Sample records for carrier density

  1. Charge carrier density in Li-intercalated graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    The electronic structures of bulk C 6Li, Li-intercalated free-standing bilayer graphene, and Li-intercalated bilayer and trilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) are studied using density functional theory. Our estimate of Young\\'s modulus suggests that Li-intercalation increases the intrinsic stiffness. For decreasing Li-C interaction, the Dirac point shifts to the Fermi level and the associated band splitting vanishes. For Li-intercalated bilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) the splitting at the Dirac point is tiny. It is also very small at the two Dirac points of Li-intercalated trilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1). For all the systems under study, a large enhancement of the charge carrier density is achieved by Li intercalation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear transport in semiconducting polymers at high carrier densities. (United States)

    Yuen, Jonathan D; Menon, Reghu; Coates, Nelson E; Namdas, Ebinazar B; Cho, Shinuk; Hannahs, Scott T; Moses, Daniel; Heeger, Alan J


    Conducting and semiconducting polymers are important materials in the development of printed, flexible, large-area electronics such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic cells. There has been rapid progress in developing conjugated polymers with high transport mobility required for high-performance field-effect transistors (FETs), beginning with mobilities around 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) to a recent report of 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). Here, the electrical properties of PBTTT are studied at high charge densities both as the semiconductor layer in FETs and in electrochemically doped films to determine the transport mechanism. We show that data obtained using a wide range of parameters (temperature, gate-induced carrier density, source-drain voltage and doping level) scale onto the universal curve predicted for transport in the Luttinger liquid description of the one-dimensional 'metal'.

  3. Effect of annealing on sheet carrier density of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure (United States)

    Chen, Nie-Chuan; Tseng, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Hsin-Tung


    The effects of surface state on sheet carrier density in the Al 0.17Ga 0.83N/GaN heterostructure were investigated. The sheet carrier density obtained by Hall measurement was 1.803×10 13 e/cm 2. However, this value was inconsistent with the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. This carrier density varied with the surface conditions of the samples that were prepared for Hall and C- V measurements. To study further the effects of the surface conditions on the sheet carrier densities, the samples were annealed at various temperatures and then characterized by Hall and work function measurements. The carrier densities increased with annealing temperatures. Meanwhile, the work functions decreased. Accordingly, the relationship between the surface states and the sheet carrier densities was determined.

  4. Accessing the transport properties of graphene and its multilayers at high carrier density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Jianting; Craciun, Monica F.; Koshino, Mikito; Russo, Saverio; Inoue, Seiji; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Morpurgo, Alberto F.; Iwasa, Yoshihiro


    We present a comparative study of high carrier density transport in mono-, bi-, and trilayer graphene using electric double-layer transistors to continuously tune the carrier density up to values exceeding 10(14) cm(-2). Whereas in monolayer the conductivity saturates, in bi- and trilayer filling of

  5. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  6. Optically abrupt localized surface plasmon resonances in si nanowires by mitigation of carrier density gradients. (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Boyuk, Dmitriy S; Filler, Michael A


    Spatial control of carrier density is critical for engineering and exploring the interactions of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in nanoscale semiconductors. Here, we couple in situ infrared spectral response measurements and discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations to show the impact of axially graded carrier density profiles on the optical properties of mid-infrared LSPRs supported by Si nanowires synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid technique. The region immediately adjacent to each intentionally encoded resonator (i.e., doped segment) can exhibit residual carrier densities as high as 10(20) cm(-3), which strongly modifies both near- and far-field behavior. Lowering substrate temperature during the spacer segment growth reduces this residual carrier density and results in a spectral response that is indistinguishable from nanowires with ideal, atomically abrupt carrier density profiles. Our experiments have important implications for the control of near-field plasmonic phenomena in semiconductor nanowires, and demonstrate methods for determining and controlling axial dopant profile in these systems.

  7. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Superfluid density and carrier concentration across a superconducting dome: The case of strontium titanate (United States)

    Collignon, Clément; Fauqué, Benoît; Cavanna, Antonella; Gennser, Ulf; Mailly, Dominique; Behnia, Kamran


    We present a study of the lower critical field, Hc 1, of SrTi1 -xNbxO3 as a function of carrier concentration with the aim of quantifying the superfluid density. At low carrier concentration (i.e., the underdoped side), superfluid density and the carrier concentration in the normal state are equal within experimental margin. A significant deviation between the two numbers starts at optimal doping and gradually increases with doping. The inverse of the penetration depth and the critical temperature follow parallel evolutions as in the case of cuprate superconductors. In the overdoped regime, the zero-temperature superfluid density becomes much lower than the normal-state carrier density before vanishing all together. We show that the density mismatch and the clean-to-dirty crossover are concomitant. Our results imply that the discrepancy between normal and superconducting densities is expected whenever the superconducting gap becomes small enough to put the system in the dirty limit. A quantitative test of the dirty BCS theory is not straightforward, due to the multiplicity of the bands in superconducting strontium titanate.

  9. Residual carrier density in GaSb grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki


    The relationships between the densities of residual carriers and those of dislocation in GaSb films grown on Si substrates were investigated. Dislocation density was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images indicated that the dislocation density after a 5-μm-thick GaSb film was grown was below 1 x 10 8 /cm 2 although the density near the interface between the Si substrate and the GaSb film was about 3 x 10 9 /cm 2 . Forming a dislocation loop by growing a thick GaSb layer may decrease the dislocation density. The density and mobility of the residual carrier were investigated by Hall measurement using the van der Pauw method. The residual carriers in GaSb grown on Si substrates were holes, and their densities decreased significantly from 4.2 x 10 18 to 1.4 x 10 17 /cm 3 as GaSb thickness was increased from 500 to 5500 nm

  10. Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO3-based electron liquids. (United States)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y; Marshall, Patrick B; Kajdos, Adam P; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne


    We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with T(n) (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n density-independent scattering rates have been observed. The results indicate that the applicability of Fermi liquid theory should be questioned for a much broader range of correlated materials and point to the need for a unified theory.

  11. Thermal activated carrier transfer between InAs quantum dots in very low density samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-Pastor, J P; Munoz-Matutano, G; Canet-Ferrer, J; Fuster, D [Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universitat de Valencia, POBox 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Alen, B [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (IMM-CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760, Tres Cantos Madrid (Spain); Trevisi, G; Seravalli, L; Frigeri, P; Franchi, S, E-mail: Juan.Mtnez.Pastor@uv.e [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy)


    In this work we develop a detailed experimental study of the exciton recombination dynamics as a function of temperature on QD-ensembles and single QDs in two low density samples having 16.5 and 25 dots/{mu}m{sup 2}. We corroborate at the single QD level the limitation of the exciton recombination time in the smallest QDs of the distribution by thermionic emission (electron emission in transient conditions). A portion of these emitted carriers is retrapped again in other (larger) QDs, but not very distant from those emitting the carriers, because the process is limited by the diffusion length at the considered temperature.

  12. Determination of charge carrier mobility in doped low density polyethylene using DC transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.Salah; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens


    Charge carrier mobility was determined for plain and doped low-density polyethylene (LDPE) using DC transient currents. Barium titanate was used as a strongly polar dopant and titanium dioxide as a semiconductor dopant. The values of the mobility obtained were on the order of 10-10 cm2 v-1 s-1...... by a factor of five. Charge trapping and space charge formation were modified by the introduction of titanium dioxide...

  13. Structure, ionic conductivity and mobile carrier density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wenlong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M2S + (0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M2S + (0.1Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na2S + B2S3 (x ≤ 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

  14. Breast tissue density change after oophorectomy in BRCA mutation carrier patients using visual and volumetric analysis. (United States)

    Lecler, Augustin; Dunant, Ariane; Delaloge, Suzette; Wehrer, Delphine; Moussa, Tania; Caron, Olivier; Balleyguier, Corinne


    BRCA1/2 mutations account for 30-50% of hereditary breast cancers and bilateral oophorectomy is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in these patients. Breast density is a well-established breast cancer risk factor and is also associated with increased risk in BRCA carriers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on mammographic breast density and to assess which method of breast density assessment is more sensitive to change over time. Retrospective study of 50 BRCA1/2 patients who underwent bilateral oophorectomy and had at least a baseline and post-surgery mammogram. Mammographic breast density was determined by Volpara and consensus visual assessment by two radiologists. The primary endpoint was change in density between baseline and the first mammogram post-surgery. At baseline, there was a non-significant trend for decreased density with increasing age. Volumetric breast density (VBD) significantly decreased after oophorectomy from a median VBD of 12.5% at baseline to 10.2% post-surgery which was driven by a reduction in fibroglandular volume. There was a higher absolute decrease in VBD in patients aged between 40-50 (p < 0.01). Using Volpara Density Grades (analogous to BI-RADS 4th edition density categories), 84% of females displayed a decrease in density category over the study period compared to only 76% using the radiologists' visual classification (p < 0.001) Conclusion: Oophorectomy is associated with a decrease in breast density and younger patients exhibit a larger absolute decrease. Volpara is more sensitive to identify change over time compared to visual assessment. Advances in knowledge: Oophorectomy is associated with a significant decrease in VBD in patients with BRCA mutations and Volpara Density Grades were more sensitive to identify decreases in density compared to visually assessed BI-RADS categories. Decreases in breast density following oophorectomy surgery in BRCA patients may be one of the mechanisms

  15. Determination of Charge-Carrier Mobility in Disordered Thin-Film Solar Cells as a Function of Current Density (United States)

    Mäckel, Helmut; MacKenzie, Roderick C. I.


    Charge-carrier mobility is a fundamental material parameter, which plays an important role in determining solar-cell efficiency. The higher the mobility, the less time a charge carrier will spend in a device and the less likely it is that it will be lost to recombination. Despite the importance of this physical property, it is notoriously difficult to measure accurately in disordered thin-film solar cells under operating conditions. We, therefore, investigate a method previously proposed in the literature for the determination of mobility as a function of current density. The method is based on a simple analytical model that relates the mobility to carrier density and transport resistance. By revising the theoretical background of the method, we clearly demonstrate what type of mobility can be extracted (constant mobility or effective mobility of electrons and holes). We generalize the method to any combination of measurements that is able to determine the mean electron and hole carrier density, and the transport resistance at a given current density. We explore the robustness of the method by simulating typical organic solar-cell structures with a variety of physical properties, including unbalanced mobilities, unbalanced carrier densities, and for high or low carrier trapping rates. The simulations reveal that near VOC and JSC , the method fails due to the limitation of determining the transport resistance. However, away from these regions (and, importantly, around the maximum power point), the method can accurately determine charge-carrier mobility. In the presence of strong carrier trapping, the method overestimates the effective mobility due to an underestimation of the carrier density.

  16. Diverse carrier mobility of monolayer BNCx: A combined density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory study. (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Deng, Kaiming; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Lu, Ruifeng


    BNCX monolayer as a kind of two-dimensional material has numerous chemical atomic ratios and arrangements with different electronic structures. Via calculations on the basis of density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory under deformation potential approximation, the band structures and carrier mobilities of BNCX (x=1,2,3,4) nanosheets are systematically investigated. The calculated results show that BNC2-1 is a material with very small band gap (0.02 eV) among all the structures while other BNCX monolayers are semiconductors with band gap ranging from 0.51 to 1.32 eV. The carrier mobility of BNCX varies considerably from tens to millions of cm2 V-1 s-1. For BNC2-1, the hole mobility and electron mobility along both x and y directions can reach 105 orders of magnitude, which is similar to the carrier mobility of graphene. Besides, all studied BNCX monolayers obviously have anisotropic hole mobility and electron mobility. In particular, for semiconductor BNC4, its hole mobility along y direction and electron mobility along x direction unexpectedly reach 106 orders of magnitude, even higher than that of graphene. Our findings suggest that BNCX layered materials with proper ratio and arrangement of carbon atoms will possess desirable charge transport properties, exhibiting potential applications in nanoelectronic devices. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. GaAs Refractive Index Dependence On Carrier Density and Optimizing Terahertz Devices (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Wu, Dong Ho; Graber, Benjamin

    GaAs is used for various applications, including high speed transistors, high-efficiency photovoltaic cells, electro-optics and terahertz (THz) emitters and detectors. To date, information on the refractive index of GaAs is available only over a limited wave spectrum of 0.2-17um, where the refractive index varies from 1.3 to 5.0. As detailed information on the refractive index of GaAs at THz frequencies is not available or inadequate for our effort to develop an improved GaAs-based THz emitter, we experimentally investigated the behavior of the refractive index of GaAs for different charge carrier densities, especially with or without the presence of surface plasma. Using a Time Domain THz Spectrometer, which is capable of measuring THz pulses containing a wave spectrum over 100-3000um with a time accuracy better than 6 femtoseconds, we measured the delay of THz pulses traversing through a GaAs substrate of known thickness while modulating the charge carrier concentration. From the experimental data we estimated the refractive index for THz frequencies to vary from 3.5 to 3.8 for different charge carrier concentrations. We will discuss details of our experiments and implications of our experimental results, especially for our GaAs-based THz devices.

  18. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Dong


    The fundamental properties and ultimate performance limits of organolead trihalide MAPbX3(MA = CH3NH3 +; X = Br- or I- ) perovskites remain obscured by extensive disorder in polycrystalline MAPbX3 films. We report an antisolvent vapor-assisted crystallization approach that enables us to create sizable crack-free MAPbX3 single crystals with volumes exceeding 100 cubic millimeters. These large single crystals enabled a detailed characterization of their optical and charge transport characteristics.We observed exceptionally low trap-state densities on the order of 109 to 1010 per cubic centimeter in MAPbX3 single crystals (comparable to the best photovoltaic-quality silicon) and charge carrier diffusion lengths exceeding 10 micrometers. These results were validated with density functional theory calculations.

  19. Enhanced carrier density in Nb-doped SrTiO3 thermoelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.


    We study epitaxial SrTiO3 interfaced with Nb-doped SrTi1-x Nb x O3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) by full-potential density functional theory. From the electronic band structures obtained by our ab-initio calculations we determine the dependence of the induced metallicity on the Nb concentration. We obtain a monotonous increase of the carrier density with the Nb concentration. The results are confirmed by experiments for SrTi0.88Nb0.12O3 and SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3, demonstrating the predictive power and limitations of our theoretical approach. We also show that the Seebeck coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing temperature.

  20. Probing exotic phases of interacting two-dimensional carriers using one-dimensional density modulation (United States)

    Mueed, M. A.

    In this Thesis, we present low-temperature magnetotransport studies of two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole systems confined to GaAs quantum wells and subjected to a one-dimensional, periodic density modulation. The modulation is achieved through the piezo-electric effect in GaAs as we fabricate a periodic, strain-inducing superlattice on the sample surface. Under varying perpendicular magnetic field, whenever the carriers' cyclotron orbit becomes commensurate with the modulation period, the magnetoresistance exhibits a minimum value. The resulting oscillations, known as the commensurability oscillations, directly measure the carriers' Fermi wave vector. Imposing a density modulation thus allows us to study the Fermi contour properties of 2D electrons and holes near zero field, and composite fermions (CFs) near the half filling of the lowest Landau level, i.e., filling factor nu=1/2. The application of a parallel magnetic field (B||) also features extensively in the Thesis. First, we use commensurability oscillations to capture the B||-induced deformation and the eventual splitting of the Fermi contour of 2D electrons. We also deduce the scattering time anisotropy of hole-flux CFs whose Fermi contour is rendered anisotropic by B||. Moreover, we study the anisotropic (warped) Fermi contour of 2D holes and hole-flux CFs in wide quantum well samples at B||=0. The results provide evidence that CFs inherit Fermi contour properties from their zero-field counterparts. We further investigate the fate of CFs near the bilayer quantum Hall states at nu=1 and 1/2 induced by a large B||. We observe that the commensurability features of CFs near nu=1 are consistent with half the total carrier density, implying that CFs prefer to stay in separate layers and show a two-component behavior. In contrast, close to nu=1/2, CFs appear single-layer-like (single-component) as their commensurability features correspond to the total density. This finding sheds light on the different

  1. Carrier density distribution in silicon nanowires investigated by scanning thermal microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. (United States)

    Wielgoszewski, Grzegorz; Pałetko, Piotr; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Zaborowski, Michał; Jóźwiak, Grzegorz; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor; Grabiec, Piotr


    The use of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to investigate silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is presented. SThM allows imaging of temperature distribution at the nanoscale, while KPFM images the potential distribution with AFM-related ultra-high spatial resolution. Both techniques are therefore suitable for imaging the resistance distribution. We show results of experimental examination of dual channel n-type SiNWs with channel width of 100 nm, while the channel was open and current was flowing through the SiNW. To investigate the carrier distribution in the SiNWs we performed SThM and KPFM scans. The SThM results showed non-symmetrical temperature distribution along the SiNWs with temperature maximum shifted towards the contact of higher potential. These results corresponded to those expressed by the distribution of potential gradient along the SiNWs, obtained using the KPFM method. Consequently, non-uniform distribution of resistance was shown, being a result of non-uniform carrier density distribution in the structure and showing the pinch-off effect. Last but not least, the results were also compared with results of finite-element method modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pinhole density and contact resistivity of carrier selective junctions with polycrystalline silicon on oxide (United States)

    Wietler, T. F.; Tetzlaff, D.; Krügener, J.; Rienäcker, M.; Haase, F.; Larionova, Y.; Brendel, R.; Peibst, R.


    In the pursuit of ever higher conversion efficiencies for silicon photovoltaic cells, polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers on thin silicon oxide films were shown to form excellent carrier-selective junctions on crystalline silicon substrates. Investigating the pinhole formation that is induced in the thermal processing of the poly-Si on oxide (POLO) junctions is essential for optimizing their electronic performance. We observe the pinholes in the oxide layer by selective etching of the underlying crystalline silicon. The originally nm-sized pinholes are thus readily detected using simple optical and scanning electron microscopy. The resulting pinhole densities are in the range of 6.6 × 106 cm-2 to 1.6 × 108 cm-2 for POLO junctions with selectivities close to S10 = 16, i.e., saturation current density J0c below 10 fA/cm2 and contact resistivity ρc below 10 mΩcm2. The measured pinhole densities agree with values deduced by a pinhole-mediated current transport model. Thus, we conclude pinhole-mediated current transport to be the dominating transport mechanism in the POLO junctions investigated here.

  3. Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, T B; Kim, K; Urayama, J; Wu, Z K; Singh, J; Bhattacharya, P K


    We have used two- and three-pulse femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy to study the dependence of quantum dot carrier dynamics on temperature. At low temperatures and densities, the rates for relaxation between the quantum dot confined states and for capture from the barrier region into the various dot levels could be directly determined. For electron-hole pairs generated directly in the quantum dot excited state, relaxation is dominated by electron-hole scattering, and occurs on a 5 ps time scale. Capture times from the barrier into the quantum dot are of the order of 2 ps (into the excited state) and 10 ps (into the ground state). The phonon bottleneck was clearly observed in low-density capture experiments, and the conditions for its observation (namely, the suppression of electron-hole scattering for nongeminately captured electrons) were determined. As temperature increases beyond about 100 K, the dynamics become dominated by the re-emission of carriers from the lower dot levels, due to the large density of states in the wetting layer and barrier region. Measurements of the gain dynamics show fast (130 fs) gain recovery due to intradot carrier-carrier scattering, and picosecond-scale capture. Direct measurement of the transparency density versus temperature shows the dramatic effect of carrier re-emission for the quantum dots on thermally activated scattering. The carrier dynamics at elevated temperature are thus strongly dominated by the high density of the high energy continuum states relative to the dot confined levels. Deleterious hot carrier effects can be suppressed in quantum dot lasers by resonant tunnelling injection

  4. Procedural revision to the use-dilution methods: establishment of maximum log density value for test microbes on inoculated carriers. (United States)

    Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M; Hamilton, Gordon C


    (Staphylococcus aureus) and 964.02 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), were revised in 2009 to include a standardized procedure to measure the log density of the test microbe and to establish a minimum mean log density value of 6.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/carrier) to qualify the test results. This report proposes setting a maximum mean log density value of 7.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 x 10(7) CFU/carrier) to further standardize the procedure. The minimum value was based on carrier count data collected by four laboratories over an 8-year period (1999-2006). The data have been updated to include an additional 4 years' worth of data (2006-2010) collected by the same laboratories. A total of 512 tests were conducted on products bearing claims against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus with and without an organic soil load (OSL) added to the inoculum (as specified on the product label claim). Six carriers were assayed in each test, for a total of 3072 carriers. Mean log densities for each of the 512 tests were at least 6.0. With the exception of two tests, one for P. aeruginosa without OSL and one for S. aureus with OSL, the mean log densities did not exceed 7.5 (geometric mean of 3.2 x 10(7) CFU/carrier). Across microbes and OSL treatments, the mean log density (+/- SEM) was 6.80 (+/- 0.07) per carrier (a geometric mean of 6.32 x 10(6) CFUlcarrier) and acceptable repeatability (0.28) and reproducibility (0.31) SDs were exhibited. A maximum mean log density per carrier of 7.0 is being proposed here as a validity requirement for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A modification to the method to allow for dilution of the final test cultures to achieve carrier counts within 6.0-7.0 logs is also being proposed. Establishing a range of 6.0-7.0 logs will help improve the reliability of the method and should allow for more consistent results within and among laboratories.

  5. Electromigration and charge carrier density versus free lattice volume effects in doped zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Peko, Jean-Claude; Paz, Fernando Y.; Mir, Mirta; De Souza, Milton F. [Institute of Physics at Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), P.O. Box 369, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos/SP (Brazil)


    Ion conducting yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (3YTZ) and Er{sup 3+}-, Nd{sup 3+}- and Hf{sup 4+}-doped 3YTZ ceramics were prepared and studied in this work. It is noted that dopant-induced structural effects, associated with free lattice volume for bulk conduction, may still be dominant over charge carrier density effects, even for variations of these latter by up to about 30%. In that way, dopant ion size-modified charge (oxygen vacancy) mobility varied to about +25% in Er{sup 3+}-doped 3YTZ and about -45% in Nd{sup 3+}-doped 3YTZ, with respect to original 3YTZ. Meanwhile, the behavior of grain-boundary electrical properties appeared to adapt well with Frenkel's space-charge model. In both bulk and grain-boundary cases, the electrical response of Hf{sup 4+}-doped 3YTZ remained close to that from 3YTZ, a fact which is also discussed in this report. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Superconductivity in transparent zinc-doped In2O3 films having low carrier density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Makise, Nobuhito Kokubo, Satoshi Takada, Takashi Yamaguti, Syunsuke Ogura, Kazumasa Yamada, Bunjyu Shinozaki, Koki Yano, Kazuyoshi Inoue and Hiroaki Nakamura


    Full Text Available Thin polycrystalline zinc-doped indium oxide (In2O3–ZnO films were prepared by post-annealing amorphous films with various weight concentrations x of ZnO in the range 0≤x ≤0.06. We have studied the dependences of the resistivity ρ and Hall coefficient on temperature T and magnetic field H in the range 0.5≤T ≤300 K, H≤6 Tfor 350 nm films annealed in air. Films with 0≤x≤0.03 show the superconducting resistive transition. The transition temperature Tc is below 3.3 K and the carrier density n is about 1025–1026 m−3. The annealed In2O3–ZnO films were examined by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis revealing that the crystallinity of the films depends on the annealing time. We studied the upper critical magnetic field Hc2 (T for the film with x = 0.01. From the slope of dHc2 /dT, we obtain the coherence length ξ (0 ≈ 10 nm at T = 0 K and a coefficient of electronic heat capacity that is small compared with those of other oxide materials.

  7. Approximate graphical method of solving Fermi level and majority carrier density of semiconductors with multiple donors and multiple acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ken K.


    We present a generic approximate graphical method for determining the equilibrium Fermi level and majority carrier density of a semiconductor with multiple donors and multiple acceptors compensating each other. Simple and easy-to-follow procedures of the graphical method are described. By graphically plotting two wrapping step functions facing each other, one for the positive hole-ionized donor and one for the negative electron-ionized acceptor, we have the crossing point that renders the Fermi level and majority carrier density. Using the graphical method, new equations are derived, such as the carrier compensation proportional to N A /N D , not the widely quoted N A - N D . Visual insight is offered to view not only the result of graphic determination of Fermi level and majority carrier density but also the dominant and critical pair of donors and acceptors in compensation. The graphical method presented in this work will help to guide the design, adjustment, and improvement of the multiply doped semiconductors. Comparison of this approximate graphical method with previous work on compensation, and with some experimental results, is made. Future work in the field is proposed. (semiconductor physics)

  8. Charge carrier Density Imaging / IR lifetime mapping of Si wafers by Lock-In Thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.


    ABSTRACT Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivated silicon wafers for photovoltaic cells has been developed for the public Pieken in de Delta project geZONd. CONCLUSIONS Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivatedsilicon wafers is released

  9. Mapping Charge Carrier Density in Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Lifetime Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Liu, Yiming


    The device performance of organic transistors is strongly influenced by the charge carrier distribution. A range of factors effect this distribution, including injection barriers at the metal-semiconductor interface, the morphology of the organic film, and charge traps at the dielectric/organic i......The device performance of organic transistors is strongly influenced by the charge carrier distribution. A range of factors effect this distribution, including injection barriers at the metal-semiconductor interface, the morphology of the organic film, and charge traps at the dielectric....../organic interface or at grain boundaries. In our comprehensive experimental and analytical work we demonstrate a method to characterize the charge carrier density in organic thin-film transistors using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. We developed a numerical model that describes the electrical...

  10. Introducing correlations into carrier transport simulations of disordered materials through seeded nucleation: impact on density of states, carrier mobility, and carrier statistics (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Shaheen, S. E.


    Disorder in organic semiconductors has made it challenging to achieve performance gains; this is a result of the many competing and often nuanced mechanisms effecting charge transport. In this article, we attempt to illuminate one of these mechanisms in the hopes of aiding experimentalists in exceeding current performance thresholds. Using a heuristic exponential function, energetic correlation has been added to the Gaussian disorder model (GDM). The new model is grounded in the concept that energetic correlations can arise in materials without strong dipoles or dopants, but may be a result of an incomplete crystal formation process. The proposed correlation has been used to explain the exponential tail states often observed in these materials; it is also better able to capture the carrier mobility field dependence, commonly known as the Poole-Frenkel dependence, when compared to the GDM. Investigation of simulated current transients shows that the exponential tail states do not necessitate Montroll and Scher fits. Montroll and Scher fits occur in the form of two distinct power law curves that share a common constant in their exponent; they are clearly observed as linear lines when the current transient is plotted using a log-log scale. Typically, these fits have been found appropriate for describing amorphous silicon and other disordered materials which display exponential tail states. Furthermore, we observe the proposed correlation function leads to domains of energetically similar sites separated by boundaries where the site energies exhibit stochastic deviation. These boundary sites are found to be the source of the extended exponential tail states, and are responsible for high charge visitation frequency, which may be associated with the molecular turnover number and ultimately the material stability.

  11. Controlling the Carrier Density of SrTiO3-Based Heterostructures with Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; von Soosten, Merlin; Trier, Felix


    of conductivity. Using STO capped with epitaxial γ-Al2O3 (GAO) or amorphous LAO (a-LAO), the pathways for changing the carrier density in the two STO-based cases are identified where oxygen blocking (GAO) and oxygen permeable (a-LAO) films create interface conductivity from oxygen vacancies located in STO near...... enables writing of conducting nanostructures in γ-Al2O3/STO by conducting atomic force microscopy....

  12. Tuning the conductivity threshold and carrier density of two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces through interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma


    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO3 (LAO and non-polar SrTiO3 (STO. Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (LSTO layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.

  13. Polaron hopping mediated by nuclear tunnelling in semiconducting polymers at high carrier density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Cramer, Tobias; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    The transition rate for a single hop of a charge carrier in a semiconducting polymer is assumed to be thermally activated. As the temperature approaches absolute zero, the predicted conductivity becomes infinitesimal in contrast to the measured finite conductivity. Here we present a uniform

  14. Phosphorus and carrier density of heavily n-type doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinai, K.; Wada, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    The threshold current density of n-type, tensile-strained Ge lasers strongly depends on the electron density. Although optical net gain analyses indicate that the optimum electron density should be on the order of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} to get the lowest threshold, it is not a simple task to increase the electron density beyond the mid range of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The present paper analyzes the phenomenon where electron density is not proportional to phosphorus donor density, i.e., “saturation” phenomenon, by applying the so-called amphoteric defect model. The analyses indicate that the saturation phenomenon can be well explained by the charge compensation between the phosphorus donors (P{sup +}) and doubly negative charged Ge vacancies (V{sup 2−}).

  15. Signal with Flat Phase Noise Using a Carrier and the Power Spectral Density of White Noise for Phase Noise Standards (United States)

    Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Iida, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yozo


    We have realized a phase noise standard of a signal with a -100 dBc/Hz flat phase noise at 10 MHz for Fourier frequencies of 1 Hz to 100 kHz, which ensures traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The flat phase noise signal is produced using a carrier combined with white noise. To ensure traceability, both the flat phase noise signal power and the power spectral density of white noise are determined with a calibrated power meter and the noise standard, respectively. The flatness of the phase noise standard is within ±0.7 dB.

  16. Carrier-Density Control of the SrTiO3 (001) Surface 2D Electron Gas studied by ARPES. (United States)

    Walker, Siobhan McKeown; Bruno, Flavio Yair; Wang, Zhiming; de la Torre, Alberto; Riccó, Sara; Tamai, Anna; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Shi, Ming; Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; King, Phil D C; Baumberger, Felix


    The origin of the 2D electron gas (2DEG)stabilized at the bare surface of SrTiO3 (001) is investigated. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission and core-level spectroscopy, it is shown conclusively that this 2DEG arises from light-induced oxygen vacancies. The dominant mechanism driving vacancy formation is identified, allowing unprecedented control over the 2DEG carrier density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Diverse carrier mobility of monolayer BNC x : a combined density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory study (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Deng, Kaiming; Deng, Weiqiao; Lu, Ruifeng


    BNC x monolayer as a kind of two-dimensional material has numerous chemical atomic ratios and arrangements with different electronic structures. Via calculations on the basis of density functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory under deformation potential approximation, the band structures and carrier mobilities of BNC x (x  =  1,2,3,4) nanosheets are systematically investigated. The calculated results show that BNC2-1 is a material with very small band gap (0.02 eV) among all the structures while other BNC x monolayers are semiconductors with band gap ranging from 0.51 eV to 1.32 eV. The carrier mobility of BNC x varies considerably from tens to millions of cm2 V‑1 s‑1. For BNC2-1, the hole mobility and electron mobility along both x and y directions can reach 105 orders of magnitude, which is similar to the carrier mobility of graphene. Besides, all studied BNC x monolayers obviously have anisotropic hole mobility and electron mobility. In particular, for semiconductor BNC4, its hole mobility along the y direction and electron mobility along the x direction unexpectedly reach 106 orders of magnitude, even higher than that of graphene. Our findings suggest that BNC x layered materials with the proper ratio and arrangement of carbon atoms will possess desirable charge transport properties, exhibiting potential applications in nanoelectronic devices.

  18. High charge carrier density at the NaTaO3/SrTiO3 hetero-interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar


    The formation of a (quasi) two-dimensional electron gas between the band insulators NaTaO3 and SrTiO3 is studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points to only small changes in the chemical bonding at the interface. Both the p-type (NaO)−/(TiO2)0 and n-type (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interfaces are found to be metallic with high charge carrier densities. The effects of O vacancies are discussed. Spin-polarized calculations point to the formation of isolated O 2pmagnetic moments, located in the metallic region of the p-type interface.

  19. Magnetotransport of the low-carrier density one-dimensional S = 1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the lowest T. In B > 0 and T <∼ 6 K the resistivity shows an anomalous magnetic-history depen- dence together with an unusual relaxation behavior. In the isothermal resistivity Shubnikov–de Haas. (SdH) oscillations, arising from a low-density system of mobile As-4p holes, with a frequency of. 25 T have been recorded.

  20. Carrier density modulation by structural distortions at modified LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoofs, Frank; Vickers, Mary E; Egilmez, Mehmet; Fix, Thomas; Kleibeuker, Josée E; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Blamire, Mark G; Carpenter, Michael A


    In order to study the fundamental conduction mechanism of LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 (LAO/STO) interfaces, heterostructures were modified with a single unit cell interface layer of either an isovalent titanate ATiO 3 (A = Ca, Sr, Sn, Ba) or a rare earth modified Sr 0.5 RE 0.5 TiO 3 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Dy) between the LAO and the STO. A strong coupling between the lattice strain induced in the LAO layer by the interfacial layers and the sheet carrier density in the STO substrate is observed. The observed crystal distortion of the LAO is large and it is suggested that it couples into the sub-surface STO, causing oxygen octahedral rotation and deformation. We propose that the ‘structural reconstruction’ which occurs in the STO surface as a result of the stress in the LAO is the enabling trigger for two-dimensional conduction at the LAO/STO interface by locally changing the band structure and releasing trapped carriers. (paper)

  1. Carrier density control and enhanced thermoelectric performance of Bi and Cu co-doped GeTe (United States)

    Shimano, S.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.


    Thermoelectric energy conversion is one of the most important and desirable functions of materials, because the ability to recycle a part of the energy wasted as heat back to useful electric energy significantly contributes to a sustainable society in future. For practical applications of thermoelectric materials, sufficiently high conversion efficiency is required over a wide range of temperature. It is also desirable that the materials are composed of non-toxic elements from an environmental perspective. In this paper, we report the successful control of the hole-type charge carrier density in GeTe-based materials by co-doping Bi and Cu, and the resultant improvement in the thermoelectric figure of merit over a wide range of temperature from room temperature to around 800 K, especially below 500 K, compared to those of previously reported analogous materials, thereby demonstrating the potential of GeTe-based materials for practical applications.

  2. Injection-modulated polarity conversion by charge carrier density control via a self-assembled monolayer for all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (United States)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Taesoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee


    We demonstrated modulation of charge carrier densities in all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by modifying the injection properties with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The all-solution-processed OFETs based on an n-type polymer with inkjet-printed Ag electrodes were fabricated as a test platform, and the injection properties were modified by the SAMs. Two types of SAMs with different dipole direction, thiophenol (TP) and pentafluorobenzene thiol (PFBT) were employed, modifying the work function of the inkjet-printed Ag (4.9 eV) to 4.66 eV and 5.24 eV with TP and PFBT treatments, respectively. The charge carrier densities were controlled by the SAM treatment in both dominant and non-dominant carrier-channel regimes. This work demonstrates that control of the charge carrier densities can be efficiently achieved by modifying the injection property with SAM treatment; thus, this approach can achieve polarity conversion of the OFETs.

  3. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (United States)

    Kim, Jae-sung; Oh, Byung Su; Piao, Mingxing; Joo, Min-Kyu; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae


    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  4. Extraction of carrier mobility and interface trap density in InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor structures using gated Hall method (United States)

    Chidambaram, Thenappan

    III-V semiconductors are potential candidates to replace Si as a channel material in next generation CMOS integrated circuits owing to their superior carrier mobilities. Low density of states (DOS) and typically high interface and border trap densities (Dit) in high mobility group III-V semiconductors provide difficulties in quantification of Dit near the conduction band edge. The trap response above the threshold voltage of a MOSFET can be very fast, and conventional Dit extraction methods, based on capacitance/conductance response (CV methods) of MOS capacitors at frequencies properties of III-V interfaces is an ambiguity of determination of electron density in the MOSFET channel. Traditional evaluation of carrier density by integration of the C-V curve, gives incorrect values for D it and mobility. Here we employ gated Hall method to quantify the D it spectrum at the high-K oxide/III-V semiconductor interface for buried and surface channel devices using Hall measurement and capacitance-voltage data. Determination of electron density directly from Hall measurements allows for obtaining true mobility values.

  5. High-density natural luffa sponge as anaerobic microorganisms carrier for degrading 1,1,1-TCA in groundwater. (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Chi


    Anaerobic microorganisms were applied to degrade organic contaminants in groundwater with permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). However, anaerobic microorganisms need to select optimal immobilizing material as carrier. The potential of high-density natural luffa sponge (HDLS) (a new variety of luffa) for the immobilization and protection of anaerobic microorganisms was investigated. The HDLS has a dense structure composed of a complicated interwoven fibrous network. Therefore, the abrasion rate of HDLS (0.0068 g s -1 ) was the smallest among the four carriers [HDLS, ordinary natural luffa sponge (OLS), polyurethane sponge (PS), and gel carrier AQUAPOROUSGEL (APG)]. The results suggest that it also had the greatest water retention (10.26 H 2 O-g dry carrier-g -1 ) and SS retention (0.21 g dry carrier-g -1 ). In comparison to well-established commercialized gel carrier APG, HDLS was of much better mechanical strength, hydrophilicity and stability. Microbial-immobilized HDLS also had the best performance for the remediation of 1,1,1-TCA simulated groundwater. Analysis of the clone libraries from microorganism-immobilized HDLS showed the HDLS could protect microorganisms from the toxicity of 1,1,1-TCA and maintain the stability of microbial community diversity. The mechanism of HDLS immobilizing and protecting microorganisms was proposed as follows. The HDLS had a micron-scale honeycomb structure (30-40 μm) and an irregular ravine structure (4-20 μm), which facilitate the immobilization of anaerobic microorganisms and protect the anaerobic microorganisms.

  6. Gate control of the mobility, carrier density and superconductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface (United States)

    Bell, Christopher


    The conductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface [1], and in particular its control with a back-gate electrode in the superconducting regime [2], offers a powerful route to explore the 2D superconductor-insulator transition. An essential requirement is to fully understand how the gate voltage changes the various characteristic properties of the system, such as the mobility, carrier density, critical temperature, critical fields and superfluid density. One important point, for example, is that with back-gating the Hall mobility variation is significantly larger than the change in sheet carrier density [3]. These results indicate that the relative disorder strength increases across the superconductor-insulator transition, and that disorder is the primary control parameter associated with back-gating. I will discuss how this 2D superconductor-insulator transition can be understood, in analogy to thickness variations in other more conventional systems, and from studies of symmetrically confined 2D superconductivity in STO [4,5]. The importance of the strong dielectric nonlinearity in STO at low temperatures will be stressed, leading to the result that the gating phase diagram is a nonlinear function of the starting free carrier density. Our collaborative efforts using real space imaging of the superfluid density by scanning SQUID microscopy, offering an extremely powerful complementary tool to transport studies, will also be discussed, as well as the relationship between the superconductivity and the ferromagnetism in this fascinating system [6]. [4pt] [1] A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004).[0pt] [2] A. D. Caviglia et al., Nature 456, 624 (2008).[0pt] [3] C. Bell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 226802 (2009).[0pt] [4] Y. Kozuka et al., Nature 462, 487 (2009).[0pt] [5] M. Kim et al., arxiv/1106.5193 (2011). [0pt] [6] J. Bert et al., Nature Phys. 7, 767 (2011).

  7. Equivalence of donor and acceptor fits of temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data: Case of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Feuillet, Guy; Pernot, Julien


    In this work, statistical formulations of the temperature dependence of ionized and neutral impurity concentrations in a semiconductor, needed in the charge balance equation and for carrier scattering calculations, have been developed. These formulations have been used in order to elucidate a confusing situation, appearing when compensating acceptor (donor) levels are located sufficiently close to the conduction (valence) band to be thermally ionized and thereby to emit (capture) an electron to (from) the conduction (valence) band. In this work, the temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data adjustments are performed in an attempt to distinguish the presence of a deep acceptor or a deep donor level, coexisting with a shallower donor level and located near the conduction band. Unfortunately, the present statistical developments, applied to an n-type hydrothermal ZnO sample, lead in both cases to consistent descriptions of experimental Hall carrier density and mobility data and thus do not allow to determine the nature, donor or acceptor, of the deep level. This demonstration shows that the emission of an electron in the conduction band, generally assigned to a (0/+1) donor transition from a donor level cannot be applied systematically and could also be attributed to a (−1/0) donor transition from an acceptor level. More generally, this result can be extended for any semiconductor and also for deep donor levels located close to the valence band (acceptor transition)

  8. Analysis of defect structure in silicon. Effect of grain boundary density on carrier mobility in UCP material (United States)

    Dunn, J.; Stringfellow, G. B.; Natesh, R.


    The relationships between hole mobility and grain boundary density were studied. Mobility was measured using the van der Pauw technique, and grain boundary density was measured using a quantitative microscopy technique. Mobility was found to decrease with increasing grain boundary density.

  9. Enhanced sheet carrier densities in polarization controlled AlInN/AlN/GaN/InGaN field-effect transistor on Si (111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hennig


    Full Text Available We report on GaN based field-effect transistor (FET structures exhibiting sheet carrier densities of n = 2.9 1013 cm−2 for high-power transistor applications. By grading the indium-content of InGaN layers grown prior to a conventional GaN/AlN/AlInN FET structure control of the channel width at the GaN/AlN interface is obtained. The composition of the InGaN layer was graded from nominally xIn = 30 % to pure GaN just below the AlN/AlInN interface. Simulations reveal the impact of the additional InGaN layer on the potential well width which controls the sheet carrier density within the channel region of the devices. Benchmarking the InxGa1−xN/GaN/AlN/Al0.87In0.13N based FETs against GaN/AlN/AlInN FET reference structures we found increased maximum current densities of ISD = 1300 mA/mm (560 mA/mm. In addition, the InGaN layer helps to achieve broader transconductance profiles as well as reduced leakage currents.

  10. Carrier Density Modulation over an Exceptional Voltage Window in BaSnO3 Films via Ion Gel Gating (United States)

    Wang, Helin; Walter, Jeff; Ganguly, Koustav; Prakash, Abhinav; Jalan, Bharat; Leighton, Chris

    BaSnO3 has drawn interest recently due to its outstanding room temperature mobility and potential applications in oxide transistors, transparent conductors, etc. Here we report effective control of the electronic transport properties of sputtered oxygen-vacancy-doped BaSnO3 (BaSnO3-δ) films via ion gel gating in electric double layer transistor structures. The electron densities of the starting films is tuned by thickness, from 4 × 1019 cm-3 at 13 nm to much lower densities at lower thickness. The response to gate voltage is found to be notably robust, with largely reversible response (even in vacuum) over an exceptionally wide window from -4 to +4 V, even at 300 K. The data support predominantly electrostatic response, unlike many other oxides, which we ascribe to Sn redox stability. In this manner the sheet resistance of 13-nm-thick BaSnO3 films can be modulated by a factor of 50 at 300 K, increasing to almost 103 at low temperatures. Similar measurements at lower thickness/electron density will also be discussed. Work supported by the NSF MRSEC under DMR-1420013.

  11. Miniaturization of a homogeneous fluorescence immunoassay based on energy transfer using nanotiter plates as high-density sample carriers. (United States)

    Schobel, U; Coille, I; Brecht, A; Steinwand, G M; Gauglitz, G


    The miniaturization of a homogeneous competitive immunoassay to a final assay volume of 70 nL is described. As the sample carrier, disposable plastic nanotiter plates (NTP) with dimensions of 2 x 2 cm2 containing 25 x 25 wells, corresponding to approximately 15,000 wells on a traditional 96-well microtiter plate footprint, were used. Sample handling was accomplished by a piezoelectrically actuated micropipet. To reduce evaporation while pipetting the assays, the NTP was handled in a closed humid chamber and cooled to the point of condensation. To avoid washing steps, a homogeneous assay was developed that was based on energy-transfer (ET). As a model system, an antibody-based assay for the detection of the environmentally relevant compound, simazine, in drinking water was chosen. Antibodies were labeled with the long-wavelength-excitable sulfoindocyanine dye Cy5 (donor), and a tracer was synthesized by labeling BSA with a triazine derivative and the acceptor dye Cy5.5. At low analyte concentrations, the tracer was preferably bound to the antibody binding sites. As a result of the close proximity of Cy5.5 and Cy5, an efficient quenching of the Cy5 fluorescence occurred. Higher analyte concentrations led to a progressive binding of the analyte to the antibody binding sites. The increased Cy5 fluorescence was determined by using a scanning laser-induced fluorescence detector. The limit of detection (LOD), using an antibody concentration of 20 nM, was 0.32 microg/L, or 1.11 x 10(-16) mol of simazine. In comparison, the LOD of the 96-well microtiter-plate-based ET immunoassay (micro-ETIA) was 0.15 microg/L, or 1.87 x 10(-13) mol. The LOD of the optimized micro-ETIA at 1 nM IgG, was 0.01 microg/L.

  12. Evidence for an impurity band in the anomalous low carrier density superconductor Pb1-xTlxTe (United States)

    Walmsley, Philip; Giraldo-Gallo, Paula; Sangiorgio, Boris; Abrams, Deanna; Fechner, Michael; Buchauer, Lisa; Fauque, Benoit; Riggs, Scott; McDonald, Ross; Geballe, Theodore; Spaldin, Nicola; Behnia, Kamran; Fisher, Ian

    The narrow-band-gap semiconductor PbTe superconducts with a Tc an order of magnitude greater than comparable low-density metals, but only when it is doped with the specific element thallium. Here we present a comprehensive study of the evolution of the Fermi surface of hole doped PbTe as derived from Shubnikov de Haas quantum oscillations, combined with measurements of the evolution of the electrical transport and specific heat. We compare cases for dopants that cause superconductivity (thallium) and those that don't (sodium), and identify the presence of a Tl-impurity band as the key feature associated with the presence of superconductivity. These results give the clearest description of the fermiology of PbTe to date, relevant for understanding both to its superconducting ground state and its high thermoelectric figure of merit.

  13. Carrier Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  14. Hall voltage drives pulsing counter-currents of the sliding charge density wave and of quantized normal carriers at self-filled Landau levels (United States)

    Orlov, Andrey P.; Sinchenko, Aleksander A.; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei; Latyshev, Yuri I.


    Remnant pockets of carriers left over after formation of a charge density wave (CDW) were brought, by virtue of transverse electric and magnetic fields, to a current-carrying state at quantized Landau Levels. The generated Hall voltage polarizes and puts to sliding the flexible CDW background. The screening from the CDW allows for a so strong redistribution of normal electrons density under the action of the Lorentz force alone, that an integer filling of the lowest Landau level might be reached at one edge at the expense of the full depletion at another edge of the Hall bar. With the Hall field exceeding the sliding threshold, the regime of exactly compensated collective and normal counter-currents develops in the open-circuit direction across the bar. The annihilation of the two currents proceeds via a regular sequence of phase slips which are the space-time vortices of the CDW phase around the enforced amplitude nodes. The resulting spontaneous generation of coherent high ( GHz) frequency signals was detected by observations of multiple Shapiro steps. This picture results from studies of micron-sized Hall bars in crystals of NbSe3 prepared by means of focused ion beams. The interpretation is confirmed and illustrated by a numerical solution of the derived equations. The depinning pulse propagates from edges to the bulk and the sliding sets in, accompanied by the generation of periodic phase slips near the Hall bar edge where the CDW phase is advanced in steps of 2π at expense of the CDW amplitude passing through zero.

  15. First principles analysis of the CDW instability of single-layer 1T-TiSe2 and its evolution with charge carrier density (United States)

    Guster, Bogdan; Canadell, Enric; Pruneda, Miguel; Ordejón, Pablo


    We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure of single-layer TiSe2, and focus on the charge density wave (CDW) instability present on this 2D material. We explain the 2× 2 periodicity of the CDW from the phonon band structure of the undistorted crystal, which is unstable under one of the phonon modes at the M point. This can be understood in terms of a partial band gap opening at the Fermi level, which we describe on the basis of the symmetry of the involved crystal orbitals, leading to an energy gain upon the displacement of the atoms following the phonon mode in a 2  ×  1 structure. Furthermore, the combination of the corresponding phonons for the three inequivalent M points of the Brillouin zone leads to the 2  ×  2 distortion characteristic of the CDW state. This leads to a further opening of a full gap, which reduces the energy of the 2  ×  2 structure compared to the 2  ×  1 one of a single M point phonon, and makes the CDW structure the most stable one. We also analyze the effect of charge injection into the layer on the structural instability. We predict that the 2  ×  2 structure only survives for a certain range of doping levels, both for electrons and for holes, as doping reduces the energy gain due to the gap opening. We predict the transition from the commensurate 2  ×  2 distortion to an incommensurate one with increasing wavelength upon increasing the doping level, followed by the appearance of the undistorted 1  ×  1 structure for larger carrier concentrations.

  16. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanocarrier Improved Cellular Transport of Lysosomal Cholesterol in Human Sterol Carrier Protein-Deficient Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Nam, Da-Eun; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Jeongmin


    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2), which is not found in tissues of people with Zellweger syndrome, facilitates the movement of cholesterol within cells, resulting in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient cells. This study investigated whether synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanocarrier (sHDL-NC) improves the cellular transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts. Human SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts were incubated with [(3)H-cholesterol]LDL as a source of cholesterol and sHDL-NC. The cells were fractionated by centrifugation permit tracking of [(3)H]-cholesterol from lysosome into plasma membrane. Furthermore, cellular content of cholesteryl ester as a storage form and mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor were measured to support the cholesterol transport to plasma membrane. Incubation with sHDL-NC for 8 h significantly increased uptake of [(3)H]-cholesterol to lysosome by 53% and further enhanced the transport of [(3)H]-cholesterol to plasma membrane by 32%. Treatment with sHDL-NC significantly reduced cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R). In conclusion, sHDL-NC enables increased transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane. In addition, these data were indirectly supported by decreased cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased gene expression of LDL-R. Therefore, sHDL-NC may be a useful vehicle for transporting cholesterol, which may help to prevent accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts.

  17. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.


    The invention provides physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carriers comprising a reducing agent bound to an anionic starch derivative, useful in the preparation of organ-specific diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  18. Investigation of carrier density and mobility in microcrystalline silicon alloys using Hall effect and thermopower measurements; Untersuchung der Ladungstraegerkonzentration und -beweglichkeit in mikrokristallinen Siliziumlegierungen mit Hall-Effekt und Thermokraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellmer, Christian


    The electronic properties of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers in thin-film solar cells significantly affect the efficiency of solar cells. An important property of the individual layer is the electronic transport, which is described by the variables conductivity, photoconductivity, mobility, and carrier concentration. In the past, individual characterization methods were typically used to determine the electronic properties. Using the combination of Hall effect, conductivity, and thermoelectric power measurements additional variables can be derived, such as the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge, making a more detailed description of the material possible. To systematically study the electronic properties - in particular carrier mobility and carrier concentration - various series of silicon films are prepared for this work including microcrystalline silicon layers of different doping and crystallinity and a series of silicon films where the Fermi level is moved by irradiation with high energy electrons on one and the same sample. The results show that the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline transport is relatively abrupt. If the electron transport takes place in only amorphous regions, it is marked by the sign anomaly of the Hall effect. If a continuous crystalline path exists, the electronic properties are dominated by the crystalline volume fraction. The results of the measurements of silicon layers are compared with those of microcrystalline silicon carbide samples. Silicon carbide is especially interesting for future applications in thin-film solar cells due to high transparency and high conductivity. It is shown that the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge as a function of temperature in p- and n-type microcrystalline silicon and silicon carbide samples largely coincide with those of crystalline silicon or silicon carbide. A square root shaped profile of the density of

  19. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.


    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  20. Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recombinant High-Density Lipoprotein Carrier and the Encapsulated Lovastatin in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells Based on the Median-Effect Principle. (United States)

    Jiang, Cuiping; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Yun; He, Jianhua; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping


    Recombinant high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) displays a similar anti-atherosclerotic effect with native HDL and could also be served as a carrier of cardiovascular drug for atherosclerotic plaque targeting. In our previous studies, rHDL has shown a more potent anti-atherosclerotic efficacy as compared to the other conventional nanoparticles with a payload of lovastatin (LS). Therefore, we hypothesized that a synergistic anti-atherosclerotic effect of the rHDL carrier and the encapsulated LS might exist. In this study, the dose-effect relationships and the combined effect of the rHDL and LS were quantitatively evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using the median-effect analysis, in which the rHDL carrier was regarded as a drug combined. Median-effect analysis suggested that rHDL and LS exerted a desirable synergistic inhibition on the oxLDL internalization at a ratio of 6:1 ( D m,LS : D m,rHDL ) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. About 50% of the reduction on the intracellular lipid contents was found when RAW264.7 cells were treated with LS-loaded rHDLs at their respective median-effect dose ( D m ) concentrations and a synergistic effect on the mediating cholesterol efflux was also observed, which verified the accuracy of the results obtained from the median-effect analysis. The mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of the rHDL carrier and the drug might be attributed to their potent inhibitory effects on SR-A expression. In conclusion, the median-effect analysis was proven to be a feasible method to quantitatively evaluate the synergistic effect of the biofunctional carrier and the drug encapsulated.

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...

  2. Experimental verification of carrier multiplication in graphene. (United States)

    Plötzing, T; Winzer, T; Malic, E; Neumaier, D; Knorr, A; Kurz, H


    We report on the first direct experimental observation of carrier multiplication in graphene reaching a multiplication factor of up to 2 and persisting on a picoseconds time scale. Exploiting multicolor pump-probe measurement techniques, the excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution is retrieved on an ultrafast time scale. This provides access to the temporal evolution of the optically excited carrier density and thus allows quantitative conclusions on possible carrier multiplication. Microscopic time- and momentum-resolved calculations on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited carriers confirm the observation of carrier multiplication under corresponding experimental conditions, suggesting graphene as a promising material for novel high-efficiency photodetection devices.

  3. Investigation of charges carrier density in phosphorus and boron doped SiN{sub x}:H layers for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paviet-Salomon, B., E-mail: [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), Laboratoire d’Innovation pour les Technologies des Énergies Nouvelles et les nanomatériaux (LITEN), Institut National de l’Énergie Solaire - INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Gall, S. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), Laboratoire d’Innovation pour les Technologies des Énergies Nouvelles et les nanomatériaux (LITEN), Institut National de l’Énergie Solaire - INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Slaoui, A. [Institut de l’Électronique du Solide et des Systèmes (InESS), Unité Mixte de Recherche 7163 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université de Strasbourg (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 20 CR, 67037 Strasbourg (France)


    Highlights: ► We investigate the properties of phosphorus and boron-doped silicon nitride films. ► Phosphorus-doped layers yield higher lifetimes than undoped ones. ► The fixed charges density decreases when increasing the films phosphorus content. ► Boron-doped films feature very low lifetimes. ► These doped layers are of particular interest for crystalline silicon solar cells. -- Abstract: Dielectric layers are of major importance in crystalline silicon solar cells processing, especially as anti-reflection coatings and for surface passivation purposes. In this paper we investigate the fixed charge densities (Q{sub fix}) and the effective lifetimes (τ{sub eff}) of phosphorus (P) and boron (B) doped silicon nitride layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. P-doped layers exhibit a higher τ{sub eff} than standard undoped layers. In contrast, B-doped layers exhibit lower τ{sub eff}. A strong Q{sub fix} decrease is to be seen when increasing the P content within the film. Based on numerical simulations we also demonstrate that the passivation obtained with P- and B-doped layers are limited by the interface states rather than by the fixed charges.

  4. Dopant selection for control of charge carrier density and mobility in amorphous indium oxide thin-film transistors: Comparison between Si- and W-dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitoma, Nobuhiko, E-mail:, E-mail:; Kizu, Takio; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito, E-mail:, E-mail: [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Aikawa, Shinya [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Ou-Yang, Wei [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Gao, Xu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Fujiwara, Akihiko [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide [MANA Foundry and MANA Advanced Device Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)


    The dependence of oxygen vacancy suppression on dopant species in amorphous indium oxide (a-InO{sub x}) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported. In a-InO{sub x} TFTs incorporating equivalent atom densities of Si- and W-dopants, absorption of oxygen in the host a-InO{sub x} matrix was found to depend on difference of Gibbs free energy of the dopants for oxidation. For fully oxidized films, the extracted channel conductivity was higher in the a-InO{sub x} TFTs containing dopants of small ionic radius. This can be explained by a reduction in the ionic scattering cross sectional area caused by charge screening effects.

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for point-of-care detection of asymptomatic low-density malaria parasite carriers in Zanzibar. (United States)

    Cook, Jackie; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; González, Iveth J; Bell, David; Edlund, Elin; Nassor, Majda H; Msellem, Mwinyi; Ali, Abdullah; Abass, Ali K; Mårtensson, Andreas; Björkman, Anders


    Asymptomatic, low parasite density malaria infections are difficult to detect with currently available point-of-care diagnostics. This study piloted a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit for field-friendly, high-throughput detection of asymptomatic malaria infections during mass screening and treatment (MSAT) in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting. Screening took place in three known hotspot areas prior to the short rains in November. Finger-prick blood was taken for screening by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and LAMP and collected on filter paper for subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. LAMP results were compared to RDT and to PCR using McNemar's test. Approximately 1,000 people were screened. RDT detected ten infections (1.0% (95% CI 0.3-1.6)) whilst both LAMP and PCR detected 18 (1.8% (95% CI 0.9-2.6)) infections. However, PCR identified three infections that LAMP did not detect and vice versa. LAMP testing was easy to scale-up in field conditions requiring minimal training and equipment, with results ready one to three hours after screening. Despite lower than expected prevalence, LAMP detected a higher number of infections than the currently used diagnostic, RDT. LAMP is a field-friendly, sensitive diagnostic test that could be useful for MSAT malaria campaigns which require quick results to enable prompt treatment.

  6. Very high-density lipoprotein and vitellin as carriers of novel biliverdins IXα with a farnesyl side-chain presumably derived from heme A in Spodoptera littoralis. (United States)

    Kayser, Hartmut; Nimtz, Manfred; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A


    Bilins in complex with specific proteins play key roles in many forms of life. Biliproteins have also been isolated from insects; however, structural details are rare and possible functions largely unknown. Recently, we identified a high-molecular weight biliprotein from a moth, Cerura vinula, as an arylphorin-type hexameric storage protein linked to a novel farnesyl biliverdin IXα; its unusual structure suggests formation by cleavage of mitochondrial heme A. In the present study of another moth, Spodoptera littoralis, we isolated two different biliproteins. These proteins were identified as a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) and as vitellin, respectively, by mass spectrometric sequencing. Both proteins are associated with three different farnesyl biliverdins IXα: the one bilin isolated from C. vinula and two new structurally closely related bilins, supposed to be intermediates of heme A degradation. The different bilin composition of the two biliproteins suggests that the presumed oxidations at the farnesyl side-chain take place mainly during egg development. The egg bilins are supposedly transferred from hemolymph VHDL to vitellin in the female. Both biliproteins show strong induced circular dichroism activity compatible with a predominance of the M-conformation of the bilins. This conformation is opposite to that of the arylphorin-type biliprotein from C. vinula. Electron microscopy of the VHDL-type biliprotein from S. littoralis provided a preliminary view of its structure as a homodimer and confirmed the biochemically determined molecular mass of ∼350 kDa. Further, images of S. littoralis hexamerins revealed a 2 × 3 construction identical to that known from the hexamerin from C. vinula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carrier generation and collection in CdS/CdSe-sensitized SnO2 solar cells exhibiting unprecedented photocurrent densities. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anower; Jennings, James Robert; Koh, Zhen Yu; Wang, Qing


    CdS/CdSe-sensitized nanostructured SnO(2) solar cells exhibiting record short-circuit photocurrent densities have been fabricated. Under simulated AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination, photocurrents of up to 17.40 mA cm(-2) are obtained, some 32% higher than that achieved by otherwise identical semiconductor-sensitized solar cells (SSCs) employing nanostructured TiO(2). An overall power conversion efficiency of 3.68% has been achieved for the SnO(2)-based SSCs, which compares very favorably to efficiencies obtained by the TiO(2)-based SSCs. The characteristics of these SSCs were studied in more detail by optical measurements, spectral incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurements, and impedance spectroscopy (IS). The apparent conductivity of sensitized SnO(2) photoanodes is apparently too large to be measured by IS, yet for otherwise identical TiO(2) electrodes, clear electron transport features could be observed in impedance spectra, tacitly implying slower charge transport in TiO(2). Despite this, electron diffusion length measurements suggest that charge collection losses are negligible in both kinds of cell. SnO(2)-based SSCs exhibit higher IPCEs compared with TiO(2)-based SSCs which, considering the similar light harvesting efficiencies and the long electron diffusion lengths implied by IS, is likely to be due to a superior charge separation yield. The resistance to charge recombination is also larger in SnO(2)-based SSCs at any given photovoltage, and open-circuit photovoltages under simulated AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination are only 26-56 mV lower than those obtained for TiO(2)-based SSCs, despite the conduction band minimum of SnO(2) being hundreds of millielectronvolts lower than that of TiO(2).

  8. Carrier multiplication in graphene under Landau quantization. (United States)

    Wendler, Florian; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin


    Carrier multiplication is a many-particle process giving rise to the generation of multiple electron-hole pairs. This process holds the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In graphene, carrier multiplication has been theoretically predicted and recently experimentally observed. However, due to the absence of a bandgap and competing phonon-induced electron-hole recombination, the extraction of charge carriers remains a substantial challenge. Here we present a new strategy to benefit from the gained charge carriers by introducing a Landau quantization that offers a tunable bandgap. Based on microscopic calculations within the framework of the density matrix formalism, we report a significant carrier multiplication in graphene under Landau quantization. Our calculations reveal a high tunability of the effect via externally accessible pump fluence, temperature and the strength of the magnetic field.

  9. Carrier dynamics and gain spectra at room-temperature in epitaxial ZNO thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Wong, K. S.


    Carrier dynamics of epitaxial ZnO thin film was investigated using a frequency up-conversion tehcnique. At lower carrier densities, the decay time of free exciton recombination was measured to be 24 ps. Rapid decay times of a few picoseconds were observed at higher carrier densities, which show a...

  10. Computer assisted analysis of hand radiographs in infantile hypophosphatasia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodirker, B.N.; Greenberg, C.R.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Roy, D.; Cheang, M.; Evans, J.A.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Reed, M.H.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB


    Hand radiographs of 49 carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia and 67 non-carriers were evaluated using two Apple IIe Computer Programs and Apple Graphics Tablet. CAMPS was used to determine the bone lengths and calculate the metacarpophalangeal profiles. A newly developed program (ADAM) was used to determine bone density based on percent cortical area of the second metacarpal. Carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia had significantly less dense bones. (orig.)

  11. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian


    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  12. Carrier dynamics in graphene. Ultrafast many-particle phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, E.; Brem, S.; Jago, R. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Winzer, T.; Wendler, F.; Knorr, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Mittendorff, M.; Koenig-Otto, J.C.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ploetzing, T.; Neumaier, D. [Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen, AMO GmbH, Aachen (Germany)


    Graphene is an ideal material to study fundamental Coulomb- and phonon-induced carrier scattering processes. Its remarkable gapless and linear band structure opens up new carrier relaxation channels. In particular, Auger scattering bridging the valence and the conduction band changes the number of charge carriers and gives rise to a significant carrier multiplication - an ultrafast many-particle phenomenon that is promising for the design of highly efficient photodetectors. Furthermore, the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point combined with ultrafast phonon-induced intraband scattering results in an accumulation of carriers and a population inversion suggesting the design of graphene-based terahertz lasers. Here, we review our work on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene and Landau-quantized graphene is presented providing a microscopic view on the appearance of carrier multiplication and population inversion. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New York State. His father was Duane Carrier who settled down to farming after trying his hand at various other occupations. His mother was Elizabeth Haviland, whose .... Specific Volume is the cubic meter of moist air per kg of dry air represented as m3/kg. .... Carrier converted data obtained from his tests into equations,.

  14. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert


    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  15. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics. (United States)


    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  16. Highly immunogenic and fully synthetic peptide-carrier constructs targetting GnRH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Turkstra, J.A.; Meloen, R.H.


    To use peptides as synthetic vaccines, they have to be coupled to a carrier protein to make them more immunogenic. Coupling efficiency between a carrier protein and a peptide, however, is difficult to control with respect to loading density of the peptide. This makes these carrier proteins poorly

  17. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier. (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.


    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  19. Carrier transport in layered nanolaminated carbides (United States)

    Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan K.; Ethirajan, Tamilmani


    This paper summarizes the ab-initio electronic and phonon band structures and the temperature-dependent carrier transport in layered Ti2AlC. It is found that the cylindrical Fermi surface is the origin of the anisotropic carrier effective mass (infinite effective mass along the c axis), which leads to a strong anisotropic (insulator along the c axis and metallic along the layer) carrier transport in these films. Using electronic and phonon band structure calculations, we have developed an analytical model for the carrier-phonon interaction and the in-plane carrier conductivity originating from the strong inter-valley (s → d) scattering in Ti2AlC. The density functional theory is used to calculate the average deformation potential corresponding to the acoustic phonon vibrations. The calculated deformation potential is in good agreement with the extracted deformation potential from the transport data available in the literature. The extracted deformation potential will be useful for predicting the transport quantities of these metals at elevated temperatures.

  20. 78 FR 2600 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To... (United States)


    ... access providers, including cost determinants (e.g., density of sales) and factors that deliver economies... Toll Carriers. This category includes toll carriers that do not fall within the categories of...

  1. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)


    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  2. Improved process control, lowered costs and reduced risks through the use of non-destructive mobility and sheet carrier density measurements on GaAs and GaN wafers (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Hogan, K.; Blew, A.; Cordes, M.


    Improved process control, lowered costs and reduced risks can be realized through the use of non-destructive mobility and sheet charge density measurements during the fabrication of GaAs and GaN wafers. The results from this microwave-based technique are shown to agree with destructive van der Pauw Hall testing results to within ±5%. In addition, it has the ability to map wafer uniformity and provide separated 2DEG data for thick cap or multi-layered structures. As a result, this technique provides an efficient and cost-effective alternative to current process control metrology methods, while providing the user with important process control data.

  3. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. W H Carrier; rational psychrometric formulae; psychrometric chart; invention of centrifugal machine; law of dew-point depression. Author Affiliations. R V Simha1. Director Airtron Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd, No. 502/A, Ist Main Jayanagar ...

  4. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  5. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  6. Carrier-Multiplication-Induced Structural Change during Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation and Nonthermal Phase Transition in Semiconductors. (United States)

    Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Y Y; Liu, X-Q; Gao, F; Zhang, S B


    While being extensively studied as an important physical process to alter exciton population in nanostructures at the fs time scale, carrier multiplication has not been considered seriously as a major mechanism for phase transition. Real-time time-dependent density functional theory study of Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5} reveals that carrier multiplication can induce an ultrafast phase transition in the solid state despite that the lattice remains cold. The results also unify the experimental findings in other semiconductors for which the explanation remains to be the 30-year old phenomenological plasma annealing model.

  7. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  8. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced

  9. Yarn carrier with clutch (United States)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)


    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  10. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W


    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  11. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  12. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.


    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  13. Photo-generated carriers lose energy during extraction from polymer-fullerene solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melianas, Armantas


    In photovoltaic devices, the photo-generated charge carriers are typically assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. In conventional materials, this assumption is experimentally justified as carrier thermalization completes before any significant carrier transport has occurred. Here, we demonstrate by unifying time-resolved optical and electrical experiments and Monte Carlo simulations over an exceptionally wide dynamic range that in the case of organic photovoltaic devices, this assumption is invalid. As the photo-generated carriers are transported to the electrodes, a substantial amount of their energy is lost by continuous thermalization in the disorder broadened density of states. Since thermalization occurs downward in energy, carrier motion is boosted by this process, leading to a time-dependent carrier mobility as confirmed by direct experiments. We identify the time and distance scales relevant for carrier extraction and show that the photo-generated carriers are extracted from the operating device before reaching thermal equilibrium.

  14. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger


    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  15. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger


    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  16. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  17. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance. (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali


    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  18. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous. (United States)

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A


    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  19. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu


    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  20. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.


    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  1. Near-field control and imaging of free charge carrier variations in GaN nanowires (United States)

    Berweger, Samuel; Blanchard, Paul T.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Coakley, Kevin J.; Sanford, Norman A.; Wallis, Thomas M.; Bertness, Kris A.; Kabos, Pavel


    Despite their uniform crystallinity, the shape and faceting of semiconducting nanowires (NWs) can give rise to variations in structure and associated electronic properties. Here, we develop a hybrid scanning probe-based methodology to investigate local variations in electronic structure across individual n-doped GaN NWs integrated into a transistor device. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM), which we combine with scanning gate microscopy to determine the free-carrier SMM signal contribution and image local charge carrier density variations. In particular, we find significant variations in free carriers across NWs, with a higher carrier density at the wire facets. By increasing the local carrier density through tip-gating, we find that the tip injects current into the NW with strongly localized current when positioned over the wire vertices. These results suggest that the strong variations in electronic properties observed within NWs have significant implications for device design and may lead to new paths to optimization.

  2. Computed tomographic findings in manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Verbeeten, B.


    Clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in 3 manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy are reported. CT proved to be an important adjunct to the clinical examination: in all our 3 cases a decrease in density was found in various non-paretic muscles

  3. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orifjon Ganiev


    May 30, 2017 ... copper oxides (cuprates) remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in strongly-correlated electron ... of the Knight shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate. The. Knight shift is proportional to the density of ... due to the charge carrier localization by strong magnetic fields [26]. A similar explanation of these ...

  4. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  5. Many-Body Effects on Optical Carrier Cooling in Intrinsic Semiconductors at Low Lattice Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Danhong; Alsing, P. M


    Based on the coupled density and energy balance equations, a dynamical model is proposed for exploring many-body effects on optical carrier cooling not lattice cooling in steady state in comparison...

  6. Road density (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  7. Strain engineering on transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Feng; Hu, Junsong; Zhang, Ping; Yin, Jiuren; Tang, Xianqiong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Bozhao; Ding, Yanhuai


    The effects of uniaxial strain on the structure, band gap and transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene were investigated by first-principles calculations. The strain induced semiconductor-metal as well as direct–indirect transitions were studied in monolayer phosphorene. The position of CBM which belonged to indirect gap shifts along the direction of the applied strain. We have concluded the change rules of the carrier effective mass when plane strains are applied. In band structure, the sudden decrease of band gap or the new formation of CBM (VBM) causes the unexpected change in carrier effective mass. The effects of zigzag and armchair strain on the effective electron mass in phosphorene are different. The strain along zigzag direction has effects on the electrons effective mass along both zigzag and armchair direction. By contrast, armchair-direction strain seems to affect only on the free electron mass along zigzag direction. For the holes, the effective masses along zigzag direction are largely affected by plane strains while the effective mass along armchair direction exhibits independence in strain processing. The carrier density of monolayer phosphorene at 300 K is calculated about 1.25× {{10}6} cm‑2, which is greatly influenced by the temperature and strain. Strain engineering is an efficient method to improve the carrier density in phosphorene.

  8. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  9. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  10. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans


    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  11. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: A potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvamuthukumar Subramanian


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology having developed exponentially, the aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for cancerous disease chemotherapy. Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. Shortcomings often came across with anticancer mixtures, such as poor solubility, normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and steadiness, as well as the high incidence rate of pharmaceutical resistance and the rapid degradation, need of large-scale output procedures, a fast release of the pharmaceutical from its carrier scheme, steadiness troubles, the residues of the organic solvents utilized in the output method and the toxicity from the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner.

  12. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G


    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...

  13. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    -binding cassette) transporters, which include MDR1, a protein that pumps xenobiotics from cells, and the SLC (solute carrier) trans- porters, which take up neurotransmitters, nutrients, heavy metals, and other substrates into ...

  14. Photoexcited Muon Spin Spectroscopy: A New Method for Measuring Excess Carrier Lifetime in Bulk Silicon. (United States)

    Yokoyama, K; Lord, J S; Miao, J; Murahari, P; Drew, A J


    We have measured excess carrier lifetime in silicon using photoexcited muon spin spectroscopy. Positive muons implanted deep in a wafer can interact with the optically injected excess carriers and directly probe the bulk carrier lifetime while minimizing the effect from surface recombination. The method is based on the relaxation rate of muon spin asymmetry, which depends on the excess carrier density. The underlying microscopic mechanism has been understood by simulating the four-state muonium model in Si under illumination. We apply the technique to different injection levels and temperatures, and demonstrate its ability for injection- and temperature-dependent lifetime spectroscopy.

  15. Stable wafer-carrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C


    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  16. On the correct interpretation of the low voltage regime in intrinsic single-carrier devices. (United States)

    Röhr, Jason A; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nelson, Jenny


    We discuss the approach of determining the charge-carrier density of a single-carrier device by combining Ohm's law and the Mott-Gurney law. We show that this approach is seldom valid, due to the fact that whenever Ohm's law is applicable the Mott-Gurney law is usually not, and vice versa. We do this using a numerical drift-diffusion solver to calculate the current density-voltage curves and the charge-carrier density, with increasing doping concentration. As this doping concentration is increased to very large values, using Ohm's law becomes a sensible way of measuring the product of mobility and doping density in the sample. However, in the high-doping limit, the current is no longer governed by space-charge and it will no longer be possible to determine the charge-carrier mobility using the Mott-Gurney law. This leaves the value for the mobility as an unknown in the mobility-doping density product in Ohm's law. We also show that, when the charge-carrier mobility for an intrinsic semiconductor is known in advance, the carrier density is underestimated up to many orders of magnitude if Ohm's law is used. We finally seek to establish a window of conditions where the two methods can be combined to yield reasonable results.

  17. On the correct interpretation of the low voltage regime in intrinsic single-carrier devices (United States)

    Röhr, Jason A.; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nelson, Jenny


    We discuss the approach of determining the charge-carrier density of a single-carrier device by combining Ohm’s law and the Mott-Gurney law. We show that this approach is seldom valid, due to the fact that whenever Ohm’s law is applicable the Mott-Gurney law is usually not, and vice versa. We do this using a numerical drift-diffusion solver to calculate the current density-voltage curves and the charge-carrier density, with increasing doping concentration. As this doping concentration is increased to very large values, using Ohm’s law becomes a sensible way of measuring the product of mobility and doping density in the sample. However, in the high-doping limit, the current is no longer governed by space-charge and it will no longer be possible to determine the charge-carrier mobility using the Mott-Gurney law. This leaves the value for the mobility as an unknown in the mobility-doping density product in Ohm’s law. We also show that, when the charge-carrier mobility for an intrinsic semiconductor is known in advance, the carrier density is underestimated up to many orders of magnitude if Ohm’s law is used. We finally seek to establish a window of conditions where the two methods can be combined to yield reasonable results.

  18. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  19. Carbon: Hydrogen Carrier or Disappearing Skeleton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Wechem, H.M.H. van


    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently

  20. Straddle carrier radiation portal monitoring (United States)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O. Dennis


    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  1. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta


    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  2. Carrier Induced Magnetism In Correlated Materials (United States)

    Lee, Byounghak; Trivedi, Nandini; Zhang, Shiwei; Martin, Richard


    We study a two dimensional Hubbard model with magnetic impurities using a combination of single particle and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. Our aim is to determine the interaction between magnetic ions in both strongly interacting hosts, such as magnetic perovskites, and weakly interacting hosts, such as magnetic semiconductors. In the first step, the interactions are treated within an inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock approach and self-consistency is demanded at each site, providing a more accurate treatment of disorder effects compared with other mean-field treatments such as virtual crystal and coherent potential approximations. These are then augmented with determinantal quantum Monte Carlo techniques that treat the electron interactions more accurately. We calculate the exchange coupling as a function of the magnetic impurity concentration, the repulsive electron-electron interaction, carrier concentration, and temperature. We compare the calculated local density of states with STM measurements and also obtain the ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  3. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.


    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  4. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  5. Carrier mobility and scattering lifetime in electric double-layer gated few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, E.; Galasso, S.; Tortello, M.; Nair, J.R.; Gerbaldi, C. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruna, M.; Borini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 10135 Torino (Italy); Daghero, D. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    Highlights: • We fabricated few-layer graphene FETs by mechanical exfoliation and standard microfabrication techniques. • We employed a Li-TFSI based ion gel to induce carrier densities as high as ≈6e14 e{sup −}/cm{sup 2} in the devices' channel. • We found a strong asymmetry in the sheet conductance and mobility doping dependences between electron and hole doping. • We combined the experimental results with ab initio DFT calculations to obtain the average scattering lifetime of the charge carriers. • We found that the increase in the carrier density and an unexpected increase in the density of charged scattering centers compete in determining the scattering lifetime. - Abstract: We fabricate electric double-layer field-effect transistor (EDL-FET) devices on mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene. We exploit the large capacitance of a polymeric electrolyte to study the transport properties of three, four and five-layer samples under a large induced surface charge density both above and below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. We find that the carrier mobility shows a strong asymmetry between the hole and electron doping regime. We then employ ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the average scattering lifetime from the experimental data. We explain its peculiar dependence on the carrier density in terms of the specific properties of the electrolyte we used in our experiments.

  6. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  7. Raman imaging of carrier distribution in the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Enokida, I.; Yamamoto, J.; Furukawa, Y.


    Raman images of carriers (positive polarons) at the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been measured with excitation at 785 nm. The observed spectra indicate that carriers generated are positive polarons. The intensities of the 1415 cm-1 band attributed to polarons in the P3HT channel were plotted as Raman images; they showed the carrier density distribution. When the source-drain voltage VD is lower than the source-gate voltage VG (linear region), the carrier density was uniform. When VD is nearly equal to VG (saturation region), a negative carrier density gradient from the source electrode towards the drain electrode was observed. This carrier density distribution is associated with the observed current-voltage characteristics, which is not consistent with the "pinch-off" theory of inorganic semiconductor transistors.



    Santoro, Marco; Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.


    The ability of gelatin to form complexes with different drugs has been investigated for controlled release applications. Gelatin parameters, such as crosslinking density and isoelectric point, have been tuned in order to optimize gelatin degradation and drug delivery kinetics. In recent years, focus has shifted away from the use of gelatin in isolation towards the modification of gelatin with functional groups and the fabrication of material composites with embedded gelatin carriers. In this ...

  9. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from characterizing human genomic variation in South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, especially with regards to health applications. Genomic diversity in this region is indeed relatively under-studied despite being home to ...

  10. Carrier multiplication in germanium nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; de Weerd, C.; Stallinga, P.; Spoor, F.C.M.; Houtepen, A.J.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Carrier multiplication is demonstrated in a solid-state dispersion of germanium nanocrystals in a silicon-dioxide matrix. This is performed by comparing ultrafast photo-induced absorption transients at different pump photon energies below and above the threshold energy for this process. The average

  11. Effect of carrier relaxation lifetime on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa


    The effect of carrier relaxation process into the quantum dash (Qdash) ground state (GS) is examined theoretically by carrier-photon rate equation model incorporating the inhomogeneous broadening. Increase in the relaxation time and the inhomogeneous broadening degrades the threshold current density. Moreover, our results show that a relaxation time of less than 2 ps gives optimum laser performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Mathematical analysis of the Photovoltage Decay (PVD) method for minority carrier lifetime measurements (United States)

    Vonroos, O. H.


    When the diffusion length of minority carriers becomes comparable with or larger than the thickness of a p-n junction solar cell, the characteristic decay of the photon-generated voltage results from a mixture of contributions with different time constants. The minority carrier recombination lifetime tau and the time constant l(2)/D, where l is essentially the thickness of the cell and D the minority carrier diffusion length, determine the signal as a function of time. It is shown that for ordinary solar cells (n(+)-p junctions), particularly when the diffusion length L of the minority carriers is larger than the cell thickness l, the excess carrier density decays according to exp (-t/tau-pi(2)Dt/4l(2)), tau being the lifetime. Therefore, tau can be readily determined by the photovoltage decay method once D and L are known.

  13. Low Bone Density (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  14. Proteomic analysis of high-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, Farhad; Casetta, Bruno; Levels, J. Han M.; Speijer, Dave; Meijers, Joost C. M.


    Plasma lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), can serve as carriers for a wide range of proteins that are involved in processes such as lipid metabolism, thrombosis, inflammation and atherosclerosis. The identification of HDL-associated proteins is essential with regards to

  15. Efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.


    A comparative study of the efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers for the quantitative spectrographic analysis of Ag, Al, B, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, V and Zn in uranium-base materials is presented. The volatility behavior of the eighteen elements is verified by means of the moving plate technique and each of the mentioned carriers. The best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 , 6% AgCl and 5% NaF in a U 3 O 8 matrix. The sensitivities for some elements were extended to fractions of p.p.m. The precision, accuracy and acceptability of the method are calculated for all elements. The total error values as approximately in the range of 16-45% [pt

  16. At What Cost a Carrier? (United States)


    unmanned aircra" – generally described as UCAVs , for “unmanned combat aerial vehicles” – as well as submarines in combination with long- range precision...means of operational e!ectiveness in the future. The Way Forward All these factors indicate that a turn toward UCAVs is long overdue. #e advent of...18 in accelerating the development and production of a UCAV that could operate both from large carriers and from smaller, less expensive, light

  17. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty. (United States)


    ... foreign air carrier from liability for violations of the statute, nor shall the filing of a tariff, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier's duty. 221.2 Section 221.2... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.2 Carrier's duty. (a) Must file tariffs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  18. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4... REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large aircraft... large aircraft, an air carrier shall not limit its liability for provable direct or consequential...

  19. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large...

  20. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E


    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  1. SiNx layers on nanostructured Si solar cells: Effective for optical absorption and carrier collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong


    We compared nanopatterned Si solar cells with and without SiN x layers. The SiN x layer coating significantly improved the internal quantum efficiency of the nanopatterned cells at long wavelengths as well as short wavelengths, whereas the surface passivation helped carrier collection of flat cells mainly at short wavelengths. The surface nanostructured array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range. Resulting high density of the photo-excited carriers near the surface could lead to significant recombination loss and the SiN x layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured solar cells

  2. Cooling of photoexcited carriers in graphene by internal and substrate phonons (United States)

    Low, Tony; Perebeinos, Vasili; Kim, Raseong; Freitag, Marcus; Avouris, Phaedon


    We investigate the energy relaxation of hot carriers produced by photoexcitation of graphene through coupling to both intrinsic and remote (substrate) surface polar phonons using the Boltzmann equation approach. We find that the energy relaxation of hot photocarriers in graphene on commonly used polar substrates, under most conditions, is dominated by remote surface polar phonons. We also calculate key characteristics of the energy relaxation process, such as the transient cooling time and steady-state carrier temperatures and photocarrier densities, which determine the thermoelectric and photovoltaic photoresponse, respectively. Substrate engineering can be a promising route to efficient optoelectronic devices driven by hot carrier dynamics.

  3. Red-shifted carrier multiplication energy threshold and exciton recycling mechanisms in strongly interacting silicon nanocrystals. (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Govoni, Marco; Ossicini, Stefano


    We present density functional theory calculations of carrier multiplication properties in a system of strongly coupled silicon nanocrystals. Our results suggest that nanocrystal-nanocrystal interaction can lead to a reduction of the carrier multiplication energy threshold without altering the carrier multiplication efficiency at high energies, in agreement with experiments. The time evolution of the number of electron-hole pairs generated in a system of strongly interacting nanocrystals upon absorption of high-energy photons is analyzed by solving a system of coupled rate equations, where exciton recycling mechanisms are implemented. We reconsider the role played by Auger recombination which is here accounted also as an active, nondetrimental process.

  4. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers. Regardless...

  5. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  6. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  7. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  8. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  9. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  10. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  11. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)


    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  12. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.


    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  13. Influence of ultrafast carrier dynamics on semiconductor absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ouerdane, H


    set of coupled rate equations. We obtained a good qualitative agreement with experiments and further insight into the interplay between the various dynamical processes by varying the phenomenological parameters entering the rate equations. In particular we found that the carrier spin-flip occurs on a relatively long time scale (several tens of picoseconds) compared to the carrier distributions relaxation and thermalization (a picosecond or less). We also could monitor the time evolution of the plasma density, energy, temperature and screening. In this thesis, we also studied the photoluminescence in II-VI quantum wells at room temperature. We built a mathematical model to account for Coulomb correlations that are expected to strongly influence the spontaneous emission rate in these materials. We assumed the 1s exciton-free electron scattering to be the main process leading an exciton to the photon line before recombination. The excitonic wavefunctions in a 2D screened Coulomb potential were calculated using t...

  14. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.


    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  15. Density games. (United States)

    Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A


    The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko


    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  17. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.


    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  18. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers


    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar


    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  19. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F


    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  20. Cyclodextrins in drug carrier systems. (United States)

    Uekama, K; Otagiri, M


    One of the important characteristics of cyclodextrins is the formation of an inclusion complex with a variety of drug molecules in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of intensive basic research, exhaustive toxic studies, and realization of industrial production during the past decade, there seem to be no more barriers for the practical application of natural cyclodextrins in the biomedical field. Recently, a number of cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclodextrin polymers have been prepared to obtain better inclusion abilities than parent cyclodextrins. The natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been successfully utilized to improve various drug properties, such as solubility, dissolution and release rates, stability, or bioavailability. In addition, the enhancement of drug activity, selective transfer, or the reduction of side effects has been achieved by means of inclusion complexation. The drug-cyclodextrin complex is generally formed outside of the body and, after administration, it dissociates, releasing the drug into the organism in a fast and nearly uniform manner. In the biomedical application of cyclodextrins, therefore, particular attention should be directed to the magnitude of the stability constant of the inclusion complex. In the case of parenteral application, a rather limited amount of work has been done because the cyclodextrins in the drug carrier systems have to be more effectively designed to compete with various biological components in the circulatory system. However, the works published thus far apparently indicate that the inclusion phenomena of cyclodextrin analogs may allow the rational design of drug formulation and that the combination of molecular encapsulation with other carrier systems will become a very effective and valuable method for the development of a new drug delivery system in the near future.

  1. Enhancing Charge Carrier Lifetime in Metal Oxide Photoelectrodes through Mild Hydrogen Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Ji-Wook


    Widespread application of solar water splitting for energy conversion is largely dependent on the progress in developing not only efficient but also cheap and scalable photoelectrodes. Metal oxides, which can be deposited with scalable techniques and are relatively cheap, are particularly interesting, but high efficiency is still hindered by the poor carrier transport properties (i.e., carrier mobility and lifetime). Here, a mild hydrogen treatment is introduced to bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), which is one of the most promising metal oxide photoelectrodes, as a method to overcome the carrier transport limitations. Time-resolved microwave and terahertz conductivity measurements reveal more than twofold enhancement of the carrier lifetime for the hydrogen-treated BiVO4, without significantly affecting the carrier mobility. This is in contrast to the case of tungsten-doped BiVO4, although hydrogen is also a donor type dopant in BiVO4. The enhancement in carrier lifetime is found to be caused by significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation or reduction of deep trap states related to vanadium antisite on bismuth or vanadium interstitials according to density functional theory calculations. Overall, these findings provide further insights on the interplay between defect modulation and carrier transport in metal oxides, which benefit the development of low-cost, highly-efficient solar energy conversion devices.

  2. Dependence of Ideality Factor in Lateral PNP Transistors on Surface Carrier Concentration (United States)

    Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Galloway, Kenneth F.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Liu, Chaoming


    The influence of surface carrier concentration on the ideality factor of excess base current (ΔIB) in gated lateral PNP (GLPNP) bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) induced by 1-MeV electrons is investigated. ΔIB in LPNP BJTs is impacted by the surface carrier density and radiation-induced interface traps. In GLPNP BJTs, the surface carrier concentration can be controlled by the voltage applied to a gate over the base region. The ideality factor changes after irradiation, and its dependence on emitter-base voltage (VEB) is a function of gate voltage. For the irradiated devices, as the gate voltage decreases from +20 to -5 V, the ideality factor for excess base current changes from a single slope to two-slope behavior. The majority carrier concentration at the surface of the base, controlled by the gate voltage, impacts the excess base current and its ideality factor.

  3. Electrical characteristics and hot carrier effects in quantum well solar cells (United States)

    Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Lombez, Laurent; Gibelli, Francois; Paire, Myriam; Boyer-Richard, Soline; Durand, Olivier; Guillemoles, Jean-François


    We report on the opto-electrical characterization of quantum-well solar cells designed for generation of hot carriers. Short-circuit current is proportional to laser power in the entire range. Population density, temperature and quasi-Fermi level splitting of photo-generated confined carriers are investigated by fitting the full luminescence spectra using generalized Planck's law. The energy-dependent absorptivity is identified to obtain good fit accuracy and takes into account the absorption of excitons and free carriers in the quantum well. Furthermore, electrical injection and extraction across the barriers modify the temperature of the quantum well carrier population linearly, hinting at the role of barriers as semi-selective high-energy contact.

  4. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization (United States)

    Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas


    Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

  5. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  6. Hot Carrier-Assisted Intrinsic Photoresponse in Graphene (United States)

    Gabor, Nathaniel; Song, Justin; Ma, Qiong; Nair, Nityan; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Levitov, Leonid; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo


    Graphene is considered an excellent candidate for photodetection and energy harvesting applications due to its broadband optical response and high internal quantum efficiency, yet measurements have not clearly determined the photocurrent generation mechanism. Here, we report on the intrinsic photoresponse of dual-gated monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junction devices. Local laser excitation of wavelength 850 nm at the p-n interface leads to striking six-fold photovoltage patterns as a function of bottom- and top-gate voltages. These patterns, together with the measured spatial and density dependence of the photoresponse, provide strong evidence that non-local hot carrier transport, rather than the photovoltaic effect, dominates the intrinsic photoresponse in graphene [1,2] The hot carrier regime manifests as a strong photo-thermoelectric effect in which the photogenerated carrier population remains hot while the lattice stays cool. [1] Science v. 334, p. 648-652 (2011). [2] Nano Lett. ASAP 10.1021/nl202318u (2011).

  7. Spin-polarization dependent carrier recombination dynamics and spin relaxation mechanism in asymmetrically doped (110) n-GaAs quantum wells (United States)

    Teng, Lihua; Jiang, Tianran; Wang, Xia; Lai, Tianshu


    Carrier recombination and electron spin relaxation dynamics in asymmetric n-doped (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells are investigated with time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiment results reveal that the measured carrier recombination time depends strongly on the polarization of pump pulse. With the same pump photon flux densities, the recombination time of spin-polarized carriers is always longer than that of the spin-balanced carriers except at low pump photon flux densities, this anomaly originates from the polarization-sensitive nonlinear absorption effect. Differing from the traditional views, in the low carrier density regime, the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) mechanism can be more important than the Bir-Aronov-Pikus (BAP) mechanism, since the DP mechanism takes effect, the spin relaxation time in (110) GaAs QWs is shortened obviously via asymmetric doping.

  8. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  9. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project (United States)


    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  10. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian


    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  11. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian


    system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...... using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid...

  12. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any submitting... unauthorized carrier, the subscriber is absolved of liability for charges imposed by the unauthorized carrier...

  13. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)


    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  14. Carrier Mobility-Dominated Gas Sensing: A Room-Temperature Gas-Sensing Mode for SnO2 Nanorod Array Sensors. (United States)

    Xu, Shipu; Zhao, Huaping; Xu, Yang; Xu, Rui; Lei, Yong


    Adsorption-induced change of carrier density is presently dominating inorganic semiconductor gas sensing, which is usually operated at a high temperature. Besides carrier density, other carrier characteristics might also play a critical role in gas sensing. Here, we show that carrier mobility can be an efficient parameter to dominate gas sensing, by which room-temperature gas sensing of inorganic semiconductors is realized via a carrier mobility-dominated gas-sensing (CMDGS) mode. To demonstrate CMDGS, we design and prepare a gas sensor based on a regular array of SnO 2 nanorods on a bottom film. It is found that the key for determining the gas-sensing mode is adjusting the length of the arrayed nanorods. With the change in the nanorod length from 340 to 40 nm, the gas-sensing behavior changes from the conventional carrier-density mode to a complete carrier-mobility mode. Moreover, compared to the carrier density-dominating gas sensing, the proposed CMDGS mode enhances the sensor sensitivity. CMDGS proves to be an emerging gas-sensing mode for designing inorganic semiconductor gas sensors with high performances at room temperature.

  15. Optimal carrier frequency assignments for a two-carrier-level SCPS system (United States)

    Vuong, X. T.; Forsey, R. J.

    A two-carrier-level SCPC system may occur in a star network where one master station (hub) with large G/T communicates with many remote stations with small G/T via one satellite transponder. By properly assigning the frequencies of carriers passing through the transponder, one can reduce and balance the relative intermodulation power levels falling into the SCPC channels. Through computer simulation, optimal carrier frequency assignments are found for four different criteria of optimality. The optimal assignments vary with respect to the difference in the two levels of carrier output power. All four criteria provide the conclusion that when the difference is around 3 dB, the assignment with small carriers stacked in the middle is best; and, when the difference is large (greater than 6 dB) the assignment with large carriers and small carriers alternated is best.

  16. Carrier-Controlled Ferromagnetism in SrTiO_{3}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Moetakef


    Full Text Available Magnetotransport and superconducting properties are investigated for uniformly La-doped SrTiO_{3} films and GdTiO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} heterostructures, respectively. GdTiO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interfaces exhibit a high-density 2D electron gas on the SrTiO_{3} side of the interface, while, for the SrTiO_{3} films, carriers are provided by the dopant atoms. Both types of samples exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures, as evidenced by a hysteresis in the magnetoresistance. For the uniformly doped SrTiO_{3} films, the Curie temperature is found to increase with doping and to coexist with superconductivity for carrier concentrations on the high-density side of the superconducting dome. The Curie temperature of the GdTiO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} heterostructures scales with the thickness of the SrTiO_{3} quantum well. The results are used to construct a stability diagram for the ferromagnetic and superconducting phases of SrTiO_{3}.

  17. Carrier transport in amorphous silicon utilizing picosecond photoconductivity (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.


    The development of a high-speed electronic measurement capability permitted the direct observation of the transient photoresponse of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with a time resolution of approximately 10ps. This technique was used to measure the initial mobility of photogenerated (2.1eV) free carriers in three types of a-Si having widely different densities of structural defects (i.e., as prepared by: (1) RF glow discharge (a-Si:H); (2) chemical vapor deposition; and (3) evaporation in ultra-high vacuum). In all three types of a-Si, the same initial mobility of approximately 1 cu cm/Vs at room temperature was found. This result tends to confirm the often-made suggestion that the free carrier mobility is determined by the influence of shallow states associated with the disorder in the random atomic network, and is an intrinsic property of a-Si which is unaffected by the method of preparation. The rate of decay of the photocurrent correlates with the density of structural defects and varies from 4ps to 200ps for the three types of a-Si investigated. The initial mobility of a-Si:H was found to be thermally activated. The possible application of extended state transport controlled by multiple trapping and small polaron formation is discussed.

  18. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1415 (United States)


    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V{sub 2}) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  19. Simultaneous determination of effective carrier lifetime and resistivity of Si wafers using the nonlinear nature of photocarrier radiometric signals (United States)

    Sun, Qiming; Melnikov, Alexander; Wang, Jing; Mandelis, Andreas


    A rigorous treatment of the nonlinear behavior of photocarrier radiometric (PCR) signals is presented theoretically and experimentally for the quantitative characterization of semiconductor photocarrier recombination and transport properties. A frequency-domain model based on the carrier rate equation and the classical carrier radiative recombination theory was developed. The derived concise expression reveals different functionalities of the PCR amplitude and phase channels: the phase bears direct quantitative correlation with the carrier effective lifetime, while the amplitude versus the estimated photocarrier density dependence can be used to extract the equilibrium majority carrier density and thus, resistivity. An experimental ‘ripple’ optical excitation mode (small modulation depth compared to the dc level) was introduced to bypass the complicated ‘modulated lifetime’ problem so as to simplify theoretical interpretation and guarantee measurement self-consistency and reliability. Two Si wafers with known resistivity values were tested to validate the method.

  20. Carrier testing for autosomal-recessive disorders. (United States)

    Vallance, Hilary; Ford, Jason


    The aim of carrier testing is to identify carrier couples at risk of having offspring with a serious genetic (autosomal recessive) disorder. Carrier couples are offered genetic consultation where their reproductive options, including prenatal diagnosis, are explained. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is at increased risk for several recessively inherited disorders (Tay-Sachs disease, Cystic fibrosis, Canavan disease, Gaucher disease, Familial Dysautonomia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, and Bloom syndrome). Unlike Tay-Sachs disease, there is no simple biochemical or enzymatic test to detect carriers for these other disorders. However, with the rapid identification of disease-causing genes in recent years, DNA-based assays are increasingly available for carrier detection. Approximately 5% of the world's population carries a mutation affecting the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule. Among the most common of these disorders are the thalassemias. The global birth rate of affected infants is at least 2 per 1000 (in unscreened populations), with the greatest incidence in Southeast Asian, Indian, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern ethnic groups. Carriers are detected by evaluation of red cell indices and morphology, followed by more sophisticated hematological testing and molecular analyses. The following issues need to be considered in the development of a carrier screening program: (1) test selection based on disease severity and test accuracy; (2) funding for testing and genetic counselling; (3) definition of the target population to be screened; (4) development of a public and professional education program; (5) informed consent for screening; and (6) awareness of community needs.

  1. A complete multifluid model for bipolar semiconductors, with interacting carriers, phonons, and photons (United States)

    Rossani, A.


    If electrons (e) and holes (h) in metals or semiconductors are heated to the temperatures T_e and T_h greater than the lattice temperature, the electron-phonon interaction causes energy relaxation. In the non-uniform case a momentum relaxation occurs as well. In view of such an application, a new model, based on an asymptotic procedure for solving the kinetic equations of carriers, phonons, and photons, is proposed, which gives naturally the displaced Maxwellian at the leading order. Several generation-recombination (GR) events occur in bipolar semiconductors. In the presence of photons the most important ones are the radiative GR events, direct, indirect, and exciton-catalyzed. Phonons and photons are treated here as a participating species, with their own equation. All the phonon-photon interactions are accounted for. Moreover, carrier-photon (Compton) interactions are introduced, which make complete the model. After that, balance equations for the electron number, hole number, energy densities, and momentum densities are constructed, which constitute now a system of macroscopic equations for the chemical potentials (carriers), the temperatures (carriers and bosons), and the drift velocities (carriers and bosons). In the drift-diffusion approximation the constitutive laws are derived and the Onsager relations recovered, even in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  2. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao


    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  3. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. (United States)

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Limpens, Rens; Chung, Nguyen Xuan; Schall, Peter; Gregorkiewicz, Tom


    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel, purely spectroscopic approach for investigation of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. Applying this method to silicon nanocrystals in an oxide matrix, we obtain an unambiguous spectral signature of the carrier multiplication process and reveal details of its size-dependent characteristics-energy threshold and efficiency. The proposed method is generally applicable and suitable for both solid state and colloidal samples, as well as for a great variety of different materials.

  4. Tunable carrier multiplication and cooling in graphene. (United States)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Crepaldi, Alberto; Cilento, Federico; Zacchigna, Michele; Miwa, Jill A; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; King, Phil D C; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip


    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly (n-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors (>3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less (p-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

  5. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel Maxwell,


    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  6. Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narducci, Dario, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)


    Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

  7. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : second quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  8. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : first quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  9. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : third quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  10. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : fourth quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  11. Maryland motor carrier program performance enhancement. (United States)


    Using the inspection summary data (24-1 reports) from SHA for years 2006 to 2010 and inspection and violation : files of Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) for the same years, the Maryland State Police : (MSP) and Maryland Transporta...

  12. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian


    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  13. Multiple sclerosis in an adrenoleukodystrophy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jenkins


    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a rare inherited metabolic disorder, in which accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs results in damage to the central nervous system. As the disease is X-linked, males are affected severely, but female carriers may also present with neurological symptoms. We report the case of a young adult female, who presented with episodic sensorimotor symptoms. Although she was a heterozygous female carrier of X-ALD, subsequent investigations confirmed a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a female X-ALD carrier in which the clinical features were more consistent with co-existent MS than ALD-related pathology. The case serves as a reminder that alternative, more common diagnoses should also be considered in carriers of rare neurological syndromes.

  14. What It Means to be a Carrier (United States)

    ... begins the process with medical tests for any infectious diseases, RH type, thyroid and general health screening, etc. The egg donors go through their own screening, which includes hormone levels, genetic screening usually including FMR1 screening, and other carrier ...

  15. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...

  16. China’s Aircraft Carrier Dilemma (United States)


    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...When it comes to obtaining a working carrier, China has several options, but each largely limits what the carrier could be used for. Buying a big -deck...nothing developed from them. Empresa Nacional Bazán, which merged with Astilleros Españoles S.A. (AESA) to form Navantia in 2000, reportedly attempted

  17. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National...

  18. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  19. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  20. Sequence anatomy of mitochondrial anion carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Ježek, Jan


    Roč. 534, 1-3 (2003), s. 15-25 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial anion carriers * carrier genomics * bioinformatics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2003

  1. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Espinosa-Gongora

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming.

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric operation of NiO/GaN heterojunction generator by suppressed internal carrier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Ha, Jun-Seok


    A NiO/GaN heterojunction piezoelectric generator was fabricated, and the improvement in device performance was analyzed. The electrical properties of NiO were varied by regulating the gas environment during sputtering. An optimized NiO layer was adopted for high piezoelectric voltage generation. Internal carrier screening was revealed to be the dominant mechanism degrading the piezoelectric performance, necessitating the suppression of carrier screening. The highly resistive NiO layer was advantageous in the suppression of carrier transport across the junction that screened the piezoelectric field. The maximum piezoelectric voltage and current density values obtained were 7.55 V and 1.14 µ A cm −2 , respectively. The power obtained was sufficient to operate a light-emitting diode combined with a charging circuit. (paper)

  3. Auger-Limited Carrier Recombination and Relaxation in CdSe Colloidal Quantum Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghani, Erfan; O’Leary, Stephen K.; Fedin, Igor; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Pelton, Matthew


    Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we show that two-exciton Auger recombination dominates carrier recombination and cooling dynamics in CdSe nanoplatelets, or colloidal quantum wells. The electron-hole recombination rate depends only on the number of electron-hole pairs present in each nanoplatelet, and is consistent with a twoexciton recombination process over a wide range of exciton densities. The carrier relaxation rate within the conduction and valence bands also depends only on the number of electron-hole pairs present, apart from an initial rapid decay, and is consistent with the cooling rate being limited by reheating due to Auger recombination processes. These Auger-limited recombination and relaxation dynamics are qualitatively different from the carrier dynamics in either colloidal quantum dots or epitaxial quantum wells. TOC FIGURE:

  4. Low-Temperature Carrier Transport in Ionic-Liquid-Gated Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon (United States)

    Sasama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko


    We fabricated ionic-liquid-gated field-effect transistors on the hydrogen-terminated (111)-oriented surface of undoped silicon. Ion implantation underneath electrodes leads to good ohmic contacts, which persist at low temperatures down to 1.4 K. The sheet resistance of the channel decreases by more than five orders of magnitude as the gate voltage is changed from 0 to -1.6 V at 220 K. This is caused by the accumulation of hole carriers. The sheet resistance shows thermally activated behavior at temperatures below 10 K, which is attributed to hopping transport of the carriers. The activation energy decreases towards zero with increasing carrier density, suggesting the approach to an insulator-metal transition. We also report the variation of device characteristics induced by repeated sweeps of the gate voltage.

  5. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  6. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang


    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  7. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.


    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  8. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief. (United States)


    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  9. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records. (United States)


    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  10. Measuring Charge Carrier Diffusion in Coupled Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David


    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Photoconductor-metal contact at higher densities. (United States)

    Dussel, G. A.; Boer, K. W.; Stirn, R. J.


    The formation of space charge in the barrier region is discussed. This region extends to a distance, x-sub o, equal to 200 A plus twice the mean free path of majority carriers. The conventional transport equation can be used only for x greater than x-sub o, and the carrier density at x-sub o represents a boundary condition for the bulk. Its change as a function of applied voltage, temperature, and light intensity in photoconducting CdS is discussed. The time dependence of the space-charge formation in the region between 0 and x-sub o is analyzed. It is shown under which conditions the individuality of the metal contact is observable.

  12. Charge density glass from fictions to facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail:; Staresinic, D.; Dominko, D. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Lasjaunias, J.C. [Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)


    Thirty years ago Fukuyama [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 45 (1978) 1474] predicted a transition from charge density wave (CDW) state to the charge density glass (CDG) at a finite temperature as the consequence of the competition between the uniform commensurability pinning and the random impurity pinning. We present strong evidence that the CDG phase indeed exists as a generic feature of density wave systems. However, it arises from the competition of the random impurity pinning and the electrostatic intra-CDW interaction which tends to establish a uniform phase at low temperature. The glass transition occurs at the temperature at which the free carriers cannot efficiently screen the phase distortions. The characteristic length scale of the disorder, i.e. the size of the phase coherent domains, governs the glass properties.

  13. Charge density glass from fictions to facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljakovic, K.; Staresinic, D.; Dominko, D.; Lasjaunias, J.C.


    Thirty years ago Fukuyama [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 45 (1978) 1474] predicted a transition from charge density wave (CDW) state to the charge density glass (CDG) at a finite temperature as the consequence of the competition between the uniform commensurability pinning and the random impurity pinning. We present strong evidence that the CDG phase indeed exists as a generic feature of density wave systems. However, it arises from the competition of the random impurity pinning and the electrostatic intra-CDW interaction which tends to establish a uniform phase at low temperature. The glass transition occurs at the temperature at which the free carriers cannot efficiently screen the phase distortions. The characteristic length scale of the disorder, i.e. the size of the phase coherent domains, governs the glass properties

  14. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of In2S3 Thin Films. (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert F; Schaller, Richard D; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Martinson, Alex B F


    Indium sulfide (In2S3) is a promising absorber base for substitutionally doped intermediate band photovoltaics (IBPV); however, the dynamics of charge carriers traversing the electronic density of states that determine the optical and electronic response of thin films under stimuli have yet to be explored. The kinetics of photophysical processes in In2S3 grown by oxygen-free atomic layer deposition are deduced from photoconductivity, photoluminescence (PL), and transient absorption spectroscopy. We develop a map of excited-state dynamics for polycrystalline thin films including a secondary conduction band ∼2.1 eV above the first, plus sulfur vacancy and indium interstitial defect levels resulting in long-lived (∼100 ns) transients. Band-edge recombination produces PL and stimulated emission, which both intensify and red-shift as deposition temperature and grain size increase. The effect of rapid conduction band electron relaxation (In2S3-based absorbers is finally considered.


    Santoro, Marco; Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.


    The ability of gelatin to form complexes with different drugs has been investigated for controlled release applications. Gelatin parameters, such as crosslinking density and isoelectric point, have been tuned in order to optimize gelatin degradation and drug delivery kinetics. In recent years, focus has shifted away from the use of gelatin in isolation towards the modification of gelatin with functional groups and the fabrication of material composites with embedded gelatin carriers. In this review, we highlight some of the latest work being performed in these areas and comment on trends in the field. Specifically, we discuss gelatin modifications for immune system evasion, drug stabilization, and targeted delivery, as well as gelatin composite systems based on ceramics, naturally-occurring polymers, and synthetic polymers. PMID:24746627

  16. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek


    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  17. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA


    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  18. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)


    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  19. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi


    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  20. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong


    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  1. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers. (United States)

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J


    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples.

  2. Low overhead slipless carrier phase estimation scheme. (United States)

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Kong, Deming; Zang, Jizhao; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong


    Two slipless schemes are compared with application to single carrier 30 Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system. An equivalent linewidth model considering the phase noise induced by both the laser linewidth and fiber nonlinearity is applied in the performance analysis. The simulation results show that it is possible to mitigate cycle slip (CS) using only 0.39% pilot overhead for the proposed blind carrier phase recovery (CPR) + pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU) scheme within 1 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty limit at the bit error ratio (BER) of 10(-3) with 4 MHz equivalent linewidth.


    Finzel, T.G.


    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  4. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne


    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi...

  5. Correlation between minority carrier diffusion length and microstructure in a-Si:H thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, G.; Fameli, G.; Nobile, G.; Rubino, A.; Terzini, E.; Villani, F.


    The aim of this work is to investigate the opto-electronic properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The deposition temperature was used as a driving force to modify the morphology and bonded hydrogen distribution. The influence of the hydrogen microstructure on the carrier m-t products was examined. The m-t products, for both carriers, were evaluated from the diffusion length measurement, by using the Steady State Photocarrier Grating (SSPG) technique, and from the photoconductivity in the steady state condition (SSPC). The m-t products were correlated with the defect density and Fermi level position. The effects of the defect density on the Fermi level position were examined within the framework of a defect pool model in order to justify the consistency of the results

  6. Power output and carrier dynamics studies of perovskite solar cells under working conditions. (United States)

    Yu, Man; Wang, Hao-Yi; Hao, Ming-Yang; Qin, Yujun; Fu, Li-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ai, Xi-Cheng


    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as promising photovoltaic systems with superb power conversion efficiency. For the practical application of perovskite devices, the greatest concerns are the power output density and the related dynamics under working conditions. In this study, the working conditions of planar and mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are simulated and the power output density evolutions with the working voltage are highlighted. The planar device exhibits higher capability of outputting power than the mesoscopic one. The transient photoelectric conversion dynamics are investigated under the open circuit, short circuit and working conditions. It is found that the power output and dynamic processes are correlated intrinsically, which suggests that the power output is the competitive result of the charge carrier recombination and transport. The present work offers a unique view to elucidating the relationship between the power output and the charge carrier dynamics for perovskite solar cells in a comprehensive manner, which would be beneficial to their future practical applications.

  7. Laboratory Density Functionals


    Giraud, B. G.


    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  8. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang


    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  9. Band gap tunning in BN-doped graphene systems with high carrier mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.


    Using density functional theory, we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BN-doped graphene monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer systems. In addition, we address a superlattice of pristine and BN-doped graphene. Five doping levels between 12.5% and 75% are considered, for which we obtain band gaps from 0.02 eV to 2.43 eV. We demonstrate a low effective mass of the charge carriers.

  10. Hazard Assessment of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs) in Terrestrial Environment


    Zhang, Ya-Qi


    Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs) are part of a novel energy system that can efficiently and relatively safely store and transport hydrogen, which is a clean, high energy density fuel. LOHCs have high hydrogen holding capacities and are superior to most current energy sources, such as fossil fuels, because they have the potential to reduce CO2 emission and have advantages in operational and handling safety; they are also adaptable to renewable energy. Therefore, massive integration and...

  11. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.


    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  13. Nuclear Submarines and Aircraft Carriers | Radiation ... (United States)


    Nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers are powered by onboard nuclear reactors. Heat from the nuclear reaction makes the steam needed to power the submarine. When a nuclear vessel is taken out of service, its radioactive parts are disposed of and monitored.

  14. Air Carrier Industry Scheduled Service Traffic Stats. (United States)


    Effective October 2002, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) modified the T-100/T-100(f) Traffic Reporting System to remove the distinction between large and small aircraft. All U.S. certificated and commuter air carriers and all foreign air c...

  15. Physicochemical properties of nanostructured lipid carriers as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The melting point depression of NLC80 was 5.71°C below bulk lipid's melting point (61.56°C), while NLC20 exhibited two melting points at 54.80 and 59.10°C. ... Key words: Nanostructured lipid carriers, colloidal delivery system, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, highpressure homogenization, physicochemical properties.

  16. Polyamidoamines as Drug Carriers: Synthesis of Polymers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The versatile polymerization of bisacrylamides with mono- and difunctional amines, first investigated and greatly expanded in. Ferruti's laboratory,1–3 is utilized in the present project for the synthesis of macromolecular drug carriers. Specifically, we report on the preparation of linear polyamidoamines possessing primary ...

  17. Defined carriers for synthetic antigens: Hinge Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr


    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 68 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids and Proteins /9./. 08.08.2005-12.08.2005, Gert Lubec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : synthetic carrier * antigen * hinge peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, E.; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  19. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  20. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben


    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  1. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao


    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport technol...

  2. Different nanocrystal systems for carrier multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, X.C.


    Carrier multiplication is an important process which can enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic and electronic devices. To investigate this process, diverse experimental setups can be used; the thesis considers some particular artifacts which negatively impact the accuracy of the measurements, and

  3. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruhn, B.; Limpens, R.; Chung, N.X.; Schall, P.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel,

  4. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 471–481. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and refraction in core–shell silicon nanowires. SUNIL KUMAR1,∗, M KHORASANINEJAD2, M M ADACHI2,. K S KARIM2, S S SAINI2 and A K SOOD1. 1Department of Physics and Centre for Ultrafast Laser Applications, Indian Institute of Science,.

  5. Raman imaging of carrier distribution in the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). (United States)

    Wada, Y; Enokida, I; Yamamoto, J; Furukawa, Y


    Raman images of carriers (positive polarons) at the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been measured with excitation at 785 nm. The observed spectra indicate that carriers generated are positive polarons. The intensities of the 1415 cm -1 band attributed to polarons in the P3HT channel were plotted as Raman images; they showed the carrier density distribution. When the source-drain voltage V D is lower than the source-gate voltage V G (linear region), the carrier density was uniform. When V D is nearly equal to V G (saturation region), a negative carrier density gradient from the source electrode towards the drain electrode was observed. This carrier density distribution is associated with the observed current-voltage characteristics, which is not consistent with the "pinch-off" theory of inorganic semiconductor transistors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetism and superconductivity in a quasi-2D anisotropic system doped with charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palistrant, M. E., E-mail: [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)


    The theory of multiband superconducting systems with variable density of charge carriers is analyzed. The possibility of emergence of nonphonon high-temperature superconductivity due to the predominance of electron–electron interband interactions over intraband interactions, as well as due to the fact that the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of multiband systems in the superconducting phase differ qualitatively from those of single-band systems, is indicated. Phase transitions in a quasi-2D anisotropic medium upon a change in the carrier concentration, i.e., a transition from the commensurate to the incommensurate state of the spin density wave, are analyzed. Such a transition is observed when the Umklapp processes in the lattice structure are taken into account. These processes facilitate a deviation of wavevector Q of the spin density wave from 2k{sub F}, as well as a displacement of the bandgap relative to the Fermi surface. This leads to the generation of free charge carriers and the possibility of superconductivity. It is shown that superconductivity accompanies the magnetism. The conditions for the coexistence of these two phenomena are determined.

  7. Modulation Based on Probability Density Functions (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.


    A proposed method of modulating a sinusoidal carrier signal to convey digital information involves the use of histograms representing probability density functions (PDFs) that characterize samples of the signal waveform. The method is based partly on the observation that when a waveform is sampled (whether by analog or digital means) over a time interval at least as long as one half cycle of the waveform, the samples can be sorted by frequency of occurrence, thereby constructing a histogram representing a PDF of the waveform during that time interval.

  8. Time Resolved Studies of Carrier Dynamics in III -v Heterojunction Semiconductors. (United States)

    Westland, Duncan James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Picosecond time-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study transient processes in Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As/InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and in bulk Ga_{.47}In _{.53}As and GaSb. To facilitate the experimental studies, apparatus was constructed to allow the detection of transient luminescence with 3ps time resolution. A frequency upconversion technique was employed. Relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As by optic phonons has been investigated, and, at carrier densities ~3 times 10^{18}cm ^{-3} is found to be a considerably slower process than simple theory predicts. The discrepancy is resolved by the inclusion of a non-equilibrium population of longitudinal optic phonons in the theoretical description. Slow energy loss is also observed in a 154A MQW under similar conditions, but carriers are found to relax more quickly in a 14A MQW with a comparable repeat period. The theory of non-equilibrium mode occupation is modified to describe the case of a MQW and is found to agree with experiment. Carrier relaxation in GaSb is studied and the importance of occupation of the L _6 conduction band valley in this material is demonstrated. The ambipolar diffusion of a photoexcited carrier plasma through an InP capping layer was investigated using an optical time-of-flight technique. This experiment also enables the efficiency of carrier capture by a Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As quantum well to be determined. A capture time of 4ps was found.

  9. Agricultural Commodity and Utility Carriers Hours of Service Exemption Analysis. (United States)


    The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 compares the safety performance of agricultural and non-agricultural carriers for the period 2005 through 2008, and also examines two additional industries: livestock and utility carriers, whose operatio...

  10. 76 FR 6688 - Land Border Carrier Initiative Program (United States)


    ... 142 Administrative Practice and Procedure, Canada, Computer technology (Line release), Common carriers... industry partnership program under which participating land and rail commercial carriers would agree to... smuggled into the United States. Because CBP has developed a more comprehensive voluntary industry...

  11. A new technique for measurement of carrier thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study, K.T.


    Manufacturers of thallium-201 use the Rhodamine-B spot test for detection of ''carrier'' or elemental thallium. A more exacting and simpler quantitative technique for measuring carrier thallium is described and this spectrophotofluorometric technique takes advantage of thallium's fluorescence

  12. Future Road Density (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  13. Advanced carrier systems in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals: a review. (United States)

    Li, Danhui; Wu, Zimei; Martini, Nataly; Wen, Jingyuan


    Carrier systems refer to carrier vesicles such as liposomes, nano/microparticles, emulsions, etc., that are coupled with active agents and applied to products to achieve the promoted effects of the active ingredients. This article reviews the recent research on carrier systems, focusing on cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications; the pros and cons of each carrier system and products on the market utilizing the technologies are discussed.

  14. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu


    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  15. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  16. Carrier molecules for use in veterinary vaccines. (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Mutwiri, George; Richards, James; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Potter, Andrew A


    The practice of immunization of animals and humans has been carried out for centuries and is generally accepted as the most cost effective and sustainable method of infectious disease control. Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in our ability to produce antigens by conventional extraction and purification, recombinant DNA and synthesis. However, many of these products need to be combined with carrier molecules to generate optimal immune responses. This review covers selected topics in the development of carrier technologies for use in the veterinary vaccine field, including glycoconjugate and peptide vaccines, microparticle and nanoparticle formulations, and finally virus-like particles. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.


    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlizlo


    Full Text Available The new method for detection of cationic oligoelectrolytes conjugates with oligodeoxyonucleotides, based on free diffusion of these substances in 0.8% agarose gels is developed. It enables to simplify and reduce the cost of visual identification of the best carrier among various polymer compounds and to uncover the fact of complex formation between the interacting agents resulting in formation of a ring precipitation. The universality of the proposed methodological approach is confirmed by interaction of coligodeoxynucleotides with other cationic polymer of natural origin, namely chitosan. Comparative analysis of our approach applicationto turbidimetry data concerning coligodeoxynucleotides complexes and their electrophoresis showed some advantages, among them are the ability to screen simultaneously a large number of polymeric carriers and no need for using of more expensive equipment and materials. To conclude the complexing occurrence it is enough nanomol amounts of oligodeoxynucleotide.

  19. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz


    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  20. Crowding and Density (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972


    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  1. Density Functional Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1) The total energy of an electron system in an external potential is a unique functional of the total electron density; and. (2)The density that minimizes the energy is the ground-state density, and this minimum energy is the ground-state energy of the system.

  2. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg


    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  3. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee


    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE-Advanc...

  4. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status. (United States)


    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  5. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and...

  6. 27 CFR 20.201 - Liability and responsibility of carrier. (United States)


    ... Losses § 20.201 Liability and responsibility of carrier. (a) A person or carrier transporting specially... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability and responsibility of carrier. 20.201 Section 20.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  7. 27 CFR 22.121 - Liability and responsibility of carriers. (United States)


    ... § 22.121 Liability and responsibility of carriers. (a) A person or carrier transporting tax-free... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability and responsibility of carriers. 22.121 Section 22.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  8. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan


    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  9. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  10. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  11. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter


    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  12. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza


    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  13. Biofilm carrier migration model describes reactor performance. (United States)

    Boltz, Joshua P; Johnson, Bruce R; Takács, Imre; Daigger, Glen T; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Brockmann, Doris; Kovács, Róbert; Calhoun, Jason M; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Derlon, Nicolas


    The accuracy of a biofilm reactor model depends on the extent to which physical system conditions (particularly bulk-liquid hydrodynamics and their influence on biofilm dynamics) deviate from the ideal conditions upon which the model is based. It follows that an improved capacity to model a biofilm reactor does not necessarily rely on an improved biofilm model, but does rely on an improved mathematical description of the biofilm reactor and its components. Existing biofilm reactor models typically include a one-dimensional biofilm model, a process (biokinetic and stoichiometric) model, and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) mass balance that [when organizing CFSTRs in series] creates a pseudo two-dimensional (2-D) model of bulk-liquid hydrodynamics approaching plug flow. In such a biofilm reactor model, the user-defined biofilm area is specified for each CFSTR; thereby, X carrier does not exit the boundaries of the CFSTR to which they are assigned or exchange boundaries with other CFSTRs in the series. The error introduced by this pseudo 2-D biofilm reactor modeling approach may adversely affect model results and limit model-user capacity to accurately calibrate a model. This paper presents a new sub-model that describes the migration of X carrier and associated biofilms, and evaluates the impact that X carrier migration and axial dispersion has on simulated system performance. Relevance of the new biofilm reactor model to engineering situations is discussed by applying it to known biofilm reactor types and operational conditions.

  14. Carrier Dynamics in Narrow Gap Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (United States)

    Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Bhowmick, M.; Merritt, T.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Feeser, C.; Wessels, B. W.; McGill, S.


    Narrow gap ferromagnetic semiconductors are promising materials for spin photonic and spin transport devices because of their small effective masses, small energy gap, and high carrier mobility. We use time resolved differential transmission (TRDT) experiments to study carrier dynamics in ferromagnetic InMnAs and InMnSb. Electronic structure for InMnAs and InMnSb is calculated using an 8-band Pidgeon-Brown model generalized to include the effects of an external magnetic field. Our model includes the effects of the ferromagnetic Mn ions and their coupling to electrons and holes with or without an external magnetic field. Optical transitions are calculated from Fermi's Golden rule and interband transitions at a given pump or probe laser energy are identified. This allows us to understand a sign change seen in the TRDT. Our results show that 1) Phase-Space Filling, 2) Band Gap Renormalization and 3) Free Carrier Absorption all contribute to the TRDT and that the relative importance of these effects depends on the laser probe energy.

  15. Thermal detection of trapped charge carriers in organic transport materials (United States)

    von Malm, Norwin; Steiger, Juergen; Finnberg, Torsten; Schmechel, Roland; von Seggern, Heinz


    The effect of trap states on the transport and luminescence properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is studied. For trap level detection energy resolved thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements known as fractional glow are utilized to determine the density of occupied states (DOOS) in various organic semiconductors such as the small molecule systems Alq3 [aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)], 1-NaphDATA {4,4',4"-tris-[N-(1-naphtyl)-N-phenylamino]-triphenylamine} and α-NPD [N,N'-di-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine] and the polymeric semiconductor MDMO-PPV {poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]}. Characteristic differences in the trap spectra are obtained and interpreted in terms of possible structural and compositional origins of the investigated materials. In order to judge the formation process of traps and their practical consequences on the charge carrier transport I-V and L-V characteristics of 1-NaphDATA doped α-NPD devices and α-NPD doped 1-NaphDATA devices were compared to respective non-doped samples. A clearly reduced current and luminescence was found only in the former case. It was possible to conclude that the detected electronic trap states either act as hole traps or as scattering centers. Furthermore, pulsed transport studies on ITO/α-NPD/Alq3/Al devices show thte critical influence of traps on the dynamical performance of the charge transport. In a two-pulse experiment the carrier injection and trap depletion can be separated.

  16. Defects in AlSb: a density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Mao-Hua


    We carry out density functional calculations to study both intrinsic and extrinsic defects in AlSb. We focus on the carrier compensation and trapping properties of these defects, which are important to the radiation detection applications. We show that the Sb antisite is a low-energy defect, baring much similarity to the As antisite in GaAs. The SbAl is effective in compensating holes induced by the residual carbon, but is also a deep electron trap that reduces the carrier drifting length. We discuss the possibility of using hydrogenated isovalent N impurity in AlSb and GaAs to pin the Fermi level without causing efficient carrier trapping.

  17. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel


    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  18. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  19. Homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele show altered postprandial response in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, L; Hansen, T H; Mahendran, Y


    to CC carriers. Additionally, TT carriers had lower postprandial levels of total triglycerides (TG) (q = 0.03), VLDL-TG (q = 0.05, including medium, small and extra small, q = 0.048, q = 0.0009, q = 0.04, respectively), HDL-TG (triglycerides in high density lipoproteins q = 0.037) and S-HDL-TG (q = 0.......00003). In conclusion, TT carriers show altered postprandial triglyceride response, mainly influencing VLDL and HDL subclasses suggesting a genotype-mediated effect on hepatic lipid regulation....

  20. Impact of carrier doping on electrical properties of laser-induced liquid-phase-crystallized silicon thin films for solar cell application (United States)

    Umishio, Hiroshi; Matsui, Takuya; Sai, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takeaki; Matsubara, Koji


    Large-grain-size (>1 mm) liquid-phase-crystallized silicon (LPC-Si) films with a wide range of carrier doping levels (1016–1018 cm‑3 either of the n- or p-type) were prepared by irradiating amorphous silicon with a line-shaped 804 nm laser, and characterized for solar cell applications. The LPC-Si films show high electron and hole mobilities with maximum values of ∼800 and ∼200 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively, at a doping level of ∼(2–4) × 1016 cm‑3, while their carrier lifetime monotonically increases with decreasing carrier doping level. A grain-boundary charge-trapping model provides good fits to the measured mobility–carrier density relations, indicating that the potential barrier at the grain boundaries limits the carrier transport in the lowly doped films. The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of test LPC-Si solar cells depend strongly on the doping level, peaking at (2–5) × 1016 cm‑3. These results indicate that the solar cell performance is governed by the minority carrier diffusion length for the highly doped films, while it is limited by majority carrier transport as well as by device design for the lowly doped films.

  1. Excitation-Dependent Carrier lifetime and Diffusion Length in Bulk CdTe Determined by Time-Resolved Optical Pump-Probe Techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuciauskas, Darius [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scajev, Patrik [Vilnius University; Miasojedovas, Saulius [Vilnius University; Mekys, Algirdas [Vilnius University; Lynn, Kelvin G. [Washington State University; Swain, Santosh K. [Washington State University; Jarasiunas, Kestutis [Vilnius University


    We applied time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy based on free carrier absorption and light diffraction on a transient grating for direct measurements of the carrier lifetime and diffusion coefficient D in high-resistivity single crystal CdTe (codoped with In and Er). The bulk carrier lifetime t decreased from 670 +/-50 ns to 60 +/- 10 ns with increase of excess carrier density N from 10^16 to 5 x 10^18 cm-3 due to the excitation-dependent radiative recombination rate. In this N range, the carrier diffusion length dropped from 14 um to 6 um due to lifetime decrease. Modeling of in-depth (axial) and in-plane (lateral) carrier diffusion provided the value of surface recombination velocity S = 6 x 10^5 cm/s for the untreated surface. At even higher excitations, in the 10^19-3 x 10^20 cm-3 density range, D increase from 5 to 20 cm^2/s due to carrier degeneracy was observed.

  2. Photo-excited hot carrier dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon imaged by 4D electron microscopy (United States)

    Liao, Bolin; Najafi, Ebrahim; Li, Heng; Minnich, Austin J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.


    Charge carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors has been a topic of intense research that has been propelled by modern applications in thin-film solar cells, transistors and optical sensors. Charge transport in these materials differs fundamentally from that in crystalline semiconductors owing to the lack of long-range order and high defect density. Despite the existence of well-established experimental techniques such as photoconductivity time-of-flight and ultrafast optical measurements, many aspects of the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate direct imaging of carrier dynamics in space and time after photo-excitation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (SUEM). We observe an unexpected regime of fast diffusion immediately after photoexcitation, together with spontaneous electron-hole separation and charge trapping induced by the atomic disorder. Our findings demonstrate the rich dynamics of hot carrier transport in amorphous semiconductors that can be revealed by direct imaging based on SUEM.

  3. Differential carrier lifetime and transport effects in electrically injected III-nitride light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Rashidi, A.; Nami, M.; Monavarian, M.; Aragon, A.; DaVico, K.; Ayoub, F.; Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, S.; Rishinaramangalam, A.; Feezell, D.


    This work describes a small-signal microwave method for determining the differential carrier lifetime and transport effects in electrically injected InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By considering the carrier diffusion, capture, thermionic escape, and recombination, the rate equations are used to derive an equivalent small-signal electrical circuit for the LEDs, from which expressions for the input impedance and modulation response are obtained. The expressions are simultaneously fit to the experimental data for the input impedance and modulation response for nonpolar InGaN/GaN micro-LEDs on free-standing GaN substrates. The fittings are used to extract the transport related circuit parameters and differential carrier lifetimes. The dependence of the parameters on the device diameter and current density is reported. We also derive approximations for the modulation response under low and high injection levels and show that the transport of carriers affects the modulation response of the device, especially at low injection levels. The methods presented are relevant to the design of high-speed LEDs for visible-light communication.

  4. Magnetotransport of the low-carrier density one-dimensional = 1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Gegenwart1 H Aoki1 T Cichorek1 J Custers1 M Jaime2 A Ochiai3 F Steglich1. Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, D-01187 Dresden, Germany; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan ...

  5. Magnetotransport of the low-carrier density one-dimensional S = 1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    point and (2) an electron pocket centered ... The electrical resistivity ρ(T, B) was measured using the standard four-probe ac- method adapted ... 1.79. 2 K, 6 T. Figure 4. Isothermal dc magnetization M of polydomain Yb4As3 for magnetic fields. B applied along the cubic 〈111〉 direction at T = 2 K, measured with a commercial.

  6. Picosecond charge transport in rutile at high carrier densities studiedby transient terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Vít; Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr


    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 115206. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO 2 * rutile * ultrafast spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  7. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  8. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li


    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  9. Carrier confinement in Ge/Si quantum dots grown with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer (United States)

    Kuryliuk, V.; Korotchenkov, O.; Cantarero, A.


    We present computational results for strain effects on charge carrier confinement in GexSi1-x quantum dots (QDs) grown on an oxidized Si surface. The strain and free carrier probability density distributions are obtained using the continuum elasticity theory and the effective-mass approximation implemented by a finite-element modeling scheme. Using realistic parameters and conditions for hemisphere and pyramid QDs, it is pointed out that an uncapped hemisphere dot deposited on the Si surface with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer offers advantageous electron-hole separation distances with respect to a square-based pyramid grown directly on Si. The enhanced separation is associated with a larger electron localization depth in the Si substrate for uncapped hemisphere dots. Thus, for dot diameters smaller than 15-20 nm and surface density of the dots (nQD) ranging from about 1010 to 1012 cm-2, the localization depth may be enhanced from about 8 nm for a pyramid to 38 nm for a hemisphere dot. We find that the effect in a hemisphere dot is very sensitive to the dot density and size, whereas the localization depth is not significantly affected by the variation of the Ge fraction x in GexSi1-x and the aspect ratio of the dot. We also calculate the effect of the fixed oxide charge (Qox) with densities ranging from 10-9 to 10-7 C/cm2 for 10-Ωcm p-type Si wafers on the carrier confinement. Although the confinement potential can be strongly perturbed by the charge at nQD less than ≈4×1011 cm-2, it is not very sensitive to the value of Qox at higher nQD. Since, to our knowledge, there are no data on carrier confinement for Ge QDs deposited on oxidized Si surfaces, these results might be applicable to functional devices utilizing separated electrons and holes such as photovoltaic devices, spin transistors, and quantum computing components. The use of hemisphere QDs placed on oxidized Si rather than pyramid dots grown on bare Si may help to confine charge carriers deeper

  10. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown......Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...

  11. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety...

  12. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory...

  13. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... and sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  14. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.


    Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) have been extensively discussed in 3GPP to further enhance the system throughput of traditional well-planned macrocell deployment. In this paper, we consider a HetNet scenario consisting of macro eNBs and low-power nodes implemented as remote radio heads (RRHs......) or picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either...

  15. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.


    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  16. Why Density Dependent Propulsion? (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  17. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.


    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  18. Hydrogen, an energy carrier with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.H.


    The inefficient use, associated with pollutants, of the fossil energy carriers coal, crude oil and natural gas, will deplete resources, if the energy demand increases exponentially, in the not-too-distant future. That is the reason why the hydrogen-energy concept gains in importance. This requires drastic changes in structure in a lot of technological fields. This task is only to be mastered if there is cooperation between all special fields, in order to facilitate the economical production, distribution and utilization of hydrogen. (orig.) [de

  19. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.


    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  20. Carrier mobilities in microcrystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronger, T.; Carius, R.


    For a better understanding of electronic transport mechanisms in thin-film silicon solar cell quality films, we have investigated the Hall mobility for electrons in microcrystalline/amorphous silicon over a range of crystallinities and doping concentrations. We find that Hall mobility increases with increasing doping concentration in accordance with earlier measurements. With increasing amorphous fraction, the measured mobility decreases suggesting a negative influence of the additional disorder. The results suggest a differential mobility model in which mobility depends on the energy level of the carriers that contribute to the electrical current

  1. Influence of excitons interaction with charge carriers on photovoltaic parameters in organic solar cells (United States)

    Głowienka, Damian; Szmytkowski, Jędrzej


    We report on theoretical analysis of excitons annihilation on charge carriers in organic solar cells. Numerical calculations based on transient one-dimensional drift-diffusion model have been carried out. An impact of three quantities (an annihilation rate constant, an exciton mobility and a recombination reduction factor) on current density and concentrations of charge carriers and excitons is investigated. Finally, we discuss the influence of excitons interaction with electrons and holes on four photovoltaic parameters (a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor and a power conversion efficiency). The conclusion is that the annihilation process visibly decreases the efficiency of organic photocells, if the annihilation rate constant is greater than 10-15m3s-1 .

  2. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers. (United States)

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin


    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems.

  3. Carrier-carrier scattering in the gain dynamics of InxGa1-xAs/AlyGa1-yAs diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Gary D; Sun, C.-K.; Golubovic, B.


    for the carrier distributions using an adaptive Runge-Kutta routine. This procedure is less computationally intensive than a full Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the inclusion of carrier-carrier scattering improves previous results where only carrier-phonon scattering was included and that carrier...

  4. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sofou


    Full Text Available Stavroula SofouLaboratory for Drug Delivery Systems, Othmer-Jacobs Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, USAAbstract: This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.Keywords: cancer radiotherapy, targeted radiotherapy, radiotherapy of micrometastases, radiotherapy of solid tumors, radiotherapy of tumor vasculature

  5. Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier. (United States)

    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I


    When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway. A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.

  6. Efficient Carrier Multiplication in Colloidal Silicon Nanorods. (United States)

    Stolle, Carl Jackson; Lu, Xiaotang; Yu, Yixuan; Schaller, Richard D; Korgel, Brian A


    Auger recombination lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the quantum yields of carrier multiplication (CM), or multiexciton generation (MEG), were determined for solvent-dispersed silicon (Si) nanorods using transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Nanorods with an average diameter of 7.5 nm and aspect ratios of 6.1, 19.3, and 33.2 were examined. Colloidal Si nanocrystals of similar diameters were also studied for comparison. The nanocrystals and nanorods were passivated with organic ligands by hydrosilylation to prevent surface oxidation and limit the effects of surface trapping of photoexcited carriers. All samples used in the study exhibited relatively efficient photoluminescence. The Auger lifetimes increased with nanorod length, and the nanorods exhibited higher CM quantum yield and efficiency than the nanocrystals with a similar band gap energy E g . Beyond a critical length, the CM quantum yield decreases. Nanorods with the aspect ratio of 19.3 had the highest CM quantum yield of 1.6 ± 0.2 at 2.9E g , which corresponded to a multiexciton yield that was twice as high as observed for the spherical nanocrystals.

  7. Drug carrier in cancer therapy: A simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Dhahi, Th S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.


    The principle of magnetic carrier is a medium for transferring information by sending the drug to the specific part to kill tumor cells. Generally, there are seven stages of cancer. Most of the patient with cancer can only be detected when reaches stage four. At that stage, the cancer is difficult to destroy or to cure. Comparing to the nearly stage, there are probability to destroy tumor cell completely by sending the drug through magnetic carrier directly to nerve. Another way to destroyed tumor completely is by using Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This project is about the simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances. The COMSOL multiphysic software is used in this project. The simulation model represents a permanent magnet, blood vessel, surrounding tissues and air in 2D. Based on result obtained, the graph shown during sending the magnetic flux is high. However, as its carry information the magnetic flux reducess from the above, the move from 0m until 0.009 m it become the lowers and start increase the flux from this until maximum at 0.018m. This is due the fact that carrier start to increase after because the low information is gradually reduce until 0.018m.

  8. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (United States)


    ... of the other within the meaning of section 408 of the Act; (3) Has any of the interlocking relationships described in section 409 of the Act; (4) Is jointly controlled with the other carrier, directly or..., express, and cargo transportation; airport transportation and hotel accommodations; local advertising and...

  9. Features of charge carrier transport determined from carrier extraction current in .mu.c-Si:H

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juška, G.; Arlauskas, K.; Nekrašas, N.; Stuchlík, Jiří; Niquille, X.; Wyrsch, N.

    299-302, - (2002), s. 375-379 ISSN 0022-3093 Grant - others:VMSF(LT) 01SP-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mobility of majority carriers * photoconductivity transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2002

  10. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening (United States)

    Triggs-Raine, B. L.; Mules, E. H.; Kaback, M. M.; Lim-Steele, J. S. T.; Dowling, C. E.; Akerman, B. R.; Natowicz, M. R.; Grebner, E. E.; Navon, R.; Welch, J. P.; Greenberg, C. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Gravel, R. A.


    Deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. We analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C739-to-T substitution that changes Arg247→Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation on the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C739-to-T mutation. This allele accounted for 32% (20/62) of non-Jewish enzyme-defined Tay-Sachs disease carriers but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carriers who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C739-to-T allele, together with a “true” Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C739-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:1384323

  11. Enhancement of microalgal growth by using perfluorocarbon as oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wasanasathian, A; Peng, C A


    The contribution of green microalgae has been recognized in the production of useful products such as chemicals, fatty acids, proteins, carotenoids, pigments, polysaccharides, and pharmaceuticals. One of the challenges to the development of profitable bioproduct markets is the design, development, modeling, and evaluation of cost-effective production systems. The photobioreactors for microalgae can be either open or closed systems in large-scale production. In various situations, it has been reported that closed photobioreactors offer many advantages over open systems. These advantages include lower contamination, higher biomass densities, and better process control. Nevertheless, for the scale-up of enclosed tubular photobioreactors, the accumulation of oxygen as a photosynthetic byproduct has been a major limitation because it severely inhibits growth of microalgae. In this study, we use the distinctive feature of liquid perfluorocarbons (PFCs) as a carrier that efficiently removes the accumulated oxygen from algal medium phase in the spinner culture flasks. The results show the growth kinetics of microalgae cultivated by this approach is significantly improved.

  12. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov


    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  13. Carrier's Liability Insurance in the Function of Transportation Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Dalić


    Full Text Available The quality of transportation se1vices understands quickness,accuracy and safety at minimal costs for the carrier andthe service user. Possible emergency situations may bring substantialmaterial and business damage both to the service userand to the transportation service provider. Carrier's liability insurancegives the carrier security in case of evidenced full orpartial loss or damage of goods, as well as in case of delay in delivery.The insurance allows annulment of carrier's costs generatedby emergency situations which favourably affects the operationof transportation companies and allows maintenance ofthe quality of the carrier's se1vices. The work analyses the presenceof can·ier's liability insurance in the Republic of Croatia atfive insurance companies, through the analysis of the totalnumber of insurances and the number of insured vehicles, followingthe trend in this type of insurance and its influence onthe quality of the carrier services.

  14. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.


    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  15. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.


    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  16. Theoretical study of carrier transport and screening in topological insulator Bi2Se3 (United States)

    Adam, Shaffique; Hwang, E. H.; Stiles, M. D.; Das Sarma, S.


    This theoretical work is motivated by two recent experiments on Bi2Se3 examining the charge inhomogeneity [1-2] close to the topologically protected crossing point of surface bands in these bulk topological insulators. Reminiscent of graphene close to charge neutrality [3-4], the energy landscape becomes highly inhomogeneous, forming a sea of electron and hole puddles, which determine the properties at low carrier density. Here, we show that the induced carrier density fluctuations are of order 1 % of the impurity density, providing a small-parameter with which we can perform a controlled perturbation theory. Analytic results are obtained for the minimum conductivity and puddle auto-correlation length. We also find that the band asymmetry between electron and holes states is a necessary ingredient to understand the aforementioned experiments. References: [1] H. Beidenkopf et al, ``Spatial fluctuations of helical Dirac fermions on the surface of topological insulators,'' Nat. Phys. online publ., (2011) [2] D. Kim et al., ``Minimum conductivity and charge inhomogeneity in Bi2Se3,'' arXiv:1105.1410. [3] S. Adam et al., ``A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,'' PNAS 104, 18392 (2007). [4] S. Das Sarma et al., ``Electronic transport in 2D graphene,'' Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407 (2011).

  17. Charge carrier recombination in the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/Al photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jovana P.


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate charge carrier recombination processes in polymer based photodetector ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/Al. The major carriers are the hole polarons created by the photoexcitation in the active MEH-PPV film. The model used in this paper is based on the continuity equation and drift-diffusion equation for hole polarons. We assume the Poole-Frenkel expression for field dependence of the hole polaron mobility. The internal quantum efficiency dependence on incident photon flux density, incident light wavelength and applied electric field is included in the model. The simulated photocurrent density spectra for two different, assumed, recombination mechanisms, linear (monomolecular and square (bimolecular is compared with our experimental results. The bimolecular recombination mechanism applied in our model is assumed to be of Langevin type. The agreement between the measured and the calculated data unambiguously indicate that the hole polaron recombination mechanism in the MEH-PPV film is bimolecular with bimolecular rate constant depending on the external electric field. For the established recombination mechanism the theoretical prediction of the photocurrent density spectra shows excellent agreement with the measured spectra in wide range of inverse bias voltages (from 0 to -8 V.

  18. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  19. Insight into carrier lifetime impact on band-modulation devices (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Hyung Jin; Lacord, Joris; Martinie, Sébastien; Barbé, Jean-Charles; Xu, Yue; El Dirani, Hassan; Taur, Yuan; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline


    A systematic study to model and characterize the band-modulation Z2-FET device is developed bringing light to the relevance of the carrier lifetime influence. This work provides guidelines to optimize the Z2-FETs for sharp switching, ESD protection, and 1T-DRAM applications. Lower carrier lifetime in the Z2-FET helps in attaining the sharp switch. We provide new insights into the correlation between generation/recombination, diffusion, electrostatic barriers and carrier lifetime.

  20. Mechanism and application method to analyze the carrier scattering factor by electrical conductivity ratio based on thermoelectric property measurement (United States)

    Xu, Guiying; Ren, Pan; Lin, Tie; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yanhua; Niu, Sitong; Bailey, Trevor P.


    Carrier scattering factor is one of the most important parameters for semiconductors. In this paper, we propose the mechanism and the application method to analyze the carrier scattering factor(s) by comparing the ratios of electrical conductivity σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) vs. temperature T in the theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is demonstrated that σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) is only related to the carrier scattering factor when the density of states effective mass, m*, is assumed to be constant in small temperature ranges. Therefore, the carrier scattering factor dependence of the ratios of σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) can be used to pinpoint the carrier scattering mechanism. Taking Bi0.5Sb1.5Te2.7+xSe0.3 as an example, it is found that no matter what theoretical models for the Seebeck coefficient over a range of the reduced Fermi energy are used, the analysis results for the scattering mechanism are unique. The reason behind such an observation is that the ratio of σ(T)/σ(T0) is only dependent on the carrier scattering for a certain material. As such, we can neglect the effect of degeneracy on the carrier scattering mechanism, and select the simplest theoretical Seebeck coefficient model to estimate the scattering mechanism before the self-consistent η(T) (reduced Fermi level) is obtained. The effect of temperature dependence of the m*(T) on the σ(T)/σ(T0) is also discussed.

  1. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (United States)



  2. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu


    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  3. Block division carrier slot setting for satellite SCPC systems (United States)

    Yashima, Hiroyuki; Sasase, Iwao; Mori, Shinsaku


    A carrier slot setting plan is proposed to reduce intermodulation (IM) effects for satellite single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) systems. Carrier slots are divided into blocks and slight frequency gaps are set among blocks. This setting introduces frequency offset between the center frequencies of carrier slots and the center frequencies of the IM components. A method of deriving optimum division in order to derive the upper bound of improvement of the C/IM ratio in the worst channel is developed. The results show that the setting plan achieves significant improvement of IM effects at a cost of only slight bandwidth expansion, even in fully loaded SCPC systems.

  4. Carrier-mediated transport of peptides by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopicki, H.A.


    Small peptide transport was characterized to determine if: (1) Multiple carriers are present in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells; (2) Carrier-mediated peptide transport is limited by size; and (3) Gentamicin inhibits carrier-mediated reabsorption of peptides. Uptake of glycyl-[ 3 H]proline (Gly-Pro) into renal brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated a dual affinity carrier system. Whether multiple carriers are present was further investigated by characterizing the uptake of [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidine. To determine if carrier-mediated transport of peptides is limited by size of the molecule, uptake of the hydrolytically resistant tripeptide, [ 3 H]pryroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophan (pGlu-His-Trp), and tetrapeptide, [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophyl-serine (pGlu-His-Trp-Ser) were assessed. These data indicate: multiple carriers exist on the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells for the transport of dipeptides, and tripeptide pGlu-His-Trp and the tetrapeptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser are not taken up by a carrier-mediated mechanism, suggesting that the carrier may be limited by the size of the substrate

  5. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.


    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  6. Air shower density spectrum (United States)

    Porter, M. R.; Foster, J. M.; Hodson, A. L.; Hazen, W. E.; Hendel, A. Z.; Bull, R. M.

    Results are presented of a measurement of the differential local density spectrum of extensive air showers at sea level using 1 sq m current-limited spark chambers. The 2 cm gap, Ne/He-filled discharge chambers with 6 mm thick 'Georgia-wired' glass faces, were mounted directly on the underside of a light, uniform, sandwich-panel roof. Separate runs with different trigger requirements were made. Low density spectra according to different counting criteria are presented in a graph. Another graph shows a differential local density spectrum. The results of the measurements are compared with previous measurements

  7. Griseofulvin/carrier blends: application of partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis for estimating the factors affecting the dissolution efficiency. (United States)

    Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Trapani, Adriana; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Mandracchia, Delia; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Giuseppe


    The main aim of the present study was to estimate the carrier characteristics affecting the dissolution efficiency of griseofulvin (Gris) containing blends (BLs) using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. These systems were prepared at three different drug/carrier weight ratios (1/5, 1/10, and 1/20) by the solvent evaporation method, a well-established method for preparing solid dispersions (SDs). The carriers used were structurally different including polymers, a polyol, acids, bases and sugars. The BLs were characterised at the solid-state by spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), thermoanalytical (differential scanning calorimetry) and X-ray diffraction studies and their dissolution behaviours were quantified in terms of dissolution efficiencies (log DE/DE(Gris)). The correlation between the selected descriptors, including parameters for size, lipophilicity, cohesive energy density, and hydrogen bonding capacity and log DE/DE(Gris) (i.e., DE and DE(Gris) are the dissolution efficiencies of the BLs and the pure drug, respectively) was established by PLS regression analysis. Thus two models characterised by satisfactory coefficient of determination were derived. The generated equations point out that aqueous solubility, density, lipophilic/hydrophilic character, dispersive/polar forces and hydrogen bonding acceptor/donor ability of the carrier are important features for dissolution efficiency enhancement. Finally, it could be concluded that the correlations developed may be used to predict at a semiquantitative level the dissolution behaviour of BLs of other essentially neutral drugs possessing hydrogen bonding acceptor groups only.

  8. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.


    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  9. Microemulsions as Potential Carriers of Nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alexandraki, Voula


    in an increase in the micellar size due to the penetration of water into the hydrophilic core of the inverse swollen micelles (hydration-induced swelling behavior). The dynamic properties of the surfactant monolayer were also affected by the nature of the used vegetable oil, the ethanol content, and the presence......Water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions based on either refined olive oil (ROO) or sunflower oil (SO), distilled monoglycerides (DMG), and ethanol were used as nisin carriers in order to ensure its effectiveness as a biopreservative. This work presents experimental evidence on the effects of ethanol....... Modeling of representative SAXS profiles was applied to gain further insight into the effects of ethanol and solubilized water content on the inverse swollen micelles' size and morphology. With increasing ethanol content, the overall size of the inverse micelles decreased, whereas hydration resulted...

  10. Measurement of carrier mobility in silicon nanowires. (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Sekaric, Lidija; Majumdar, Amlan; Rooks, Michael; Appenzeller, Joerg; Sleight, Jeffrey W; Guha, Supratik; Haensch, Wilfried


    We report the first direct capacitance measurements of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and the consequent determination of field carrier mobilities in undoped-channel SiNW field-effect transistors (FETs) at room temperature. We employ a two-FET method for accurate extraction of the intrinsic channel resistance and intrinsic channel capacitance of the SiNWs. The devices used in this study were fabricated using a top-down method to create SiNW FETs with up to 1000 wires in parallel for increasing the raw capacitance while maintaining excellent control on device dimensions and series resistance. We found that, compared with the universal mobility curves for bulk silicon, the electron and hole mobilities in nanowires are comparable to those of the surface orientation that offers a lower mobility.

  11. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.


    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  12. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.


    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  13. Fractures as Carriers for Colloid and Nano-Particles (United States)

    Weisbrod, N.; Cohen, M.; Tang, X.; Zvikelsky, O.; Meron, H.


    One of the major questions in studies in which transport of colloids and nano particles (NPs) is being explored is whether or not they will be mobile on large scales and in large conduits such as fractures and cracks. While many studies explore the migration on a small scale and mostly in ideal porous media, less is known about this topic on larger scales and in fractured rocks or cracked soils. Fractures are likely to be favorable carriers for colloids and NPs due to their large aperture, enabling relatively high flow velocity and smaller tortuosity of the flow path. Transport of various colloids including microspheres, clay particles and viruses, as well as colloid-facilitated transport of lead and cesium was explored in a naturally discrete fractured chalk cores. Preliminary work exploring the transport of NZVIs and TiO2 NPs is being carried out through these cores as well. Our results indicate very high recovery of large microspheres (0.2 and 1 micron) and lower recovery of the small spheres (0.02 micron). It was observed that clay particles, with similar surface properties and sizes to that of the microspheres, show significantly lower recoveries (50 vs over 90%), probably due to the high density of clay particles in respect to the microspheres (2.65 vs. 1.05 g/cm3). High recovery of bacteriophages was also observed, but they exhibit some differences in respect to microspheres with similar properties. In all cases, including the 0.02 micron colloids exhibiting lower recovery rates, arrival times were earlier than that of the bromide that was used as a reference. It was found that colloid-facilitated transport played a major role in the migration of lead and cesium through the fracture. In practice, lead was found to be mobile only in a colloidal form. The on-going work on NP transport through fractures is still in a preliminary phase. Nevertheless, TiO2 recovery was found to be very low. In conclusion, it was observed that in many cases fractures are favorable

  14. Metallic modification of molybdenum disulfide monolayer via doping charge carriers: A DFT investigation (United States)

    Shekaari, Ashkan; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza


    Density-functional theory has been applied to investigate the effect of doping charge carriers on the electronic structure of single-layer MoS2. The charge of the super cell changes from zero to n = ± 3 e with e the absolute value of the elementary electric charge. Results firmly support the view that such an effect is manifested in the form of semiconductor-metal transition in addition to shift in the Fermi level. Examining the total number of allowed states at the Fermi level also reveals that the more positive/negative the charge of the super cell, the higher the electrical conductivity of the monolayer.

  15. Carrier redistribution between different potential sites in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells studied by near-field photoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Marcinkevičius, S.


    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at different excitation powers was applied to study nanoscale properties of carrier localization and recombination in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) emitting in violet, blue, and green-yellow spectral regions. With increased excitation power, an untypical PL peak energy shift to lower energies was observed. The shift was attributed to carrier density dependent carrier redistribution between nm-scale sites of different potentials. Near-field PL scans showed that in (202¯1) QWs the in-plane carrier diffusion is modest, and the recombination properties are uniform, which is advantageous for photonic applications.

  16. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.


    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  17. Bone mineral density test (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  18. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  19. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.


    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  20. Population Density Modeling Tool (United States)


    194 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 26 June 2012 Distribution...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/194 26 June 2012 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 26

  1. The local mass density (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.


    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  2. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich


    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  3. Carrier dynamics in InAs/AlAs quantum dots: lack in carrier transfer from wetting layer to quantum dots. (United States)

    Shamirzaev, T S; Abramkin, D S; Nenashev, A V; Zhuravlev, K S; Trojánek, F; Dzurnák, B; Malý, P


    Structures with self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an AlAs matrix have been studied by steady-state and transient photoluminescence. It has been shown that in contrast to InAs/GaAs QD systems carriers are mainly captured by quantum dots directly from the AlAs matrix, while transfer of carriers captured by the wetting layer far away from QDs to the QDs is suppressed. At low temperatures the carriers captured by the wetting layer are localized by potential fluctuations at the wetting layer interface, while at high temperatures the carriers are delocalized but captured by nonradiative centers located in the wetting layer.

  4. Carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in families with haemophilia. (United States)

    Shetty, S; Ghosh, K; Bhide, A; Mohanty, D


    Haemophilias are the commonest X-linked disorders affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 male births. Detection of carrier women in families with haemophilia and subsequent antenatal diagnosis of confirmed carriers are important services for these patients and their relatives. Over the last 6 years we performed carrier detection and antenatal diagnosis in families with patients of haemophilia A and B. During the last 6 years, 159 families with haemophilia A and B were analysed for carrier detection by DNA analysis, using various polymorphic markers of factors VIII and IX genes. The polymorphisms used were intron 18 Bcl I, intron 19 Hind III, intron 22 Xbal and DXS52/St14 of the factor VIII gene and intron I Ddel, intron 4 Taql, 3 Hhal and Residue 148 codon Mnll of the factor IX gene. There were 189 probable carriers (whose carrier status was not known) and 99 obligatory carriers (confirmed carriers by family pedigree analysis) from 102 families with haemophilia A. Of the 57 families with haemophilia B analysed, there were 98 probable and 52 obligatory carriers. All the analyses were carried out by polymerase chain reaction. For antenatal diagnosis, prior to polymorphism analysis, the sex of the foetus was detected by Y chromosome-specific amplification. One hundred and four females were diagnosed as carriers and 63 as non-carriers by the intragenic polymorphic markers in families with haemophilia A. Eighteen women were informative with only the extragenic marker of factor VIII gene. Four women were not informative with any of the markers used. In families with haemophilia B, 37 women were diagnosed as carriers and 34 as non-carriers by the intragenic markers and 34 were informative only with the extragenic markers. Seventeen women were not informative with any of the markers used. Of the 25 antenatal diagnoses performed (20 haemophilia A, 5 haemophilia B) using the same markers as those used in carrier detection, 14 were male foetuses and 11 female as detected by Y


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros


    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  6. When is a carrier not a membrane carrier? The cytoplasmic transport of amphipathic molecules. (United States)

    Weisiger, R A


    After entering the cell, small molecules must penetrate the cytoplasm before they are metabolized, excreted, or can convey information to the cell nucleus. Without efficient cytoplasmic transport, most such molecules would efflux back out of the cell before they could reach their targets. Cytoplasmic movement of amphipathic molecules (e.g., long-chain fatty acids, bilirubin, bile acids) is greatly slowed by their tendency to bind intracellular structures. Soluble cytoplasmic binding proteins reduce this binding by increasing the aqueous solubility of their ligands. These soluble carriers catalyze the transport of hydrophobic molecules across hydrophilic water layers, just as membrane carriers catalyze the transport of hydrophilic molecules across the hydrophobic membrane core. They even display the kinetic features of carrier-mediated transport, including saturation, mutual competition between similar molecules, and countertransport. Recent data suggest that amphipathic molecules cross the cytoplasm very slowly, with apparent diffusion constants 10(2) to 10(4) times smaller than in water. By modulating the rate of cytoplasmic transport, cytosolic binding proteins may regulate transport and metabolism of amphipathic molecules. Storage diseases may cause hepatocellular dysfunction by disrupting normal cytoplasmic transport.

  7. Characterization of temperature-dependent carrier transport in disordered indium-tin-oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/polyfluorene/Ca/Al polymer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Joe-Air; Wang, Jen-Cheng; Fang, Chia-Hui; Wu, Ya-Fen; Teng, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Fan, Ping-Lin; Nee, Tzer-En


    The temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of polyfluorene-based polymer structures over a temperature range from 200 to 300 K are systematically investigated in this study. Initially, using the definitions of the Berthelot-type model, it is found that the sample exhibits a higher Berthelot-type temperature T B with high driving voltage, indicating that carrier transport in a disordered system manifests Berthelot-type behaviors. The ideal current density-voltage curve for the polymer structures given the carrier transmit mechanism is further elucidated by taking into account the ohmic conduction, trap charge limited current, and Mott and Gurney model of space charge limited current. The proposed procedure is simple and can be used to characterize the material with reasonable accuracy. We also study the density of the traps H t , and the characteristic energy of the distribution E t to better understand the carrier-transport process in organic materials and structures.

  8. Effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.


    The present paper examines the effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A theoretical model is developed incorporating the charging rate of the carbon nanotube, kinetics of all the plasma species, and the growth rate of the CNTs because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. The three different carrier gases, i.e., argon (Ar), ammonia, and nitrogen, are considered in the present investigation, and flow rates of all the three carrier gases are varied individually (keeping the flow rates of hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas constant) to investigate the variations in the number densities of hydrocarbon and hydrogen ions in the plasma and their consequent effects on the height and radius of CNT. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that Ar favors the formation of CNTs with larger height and radius whereas ammonia contributes to better height of CNT but decreases the radius of CNT, and nitrogen impedes both the height and radius of CNT. The present work can serve to the better understanding of process parameters during growth of CNTs by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Meštrović


    Full Text Available This paper gives an approach to the probabilistic corrosion rate estimation model for inner bottom plates of bulk carriers. Firstly, by using the data from thickness measurements for inner bottom plates for considered 25 bulk carriers, the related best fitted linear model for the corrosion wastage is obtained as a function of ship’s age. In this model it is assumed that life of coating is 4 years. The obtained related corrosion rate is equal to mm/year. Notice that the obtained linear model is a particular case of a power model proposed in some earlier investigations. In view of the fact that the corrosion rate of ship hull structures is influenced by many factors, many of an uncertain nature, in recent studies several authors investigated a probabilistic model as more appropriate to describe the expected corrosion. Motivated by these investigations, and using 2926 thickness measurements for corrosion wastage of inner bottom plates of considered 38 special ships surveys, this paper examines the cumulative density function for the corrosion rate involved in the mentioned linear model, and considered here as a continuous random variable. The obtained statistical, numerical and graphical results show that the logistic distribution or normal distribution would be well appropriate for the probabilistic corrosion rate estimation model for inner bottom plates of bulk carriers. It is believed that this fact will be confirmed with greater statistical reliability in our future investigations including many more data collected on the considered corrosion.

  10. Carrier Compensation Induced by Thermal Annealing in Al-Doped ZnO Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Koida


    Full Text Available This study investigated carrier compensation induced by thermal annealing in sputtered ZnO:Al (Al2O3: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt % films. The films were post-annealed in a N2 atmosphere at low (1 × 10−23 atm and high (1 × 10−4 atm oxygen partial pressures (PO2. In ZnO:Al films with low Al contents (i.e., 0.25 wt %, the carrier density (n began to decrease at annealing temperatures (Ta of 600 °C at low PO2. At higher PO2 and/or Al contents, n values began to decrease significantly at lower Ta (ca. 400 °C. In addition, Zn became desorbed from the films during heating in a high vacuum (i.e., <1 × 10−7 Pa. These results suggest the following: (i Zn interstitials and Zn vacancies are created in the ZnO lattice during post-annealing treatments, thereby leading to carrier compensation by acceptor-type Zn vacancies; (ii The compensation behavior is significantly enhanced for ZnO:Al films with high Al contents.

  11. Strain-tunable charge carrier mobility of atomically thin phosphorus allotropes (United States)

    Priydarshi, Achintya; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit


    We explore the impact of strain on charge carrier mobility of monolayer α -, β -, γ -, and δ -P, the four well-known atomically thin allotropes of phosphorus, using density functional theory. Owing to the highly anisotropic band dispersion, the charge carrier mobility of the pristine allotropes is significantly higher (more than 5 times in some cases) in one of the principal directions (zigzag or armchair) compared to the other. Uniaxial strain (up to 6% compressive/tensile) leads to band gap alteration in each of the allotropes, especially a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor transition in γ -P and a complete closure of the band gap in γ - and δ -P. We find that the charge carrier mobility is enhanced typically by a factor of ˜5-10 in all the allotropes due to uniaxial strain; notably, among them an ˜250 (30) times increase of the hole (electron) mobility along the armchair (zigzag) direction is observed in β -P (γ -P) under a compressive strain, acting in the armchair direction. Interestingly, the preferred electronic conduction direction can also be changed in the case of α - and γ -P by applying strain.

  12. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin


    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Large Modulation of Charge Carrier Mobility in Doped Nanoporous Organic Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fengjiao [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Dai, Xiaojuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Zhu, Weikun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Chung, Hyunjoong [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Diao, Ying [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA


    Molecular doping of organic electronics has shown promise to sensitively modulate important device metrics. One critical challenge is the disruption of structure order upon doping of highly crystalline organic semiconductors, which significantly reduces the charge carrier mobility. This paper demonstrates a new method to achieve large modulation of charge carrier mobility via channel doping without disrupting the molecular ordering. Central to the method is the introduction of nanopores into the organic semiconductor thin films via a simple and robust templated meniscus-guided coating method. Using this method, the charge carrier mobility of C8-benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene transistors is boosted by almost sevenfold. This paper further demonstrates enhanced electron transport by close to an order of magnitude in a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based donor–acceptor polymer. Combining spectroscopic measurements, density functional theory calculations, and electrical characterizations, the doping mechanism is identified as partial-charge-transfer induced trap filling. The nanopores serve to enhance the dopant/organic semiconductor charge transfer reaction by exposing the π-electrons to the pore wall.

  14. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  15. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control...

  16. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control, or...

  17. Current Consumption Measurements with a Carrier Aggregation Smartphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mejias, Rafael; Guo, Yu; Lauridsen, Mads


    Carrier Aggregation (CA) is introduced in LTE release 10 to improve data rates by allowing the User Equipment (UE) to receive data on more than one LTE carrier. The related increased complexity is expected to affect the UE current consumption, but yet no empirical evaluation has been published on...

  18. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orifjon Ganiev


    May 30, 2017 ... It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs.

  19. 19 CFR 192.4 - Liability of carriers. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of carriers. 192.4 Section 192.4 Customs... Liability of carriers. Under the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1436, the vessel master is charged with the... inaccurately described thereon, a liability for penalties may be incurred. ...

  20. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob


    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  1. 47 CFR 73.1545 - Carrier frequency departure tolerances. (United States)


    ... departure tolerances. (a) AM stations. The departure of the carrier frequency for monophonic transmissions... authorized transmitter output power more than 10 watts may not exceed ±2000 Hz from the assigned frequency. (2) The departure of the carrier or center frequency of an FM station with an authorized transmitter...

  2. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée


    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  3. Carrier screening in the era of expanding genetic technology. (United States)

    Arjunan, Aishwarya; Litwack, Karen; Collins, Nick; Charrow, Joel


    The Center for Jewish Genetics provides genetic education and carrier screening to individuals of Jewish descent. Carrier screening has traditionally been performed by targeted mutation analysis for founder mutations with an enzyme assay for Tay-Sachs carrier detection. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for higher detection rates regardless of ethnicity. Here, we explore differences in carrier detection rates between genotyping and NGS in a primarily Jewish population. Peripheral blood samples or saliva samples were obtained from 506 individuals. All samples were analyzed by sequencing, targeted genotyping, triplet-repeat detection, and copy-number analysis; the analyses were carried out at Counsyl. Of 506 individuals screened, 288 were identified as carriers of at least 1 condition and 8 couples were carriers for the same disorder. A total of 434 pathogenic variants were identified. Three hundred twelve variants would have been detected via genotyping alone. Although no additional mutations were detected by NGS in diseases routinely screened for in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 26.5% of carrier results and 2 carrier couples would have been missed without NGS in the larger panel. In a primarily Jewish population, NGS reveals a larger number of pathogenic variants and provides individuals with valuable information for family planning.Genet Med 18 12, 1214-1217.

  4. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs can be identified by ...

  5. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Fu, Yongping; Wang, Jue; Joshi, Prakriti; Niesner, Daniel; Williams, Kristopher; Jin, Song; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit carrier properties that resemble those of pristine nonpolar semiconductors despite static and dynamic disorder, but how carriers are protected from efficient scattering with charged defects and optical phonons is unknown. Here, we reveal the carrier protection mechanism by comparing three single-crystal lead bromide perovskites: CH3NH3PbBr3, CH(NH2)2PbBr3, and CsPbBr3. We observed hot fluorescence emission from energetic carriers with 102 picosecond lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 or CH(NH,SUB>2)2PbBr3, but not in CsPbBr3. The hot fluorescence is correlated with liquid-like molecular reorientational motions, suggesting that dynamic screening protects energetic carriers via solvation or large polaron formation on time scales competitive with that of ultrafast cooling. Similar protections likely exist for band-edge carriers. The long-lived energetic carriers may enable hot-carrier solar cells with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant ER46980, National Science Foundation, Grant DMR 1420634 (MRSEC), and Department of Energy Award DE-FG02-09ER46664.

  6. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, E. M.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Wilde, A. A.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; van Essen, A. J.; Leschot, N. J.; de Visser, M.


    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers

  7. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; van Essen, AJ; Leschot, NJ; de Visser, Marianne

    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers

  8. Dependence of InGaN solar cell performance on polarization-induced electric field and carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Chen Ping; Li Liang; Wu Liang-Liang; Le Ling-Cong; Li Xiao-Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun


    The effects of Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration and carrier lifetime on the performance of a p—i—n InGaN solar cell are investigated. It is found that the electric field induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in the i-region could be totally shielded when the Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration is sufficiently high. The polarization-induced potential barriers are reduced and the short circuit current density is remarkably increased from 0.21 mA/cm 2 to 0.95 mA/cm 2 by elevating the Mg doping concentration. The carrier lifetime determined by defect density of i-InGaN also plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of solar cell. The short circuit current density severely degrades, and the performance of InGaN solar cell becomes more sensitive to the polarization when carrier lifetime is lower than the transit time. This study demonstrates that the crystal quality of InGaN absorption layer is one of the most important challenges in realizing high efficiency InGaN solar cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Carrier dynamics in femtosecond-laser-excited bismuth telluride (United States)

    Wang, J. L.; Guo, L.; Ling, C.; Song, Y. M.; Xu, X. F.; Ni, Z. H.; Chen, Y. F.


    The carrier dynamics of B i2T e3 is studied using the femtosecond pump-probe technique. Three distinct processes, including free carrier absorption, band filling, and electron-hole recombination, are found to contribute to the reflectivity changes. The two-temperature model is used to describe the intraband energy relaxation process of carriers, and the Drude contribution well explains the intensity dependence of the peak values of the nonoscillatory component in the reflectivity signal. The combined effects of free carrier absorption and band filling result in a reflection minimum at about 2 ps after laser excitation. The nonzero background signal increases linearly with the pump fluence, which is attributed to the electron-hole recombination. Finally, our results provide an illustration of investigating the carrier dynamics in semiconductors from the ultrafast reflectivity spectra.

  10. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  11. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul


    into IA carriers (27-35 CAG) and controls (IA carriers and controls were compared for sociodemographic, environmental, and outcome measures. We used regression analysis to estimate the association of age and CAG repeats on the UHDRS scores. RESULTS: Of 12......OBJECTIVE: There is controversy about the clinical consequences of intermediate alleles (IAs) in Huntington disease (HD). The main objective of this study was to establish the clinical manifestations of IA carriers for a prospective, international, European HD registry. METHODS: We assessed......,190 participants, 657 (5.38%) with IA carriers (11.56%) and 581 controls (88.44%). After correcting for multiple comparisons, at baseline, we found no significant differences between IA carriers and controls for total UHDRS motor, SF-36, behavioral, cognitive, or TFC scores...

  12. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation]. (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan


    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  13. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.


    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  14. Influence of excited carriers on the optical and electronic properties of MoS₂. (United States)

    Steinhoff, A; Rösner, M; Jahnke, F; Wehling, T O; Gies, C


    We study the ground-state and finite-density optical response of molybdenum disulfide by solving the semiconductor Bloch equations, using ab initio band structures and Coulomb interaction matrix elements. Spectra for excited carrier densities up to 10(13) cm(-2) reveal a redshift of the excitonic ground-state absorption, whereas higher excitonic lines are found to disappear successively due to Coulomb-induced band gap shrinkage of more than 500 meV and binding-energy reduction. Strain-induced band variations lead to a redshift of the lowest exciton line by ∼110 meV/% and change the direct transition to indirect while maintaining the magnitude of the optical response.

  15. Sensitized charge carrier injection into organic crystals studied by isotope effects in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.


    The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)

  16. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.


    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  17. Carrier priming or suppression: understanding carrier priming enhancement of anti-polysaccharide antibody response to conjugate vaccines. (United States)

    Pobre, Karl; Tashani, Mohamed; Ridda, Iman; Rashid, Harunor; Wong, Melanie; Booy, Robert


    With the availability of newer conjugate vaccines, immunization schedules have become increasingly complex due to the potential for unpredictable immunologic interference such as 'carrier priming' and 'carrier induced epitopic suppression'. Carrier priming refers to an augmented antibody response to a carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate vaccine in an individual previously primed with the carrier protein. This review aims to provide a critical evaluation of the available data on carrier priming (and suppression) and conceptualize ways by which this phenomenon can be utilized to strengthen vaccination schedules. We conducted this literature review by searching well-known databases to date to identify relevant studies, then extracted and synthesized the data on carrier priming of widely used conjugate polysaccharide vaccines, such as, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines (HibV). We found evidence of carrier priming with some conjugate vaccines, particularly HibV and PCV, in both animal and human models but controversy surrounds MenCV. This has implications for the immunogenicity of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines following the administration of tetanus-toxoid or diphtheria-toxoid containing vaccine (such as DTP). Available evidence supports a promising role for carrier priming in terms of maximizing the immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines and enhancing immunization schedule by making it more efficient and cost effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relaxation of a kinetic hole due to carrier-carrier scattering in multisubband single-quantum-well semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...

  19. Gestational carrier in assisted reproductive technology. (United States)

    Murugappan, Gayathree; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Correia, Katharine F; Anchan, Raymond M; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S


    To compare clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with the use of gestational carriers (GCs) with non-GC IVF cycles. Retrospective cohort study of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed with (24,269) and without (1,313,452) the use of a GC. ART centers. Infertile patients seeking IVF with or without use of a GC. Autologous and donor oocyte cycles, fresh and cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles. Live birth rate (LBR), twin and high-order multiple birth rates. Approximately 2% of embryo transfers used a GC. Per embryo transfer, GCs had greater pregnancy rate and LBR across all IVF types compared with non-GC cycles in crude models and models adjusted a priori for potential confounders. For women with uterine-factor infertility, embryo transfer with the use of a GC resulted in a higher odds of live birth for autologous fresh embryos and for cryopreserved embryos compared with patients with non-uterine-factor infertility diagnoses. GC benefits LBRs for some patients seeking ART. The highest LBRs occurred when the indication for GC was uterine-factor infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva


    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  1. Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier (United States)

    Zhu, S. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Zhou, K. C.; Huang, S. P.; Liu, F.; Li, Y. M.; Xue, Z. G.; Long, Z. G.


    Hydroxyapatite crystalline nanoparticles were created by a precipitation hydrothermal technique and the majority of crystal particles were in the size range of 40-60nm and exhibited a colloidal feature when suspended in water. The gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line cells were cultivated in the presence of10-100 μg ml-1 hydroxyapatite nanoparticle suspension and verified by MTT evaluation for their biocompatibility in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the HA nanoparticles potentially adsorb the green fluorescence protein EGFP-N1 plasmid DNA at pH 2 and 7, but not at pH 12. The DNA-nanoparticle complexes transfected EGFP-N1 pDNA into SGC-7901 cells in vitro with the efficiency about 80% as referenced with Lipofectmine TM 2000. In vivo animal experiment revealed no acute toxic adverse effect 2weeks after tail vein injection into mice, and TEM examination demonstrated their biodistribution and expression within the cytoplasm and also a little in the nuclei of the liver, kidney and brain tissue cells. These results suggest that the HA nanoparticle is a promising material that can be used as gene carrier, vectors.

  2. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  3. Theoretical Evaluation of Foam Proppant Carriers (United States)

    von Holt, H.; Kam, S.; Williams, W. C.


    Hydraulic fracturing in oil wells results in a large amount of produced water which must be properly disposed of and is currently a key environmental issue preventing further development in US domestic oil and gas production. The primary function of this liquid is to carry particulates, a.k.a. Proppant, into the stress fractures in order to hold open a pathway in which petroleum can flow into the wellbore. A potential superior technique is to use foam instead of liquid; liquids rely on turbulence to suspend proppant while foams carry particulates on the surfaces. Therefore, foams can carry more proppant deeper into the fractures while typically using 50%-90% less liquid, depending on foam quality. This comparative analysis uses the vorticity equation for a liquid to approximate the base case of particle suspension. This is then compared to a multitude of foam transport models in order to demonstrate the efficacy of foams when used in hydraulic fracturing. This work serves as the basis for future laboratory and hopefully field scale studies of foam proppant carriers.

  4. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy (United States)

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Peng, Sydney; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. PMID:26389879

  5. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  6. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.


    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Novel Anti-Nicotine Vaccine Using a Trimeric Coiled-Coil Hapten Carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D Miller

    Full Text Available Tobacco addiction represents one of the largest public health problems in the world and is the leading cause of cancer and heart disease, resulting in millions of deaths a year. Vaccines for smoking cessation have shown considerable promise in preclinical models, although functional antibody responses induced in humans are only modestly effective in preventing nicotine entry into the brain. The challenge in generating serum antibodies with a large nicotine binding capacity is made difficult by the fact that this drug is non-immunogenic and must be conjugated as a hapten to a protein carrier. To circumvent the limitations of traditional carriers like keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, we have synthesized a short trimeric coiled-coil peptide (TCC that creates a series of B and T cell epitopes with uniform stoichiometry and high density. Here we compared the relative activities of a TCC-nic vaccine and two control KLH-nic vaccines using Alum as an adjuvant or GLA-SE, which contains a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion. The results showed that the TCC's high hapten density correlated with a better immune response in mice as measured by anti-nicotine Ab titer, affinity, and specificity, and was responsible for a reduction in anti-carrier immunogenicity. The Ab responses achieved with this synthetic vaccine resulted in a nicotine binding capacity in serum that could prevent >90% of a nicotine dose equivalent to three smoked cigarettes (0.05 mg/kg from reaching the brain.

  8. Phase separation in strongly correlated electron systems with two types of charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, K.I.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Sboychakov, A.O.


    Full text: A competition between the localization of the charge carriers due to Jahn-Teller distortions and the energy gain due to their delocalization in doped manganite and related magnetic oxides is analyzed based on a Kondo-lattice type model. The resulting effective Hamiltonian is, in fact, a generalization of the Falicov-Kimball model. We find that the number of itinerant charge carriers can be significantly lower than that implied by the doping level x. The phase diagram of the model in the T plane is constructed. The system exhibits magnetic ordered (antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or canted) states as well the paramagnetic states with zero and nonzero density of the itinerant electrons. It is shown that a phase-separation is favorable in energy for a wide doping range. The characteristic size of inhomogeneities in a phase-separated state is of the order of several lattice constants. We also analyzed the two-band Hubbard model in the limit of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion. It was shown that such a system has a tendency to phase separation into the regions with different charge densities even in the absence of magnetic or any other ordering, if the ratio of the bandwidths is large enough. The work was supported by the European project CoMePhS and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 05-02-17600. (authors)

  9. Charge trapping and carrier transport mechanism in silicon-rich silicon oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhenrui [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo. 51, Puebla, Pue. 72000 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Aceves, Mariano [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo. 51, Puebla, Pue. 72000 (Mexico); Carrillo, Jesus [CIDS, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Lopez-Estopier, Rosa [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo. 51, Puebla, Pue. 72000 (Mexico)


    The charge-trapping and carrier transport properties of silicon-rich silicon oxynitride (SRO:N) were studied. The SRO:N films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Infrared (IR) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements were performed to characterize their structural properties. Capacitance versus voltage and current versus voltage measurements (I-V) were used to study the charge-trapping and carrier transport mechanism. IR and TEM measurements revealed the existence of Si nanodots in SRO:N films. I-V measurements revealed that there are two conduction regimes divided by a threshold voltage V {sub T}. When the applied voltage is smaller than V {sub T}, the current is dominated by the charge transfer between the SRO:N and substrate; and in this regime only dynamic charging/discharging of the SRO:N layer is observed. When the voltage is larger than V {sub T}, the current increases rapidly and is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel mechanism; and in this regime, large permanent trapped charge density is obtained. Nitrogen incorporation significantly reduced the silicon nanodots or defects near the SRO:N/Si interface. However, a significant increase of the density of silicon nanodot in the bulk of the SRO:N layer is obtained.

  10. Charge trapping and carrier transport mechanism in silicon-rich silicon oxynitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenrui; Aceves, Mariano; Carrillo, Jesus; Lopez-Estopier, Rosa


    The charge-trapping and carrier transport properties of silicon-rich silicon oxynitride (SRO:N) were studied. The SRO:N films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Infrared (IR) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements were performed to characterize their structural properties. Capacitance versus voltage and current versus voltage measurements (I-V) were used to study the charge-trapping and carrier transport mechanism. IR and TEM measurements revealed the existence of Si nanodots in SRO:N films. I-V measurements revealed that there are two conduction regimes divided by a threshold voltage V T . When the applied voltage is smaller than V T , the current is dominated by the charge transfer between the SRO:N and substrate; and in this regime only dynamic charging/discharging of the SRO:N layer is observed. When the voltage is larger than V T , the current increases rapidly and is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel mechanism; and in this regime, large permanent trapped charge density is obtained. Nitrogen incorporation significantly reduced the silicon nanodots or defects near the SRO:N/Si interface. However, a significant increase of the density of silicon nanodot in the bulk of the SRO:N layer is obtained

  11. Theory of inelastic multiphonon scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors: Application to capture cross sections (United States)

    Barmparis, Georgios D.; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.


    Inelastic scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors are the primary causes of hot-electron-mediated degradation of power devices, which holds up their commercial development. At the same time, carrier capture is a major issue in the performance of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. A theory of nonradiative (multiphonon) inelastic scattering by defects, however, is nonexistent, while the theory for carrier capture by defects has had a long and arduous history. Here we report the construction of a comprehensive theory of inelastic scattering by defects, with carrier capture being a special case. We distinguish between capture under thermal equilibrium conditions and capture under nonequilibrium conditions, e.g., in the presence of an electrical current or hot carriers where carriers undergo scattering by defects and are described by a mean free path. In the thermal-equilibrium case, capture is mediated by a nonadiabatic perturbation Hamiltonian, originally identified by Huang and Rhys and by Kubo, which is equal to linear electron-phonon coupling to first order. In the nonequilibrium case, we demonstrate that the primary capture mechanism is within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (adiabatic transitions), with coupling to the defect potential inducing Franck-Condon electronic transitions, followed by multiphonon dissipation of the transition energy, while the nonadiabatic terms are of secondary importance (they scale with the inverse of the mass of typical atoms in the defect complex). We report first-principles density-functional-theory calculations of the capture cross section for a prototype defect using the projector-augmented wave, which allows us to employ all-electron wave functions. We adopt a Monte Carlo scheme to sample multiphonon configurations and obtain converged results. The theory and the results represent a foundation upon which to build engineering-level models for hot-electron degradation of power devices and the performance

  12. Density in Liquids. (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.


    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  13. density functional theory (DFT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present investigation, interaction of ruthenium (Ru) atoms with fluorine (F) atoms was studied using the density functional theory utilizing B3LYP method. It was found that up to seven F atoms can bind to a single Ru atom which results in increase of electron affinities successively, reaching a peak value of ...

  14. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.


    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  15. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others


    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le


    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  17. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment. (United States)

    Le, H T; Jantarat, N; Khanitchaidecha, W; Ratananikom, K; Nakaruk, A


    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  18. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Hoogerwaard, E M; van der Wouw, P A; Wilde, A A; Bakker, E; Ippel, P F; Oosterwijk, J C; Majoor-Krakauer, D F; van Essen, A J; Leschot, N J; de Visser, M


    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers with dilated cardiomyopathy and (3) to assess possible associations between dilated cardiomyopathy and genotype. One hundred and twenty nine DMD and BMD carriers, aged 18-60 years, were traced through the files of the central register kept at the department of Human Genetics in Leiden. Investigations included full medical history, physical examination, ECG and two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination. Forty-seven percent had ECG changes. Thirty-six percent (DMD 41%, BMD 27%) had at least one abnormality as is usually found in the male patients. Echocardiographic examination was abnormal in 36% (DMD 38%, BMD 34%). Dilated cardiomyopathy was found in seven DMD carriers (8%), and in none of BMD carriers. In addition, 18% had left ventricle dilatation (DMD 19%, BMD 16%). Only 38% had a completely normal investigation of the heart. We found no association between genotype and cardiac manifestations. Our study underlines that cardiac involvement is part of the dystrophinopathies. Carriers should be told about the increased risk of this complication when asking genetic advice. It also implicates that a complete cardiological evaluation should be performed at least once in all carriers. If left ventricle dilatation or dilated cardiomyopathy is present a yearly follow up is needed, in order to start timely therapy.

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopy of excitons and carriers in GaN and InGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyhm, K.


    The emission mechanisms in GaN and ln x Ga 1-x N is systematically studied to investigate carrier and exciton dynamics. Reflectance, time-integrated luminescence, and time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy are used to study exciton transitions in GaN, and the saturation of the exciton resonances with increasing carrier density has been measured in the case of resonant and non-resonant excitations. The coincidence between the density for the onset of the stimulated emission and the Mott density leads us to the conclusion that the stimulated emission mechanism in GaN is due to the electron-hole plasma. A detailed study of hot carrier relaxation at low temperature is presented, using pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. At early times, phonon satellites are seen, and a strong non-thermal electron distribution in the region of the LO-phonon energy arising from the remarkably strong electron-LO phonon interaction are observed. A measure of the mean energy of the carriers in non-thermal states agree well with our Monte-Carlo model, and confirms the dominance of hot phonon effect at early times. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements are performed in a In 0.02 Ga 0.98 N/In 0.16 Ga 0.84 N multiple quantum well structure to investigate the spontaneous recombination mechanism. The gain spectrum for the different stripe lengths using the VSLM technique suggests that nearly delocalised electron-hole pairs from the lowest confined level are responsible for the gain in our sample. The polarization dependence of biexcitonic signals and quantum beats between A-excitons (X A ) and A-biexcitons (X A X A ) in a high-quality GaN epilayer are measured by spectrally-resolved and time-integrated four-wave mixing measurements. We also measured the polarization dependent B-biexciton (X B X B ) signal. (author)

  20. Tuning the Electronic Properties, Effective Mass and Carrier Mobility of MoS2 Monolayer by Strain Engineering: First-Principle Calculations (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Thu, Tran V.; Hung, Nguyen M.; Ilyasov, Victor V.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Nguyen, Chuong V.


    In this paper, we studied the electronic properties, effective masses, and carrier mobility of monolayer MoS_2 using density functional theory calculations. The carrier mobility was considered by means of ab initio calculations using the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with deformation potential theory. The effects of mechanical biaxial strain on the electronic properties, effective mass, and carrier mobility of monolayer MoS_2 were also investigated. It is demonstrated that the electronic properties, such as band structure and density of state, of monolayer MoS_2 are very sensitive to biaxial strain, leading to a direct-indirect transition in semiconductor monolayer MoS_2. Moreover, we found that the carrier mobility and effective mass can be enhanced significantly by biaxial strain and by lowering temperature. The electron mobility increases over 12 times with a biaxial strain of 10%, while the carrier mobility gradually decreases with increasing temperature. These results are very useful for the future nanotechnology, and they make monolayer MoS_2 a promising candidate for application in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : carrier intervention effectiveness model, version 1.0 : [analysis brief]. (United States)


    The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) : provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring : the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted : under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...

  2. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor...

  3. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety...

  4. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Yoneyama


    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  5. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter


    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  6. A new device to select carriers for biomass immobilization and application in an aerobic/anaerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal. (United States)

    Sarti, A; Lamon, A W; Ono, A; Foresti, E


    This study proposes a new approach to selecting a biofilm carrier for immobilization using dissolved oxygen (DO) microsensors to measure the thickness of aerobic and anaerobic layers in biofilm. The biofilm carriers tested were polyurethane foam, mineral coal (MC), basaltic gravel, and low-density polyethylene. Development of layers in the biofilm carrier surface was evaluated using a flow cell device, and DO profiles were conducted to determine the size of the layers (aerobic and anaerobic). MC was the biofilm carrier selected due to allowing the development of larger aerobic and anaerobic layers in the biofilm (896 and 1,058 μm, respectively). This ability is supposed to improve simultaneous nitrogen removal by nitrification and denitrification biological processes. Thus, as a biofilm carrier, MC was used in a fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater with a high ammonia concentration (100-400 mgNH 4 + -N L -1 ). The FB-SBBR (15.0 L) was filled with matrices of the carrier and operated under alternating aeration and non-aeration periods of 6 h each. At a mean nitrogen loading rate of 0.55 ± 0.10 kgNH 4 + -N m -3 d -1 , the reactor attained a mean nitrification efficiency of 95 ± 9% with nitrite as the main product (aerobic period). Mean denitrification efficiency during the anoxic period was 72 ± 13%.

  7. The role of the carrier in the formulation of pharmaceutical solid dispersions. Part I: crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers. (United States)

    Van Duong, Tu; Van den Mooter, Guy


    As a consequence of the target and drug candidate identification process, drugs with higher hydrophobicity and/or lipophilicity are being selected for further development, leading to solubility and dissolution rate limited oral bioavailability, and hence potential failure of the intended therapeutic goal. Solid dispersions were introduced as a formulation strategy in the early 1960s to tackle this issue and are still an area of intensive research activity. Areas covered: There has been a shift in the type of carriers that were used in the formulation of solid dispersions as nowadays, amorphous carriers are most often used, whereas in early stages of solid dispersions development, crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers were most commonly applied. In this review, we will discuss several aspects related to the use of crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers such as their molecular and related physical structure, and their physical chemical properties related to formulation of poorly soluble drugs. Expert opinion: The inherent crystallinity of this type of carrier hinders the formation of high-load solid solutions as mainly the amorphous domains of a carrier are able to accommodate drug molecules. Hence these carriers are not currently first choice excipients to formulate solid dispersions.

  8. Spatial pattern separation differences in older adult carriers and non-carriers for the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele. (United States)

    Sheppard, David P; Graves, Lisa V; Holden, Heather M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Gilbert, Paul E


    We examined the performance of healthy young (n=57) and older adults (n=43) genotyped as apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) carriers or APOE-ε4 non-carriers on a delayed match-to-sample task involving varying degrees of spatial interference hypothesized to assess spatial pattern separation. Older adult ε4 carriers were further divided into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups based on their performance on a standardized test of verbal memory. We found that performance on the spatial pattern separation test increased as a function of decreased spatial interference across all groups. The older ε4 carriers in the impaired group performed significantly worse (ppattern separation may be less efficient in a subset of healthy older adults with subtle memory decline who are carriers of the ε4 allele. However, pattern separation performance may be comparable to that of young adults in a subset of older adult ε4 carriers and more broadly among non-carriers. Our findings offer additional evidence that pattern separation may vary in older adults, and they provide novel insight into pattern separation efficiency in ε4-positive older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effective carrier sweepout in a silicon waveguide by a metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao; Ou, Haiyan


    We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated.......We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated....

  10. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))


    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit enhanced InGaN/GaN light emitting diode

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.


    We investigate the effects of V-pits on the optical properties of a state-of-the art highly efficient, blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) light emitting diode (LED) with high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of > 80%. The LED is structurally enhanced by incorporating pre-MQW InGaN strain-relief layer with low InN content and patterned sapphire substrate. For comparison, a conventional (unenhanced) InGaN/GaN MQW LED (with IQE of 46%) grown under similar conditions was subjected to the same measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals the absence of V-pits in the unenhanced LED, whereas in the enhanced LED, V-pits with {10-11} facets, emerging from threading dislocations (TDs) were prominent. Cathodoluminescence mapping reveals the luminescence properties near the V-pits, showing that the formation of V-pit defects can encourage the growth of defect-neutralizing barriers around TD defect states. The diminished contribution of TDs in the MQWs allows indium-rich localization sites to act as efficient recombination centers. Photoluminescence and time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggest that the V-pits play a significant role in the generated carrier rate and droop mechanism, showing that the quantum confined Stark effect is suppressed at low generated carrier density, after which the carrier dynamics and droop are governed by the carrier overflow effect.

  12. Terahertz Conductivity within Colloidal CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals: Remarkably High Carrier Mobilities and Large Diffusion Lengths. (United States)

    Yettapu, Gurivi Reddy; Talukdar, Debnath; Sarkar, Sohini; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Nag, Angshuman; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Mandal, Pankaj


    Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as an excellent light emitting material in last one year. Using time domain and time-resolved THz spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we establish 3-fold free carrier recombination mechanism, namely, nonradiative Auger, bimolecular electron-hole recombination, and inefficient trap-assisted recombination in 11 nm sized colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs. Our results confirm a negligible influence of surface defects in trapping charge carriers, which in turn results into desirable intrinsic transport properties, from the perspective of device applications, such as remarkably high carrier mobility (∼4500 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), large diffusion length (>9.2 μm), and high luminescence quantum yield (80%). Despite being solution processed and possessing a large surface to volume ratio, this combination of high carrier mobility and diffusion length, along with nearly ideal photoluminescence quantum yield, is unique compared to any other colloidal quantum dot system.

  13. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht


    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  14. Localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Uropoda orbicularis (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) on Aphodius beetles (Aphodiidae) affect pedicel length (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Witaliński, Wojciech


    The phoretic stage of Uropodina mites is a deutonymph with developed morphological adaptations for dispersal by insects. Phoretic deutonymphs are able to produce a pedicel, a stalk-like temporary attachment structure that connects the mite with the carrier. The aim of our study was to determine whether localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs on the carrier affect pedicel length. The study was conducted on a common phoretic mite— Uropoda orbicularis (Uropodina) and two aphodiid beetles— Aphodius prodromus and Aphodius distinctus. Our results show that pedicel length is influenced by the localization of deutonymphs on the body of the carrier. The longest pedicels are produced by deutonymphs attached to the upper part of elytra, whereas deutonymphs attached to femora and trochanters of the third pair of legs and the apex of elytra construct the shortest pedicels. In general, deutonymphs attached to more exposed parts of the carrier produce longer pedicels, whereas shorter pedicels are produced when deutonymphs are fixed to non-exposed parts of the carrier. A second factor influencing pedicel length is the density of attached deutonymphs. Mean pedicel length and deutonymph densities were highly correlated: higher deutonymph density leads to the formation of longer pedicels. The cause for this correlation is discussed, and we conclude that pedicel length variability can increase successful dispersal.

  15. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver


    these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...... rates. It also measures the success rate of grasps chosen to maximize the probability of success given reaching constraints....

  16. Toward a Redefinition of Density (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos


    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  17. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises, where is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  18. Educational and technical assistance to CMV drivers and motor carriers (United States)


    The Peer Exchange is a process adopted by the Office of Motor Carrier and Highway Safety in which teams of professionals, representing state and federal government and private industry, identify effective commercial motor vehicle safety findings for ...

  19. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej


    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  20. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HTSCs) have been investigated theoretically. The appropriate Boltzmann transport equations under relaxation time approximation were used to calculate the mobility of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs above and below the ...

  1. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas


    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects. PMID:28773418

  2. Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav


    Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate...

  3. Dystrophin analysis in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, Edo M.; Ginjaar, Ieke B.; Bakker, Egbert; de Visser, Marianne


    Associations between clinical phenotype (muscle weakness, dilated cardiomyopathy) and dystrophin abnormalities in muscle tissue among definite carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) were investigated. No associations between dystrophin abnormalities and clinical variables in

  4. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers. (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi


    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies.

  5. Vector Magnetometer Application with Moving Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Prystai


    Full Text Available In magnetic prospecting the aeromagnetic survey is a widespread method used for research in large territories or in the areas with difficult access (forests, swamps, shallow waters. At present, a new type of mobile carriers – remotely piloted vehicles or drones – is becoming very common. The drones supplied by magnetometer can be also used for underground utility location (for example, steel and concrete constructions, buried power cables, to name a few. For aeromagnetic survey, obtaining of 3-component magnetic field data gives higher processing precision, so the fluxgate magnetometers (FGM seem to be the most preferable by reason of low weight, noise, power consumption and costs. During movement of FGM fixed to a drone practically permanent attitude changes in the Earth’s magnetic field arises with corresponding changes of its projection at FGM axes. Also the electromagnetic interference from the drone motor and uncontrolled oscillations of drone and suspension are the factors which limit the magnetometer sensitivity level. Aroused because of this, signals significantly exceed the expected signals from a studied object and so should be removed by proper interference filtration and use of stabilized towed construction, as well as at data processing. To find the necessary resolution threshold of a drone-portable FGM, the modeling was made to estimate magnetic field value from a small sphere about 1 cm radius at the minimal altitude of drone flight and it was shown that such a small object can be reliably detected if the FGM noise level is less than 0.15 nT. Next requirement is the necessity to decrease as much as possible the FGM power consumption with retention of low noise level. Finally, because of drone movement, the broadening of a frequency range should be done. The LEMI-026 magnetometer was developed satisfying all requirements to the drone-mounted device. The field tests were successfully performed using two of LEMI-026

  6. Chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L.E.S.; Chen, M.; XINF, L.Y.; Guo, X.F.; Zhao, L.M.


    Chitosan is a rather abundant material, which has been widely used in food industrial and bioengineering aspects, including in encapsulating active food ingredients, in enzyme immobilization, and as a carrier for drug delivery, due to its significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradable, biocompatible, bioactive and polycationic. This review discussed preparation and applications of chitosan nanoparticles in the biomedical engineering field, namely as a drug delivery carrier for biopharmaceuticals. (author)

  7. Magnetic Generation due to Mass Difference between Charge Carriers


    Chen, Shi; Dan, JiaKun; Chen, ZiYu; Li, JianFeng


    The possibility of spontaneous magnetization due to the "asymmetry in mass" of charge carriers in a system is investigated. Analysis shows that when the masses of positive and negative charge carriers are identical, no magnetization is predicted. However, if the masses of two species are different, spontaneous magnetic field would appear, either due to the equipartition of magnetic energy or due to fluctuations together with a feedback mechanism. The conditions for magnetization to occur are ...

  8. Effects of copper on the carrier dynamics in black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, S.


    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced.......Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. We show that by adding a thin Cu film on top of the a-Si:H film before laser annealing, the carrier lifetime can be significantly reduced....

  9. Cortical atrophy in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 mutation carriers. (United States)

    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Stern, Chantal E; Reiman, Eric M; Brickhouse, Michael; Ruiz, Adriana; Sperling, Reisa A; Lopera, Francisco; Dickerson, Bradford C


    Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia has been associated with a 'signature' of cortical atrophy in paralimbic and heteromodal association regions measured with MRI. To investigate whether a similar pattern of cortical atrophy is present in presymptomatic presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers an average of 6 years before clinical symptom onset. 40 cognitively normal volunteers from a Colombian population with familial AD were included; 18 were positive for the AD-associated presenilin 1 mutation (carriers, mean age=38) whereas 22 were non-carriers. T1-weighted volumetric MRI images were acquired and cortical thickness was measured. A priori regions of interest from our previous work were used to obtain thickness from AD-signature regions. Compared to non-carriers, presymptomatic presenilin 1 mutation carriers exhibited thinner cortex within the AD-signature summary measure (p<0.008). Analyses of individual regions demonstrated thinner angular gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule in carriers compared to non-carriers, with trend-level effects in the medial temporal lobe. Results demonstrate that cognitively normal individuals genetically determined to develop AD have a thinner cerebral cortex than non-carriers in regions known to be affected by typical late-onset sporadic AD. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that cortical atrophy is present in preclinical AD more than 5 years prior to symptom onset. Further research is needed to determine whether this method could be used to characterise the age-dependent trajectory of cortical atrophy in presymptomatic stages of AD.

  10. Preparation and application of functionalized nano drug carriers


    Gong, Rudong; Chen, Gaimin


    Objective: Targeting at category memory characteristics and preparation methods of functionalized nano drugs, preparation technology of functionalized nano drug carriers is studied, and then important role of functionalized nano drug carrier in preparation of medicine is studied. Methods: Carry out the relevant literature search with computer, change limited language in the paper to Chinese and necessarily remove repetitive studies. Results: After first review of 1260 retrieved literature, it...

  11. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan


    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  12. Microscopic Foundation and Simulation of Coupled Carrier-Temperature Diffusions in Semiconductor Lasers (United States)

    Li, J.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)


    A typical semiconductor-based optoelectronic device, such as a diode laser, consists of three subsystems: an optical field, an electron-hole plasma (EHP), and a host crystal lattice. The physics of such a device involves the interplay of optical, electrical and thermal processes. A proper description of such a device requires that all three processes are treated on equal footing and in a self-consistent fashion. Furthermore, since a semiconductor laser has intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity, such a self-consistency naturally leads to a set of partial differential equations in space and time. There is a significant lacking of research interest and results on the transport aspects of optical devices in the literature with only a few exceptions. Even the most important carrier diffusion coefficient has not been properly derived and studied so far for optically excited plasma, while most of the work adopted results from electronics community where heavily doped semiconductors with mainly one type of carriers are dealt with. The corresponding transport equation for plasma energy or temperature has received even less attention. In this talk we describe our recent results on such a self-consistent derivation of temperature and carrier-density diffusion equations coupled with the lasing process. Starting from the microscopic semiconductor Bloch equations (SBEs) including the Boltzmann transport terms in the distribution function equations for electrons and holes, we derived a closed set of diffusion equations for carrier densities and temperatures with self-consistent coupling to Maxwell's equation and to an effective optical polarization equation. The coherent many-body effects are included within the screened Hartree-Fock approximation, while scatterings are treated within the second Born approximation including both the in- and out-scatterings. Microscopic expressions for electron-hole (e-h) and carrier-LO (c-LO) phonon scatterings are directly used to derive the momentum

  13. Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, D.


    density, many-body effects such as the depolarization and their influence on the spectral position as well as on the lineshape on the intersubband dephasing are studied. Also the difference of excitonic and free-carrier type excitation is discussed, and indication of an excitonic intersubband transition is found. (orig.)

  14. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang


    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  15. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendler Florian


    Full Text Available In an external magnetic field, the energy of massless charge carriers in graphene is quantized into non-equidistant degenerate Landau levels including a zero-energy level. This extraordinary electronic dispersion gives rise to a fundamentally new dynamics of optically excited carriers. Here, we review the state of the art of the relaxation dynamics in Landau-quantized graphene focusing on microscopic insights into possible many-particle relaxation channels.We investigate optical excitation into a non equilibrium distribution followed by ultrafast carrier- carrier and carrier-phonon scattering processes. We reveal that surprisingly the Auger scattering dominates the relaxation dynamics in spite of the non-equidistant Landau quantization in graphene. Furthermore, we demonstrate how technologically relevant carrier multiplication can be achieved and discuss the possibility of optical gain in Landau-quantized graphene. The provided microscopic view on elementary many-particle processes can guide future experimental studies aiming at the design of novel graphene-based optoelectronic devices, such as highly efficient photodetectors, solar cells, and spectrally broad Landau level lasers.

  16. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery. (United States)

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed


    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  17. Defensin carriers for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system. (United States)

    Froy, Oren; Chapnik, Nava; Nussinovitch, Amos


    The innate immunity utilizes a battery of broad-spectrum antibacterial cationic polypeptides named defensins. In humans, defensins are the first line of defense against pathogens, and their expression has been implicated in several diseases. In addition to exerting direct antimicrobial effects, defensins facilitate and amplify innate and adaptive immune responses. HD-5 is a polypeptide that plays a pivotal role in combating bacteria in the digestive system. Our results show that HD-5 can be entrapped within alginate carriers and strengthen their structure without changing their brittleness. In addition, carrier-entrapped HD-5 is released when incubated in buffer and/or stomach-simulating solution and still retains its activity after the release. This incubation also led to a decrease in carrier strength as well as an increase in their brittleness. Nevertheless the carriers did not disintegrate and remained intact throughout the diffusion process. The release of the defensin exhibited a bimodal behavior, suggesting that it was found both in a cross-linked and non-cross-linked form within the carrier. These results indicate that defensins encapsulated within alginate carriers could possibly be used for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Implications of asymptomatic carriers for infectious disease transmission and control. (United States)

    Chisholm, Rebecca H; Campbell, Patricia T; Wu, Yue; Tong, Steven Y C; McVernon, Jodie; Geard, Nicholas


    For infectious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae , some hosts may carry the pathogen and transmit it to others, yet display no symptoms themselves. These asymptomatic carriers contribute to the spread of disease but go largely undetected and can therefore undermine efforts to control transmission. Understanding the natural history of carriage and its relationship to disease is important for the design of effective interventions to control transmission. Mathematical models of infectious diseases are frequently used to inform decisions about control and should therefore accurately capture the role played by asymptomatic carriers. In practice, incorporating asymptomatic carriers into models is challenging due to the sparsity of direct evidence. This absence of data leads to uncertainty in estimates of model parameters and, more fundamentally, in the selection of an appropriate model structure. To assess the implications of this uncertainty, we systematically reviewed published models of carriage and propose a new model of disease transmission with asymptomatic carriage. Analysis of our model shows how different assumptions about the role of asymptomatic carriers can lead to different conclusions about the transmission and control of disease. Critically, selecting an inappropriate model structure, even when parameters are correctly estimated, may lead to over- or under-estimates of intervention effectiveness. Our results provide a more complete understanding of the role of asymptomatic carriers in transmission and highlight the importance of accurately incorporating carriers into models used to make decisions about disease control.

  19. Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines. (United States)

    Tontini, M; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Balducci, E; Micoli, F; Balocchi, C; Santini, L; Masignani, V; Berti, F; Costantino, P


    Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An analytical solution for stationary distribution of photon density in traveling-wave and reflective SOAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totović, A R; Crnjanski, J V; Krstić, M M; Gvozdić, D M


    In this paper, we analyze two semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structures, traveling-wave and reflective, with the active region made of the bulk material. The model is based on the stationary traveling-wave equations for forward and backward propagating photon densities of the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission, along with the stationary carrier rate equation. We start by introducing linear approximation of the carrier density spatial distribution, which enables us to find solutions for the photon densities in a closed analytical form. An analytical approach ensures a low computational resource occupation and an easy analysis of the parameters influencing the SOA’s response. The comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows high agreement for a wide range of the input optical powers and bias currents. (paper)

  1. A high density two-dimensional electron gas in an oxide heterostructure on Si (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, E. N.; Kornblum, L.; Kumah, D. P.; Zou, K.; Walker, F. J. [Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Broadbridge, C. C. [Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06515 (United States); Ngai, J. H. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Ahn, C. H. [Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)


    We present the growth and characterization of layered heterostructures comprised of LaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Si (001). Magnetotransport measurements show that the sheet carrier densities of the heterostructures scale with the number of LaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces, consistent with the presence of an interfacial 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at each interface. Sheet carrier densities of 8.9 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} per interface are observed. Integration of such high density oxide 2DEGs on silicon provides a bridge between the exceptional properties and functionalities of oxide 2DEGs and microelectronic technologies.

  2. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont


    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at .

  3. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines


    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  4. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.


    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  5. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto


    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  6. The effects of carrier transport phenomena on the spectral and power characteristics of blue superluminescent light emitting diodes (United States)

    Moslehi Milani, N.; Asgari, A.


    In this article, the effects of carrier escape, capture, and diffusion rates, and also carrier leakage term on the spectral and power characteristics of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs or SLEDs) has been investigated. The investigation is done by means of numerical analysis of the rate equations at steady state. In the model, a wide range of escape, capture, and diffusion times and also drift leakage coefficient correspond to the reported values have been examined in modeling procedure. The simulation is implemented at 300 K and at a constant current density of 15 kA/cm2. Our modeling results show that the escape times do not affect the SLD characteristics, but the variation of capture and diffusion times have moderate effects on output characteristics, while the increasing of the drift leakage coefficient decreases the output power significantly.

  7. Characterization of high-quality kerfless epitaxial silicon for solar cells: Defect sources and impact on minority-carrier lifetime (United States)

    Kivambe, Maulid M.; Powell, Douglas M.; Castellanos, Sergio; Jensen, Mallory Ann; Morishige, Ashley E.; Lai, Barry; Hao, Ruiying; Ravi, T. S.; Buonassisi, Tonio


    We investigate the types and origins of structural defects in thin ( 105 cm-2 are observed. Cross-sectional and systematic plan-view defect etching and microscopy reveals that the majority of stacking faults and dislocations originate at the interface between the porous silicon layer and the epitaxial wafer. Localised dislocation clusters are observed in regions of collapsed/deformed porous silicon and at decorated stacking faults. In localized regions of high extended defect density, increased minority-carrier recombination activity is observed. Evidence for impurity segregation to the extended defects (internal gettering), which is known to exacerbate carrier recombination is demonstrated. The impact of the defects on material performance and substrate re-use is also discussed.

  8. Ingestion and fragmentation of plastic carrier bags by the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus: Effects of plastic type and fouling load. (United States)

    Hodgson, D J; Bréchon, A L; Thompson, R C


    Inappropriate disposal of plastic debris has led to the contamination of marine habitats worldwide. This debris can be ingested by organisms; however, the extent to which chewing and gut transit modifies plastic debris is unclear. Detritivores, such as amphipods, ingest and shred natural organic matter and are fundamental to its breakdown. Here we examine ingestion and shredding of plastic carrier bags by Orchestia gammarellus. A laboratory experiment showed these amphipods shredded plastic carrier bags, generating numerous microplastic fragments (average diameter 488.59μm). The presence of a biofilm significantly increased the amount of shredding, but plastic type (conventional, degradable and biodegradable) had no effect. Subsequent field observations confirmed similar shredding occurred on the strandline. Rates of shredding will vary according to amphipod density; however, our data indicates that shredding by organisms could substantially accelerate the formation microplastics in the environment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On holographic entanglement density (United States)

    Gushterov, Nikola I.; O'Bannon, Andy; Rodgers, Ronnie


    We use holographic duality to study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) in various spacetime dimensions d, in the presence of various deformations: a relevant Lorentz scalar operator with constant source, a temperature T , a chemical potential μ, a marginal Lorentz scalar operator with source linear in a spatial coordinate, and a circle-compactified spatial direction. We consider EE between a strip or sphere sub-region and the rest of the system, and define the "entanglement density" (ED) as the change in EE due to the deformation, divided by the sub-region's volume. Using the deformed CFTs above, we show how the ED's dependence on the strip width or sphere radius, L, is useful for characterizing states of matter. For example, the ED's small- L behavior is determined either by the dimension of the perturbing operator or by the first law of EE. For Lorentz-invariant renormalization group (RG) flows between CFTs, the "area theorem" states that the coefficient of the EE's area law term must be larger in the UV than in the IR. In these cases the ED must therefore approach zero from below as L→∞. However, when Lorentz symmetry is broken and the IR fixed point has different scaling from the UV, we find that the ED often approaches the thermal entropy density from above, indicating area theorem violation.

  10. Gluon density in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.L.


    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  11. Surface plasmon polariton-induced hot carrier generation for photocatalysis. (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi; Ratchford, Daniel C; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Simpkins, Blake S


    Non-radiative plasmon decay in noble metals generates highly energetic carriers under visible light irradiation, which opens new prospects in the fields of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetection. While localized surface plasmon-induced hot carrier generation occurs in diverse metal nanostructures, inhomogeneities typical of many metal-semiconductor plasmonic nanostructures hinder predictable control of photocarrier generation and therefore reproducible carrier-mediated photochemistry. Here, we generate traveling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the interface between a noble metal/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) heterostructure film and aqueous solution, enabling simultaneous optical and electrochemical interrogation of plasmon-mediated chemistry in a system whose resonance may be continuously tuned via the incident optical excitation angle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of SPP-induced hot carrier generation for photocatalysis. We found electrochemical photovoltage and photocurrent responses as SPP-induced hot carriers drive both solution-based oxidation of methanol and the anodic half-reaction of photoelectrochemical water-splitting in sodium hydroxide solution. A strong excitation angle dependence and linear power dependence in the electrochemical photocurrent confirm that the photoelectrochemical reactions are SPP-driven. SPP-generated hot carrier chemistry was recorded on gold and silver and with two different excitation wavelengths, demonstrating potential for mapping resonant charge transfer processes with this technique. These results will provide the design criteria for a metal-semiconductor hybrid system with enhanced hot carrier generation and transport, which is important for the understanding and application of plasmon-induced photocatalysis.

  12. Clinical and genetic characterization of manifesting carriers of DMD mutations. (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Payam; Friez, Michael J; Dunn, Diane; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Gurvich, Olga L; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Sampson, Jacinda B; Pestronk, Alan; Connolly, Anne M; Florence, Julaine M; Finkel, Richard S; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Medne, Livija; Mendell, Jerry R; Mathews, Katherine D; Wong, Brenda L; Sussman, Michael D; Zonana, Jonathan; Kovak, Karen; Gospe, Sidney M; Gappmaier, Eduard; Taylor, Laura E; Howard, Michael T; Weiss, Robert B; Flanigan, Kevin M


    Manifesting carriers of DMD gene mutations may present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the absence of a family history of dystrophinopathy. We review the clinical and genetic features in 15 manifesting carriers identified among 860 subjects within the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a large clinical dystrophinopathy cohort whose members undergo comprehensive DMD mutation analysis. We defined manifesting carriers as females with significant weakness, excluding those with only myalgias/cramps. DNA extracted from peripheral blood was used to study X-chromosome inactivation patterns. Among these manifesting carriers, age at symptom onset ranged from 2 to 47 years. Seven had no family history and eight had male relatives with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Clinical severity among the manifesting carriers varied from a DMD-like progression to a very mild Becker muscular dystrophy-like phenotype. Eight had exonic deletions or duplications and six had point mutations. One patient had two mutations (an exonic deletion and a splice site mutation), consistent with a heterozygous compound state. The X-chromosome inactivation pattern was skewed toward non-random in four out of seven informative deletions or duplications but was random in all cases with nonsense mutations. We present the results of DMD mutation analysis in this manifesting carrier cohort, including the first example of a presumably compound heterozygous DMD mutation. Our results demonstrate that improved molecular diagnostic methods facilitate the identification of DMD mutations in manifesting carriers, and confirm the heterogeneity of mutational mechanisms as well as the wide spectrum of phenotypes. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incorporating medical interventions into carrier probability estimation for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katki Hormuzd A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mendelian models for predicting who may carry an inherited deleterious mutation of known disease genes based on family history are used in a variety of clinical and research activities. People presenting for genetic counseling are increasingly reporting risk-reducing medical interventions in their family histories because, recently, a slew of prophylactic interventions have become available for certain diseases. For example, oophorectomy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and is now increasingly being offered to women with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer. Mendelian models should account for medical interventions because interventions modify mutation penetrances and thus affect the carrier probability estimate. Methods We extend Mendelian models to account for medical interventions by accounting for post-intervention disease history through an extra factor that can be estimated from published studies of the effects of interventions. We apply our methods to incorporate oophorectomy into the BRCAPRO model, which predicts a woman's risk of carrying mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on her family history of breast and ovarian cancer. This new BRCAPRO is available for clinical use. Results We show that accounting for interventions undergone by family members can seriously affect the mutation carrier probability estimate, especially if the family member has lived many years post-intervention. We show that interventions have more impact on the carrier probability as the benefits of intervention differ more between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusion These findings imply that carrier probability estimates that do not account for medical interventions may be seriously misleading and could affect a clinician's recommendation about offering genetic testing. The BayesMendel software, which allows one to implement any Mendelian carrier probability model, has been extended to allow medical interventions, so future

  14. Age-dependent disease expression determines remodeling of the retinal mosaic in carriers of RPGR exon ORF15 mutations. (United States)

    Beltran, William A; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D


    To characterize the retinal histopathology in carriers of X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA1 and XLPRA2), two canine models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused, respectively, by a stop and a frameshift mutation in RPGRORF15. Retinas of XLPRA2 and XLPRA1 carriers of different ages were processed for morphologic evaluation, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry. Cell-specific markers were used to examine retinal remodeling events. A mosaic pattern composed of patches of diseased and normal retina was first detected in XLPRA2 carriers at 4.9 weeks of age. A peak of photoreceptor cell death led to focal rod loss; however, in these patches an increased density of cones was found to persist over time. Patches of disease gradually disappeared so that by 39 weeks of age the overall retinal morphology, albeit thinner, had improved lamination. In older XLPRA2 carriers (>or=8.8 years), extended regions of severe degeneration occurred in the peripheral/mid-peripheral retina. In XLPRA1 carriers, opsin mislocalization and rare events of rod death were detected by TUNEL assay at 20 weeks of age; however, only patchy degeneration was seen by 1.4 years and was still apparent at 7.8 years. The time of onset and the progression of the disease differed between the two models. In the early-onset form (XLPRA2) the morphologic appearance of the retinal mosaic changed as a function of age, suggesting that structural plasticity persists in the early postnatal canine retina as mutant photoreceptors die. In the late-onset form (XLPRA1), patches of disease persisted until later ages.

  15. 49 CFR 385.303 - How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA? (United States)


    ... Washington, DC headquarters by mail at, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  16. Carrier dynamics analysis in metal-semiconductor-metal device for mid-IR silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Alvin Tak Lok; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao


    A modelling platform for active carrier removal based on metal-semiconductor-metal structure is reported on analysis of carrier dynamics. The analysis reveals electric current hot spots exist in geometric singularities and curly trajectory of carriers should be considered when accurately estimati...... the effective carrier lifetime....


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A retrospective study was performed to explore carrier testing among women who were possible or obligate carriers of the haemophilia gene. Knowledge of the possibility of carrier testing and use of carrier testing were studied separately. In our exploration we were guided by the diffusion theory and

  18. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jennifer K; Modugno, Francemary; Weissfeld, Joel L; Kuller, Lewis; Vogel, Victor; Constantino, Joseph P


    .... However, not all women on HRT will experience an increase in breast density. We propose a novel hypothesis to explain in part the individual variability in breast density seen among women on HRT...

  19. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL; Lesinski, Thomas [ORNL; More, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schunck, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wild, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)


    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  20. QPSK Carrier Signal Detection Based on Double Duffing Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng WU


    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new method for the detection of QPSK carrier signal that based on double duffing oscillator to solve the problems as high attenuation and strong noise interference in the QPSK carrier communication of low voltage power line. This method has making use of the different phase of QPSK carrier signal to stimulate the double duffing oscillators to enter different states and through the judgment of the state of the double duffing oscillators to detect the phase information that the QPSK carrier signal carries. At the same time, through the study of the system solutions of duffing oscillator, obtained the change rule of them, based on these rules, the paper proposed a discriminant algorithm that used the difference distribution, and this algorithm is characterized by small calculating amount and low error judgment rate. The numerical simulation and experimental test show that the double duffing oscillator method can detect the phase information of QPSK carrier signal in low voltage power line accurately with the low SNR environment.

  1. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.


    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  2. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy DG


    Full Text Available Dominic G Roy,1,2 John C Bell1–31Centre for Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Biochemistry, Immunology and Microbiology, 3Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms.Keywords: oncolytic virus, cell carrier, systemic delivery, tumor targeting, cancer

  3. [Carriers of Neisseria meningitidis among children from a primary school]. (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; López, Omar; Sotolongo, Franklin; Mirabal, Mayelin; Bencomo, Antonio


    A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted among 318 children from the "Mártires del Corynthia" Primary School under the authorization of the Municipal Division of Education and the informed consent of their parents aimed at knowing the prevalence of meningoccoco carriers in school children, determining the epidemiological markers of the isolated strains and establishing the possible relation existing between the carrier and variables, such as age, sex, acute respiratory infection history, hacinamiento, amigdalectomy, inhibitory effect of of the accompanying flora and the secretory state of ABH antigens in saliva. All of them underwent nasopharyngeal exudate and a saliva sample was taken. In adition, the paents were surveyed about the risks factors to be investigated. 6.9 % of meningoccoco carriers were found and the NA:NT:P1:NST:L3,7,9 strains predominated. The risk factors with statistically significant results regarding the condition of carrier Neisseria meningitidis carrier were age, acute respiratory infection history, and the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria lactamica of the accompanying bacterial flora in the nasopharynx of the children under study.

  4. Charge carrier velocity in graphene field-effect transistors (United States)

    Bonmann, Marlene; Vorobiev, Andrei; Andersson, Michael A.; Stake, Jan


    To extend the frequency range of transistors into the terahertz domain, new transistor technologies, materials, and device concepts must be continuously developed. The quality of the interface between the involved materials is a highly critical factor. The presence of impurities can degrade device performance and reliability. In this paper, we present a method that allows the study of the charge carrier velocity in a field-effect transistor vs impurity levels. The charge carrier velocity is found using high-frequency scattering parameter measurements followed by delay time analysis. The limiting factors of the saturation velocity and the effect of impurities are then analysed by applying analytical models of the field-dependent and phonon-limited carrier velocity. As an example, this method is applied to a top-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET). We find that the extracted saturation velocity is ca. 1.4 ×107 cm/s and is mainly limited by silicon oxide substrate phonons. Within the considered range of residual charge carrier concentrations, charged impurities do not limit the saturation velocity directly by the phonon mechanism. Instead, the impurities act as traps that emit charge carriers at high fields, preventing the current from saturation and thus limiting power gain of the GFETs. The method described in this work helps to better understand the influence of impurities and clarifies methods of further transistor development. High quality interfaces are required to achieve current saturation via velocity saturation in GFETs.

  5. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design. (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank


    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.


    This chapter gives an introduction to first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure calculations have a crucial importance in the multi-scale modelling scheme of materials: not only do they enable one to accurately determine physical and chemical properties of materials, they also provide data for the adjustment of parameters (or potentials) in higher-scale methods such as classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, cluster dynamics, etc. Most of the properties of a solid depend on the behaviour of its electrons, and in order to model or predict them it is necessary to have an accurate method to compute the electronic structure. DFT is based on quantum theory and does not make use of any adjustable or empirical parameter: the only input data are the atomic number of the constituent atoms and some initial structural information. The complicated many-body problem of interacting electrons is replaced by an equivalent single electron problem, in which each electron is moving in an effective potential. DFT has been successfully applied to the determination of structural or dynamical properties (lattice structure, charge density, magnetisation, phonon spectra, etc.) of a wide variety of solids. Its efficiency was acknowledged by the attribution of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 to one of its authors, Walter Kohn. A particular attention is given in this chapter to the ability of DFT to model the physical properties of nuclear materials such as actinide compounds. The specificities of the 5f electrons of actinides will be presented, i.e., their more or less high degree of localisation around the nuclei and correlations. The limitations of the DFT to treat the strong 5f correlations are one of the main issues for the DFT modelling of nuclear fuels. Various methods that exist to better treat strongly correlated materials will finally be presented. (author)

  7. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215028 (China)


    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  8. Characteristics of carrier-generated field-effect transistors with pentacene/vanadium pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, M. [Nagaoka National College of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Nakai, K.; Baba, A.; Shinbo, K.; Kato, K.; Kaneko, F. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Lee, C. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the driving mechanism of carrier-generated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with pentacene and vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layers is discussed. In this study, large on-currents were observed in an OFET with a 35-nm V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer. Devices with aluminum (Al)/pentacene/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al layer structures were also prepared. These devices exhibited a large current density in spite of their high carrier injection barriers between each layer and the Al electrodes. Moreover, new absorption bands corresponding to the radical cation absorption of pentacene were observed within the absorption spectrum of the pentacene and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixed layers. It was inferred that the charge transfer (CT) complexes that formed at the interface between the pentacene and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers were dissociated by the applied gate voltage and that the generated holes contributed to driving the OFETs.

  9. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren


    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  10. Theoretical insights into the minority carrier lifetime of doped Si—A computational study (United States)

    Iyakutti, K.; Lavanya, R.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Mathan Kumar, E.; Kawazoe, Y.


    Using density functional theory, we have analyzed the ways and means of improving the minority carrier lifetime (MCL) by calculating the band structure dependent quantities contributing to the MCL. We have computationally modeled silicon doped with different elements like B, C, N, O, P, Ti, Fe, Ga, Ge, As, In, Sn, Sb, and Pt and looked at the effect of doping on MCL. In co-doping, the systems Si-B-Ga, Si-B-Ge, Si-B-2Ge, Si-B-Pt, Si-Ga-Ge, Si-Ga-2Ge, and Si-Ga-Pt are investigated. From our calculation, it is found that by doping and co-doping of Si with suitable elements having "s" and "p" electrons, there is a decrease in the recombination activity. The predicted effective minority carrier lifetime indicates the possibility of significant improvements. Based on the above studies, it is now maybe possible, with suitable choice of dopant and co-dopant material, to arrive at part of a standard production process for solar grade Si material.

  11. New class of oxygen carriers improves islet isolation from long-term stored rat pancreata. (United States)

    Brandhorst, H; Muehling, B; Yamaya, H; Henriksnaes, J; Carlsson, P O; Korsgren, O; Brandhorst, D


    Pancreas shipment is frequently associated with prolonged ischemia deteriorating islet graft function. The strategy to prevent ischemic damage utilizing perfluorodecalin (PFD) for human pancreas oxygenation does not seem to improve isolation outcome. The present study investigated the efficiency of perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8), a hyperoxygen carrier characterized by low specific density (1.33 g/cm3) and lipophilic qualities, to facilitate islet isolation from long-term stored rat pancreata. Prior to islet isolation, pancreata were intraductally flushed in situ with Kyoto solution (KS) and stored for 24 hours in KS, oxygenated PFD, or F6H8. Islet isolation performed after 24-hour storage in KS failed completely. The intrapancreatic pO2 in PFD- and F6H8-incubated pancreata was almost the same. In correspondence, the ATP content and viability of isolated islets were similar as well. In contrast, islet yield and in vitro function were significantly reduced after storage in PFD compared with F6H8. This study suggested that islet isolation performed after long-term pancreas preservation can be significantly improved utilizing semifluorinated alkanes as oxygen carriers.

  12. In-plane heterostructures of Sb/Bi with high carrier mobility (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Wei, Wei; Sun, Qilong; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying


    In-plane two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures have been attracting public attention due to their distinctive properties. However, the pristine materials that can form in-plane heterostructures are reported only for graphene, hexagonal BN, transition-metal dichalcogenides. It will be of great significance to explore more suitable 2D materials for constructing such ingenious heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate two types of novel seamless in-plane heterostructures combined by pristine Sb and Bi monolayers by means of first-principle approach based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that external strain can serve as an effective strategy for bandgap engineering, and the transition from semiconductor to metal occurs when a compressive strain of -8% is applied. In addition, the designed heterostructures possess direct band gaps with high carrier mobility (˜4000 cm2 V-1 s-1). And the mobility of electrons and holes have huge disparity along the direction perpendicular to the interface of Sb/Bi in-plane heterostructures. It is favorable for carriers to separate spatially. Finally, we find that the band edge positions of Sb/Bi in-plane heterostructures can meet the reduction potential of hydrogen generation in photocatalysis. Our results not only offer alternative materials to construct versatile in-plane heterostructures, but also highlight the applications of 2D in-plane heterostructures in diverse nanodevices and photocatalysis.

  13. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy? (United States)

    Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F


    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.

  14. Mechanism of Magnetic Coupling in Carrier-Doped SnO Nanosheets (United States)

    Guan, Lixiu; Tao, Junguang


    Although the interlayer interaction is weak, it exhibits an important influence on the electronic behaviors in two-dimensional layered semiconductors. Using first-principles calculations, we find that tuning of lone-pair electron properties by carrier injection breaks time symmetry in SnO nanosheets, which is responsible for the ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition. Upon hole doping, the most stable FM state of monolayer SnO occurs at 3.2 ×1014/cm2 with an average magnetic moment of 1.0 μB /carrier . In multilayer SnO nanosheets, lone-pair electrons are redistributed due to the interaction of Sn atoms in adjacent layers, which cancels out the FM coupling mediated by holes. A half-metallic FM ground state is recovered when the interlayer lone-pair electron interaction is weakened. The itinerant magnetism originates from an exchange splitting of lone-pair electron states at the top of the valence band where the density of states exhibits a sharp van Hove singularity in this system.

  15. Towards an understanding of hot carrier cooling mechanisms in multiple quantum wells (United States)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Zhang, Yi; Bremner, Stephen P.; Shrestha, Santosh


    Multiple quantum wells have been shown significantly reduced hot carrier cooling rates compared to bulk material and are thus a promising candidate for hot carrier solar cell absorbers. However, the mechanism(s) by which hot carrier cooling is restricted is not clear. A systematic study of carrier cooling rates in GaAs/AlAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with either varying barrier thickness or varying well thickness is presented in this paper. These allow an investigation as to whether the mechanisms of either a modification in hot carrier diffusion or a localisation of phonons emitted by hot carriers are primarily responsible for reduced carrier cooling rates. With the conclusion that for the structures investigated the situation is rather more complex with both carrier mobility to modify hot carrier diffusion, different diffusion rates for electrons and holes and reflection and localisation of phonons to enhance phonon bottleneck all playing their parts in modulating phonon reabsorption and hot carrier behaviour.

  16. Charge carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead iodide: from PbI₂-rich to low-dimensional broadly emitting perovskites. (United States)

    Klein, Johannes R; Flender, Oliver; Scholz, Mirko; Oum, Kawon; Lenzer, Thomas


    We provide an investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of the (MAI)(x)(PbI2)(1-x) system in the range x = 0.32-0.90 following the recently published "pseudobinary phase-composition processing diagram" of Song et al. (Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 4612). The dynamics were studied using ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy over the pump fluence range 2-50 μJ cm(-2), allowing for a wide variation of the initial carrier density. At high MAI excess (x = 0.90), low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) are formed, and their luminescence spectra are significantly blue-shifted by ca. 50 nm and broadened compared to the 3D perovskite. The shift is due to quantum confinement effects, and the inhomogeneous broadening arises from different low-dimensional structures (predominantly 2D, but presumably also 1D and 0D). Accurate transient carrier temperatures are extracted from the transient absorption spectra. The regimes of carrier-carrier, carrier-optical phonon and acoustic phonon scattering are clearly distinguished. Perovskites with mole fractions x ≤ 0.71 exhibit extremely fast carrier cooling (ca. 300 fs) at low fluence of 2 μJ cm(-2), however cooling slows down significantly at high fluence of 50 μJ cm(-2) due to the "hot phonon effect" (ca. 2.8 ps). A kinetic analysis of the electron-hole recombination dynamics provides second-order recombination rate constants k2 which decrease from 5.3 to 1.5 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) in the range x = 0.32-0.71. In contrast, recombination in the LDPs (x = 0.90) is more than one order of magnitude faster, 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), which is related to the confined perovskite structure. Recombination in these LDPs should be however still slow enough for their potential application as efficient broadband emitters or solar light-harvesting materials.

  17. A Density Functional Theory Study of New Boron Nanotubes (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Hua; Xie, Zun


    Using first-principles calculations, a series of new boron nanotubes (BNTs), which show various electronic properties, were theoretically predicted. Stable nanotubes with various chiral vectors and diameters can be formed by rolling up the boron sheet with relative stability [H. Tang and S. I. Beigi, Phys. Rev. B 82, 115412 (2010).]. By increasing the diameter for BNT, the stability is enhanced. The calculated density of states and band structures demonstrate that all the predicted BNTs are metallic, regardless of their diameter and chirality. The multicentre chemical bonds of the relatively stable boron sheet and BNTs are analysed using the deformation electron density. Within our study, the BNTs all have metallic conductive characteristics, in addition to having a low effective quality and high carrier concentration, which are very good nanoconductive material properties and could be combined to form high-power electrodes for lithium-ion batteries such as those used in many modern electronics.

  18. Inhomogeneous and nonstationary Hall states of the CDW with quantized normal carriers (United States)

    Brazovskii, S.


    We suggest a theory for a deformable and sliding charge density wave (CDW) in the Hall bar geometry for the quantum limit when the carriers in remnant small pockets are concentrated at lowest Landau levels (LL) forming a fractionally (ν central region via sharp domain walls. Resulting picture is that of compensated collective and normal pulsing counter-currents driven by the Hall voltage. This scenario is illustrated by numerical modeling for nonstationary distributions of the current and the electric field. This picture can interpret experiments in mesa-junctions showing depinning by the Hall voltage and the generation of voltage-controlled high frequency oscillations (Yu.I. Latyshev, P. Monceau, A.A. Sinchenko, et al., Presented at ECRYS-2011, unpublished [1]).

  19. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.


    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  20. [Clinical application of biological bone carrier in repair of long bone defect of femur]. (United States)

    Yao, L; Chen, J; Hu, X


    It is difficult to repair long defect of bone. Biological bone carrier (BBC) was one of the artifical bone substitutes. It was obtained from human or swine bone after a series of biochemical treatment. It had good histocompatibility. It had the same components and structure of bone, and its biological strength was samiliar to bone. In clinic, BBC was applied to repair of long defect of bone in two cases. The lengths of defect were 13 cm and 11 cm, respectively. After followed up for 2 to 3 years, it was found that the implanted BBC had been combined with the femur with new bone. It had the same metabolism and density as that of the normal bone.

  1. The effect of illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior in special multilayer devices (United States)

    Deng, Yanhong; Ou, Qingdong; Wang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Dengyu; Chen, Liezun; Li, Yanqing


    Intermediate connectors play an important role in semiconductor devices, especially in tandem devices. In this paper, four types of different intermediate connectors (e.g. Mg:Alq3/MoO3, MoO3, Mg:Alq3, and none) and two kinds of modified electrode materials (LiF and MoO3) integrated into the special multilayer devices are proposed, with the aim of studying the impact of light illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior of intermediate connectors through the current density-voltage characteristics, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristics. The results show that the illumination enhances the charge generation and separation in intermediate connectors, and further electrode interface modifications enhance the functionality of intermediate connectors. In addition, the device with an efficient intermediate connector structure shows a photoelectric effect, which paves the way for organic photovoltaic devices to realize optical-electrical integration transformation.

  2. Photocatalytically Active Oligomeric Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Conformational Flexibility, Electronic Levels, Carrier Localization (United States)

    Blum, Volker; Lau, Vincent; Botari, Tiago; Huhn, William; Lotsch, Bettina V.


    Polymers consisting of bridged heptazine units (often called ``graphitic carbon nitride'' or ``g-C3N4'') show considerable promise as photocatalysts for solar hydrogen evolution. Recent experimental evidence suggests that oligomeric rather than fully polymerized ``g-C3N4'' exhibits increased intrinsic photocatalytic activity. Using density-functional theory (DFT; van der Waals corrected PBE functional for conformers, hybrid DFT and GW for electronic levels), we show that considerable conformational flexibility exists for the heptazine trimers and tetramers. Analysis of HOMO and LUMO locations as well as trends in photocatalytic activity among heptazine oligomers and polymers reveals the NH2 groups of the oligomers as potential charge-transfer sites. We show that conformational variations of the oligomers can lead to significant, electrostatically motivated carrier localization effects. We suggest that NH2 side groups and the intrinsic conformational variations of the oligomeric species lead to the observed enhanced catalytic activity.

  3. Tuning the carrier concentration to improve the thermoelectric performance of CuInTe2 compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wei


    Full Text Available The electronic and transport properties of CuInTe2 chalcopyrite are investigated using density functional calculations combined with Boltzmann theory. The band gap predicted from hybrid functional is 0.92 eV, which agrees well with experimental data and leads to relatively larger Seebeck coefficient compared with those of narrow-gap thermoelectric materials. By fine tuning the carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity and power factor of the system can be significantly optimized. Together with the inherent low thermal conductivity, the ZT values of CuInTe2 compound can be enhanced to as high as 1.72 at 850 K, which is obviously larger than those measured experimentally and suggests there is still room to improve the thermoelectric performance of this chalcopyrite compound.

  4. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marri


    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  5. Negative force on free carriers in positive index nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibur Rahaman


    Full Text Available We theoretically demonstrate the reversal of optical forces on free charge carriers in positive refractive index nanostructures. Though optical momentum in positive refractive index materials is necessarily parallel to the local energy flow, reversal of optical momentum transfer can be accomplished by exploiting the geometry and size of subwavelength particles. Using the Mie scattering theory and separation of optical momentum transfers to the bound and free charges and currents, we have shown that metal nanoparticles can exhibit strong momentum transfer to free carriers opposite to the direction of incident electromagnetic waves. This can be explained for small particles in terms of a reversal of Poynting power inside the material resulting in a negative net force on free carriers in small particles. Two-dimensional simulations further illuminate this point by demonstrating the effect of incident wave polarization.

  6. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J.


    This book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilisation of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources - solar energy, wind energy and hydropower - and from nuclear energy. It is also capable of one day supplementing or superseding the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. What is special about the book is that it goes beyond a mere physical/technical description to discuss the economic and political aspects and ecological effects and requirements that are an essential part of sound energy planning today. Thus, the authors and editors outline the step-by-step development of a hydrogen economy, mainly based on solar energy, providing a solution to both the pollution problems caused by the use of fossil energy carriers and the energy requirements of the third world. (orig.) With 197 figs., 71 tabs

  7. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier (United States)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di


    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  8. Carrier for registration of optical images and holographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, A.; Bivol, V.; Iovu, M.


    The invention relates to the field of registration of optical information including the holographic one and may be used in the holography, cinematography, micro- and optical electronics, computer engineering. Summary of the invention consists in, that in the carrier containing a dielectric substrate on which there are placed in sequence the first electrode, photoinjection substrate, registration substrate of the chalcogenide vitreous semiconductor and the second electrode, the photoinjection substrate is fabricated of the monocrystalline germanium of the n-type conductivity and the relation of the registration substrate conductivity, during illumination to the photoinjection substrate conductivity in darkness is 0,001. The technical result consists in increasing the carrier photosensibility and in diffraction effectiveness of the information registered on the carrier

  9. Multipactor susceptibility on a dielectric with two carrier frequencies (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Verboncoeur, John; Zhang, Peng


    This work investigates multipactor discharge on a single dielectric surface with two carrier frequencies of an rf electric field. We use Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations to obtain susceptibility diagrams in terms of the rf electric field and normal electric field due to the residual charge on the dielectric. It is found that in contrast to the single frequency case, in general, the presence of a second carrier frequency of the rf electric field increases the threshold of the magnitude of the rf electric field to initiate multipactor. The effects of the relative strength and phase, and the frequency separation of the two carrier frequencies are examined. The conditions to minimize mulitpactor are derived.

  10. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects of of as......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects...... quartile to 4.2% in the highest quartile of exposed patients (P=.026). Combining the load of exposure to carriers and length of stay seemed to have an additive effect on the risk of contracting C difficile. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based prospective cohort study in Denmark, we found that asymptomatic...

  11. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results. (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Govoni, Marco; Ossicini, Stefano


    One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  12. Investigation of carrier removal in electron irradiated silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.J.; Yamaguchi, M.; Matsuda, S.; Hisamatsu, T.; Kawasaki, O.


    We present a detailed study of n + p p + silicon diodes irradiated with fluences of 1 MeV electrons high enough to cause device failure due to majority carrier removal. Capacitance voltage (C V) measurements were used to monitor the change in the carrier concentration of the base of the device as a function of radiation fluence. These were compared to the defect spectra in the same region obtained by deep level transient spectroscopy, and to the current voltage characteristics of the device, both before and after annealing. We observed the expected deep levels with activation energies of 0.18 and 0.36 eV, but the C endash V results imply that other trap levels must play a more important role in the carrier removal process. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Performance indicators for carrier-based DPIs: Carrier surface properties for capsule filling and API properties for in vitro aerosolisation. (United States)

    Faulhammer, E; Zellnitz, S; Wutscher, T; Stranzinger, S; Zimmer, A; Paudel, A


    This study investigates engineered carrier, as well as engineered API particles, and shows that there are distinct performance indicators of particle engineering for carrier-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Spray dried (SDSS) and jet-milled (JMSS) salbutamol sulphate (SS) was blended with untreated α-lactose monohydrate (LAC_R) and α-lactose monohydrate engineered (LAC_E). Subsequent capsule filling was performed with different process settings on a dosator nozzle capsule filling machine in order to reach a target fill weight of 20-25 mg. To evaluate the performance of the different mixtures, in vitro lung deposition experiments were carried out with a next generation impactor, the emitted dose (ED) and fine particle fraction (FPF) were calculated based on the specification of the European pharmacopoeia. The FPF of micronised powder blends is significantly higher (20%) compared to the FPF of spray dried blends (5%). Compared to API engineering, carrier engineering had a positive effect on the capsule filling performance (weight variability and mean fill weight) at lower compression ratios (setting 1). Results further showed that higher compression ratios appear to be beneficial in terms of capsule filling performance (higher fill weight and less fill weight variation). Concluding, it can be stated that the carrier engineering, or generally carrier properties, govern downstream processing, whereas the API engineering and API properties govern the aerosolisation performance and thereby significantly affect the dose delivery to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon nanotube growth density control (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)


    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  15. Prenatal genetic carrier testing using triple disease screening. (United States)

    Eng, C M; Schechter, C; Robinowitz, J; Fulop, G; Burgert, T; Levy, B; Zinberg, R; Desnick, R J


    Rapid progress in gene discovery has dramatically increased diagnostic capabilities for carrier screening and prenatal testing for genetic diseases. However, simultaneous prenatal carrier screening for prevalent genetic disease has not been evaluated, and patient acceptance and attitudes toward this testing strategy remain undefined. To evaluate an educational, counseling, and carrier testing program for 3 genetic disorders: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) that differ in detectability, severity, and availability of therapy. Potential participants received education and genetic counseling, gave informed consent, chose screening tests, and completed pre-education and posteducation questionnaires that assessed knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and disease testing preferences. Medical genetics referral center. Volunteer sample of 2824 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals enrolled as couples who were referred for TSD testing. Genetic counseling, education, and if chosen, genetic testing for any or all 3 disorders. Acceptance of screening for each of the 3 disorders. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward genetic testing and reproductive considerations. Of the 2824 individuals tested for TSD, 97% and 95% also chose testing for CF and GD, respectively. The frequency of detected carriers was 1:21 for TSD, 1 :25 for CF, and 1:18 for GD. Twenty-one carriercoupleswere identified, counseled, and all postconception couples opted for prenatal diagnosis. Pre-education and posteducation questionnaires revealed that patients initially knew little about the diseases, but acquired disease information and increased knowledge of genetic concepts. Education and genetic counseling increased understanding and retention of genetic concepts and disease-related information, and minimized test-related anxiety. Although individuals sought screening for all 3 diseases, reproductive attitudes and decisions varied directly with disease

  16. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))


    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  17. Exoneration of the Air Carrier`s Liability for Damage – Extraordinary Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bevanda


    Full Text Available Serious problems and inconveniences faced by passengers in air transport demand to raise their standard of protection to a higher level. A large number of passengers affected by denied boarding, by flight cancellation without notice and by long delays, pointed to the fact that it is necessary to inform the passengers about their rights and about the enforcement of these rights in a clear and unambiguous manner, and that a faster and more efficient compensation system has to be introduced. This motivated the European Union institutions to prepare and adopt the reformed measures with the purpose of changing the existing air passenger’s rights legislation. In this article the authors are analyzing the EU Regulation 261/2004, and the Commission´s proposal for its amendment forwarded to the European Parliament and the Council in 2013, with the emphasis on „extraordinary circumstances“ as basis for the air carrier´s exoneration in the case of flight cancellation. Special attention is given to the practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union in this field. The authors are pointing out that the decision of the Court of Justice instead of clarifying further complicated the implementation of the Regulation, particularly in terms of defining the concept of „extraordinary circumstances”.

  18. Analytic 1D pn junction diode photocurrent solutions following ionizing radiation and including time-dependent changes in the carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert


    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.

  19. Analytic 1D pn junction diode photocurrent solutions following ionizing radiation and including time-dependent changes in the carrier lifetime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM)


    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.

  20. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen


    The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...... processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each...