Longitudinal Investigation of Role Taking, Altruism, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J.

    This paper describes a one-year longitudinal follow up study of the long term effects of role taking training procedures (in which children assumed a number of perspectives) on children's social and cognitive behaviors. Longitudinal and cross-sectional age effects were also analyzed. In an earlier study the effect of two types of role-taking…

  3. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  4. Care for MRSA carriers in the outpatient sector: a survey among MRSA carriers and physicians in two regions in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Rübsamen, Nicole; Szkopek, Sebastian; Schmalz, Oliver; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Castell, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers in the German outpatient sector and about the impact of MRSA on their daily life. Reimbursement for MRSA related costs in the German outpatient sector is available since 2012, but its impact has not been studied yet. The aim of the study was to analyze the outpatient management of MRSA carriers from both, physicians’ and MRSA carriers’ perspective. Methods Paper-based questionnaires ...

  5. Requirements for longitudinal HOM damping in superconducting recirculating linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse beam breakup provides the primary current limitation in the operation of superconducting recirculating linacs and requires the significant damping of transverse-deflecting higher order modes. The need to damp the coexisting longitudinal HOMs in these nominally isochronous machines, however, is not as clear. Isochronicity implies that energy variations induced by excitation of longitudinal modes do not translate directly into position and current modulations. Such modulations, if present, could enhance the initial excitation, effectively closing a potentially unstable feedback loop. Design optimization of cavity structures may suggest that no longitudinal damping be provided. On the other hand, easing of the isochronicity requirement may provide desired flexibility in lattice design. In this note, limits are placed on the requirements for longitudinal HOM damping and on the tolerances for isochronicity which are driven by possible longitudinal multipass phenomena. 2 refs., 1 fig

  6. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2012-08-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic-organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  7. Incorporating medical interventions into carrier probability estimation for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katki Hormuzd A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mendelian models for predicting who may carry an inherited deleterious mutation of known disease genes based on family history are used in a variety of clinical and research activities. People presenting for genetic counseling are increasingly reporting risk-reducing medical interventions in their family histories because, recently, a slew of prophylactic interventions have become available for certain diseases. For example, oophorectomy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and is now increasingly being offered to women with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer. Mendelian models should account for medical interventions because interventions modify mutation penetrances and thus affect the carrier probability estimate. Methods We extend Mendelian models to account for medical interventions by accounting for post-intervention disease history through an extra factor that can be estimated from published studies of the effects of interventions. We apply our methods to incorporate oophorectomy into the BRCAPRO model, which predicts a woman's risk of carrying mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on her family history of breast and ovarian cancer. This new BRCAPRO is available for clinical use. Results We show that accounting for interventions undergone by family members can seriously affect the mutation carrier probability estimate, especially if the family member has lived many years post-intervention. We show that interventions have more impact on the carrier probability as the benefits of intervention differ more between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusion These findings imply that carrier probability estimates that do not account for medical interventions may be seriously misleading and could affect a clinician's recommendation about offering genetic testing. The BayesMendel software, which allows one to implement any Mendelian carrier probability model, has been extended to allow medical interventions, so future

  8. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  9. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), the...

  10. 49 CFR 1310.5 - Availability of tariffs at carrier offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. 1310.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.5 Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. (a) Each...

  11. 78 FR 5168 - BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...), calling at U.S. ports. (e) Foreign Carriers means those carriers whose residence is outside the United... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC004 BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the... public that it is conducting the mandatory survey titled Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Revenues...

  12. 49 CFR Schedule A to Subpart B of... - Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data A... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. A Schedule A to Subpart B of Part 1139—Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data Line No. and carrier annual report No. (a) Carrier...

  13. 78 FR 24463 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. TIME AND DATE: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  14. 76 FR 16471 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  15. 77 FR 52116 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. TIME AND DATE: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  16. 75 FR 65551 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... Status: Open to the public. Matters To Be Considered: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  17. 76 FR 69793 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  18. 77 FR 45715 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  19. 77 FR 62601 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. Time and Date: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  20. 77 FR 70529 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board... Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors Meeting. Time and Date: The meeting will be held on... Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing...

  1. 77 FR 3326 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  2. 76 FR 55161 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board.... STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors (the Board) will continue its work in developing and implementing the Unified Carrier...

  3. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  4. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  5. Bidding Strategies for Carrier in Combinatorial Transportation Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittawat Ueasangkomsate

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In combinatorial auction for truckload transportation service procurement, we introduce thebidding strategy for carrier facing the hard valuation problem to all possible routes. The modeluses a bid-to-cost ratio of carriers surveyed in Thailand to represent the bidding behavior incombinatorial freight procurement. This model facilitates carrier to value the bid price forinterested packages that involve with pattern of transportation service under different competitiveenvironment. The results of analysis with hypotheses in regression model reveal significantly thata pattern of transportation service, a number of competitors, and a pre-empty backhaul to newlane distance ratio with number of competitors do impact negatively on a bid-to-cost ratio ofcarrier, whereas a pre-empty backhaul to new lane distance ratio does impact positively on a bidto-cost ratio of carrier in combinatorial transportation auction. To find optimal bid price forinterested packages in the incomplete information game, the empirical study in stochasticoptimization problem with Monte Carlo method can provide the best solution for carrier in order toacquire the maximum expected profit in the auction. The results present that the expected profitwith optimal solution of bidder is more than the average benefit in the competition marketobviously. While in turn the results also show that shipper could potentially reduce the cost oftransportation service procurement regarding our solution algorithm considerably.

  6. Non-equilibrium hot carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Prineha; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Jermyn, Adam; Cortes, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A.; Goddard, William A., III

    Decay of surface plasmons to hot carriers is a new direction that has attracted considerable fundamental and application interest, yet a fundamental understanding of ultrafast plasmon decay processes and the underlying microscopic mechanisms remain incomplete. Ultrafast experiments provide insights into the relaxation of non-equilibrium carriers at the tens and hundreds of femtoseconds time scales, but do not yet directly probe shorter times with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we report the first ab initio calculations of non equilibrium transport of plasmonic hot carriers in metals and experimental observation of the injection of these carriers into molecules tethered to the metal surface. Specifically, metallic nanoantennas functionalized with a molecular monolayer allow for the direct probing of electron injection via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the original and reduced molecular species. We combine first principles calculations of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates with Boltzmann transport simulations to predict the ultrafast dynamics and transport of carriers in real materials. We also predict and compare the evolution of electron distributions in ultrafast experiments on noble metal nanoparticles.

  7. RESEALED ERYTHROCYTES AS A POTENTIAL DRUG CARRIER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Gill

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery system has been introduced to overwhelm the drawback of fluctuating drug levels associated with conventional dosage forms. Out of various cellular carrier systems, erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC have been the most widely investigated and found to possess great potential for the delivery of drugs and drug-loaded microspheres. These cellular carriers, having remarkable biocompatibility, biodegradability, and life-span in circulation, can be loaded by a wide spectrum of compounds of therapeutic value using different chemically, as well as physically, based methods. Most of the characteristics of the erythrocytes, including shape, membrane fragility, deformability, and hematologic indices undergo some degree of irreversible changes during the loading procedure. Carrier erythrocytes are prepared simply by collecting blood sample from the organism of interest, separating erythrocytes from plasma, then by using various physical and chemical methods the cells are broken. The drug is entrapped into the erythrocytes and finally resealing the resultant cellular carriers. Hence these carriers are suitably known as Resealed erythrocytes. Surface modification with glutaraldehyde, antibodies, carbohydrates like sialic acid and biotinylation of loaded erythrocytes (biotinylated erythrocytes is possible to achieve various levels of targeting and increased circulation half-life. Upon reinjection the drug loaded erythrocytes serve as slow circulation depots, targets the drug to the reticuloendothelial system (RES, prevents degradation of loaded drug by endogenous chemicals, attain steady state concentration of drug and decrease the toxic-effects of loaded drug.

  8. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy DG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominic G Roy,1,2 John C Bell1–31Centre for Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Biochemistry, Immunology and Microbiology, 3Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms.Keywords: oncolytic virus, cell carrier, systemic delivery, tumor targeting, cancer

  9. Longitudinal phase space tomography with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of the vacuum chamber parametrized by a single value of distributed reactive impedance and by a geometrical coupling coefficient. This is sufficient to model the dominant collective effects in machines of low to moderate energy. In contrast to simulation codes, binning is not an issue since the profiles to be differentiated are measured ones. The program is written in Fortran 90 with High-Performance Fortran (HPF) extensions for parallel processing. A major effort has been made to identify and remove execution bottlenecks, for example by reducing floating-point calculations and re-coding slow intrinsic functions. A pointer-like mechanism which avoids the problems associated with pointers and parallel processing has been implemented. This is required to handle the large, sparse matrices that the algorithm employs. Results obtained with and without the inclusion of space charge are presented and compared for proton beams in the CERN PS Booster. Comparisons of

  10. Profiling the local carrier concentration across a semiconductor quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walrath, J. C.; Lin, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Huang, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Goldman, R. S., E-mail: rsgold@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We profile the local carrier concentration, n, across epitaxial InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) consisting of 3D islands on top of a 2D alloy layer. We use scanning thermoelectric microscopy to measure a profile of the temperature gradient-induced voltage, which is converted to a profile of the local Seebeck coefficient, S. The S profile is then converted to a conduction band-edge profile and compared with Poisson-Schrodinger band-edge simulations. Our combined computational-experimental approach suggests a reduced carrier concentration in the QD center in comparison to that of the 2D alloy layer. The relative roles of free carrier trapping and/or dopant expulsion are discussed.

  11. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  12. Hydrogen monitoring in sodium loops using the carrier gas technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis for hydrogen in liquid sodium is made by combination of membranes permeable to hydrogen and appropriate methods of hydrogen detection. Membranes are usually made of nickel. Hydrogen has been determined with a solid electrolyte cell consisting of a galvanic cell with zirconium oxide ceramic as the electrolyte and of an electrolytic oxygen dosage device with the same electrolyte. The oxygen stream has been controlled with the aid of the signal of the galvanic cell. Thus, a continuous coulometric control of hydrogen in the carrier gas stream has been achieved. A significant interfering factor in applying the carrier gas technique is the possible coverage of the nickel surface of the diffusion cell with oxide. High purity of the carrier gas is necessary for eliminating this effect, especially in the case of low hydrogen content of sodium. (author)

  13. CARRIER SYNCHRONIZATION IN SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO FOR 8PSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.MUTHAIAH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim behind the growth of software defined radio is the skill to reconfigure radios, thereby increasing the efficiency in the usage of radio resources. In wireless communication the multipath effectproduce interference and also changes in the phase of the signal. In order to correctly recover the transmitted data with minimum error, carrier synchronization is essential. One of the challenging tasks in a communication system is synchronization of the carrier signal. In this paper 8PSK modulation scheme is used for data transmission. Since 8PSK achieves high data rate, the probability of actual signal recovery is quite difficult. Here the carrier recovery for 8PSK modulation has been performed.

  14. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  15. Carrier for registration of optical images and holographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to the field of registration of optical information including the holographic one and may be used in the holography, cinematography, micro- and optical electronics, computer engineering. Summary of the invention consists in, that in the carrier containing a dielectric substrate on which there are placed in sequence the first electrode, photoinjection substrate, registration substrate of the chalcogenide vitreous semiconductor and the second electrode, the photoinjection substrate is fabricated of the monocrystalline germanium of the n-type conductivity and the relation of the registration substrate conductivity, during illumination to the photoinjection substrate conductivity in darkness is 0,001. The technical result consists in increasing the carrier photosensibility and in diffraction effectiveness of the information registered on the carrier

  16. Tuning carrier density at complex oxide interface with metallic overlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Jiang, S. W.; Yue, F. J.; Wang, P.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2016-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the electronic transport properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces with several different metal capping layers. The sheet carrier density can be tuned in a wide range by the metallic overlayer without changing the carrier mobility. The sheet carrier density variation is found to be linearly dependent on the size of metal work function. This behavior is explained by the mechanism of the charge transfer between the oxide interface and the metal overlayer across the LaAlO3 layer. Our results confirm the existence of a built-in electric field in LaAlO3 film with an estimated value of 67.7 eV/Å. Since the metallic overlayer is essential for devices, the present phenomena must be considered for future applications.

  17. LNG Carrier Market: The Next Main Battleground For Shipbuilding Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guang

    2012-01-01

    Last year, 51 LNG carriers were delivered in the world. From January to February this year, more than 10 LNG carriers have been deliveredglobally. Some shipowners are planning to expand LNG carrier fleet, which is a stark contrast to the look of the three main ship types which is embarrassing. As the recognized clean fuel, natural gas plays an important role in carbon politics and low carbon economy. At present, LNG powered vessel is growing vigorously. LNG fueled vessels have also emerged in Europe. Now, discussion about natural gas application on inland water transport is gradually warming up. Although there are still many technical problems to be solved about LNG powered vessel, the trend is irreversible.

  18. The DOE Transportation Management Division's Motor Carrier Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of hazardous materials and wastes over the nation's highways by commercial motor carriers presents a challenge for the purchaser of transportation services. During the next decade the volume of hazardous materials and wastes is expected to increase dramatically. Along with this increase in the shipments of these hazardous materials and wastes comes the responsibility of selecting a motor carrier to transport these materials. The selection of the open-quotes rightclose quotes motor carrier to transport a generator's hazardous materials and/or waste is a decision that, in today's regulatory environment, can't be left to chance. The legal ramifications and potential liability are such today, that a company should be very selective in deciding who to allow to transport these hazardous commodities. Shippers of hazardous materials must come to the realization that they are responsible for the shipment, long after the truck leaves their plant gates

  19. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-04-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level.

  20. GEE for GWAS using Longitudinal Phenotype Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlani, Colleen M.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Avery, Christy L.; Noordam, Raymond; Stricker, Bruno H.C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal cohort studies have both genome-wide measures of genetic variation and repeated measures of phenotypes and environmental exposures. Genome-wide association study analyses have typically used only cross-sectional data to evaluate quantitative phenotypes and binary traits. Incorporation of repeated measures may increase power to detect associations, but also requires specialized analysis methods. Here we discuss one such method – generalized estimating equations (GEE) – in the contexts of analysis of main effects of rare genetic variants and analysis of gene-environment interactions. We illustrate the potential for increased power using GEE analyses instead of cross-sectional analyses. We also address challenges that arise, such as the need for small-sample corrections when the minor allele frequency of a genetic variant and/or the prevalence of an environmental exposure is low. To illustrate methods for detection of gene-drug interactions on a genome-wide scale, using repeated measures data, we conduct single-study analyses and meta-analyses across studies in three large cohort studies participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium – the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), and the Rotterdam Study (RS). PMID:25297442

  1. Longitudinal variability of black carbon vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. P.; Weinzierl, B.; Samset, B. H.; Perring, A. E.; Dollner, M.; Heimerl, K.; Markovic, M. Z.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes substantially to both climate forcing and climate forcing uncertainty. An important source of this uncertainty derives from the difficulty in predicting BC's global abundance and vertical distribution. Here we present a multi-year record of black carbon (BC) vertical concentration profiles from both sides of the Atlantic, obtained from airborne Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2s) flown on the NASA DC-8, and the DLR Falcon research aircraft from the CONCERT, ACCESS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and SALTRACE campaigns. The measurements constrain the relative rates of BC transport/removal from, and zonal mixing in, the upper troposphere, as well as the range of BC loadings in these regions. They also constrain the time-rates of change of BC loads in altitudes at which it is a highly efficient (although sparse) climate forcer, and a relatively long-lived aerosol tracer. We find that concentration of BC in the upper troposphere can vary by a factor 10. Over the Northern mid-latitudes concentrations are however consistent to a fraction of this range over wide longitudinal ranges, over month-long timescales. The data show that BC becomes zonally mixed here starting at 500 hPa and extending to near the tropopause. These results imply broader value than previously associated with measured vertical profiles in constraining global scale BC loadings aloft.

  2. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  3. The Fundamentals of Longitudinal Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper outlines briefly the historical development of ideas related tolongitudinal studies and their advantages over cross-sectional studies. Then it points out a fewcomplicating factors that arise with the analysis of longitudinal data and highlights some of theapproaches adopted to manage those complicating factors and illustrated in the papers included in thisSpecial Issue. The overall aim is to promote a better understanding of the information thatlongitudinal data provide and of the suitable techniques needed to analyze such data.FrenchCet article trace brièvement le développement historique des idées liées àl’avantage des études longitudinales par rapport aux études transversales. Je préciseensuite quelques facteurs qui compliquent les analyses des données longitudinaleset je met en valeur certaines des approches adoptées pour contrôler ces facteurs etj’illustre par des exemples tirés de cette édition spéciale. Le but général estd’atteindre une meilleure compréhension de l'information que les donnéeslongitudinales fournissent et des techniques appropriées requises pour analyser detelles données.

  4. Laser Wakefield diagnostic using holographic longitudinal interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    1999-03-26

    We propose a diagnostic technique for wakefield measurement in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen previously. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (sub 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used to heat the existing spark via in-verse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into such plasma channels produce a plasma wake that has a phase velocity close to the speed of light. A discussion of plasma wake measurements, using a Longitudinal Interferometry Wakefield Diagnostic Based on Time Domain Rayleigh Refractometry with Holographic Inversion, will be presented.

  5. Hemispheric and longitudinal asymmetries in CME occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A considerable amount of evidence has accumulated in support of the existence of persistent, systematic north-south (hemispherical) and longitudinal (active longitudes) asymmetries in the Sun. These features have been observed, e.g., in sunspots, solar flares, solar wind and the heliospheric magnetic field. In this work we analyze the occurrence of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by the SOHO LASCO instrument during the solar cycle 23. We use the manually compiled LASCO CME catalog maintained at the CDAW Data Center and for comparison the CACTus CME catalog based on automatic detection of CMEs by the CACTus software developed at SIDC in the Royal Observatory of Belgium. We discuss the temporal evolution of the occurrence rate of CMEs and study the north-south and east-west asymmetries and their temporal change. We also present a preliminary analysis of CME occurrence in a rotating coordinate system. We discuss the observations in view of the earlier evidence for hemispherical asymmetries and active longitudes.

  6. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  7. Alternative insertions for longitudinal polarization in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1975 PEP Summer Study, Garren and Kadyk studied systems for rotating the normal beam polarization into longitudinal polarization at one or more interaction regions. They developed a solution using vertical bending magnets in the long drift between Q2 and Q3 and leaving the 20-m drift region around the interaction point unencumbered. Considerable difficulty was encountered in matching the beam optics, but the possibility of such a match was demonstrated. Meanwhile, further studies of depolarizing effects have resulted in cautious optimism for the possibility of obtaining a useful degree of polarization in PEP. Consequently, it seemed worthwhile to re-examine the question of such a spin rotation system with the objectives of: improving the beam-matching optics, investigating the design requirements for the magnets and quadrupoles and defining the additional transverse space which should be reserved for the SRS in the interaction region housing. In the present note some variations of the Garren-Kadyk scheme are presented, and it is shown that the beam optics can indeed be improved considerably, along with a reduction in the complexity of the system. It is proposed that a design of this type be used as a basis for specifying the required enlargement of the appropriate straight section tunnel. The magnetic requirements for the beam transport elements appear to be reasonable, although some interesting mechanical design problems may arise. 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. A Semiparametric Marginalized Model for Longitudinal Data with Informative Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a marginalized joint-modeling approach for marginal inference on the association between longitudinal responses and covariates when longitudinal measurements are subject to informative dropouts. The proposed model is motivated by the idea of linking longitudinal responses and dropout times by latent variables while focusing on marginal inferences. We develop a simple inference procedure based on a series of estimating equations, and the resulting estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal with a sandwich-type covariance matrix ready to be estimated by the usual plug-in rule. The performance of our approach is evaluated through simulations and illustrated with a renal disease data application.

  9. Tunable Single-Longitudinal-Mode High-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas K. Valiunas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel CW tunable high-power single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with a linewidth of ∼9 MHz. A tunable fiber Bragg grating provided wavelength selection over a 10 nm range. An all-fiber Fabry-Perot filter was used to increase the longitudinal mode spacing of the laser cavity. An unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber was used inside the cavity to eliminate mode hopping and increase stability. A maximum output power of 300 mW was produced while maintaining single-longitudinal-mode operation.

  10. A single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns a single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion, which is an important parameter in assessing the suitability of a site for radioactive waste disposal. The theory, equipment and procedure for measuring longitudinal dispersion in a single borehole is described. Results are presented for field trials conducted in an aquifer, where the technique produced good results. The measured value of longitudinal dispersion, from a single hole test, relates only to a limited volume of rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. (U.K.)

  11. Uncorrelated Energy Spread and Longitudinal Emittance of a Photoinjector Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Stupakov, G.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Longitudinal phase space properties of a photoinjector beam are important in many areas of high-brightness beam applications such as bunch compression, transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange, and high-gain free-electron lasers. In this paper, we discuss both the rf and the space charge contributions to the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam generated from a laser-driven rf gun. We compare analytical expressions for the uncorrelated energy spread and the longitudinal emittance with numerical simulations and recent experimental results.

  12. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  13. "I'm Healthy, It's Not Going To Be Me": Exploring experiences of carriers identified through a population reproductive genetic carrier screening panel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Catherine A; Amor, David J; Di Pietro, Louisa; Archibald, Alison D

    2016-08-01

    Advancing genetic testing technologies mean that population-based carrier screening for multiple inherited conditions is now available. As the number of genetic conditions being screened increases, there is a need for research into how people experience these screening programs. This research aimed to explore how women experience simultaneous carrier screening for three inherited conditions: cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). A qualitative approach was adopted using in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten female participants: five SMA carriers, three CF carriers, and two FXS premutation carriers. Eight participants were pregnant when offered screening by their general practitioner or obstetrician and the decision to have screening was described as straightforward. Participants reported experiencing emotional responses such as anxiety and stress while waiting for either their partner's carrier screen result (CF or SMA carriers) or the pregnancy's CVS result (FXS carrier) and sought additional information about the relevant condition during this time. Most participants were in favor of population carrier screening for these conditions, preferably prior to conception. Genetic counselors played an essential role in supporting couples after they received a carrier result given the variable consent processes undertaken when screening was offered. Further research should focus on the development of reliable online information tailored to people receiving carrier results and strategies for raising awareness of the availability of population carrier screening within the community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150953

  14. Evaluation of restoration mechanisms for future services using Carrier Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert; Gestsson, H.M.; Yu, Hao; Rasmussen, Anders; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and classify future service according to their requirements for delay, loss and bandwidth. The most demanding services include IPTV in different forms, hence IPTV is used as a representative for future services. Carrier Ethernet technologies are introduced with special...... focus on its OAM functionalities, and it is evaluated how IPTV performs in case of link failures on a Carrier Ethernet implementation. It is concluded that OAM update times of 10 ms is required to provide acceptable restoration performance in case of errors....

  15. Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Kim; Raines, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    S-peptide (residues 1-20) and S-protein (residues 21-124) are the enzymatically inactive products of the limited digestion of ribonuclease A by subtilisin. S-peptide binds S-protein with high affinity to form ribonuclease S, which has full enzymatic activity. Recombinant DNA technology was used to produce a fusion protein having three parts: carrier, spacer, and target. The two carriers used were the first 15 residues of S-peptide (S15) and a mutant S15 in which Asp 14 had been changed to Asn...

  16. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  17. Carrier Density and Plasma Frequency of Aluminum Nanofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao DU; Jun GONG; Chao SUN; Rongfang HUANG; Lishi WEN; W.Y.Cheung; S.P.Wong

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the prerequisite and mode of electromagnetic response of Al nanofilms to electromagnetic wave field was suggested.Reflectance, transmittance in infrared region and carrier density of the films was measured. With the carrier density of the films, the dependence of their plasma frequencies on the film thickness was obtained. On the other hand, the dependence of absorptance on the frequency of electromagnetic wave field was set up by using the measured reflectance and transmittance,which provided plasma frequency-film thickness relation as well. Similarity of both plasma frequency-film thickness relations proved plasma resonance as a mode of electromagnetic response in Al nanofilms.

  18. Providing Carrier Grade voice Services with Session Initiation Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Perez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    SIP is defined as a protocol that enables end-to-end voice calls as well as for establishing multiparty, multimedia communications in IP-based networks. Presently, SIP is the most widely deployed intra-carrier VoIP protocol but it is also extensively utilized within many carrier networks for transporting voice/video calls over short and long distances. For all of these reasons, SIP can lay a claim to being the global standard for software based voice communication over IP. Furthermore, an...

  19. Negative free carrier absorption in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Rösch, M.; Ohtani, K.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the peculiar case where the free carrier absorption arising from LO phonon absorption-assisted transitions becomes negative and therefore turns into a gain source for quantum cascade lasers. Such an additional source of gain exists when the ratio between the electronic and the lattice temperatures is larger than one, a condition that is usually fulfilled in quantum cascade lasers. We find a gain of few cm-1's at 200 K. We report the development of a terahertz quantum cascade laser operating in the negative free carrier absorption regime.

  20. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold;

    2009-01-01

    amplifiers while keeping the performance measures to excellent levels is therefore of high interest. In this paper a class D audio amplifier utilising Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM) will be analysed, and a prototype Master-Slave Multi Carrier Modulated (MS MCM) amplifier has been constructed and measured for...... performance and out of band spectral amplitudes. The basic principle in MCM is to use programmable logic to combine two or more Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) audio signals at different switching frequencies. In this way the out of band spectrum will be lowered compared with conventional class D amplifiers...

  1. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  2. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each......The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...

  3. A multi-user transmission using chaotic carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeot, Jean-Philippe; Launay, Frederic; Coirault, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    From the unicity and orthogonality properties of chaotic sequences, it is demonstrated that a sum of N chaotic signals generated from a fixed class of chaotic systems is unique. Consequently, within a framework of a multi-user transmission, it is shown that synchronizing N chaotic carriers that emit simultaneously on the same frequency band is feasible. In this paper, the carriers are generated from Chua's circuits and are modulated in amplitude by the information signal. Demodulation is ensured by the minimization of a cost function. Numerical simulations show that this synchronization method is robust in presence of noise and allows the integration of a high number of users.

  4. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  5. Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. PMID:25761965

  6. Longitudinal Statistics for New Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    David Stapleton; Su Liu; Dawn Phelps; Sarah Prenovitz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a longitudinal examination regarding the extent to which new Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries return to work and use disability insurance work incentives, based on Social Security Administration data.

  7. Longitudinal Vibrations of Rheological Rod With Variable Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovic)HEDRIH; AleksandarFILIPOVSKI

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal vibrations of rheological rod with variable cross section are examined.Particular solutions and eigenfunction are accomplished for natural vibrations of the rod with hereditary material of standard hereditary body.Some examples are given.

  8. Variable selection and estimation for longitudinal survey data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    There is wide interest in studying longitudinal surveys where sample subjects are observed successively over time. Longitudinal surveys have been used in many areas today, for example, in the health and social sciences, to explore relationships or to identify significant variables in regression settings. This paper develops a general strategy for the model selection problem in longitudinal sample surveys. A survey weighted penalized estimating equation approach is proposed to select significant variables and estimate the coefficients simultaneously. The proposed estimators are design consistent and perform as well as the oracle procedure when the correct submodel was known. The estimating function bootstrap is applied to obtain the standard errors of the estimated parameters with good accuracy. A fast and efficient variable selection algorithm is developed to identify significant variables for complex longitudinal survey data. Simulated examples are illustrated to show the usefulness of the proposed methodology under various model settings and sampling designs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nonlinear correction to the longitudinal structure function at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G.R. [Razi University, Physics Department, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    We computed the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L}, using the nonlinear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (NLDGLAP) evolution equation approach at small x. For the gluon distribution, the nonlinear effects are related to the longitudinal structure function. As the very small-x behavior of the gluon distribution is obtained by solving the Gribov, Levin, Ryskin, Mueller and Qiu (GLR-MQ) evolution equation with the nonlinear shadowing term incorporated, we show that the strong rise that corresponds to the linear QCD evolution equations can be tamed by screening effects. Consequently, the obtained longitudinal structure function shows a tamed growth at small x. We computed the predictions for all details of the nonlinear longitudinal structure function in the kinematic range where it has been measured by the H1 Collaboration and made comparisons with the computation by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt at the second order with input data from the MRST QCD fit. (orig.)

  10. Longitudinal dispersion modeling in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarova, Pavla; Pekar, Jan; Miklanek, Pavol

    2014-05-01

    The environmental problems caused by the increasing of pollutant loads discharged into natural water bodies are very complex. For that reason the cognition of transport mechanism and mixing characteristics in natural streams is very important. The mathematical and numerical models have become very useful tools for solving the water management problems. The mathematical simulations based on numerical models of pollution mixing in streams can be used (for example) for prediction of spreading of accidental contaminant waves in rivers. The paper deals with the estimation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficients and with the numerical simulation of transport and transformation of accidental pollution in the small natural streams. There are different ways of solving problems of pollution spreading in open channels, in natural rivers. One of them is the hydrodynamic approach, which endeavours to understand and quantify the spreading phenomenon in a stream. The hydrodynamic models are based on advection-diffusion equation and the majority of them are one-dimensional models. Their disadvantage is inability to simulate the spread of pollution until complete dispersion of pollutant across the stream section is finished. Two-dimensional mixing models do not suffer from these limitations. On the other hand, the one-dimensional models are simpler than two-dimensional ones, they need not so much input data and they are often swifter. Three-dimensional models under conditions of natural streams are applicable with difficulties (or inapplicable) for their complexity and demands on accuracy and amount of input data. As there was mentioned above the two-dimensional models can be used also until complete dispersion of pollutant across the stream section is not finished, so we decided to apply the two-dimensional model SIRENIE. Experimental microbasin Rybarik is the part of the experimental Mostenik brook basin of IH SAS Bratislava. It was established as a Field Hydrological

  11. BENDING-SHEAR INTERACTION OF LONGITUDINALLY STIFFENED GIRDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Beg, Darko; Sinur, Franc

    2011-01-01

    To understand behaviour of longitudinally stiffened plated girders subjected to high bending moments and shear forces, four tests on large scale test specimens were performed. The results of these tests were used to verify the numerical model, which was employed for further parametric studies. With a verified simplified numerical model a parametric nonlinear analysis was systematically carried out to determine the resistance of longitudinally stiffened plated girders. Based on 630 numerical s...

  12. Allergies and major depression: a longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavorato Dina H; Williams Jeanne VA; Patten Scott B; Eliasziw Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between allergies and major depression but in the absence of longitudinal data, the implications of this association remain unclear. Our goal was to examine this association from a longitudinal perspective. Methods The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). This study included a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess major depression and al...

  13. Summary Statistics of Neutral Mutations in Longitudinal DNA Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming; Fu, Yun-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal samples of DNA sequences are the DNA sequences sampled from the same population at different time points. For fast evolving organisms, e.g. RNA virus, these kind of samples have increasingly been used to study the evolutionary process in action. Longitudinal samples provide some interesting new summary statistics of genetic variation, such as the frequency of mutation of size i in one sample and size j in another, the average number of mutations accumulated since the common ances...

  14. Longitudinal control laws design for a flying wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the flight dynamic, pitch flight control and flying qualities assessment for the reference BWB aircraft. It aims to develop the longitudinal control laws which could satisfy the flying and handing qualities over the whole flight envelope with added consideration of centre of gravity (CG) variation. In order to achieve this goal, both the longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) and autopilot control laws are studied in this thesis. Usi...

  15. Causal Inference from Longitudinal Studies with Baseline Randomization

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We describe analytic approaches for study designs that, like large simple trials, can be better characterized as longitudinal studies with baseline randomization than as either a pure randomized experiment or a purely observational study. We (i) discuss the intention-to-treat effect as an effect measure for randomized studies, (ii) provide a formal definition of causal effect for longitudinal studies, (iii) describe several methods -- based on inverse probability weighting and g-estimation --...

  16. Longitudinal Shunt Slot Excitation by Wiggly Ridge Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Salemi; Mehdi Moradian; Reza Safian

    2014-01-01

    Application of a substrate integrated waveguide with wiggly ridge shape is presented for excitation longitudinal shunt slot antenna. Two main design equations for design substrate integrated waveguide structure and get parameters of structures, for longitudinal shunt slot excitation by shape wiggly ridge in substrate integrated waveguide are modified. Proposed method is used by applied the crinkle shape to ridge for ridge substrate integrated waveguide structure. This shape wiggly ridge just...

  17. The Longitudinal Research on the Effectiveness of Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tiantong HU

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of the organizational culture for the organization has always been the hot spot of the theory of public organization. The cross-sectional studies of influence of organizational culture on the organizational effectiveness are incisive, but the longitudinal study is an unsubstantial aspect. This paper will summarize the research results of the effectiveness of the organizational culture, and then discuss the longitudinal influence of organizational culture by way of referring ...

  18. Variable Selection for Marginal Longitudinal Generalized Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Cantoni; Joanna Mills Flemming; Elvezio Ronchetti

    2003-01-01

    Variable selection is an essential part of any statistical analysis and yet has been somewhat neglected in the context of longitudinal data analysis. In this paper we propose a generalized version of Mallows's Cp (GCp) suitable for use with both parametric and nonparametric models. GCp provides an estimate of a measure of model's adequacy for prediction. We examine its performance with popular marginal longitudinal models (fitted using GEE) and contrast results with what is typically done in ...

  19. Longitudinal bunch compression study with induction voltage modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama Akira; Sakai Yasuo; Miyazaki Yoshifumi; Kikuchi Takashi; Nakajima Mitsuo; Horioka Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    For the beam driver of inertial confinement fusion, the technology to compress a charged particle beam in longitudinal direction is crucially important. However, the quality of the beam is expected to be deteriorated when the beam is rapidly compressed in longitudinal direction. In order to investigate the beam dynamics during bunch compression, we made a compact beam compression system and carried out beam compression experiments. In this paper, we show the background of our study and recent...

  20. Ridge and Transverse Correlation without Long-Range Longitudinal Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Charles B.; Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2013-01-01

    A simple phenomenological relationship between the ridge distribution in Δη and the single-particle distribution in η can be established from the PHOBOS data on both distributions. The implication points to the possibility that it is not necessary to have long-range longitudinal correlation to explain the data. An interpretation of the relationship is then developed, based on the recognition that longitudinal uncertainty of the initial configuration allows for non-Hubble-like expansion at ear...