WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier concentration compensation

  1. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  2. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarder and carrier; compensation. 515.42 Section 515... Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice Freight Forwarding Fees and Compensation § 515.42...

  3. Carrier Frequency Offset Compensation for an Interleaved OFDMA Uplink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Da; CAO Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the carrier frequency offset (CFO) compensation in the up-link of the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system with interleaved subcarrier as-signment. The presence of CFOs between the transmitters and the uplink receiver will destroy the orthogo-nality among the different subcarriers, resulting in inter-carrier interference and multiuser interference. This paper proposes a pseudoinverse CFO compensation method based on the signal structure. The proposed method can compensate the CFOs of all users simultaneously and isolate the signals from all users at the same time. Compared with the existing CFO compensation methods, the new method provides a consider-able signal-to-noise ratio gain on the bit error rate performance and has a relatively low implementation complexity.

  4. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  5. Suppression of Compensating Native Defect Formation During Semiconductor Processing via Excess Carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberi, Kirstin; Scarpulla, M. A.

    2016-06-21

    In many semiconductors, compensating defects set doping limits, decrease carrier mobility, and reduce minority carrier lifetime thus limiting their utility in devices. Native defects are often responsible. Suppressing the concentrations of compensating defects during processing close to thermal equilibrium is difficult because formation enthalpies are lowered as the Fermi level moves towards the majority band edge. Excess carriers, introduced for example by photogeneration, modify the formation enthalpy of semiconductor defects and thus can be harnessed during crystal growth or annealing to suppress defect populations. Herein we develop a rigorous and general model for defect formation in the presence of steady-state excess carrier concentrations by combining the standard quasi-chemical formalism with a detailed-balance description that is applicable for any defect state in the bandgap. Considering the quasi-Fermi levels as chemical potentials, we demonstrate that increasing the minority carrier concentration increases the formation enthalpy for typical compensating centers, thus suppressing their formation. This effect is illustrated for the specific example of GaSb. While our treatment is generalized for excess carrier injection or generation in semiconductors by any means, we provide a set of guidelines for applying the concept in photoassisted physical vapor deposition.

  6. Realization of LOS (Line of Sight) stabilization based on reflector using carrier attitude compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao; Tian, Jing; Ma, Jia-guang

    2015-02-01

    The techonology of LOS stabilization is widely applicated in moving carrier photoelectric systems such as shipborne, airborne and so on. In application situations with compact structure, such as LOS stabilization system of unmanned aerial vehicle, LOS stabilization based on reflector is adopted, and the detector is installed on the carrier to reduce the volume of stabilized platform and loading weight. However, the LOS deflection angle through reflector and the rotation angle of the reflector has a ratio relation of 2:1, simple reflector of stable inertial space can not make the optical axis stable. To eliminate the limitation of mirror stabilizing method, this article puts forward the carrier attitude compensation method, which uses the inertial sensor installed on the carrier to measure the attitude change of the carrier, and the stabilized platform rotating half of the carrier turbulence angle to realize the LOS stabilization.

  7. Transport properties of Ru-doped La sub 1 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 CuO sub 4 and the effect of carrier concentration compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Y M; Luo, X G; Zhang, H T; Wang, C H; Li, S Y; Chen, X H

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a study of the structure and transport properties of Ru-doped La sub 1 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 CuO sub 4. It is found that Ru substitution for Cu has two effects. (1) Ru doping introduces disorder into the system, which causes a metal-insulator transition with high localization. (2) There is a hole-filling effect due to the valence of the Ru ion being higher than that of the Cu ion. Increase of the strontium content could compensate for the imbalance of valence caused by doping with the high-valence Ru ion. A universal curve for T sub c versus the number of holes per Cu site is observed for the La sub 2 sub - sub y Sr sub y Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Ru sub x O sub 4 system, indicating that a rigid-band model holds and T sub c correlates with features in the density of states, such as a Van Hove singularity.

  8. A carrier leakage calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carrier leakage calibration and compensation technique based on digital baseband for a wideband wireless communication transceiver is proposed. The digital baseband transmits a calibration signal, samples the signal which passes through the transmitter path and the calibration loop in the RF chip, measures the carrier leakage by analyzing the sampled data and compensates it. Compared with a self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network (WLAN) solution. This technique has been successfully used for 802.1 1n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB carrier leakage suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Electrical mechanisms for carrier compensation in homoepitaxial nonpolar m-ZnO doped with nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A.; Hierro, A.; Lopez-Ponce, M.; Tabares, G.; Chauveau, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    By combining photoluminescence, capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level optical spectroscopy, the optical and electrical signatures of the deep levels induced by N in MBE-grown homoepitaxial m-ZnO layers are identified and correlated to different physical origins. The films are electrically compensated, with carrier concentrations that decrease from ˜1 · 1016 cm-3 to ˜2 · 1015 cm-3 as a result of increasing N incorporation. Regardless of the presence of N, an intrinsic trap is found in all films at EV + 0.25 eV, most likely related to VZn defects. More interestingly, N induces three new deep levels close to the valence band whose bandgap position is electrically observed to be at EV + 0.48 eV, EV + 0.17 eV and EV + 0.12 eV. The deepest trap at EV + 0.48 eV correlates well with a N-induced level observed in previous studies on both ZnMgO and ZnO films. The EV + 0.17 eV trap behaves as a minority (hole) carrier trap, and can be uniquely correlated with the acceptor level involved in the N-induced DAP emission observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Finally, the shallowest level at EV + 0.12 eV shows an electrical signature completely distinguishable from the EV + 0.17 eV level, and dominates the deep level spectra after N-incorporation with a trap concentration of ˜1.2 · 1015 cm-3.

  10. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  11. A direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband with DC offset compensation and carrier leakage reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang; Yan Jun; Ma Heping; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Foster, Dai Fa, E-mail: fyuan@sci-inc.com.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dual-band direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband compliant with the IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards is described. Several critical techniques for receiver DC offset compensation and transmitter carrier leakage rejection calibration are presented that enable the direct-conversion architecture to meet all WLAN specifications. The receiver baseband VGA provides 62 dB gain range with steps of 2 dB and a DC offset cancellation circuit is introduced to remove the offset from layout and self-mixing. The calibration loop achieves constant high-pass pole when gain changes; and a fast response time by programming the pole to 1 MHz during preamble and to 30 kHz during receiving data. The transmitter baseband employs an auto-calibration loop with on-chip AD and DA to suppress the carrier leakage, and AD can be powered down after calibration to save power consumption. The chip consumes 17.52 mA for RX baseband VGA and DCOC, and 8.3 mA for TX carrier leakage calibration (5.88 mA after calibration) from 2.85 V supply. Implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m SiGe technology, they occupy 0.68 mm{sup 2} and 0.18 mm{sup 2} die size respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Interplay between carrier and cationic defect concentration in ferromagnetism of anatase Ti1-xTaxO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy Barman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Ta incorporated TiO2 grown by pulsed laser deposition under specific growth conditions show room temperature ferromagnetism. Ta introduces carriers and concomitantly cationic defects, the combination of which leads to ferromagnetism. In this paper, we report on the dependence of the carrier and cationic defect density (compensation on various parameters such as oxygen growth pressure, temperature and Ta concentration. Most likely, the Ti vacancies act as magnetic centers and the free electrons help with the exchange leading to ferromagnetism via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism.

  13. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Array System Based on Digital Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation and Reference Compensation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun He; Fang Li; Hao Xiao; Yu-Liang Liu

    2008-01-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array system based on digital phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation and reference compensation method is proposed and set up. Experimental results confirm that the digital PGC demodulation can be used for wavelength-division-multiplexed FBG sensor array and the reference compensation method can reduce the environmental interference by approximately 40 dB in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 kHz. The minimum detectable wavelength-shift of the sensor system is 1×10-3 pm/Hz1/2.

  14. Multi-User Interference Cancellation Scheme(s) for Muliple Carrier Frequency Offset Compensation in Uplink OFDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the uplink of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based system, where each Mobile Station (MS) experiences a different Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO). Uncorrected CFO destroy the orthogonality among subcarriers, which could cause severe Inter-Carrier Interference...... (ICI) and degrade the system performance considerably. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-User Interference (MUI) cancellation scheme for uplink OFDMA, which utilizes multiple OFDM-demodulators architecture to correct and then compensate the negative effects of multiple CFOs at the receiver's side...

  15. Probing the carrier concentration profiles in phosphorus-implanted germanium using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry with photon energy in the 0.045-0.65 eV range was used to investigate germanium samples implanted with 30 keV phosphorus ions and annealed at 700 °C. The infrared response of implanted layers is dominated by free carrier absorption which is modeled using a Drude oscillator. The carrier concentration profiles were modeled using an error function, and compared with those obtained by electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the flat region of the carrier concentration profile, average carrier concentration and mobility of 1.40 × 1019 cm-3 and 336 cm2V-1s-1, respectively, were obtained. A phosphorus diffusivity of ˜1.2 × 10-13 cm2/s was obtained. The mobility versus carrier concentration relationships obtained for the implanted samples are close to the empirical relationship for bulk Ge.

  16. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Palash, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com; Biswas, Dhrubes, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur - 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2014-04-24

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  17. Multi-user interference cancellation schemes for carrier frequency offset compensation in uplink OFDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Each user in the uplink of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) system may experience a different carrier frequency offset (CFO). These uncorrected CFOs destroy the orthogonality among subcarriers, causing inter-carrier interference and multi-user interference, which degrade...... receiver and a reference frequency-domain multi-user interference cancellation scheme. In a particular scenario, a maximum CFO of up to 40% of the subcarrier spacing can be tolerated, and the CFO-free performance is maintained in the OFDMA uplink. The proposed schemes outperform the multi-user interference...... the system performance severely. In this paper, novel time-domain multi-user interference cancellation schemes for OFDMA uplink are proposed. They employ an architecture with multiple and numerical evaluations show that the proposed schemes achieve a significant performance gain compared to the conventional...

  18. Carrier recombination effects in strain compensated quantum dot stacks embedded in solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Alvarez, Diego; González Taboada, Alfonso; Ripalda Cobián, Jose María; Alén Millán, Benito; González Diez, M. Yolanda; González Soto, Luisa; García Martín, Jorge Miguel; Martí Vega, Antonio; Luque López, Antonio; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando; Sanchez, A. M.; Molina Rubio, Sergio Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report the stacking of 50 InAs/GaAs quantum dot layers with a GaAs spacer thickness of 18 nm using GaP monolayers for strain compensation. We find a good structural and optical quality of the fabricated samples including a planar growth front across the whole structure, a reduction in the quantum dot size inhomogeneity, and an enhanced thermal stability of the emission. The optimized quantum dot stack has been embedded in a solar cell structure and we discuss the benefits and ...

  19. Er-doped concentric-cores optical fiber for simultaneous amplification and compensation of positive dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pramod R. Watekar; M. L. N. Goswami; H. N. Acharya; J. C. Biswas; B. P. Pal

    2004-01-01

    The Er-doped concentric-cores dispersion compensating fiber (EDDCF) has been demonstrated. The rare earth has been doped as a ring around the inner core. We have obtained 14-dB gain at 1550 nm (using the optical fiber network where amplification as well as negative dispersion are necessary.

  20. Synthesis of Hemoglobin Conjugated Polymeric Micelle: A ZnPc Carrier with Oxygen Self-Compensating Ability for Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shasha; Yuan, Fang; Chen, Kui; Chen, Gaojian; Tu, Kehua; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Li-Qun

    2015-09-14

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising singlet oxygen ((1)O2) mediated clinical treatment for many tumors. As the source of (1)O2, oxygen plays an important role in the curative effect of PDT. However, the facts of photochemical depletion of oxygen and the intrinsic hypoxic microenvironment of tumors remain the major challenges. In this work, a novel photosensitizer carrier with oxygen self-compensating ability was designed for PDT. It was synthesized via chemical conjugation of hemoglobin (Hb) to polymeric micelles formed by triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PEG-b-PAA-b-PS). The PEG-b-PAA-b-PS and resultant micelles in aqueous solution were comprehensively characterized by means of FTIR, (1)H NMR, GPC, DLS, TEM, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The oxygen-binding capacity and antioxidative activity of the Hb conjugated micelles were evaluated via UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, compared with the control micelles without Hb, the Hb conjugated photosensitizer carrier was able to generate more (1)O2 and exert greater photocytotoxicity on Hela cells in vitro.

  1. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cells with carrier concentration gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxiong

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of carrier concentration gradient on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin-film solar cells, the properties of CZTS solar cells were studied by numerical method. The photovoltaic performances of carrier concentration gradient CZTS solar cells were calculated by the solutions of Poisson's equation, continuity equation, and current density equation using AFors-Het v2.4 program. The carrier concentration gradient was changed to analyze its effect. Compared with CZTS solar cells without carrier concentration gradient, the photovoltaic performances of CZTS solar cells can be enhanced by using carrier concentration gradient absorber. The carrier concentration gradient can extend the distribution region of built-in electric field, which is beneficial to the drift of photo-generated carriers. However, the carrier concentration gradient also affects the recombination and series resistances of solar cells. When the defect density of CZTS layer is high, the photo-generated carriers are affected significantly by recombination, resulting in slight effect of carrier concentration gradient. Therefore, the defect density should be reduced to enhance the effect of carrier concentration gradient on improving conversion efficiency of CZTS thin-film solar cells.

  2. Estimation of background carrier concentration in fully depleted GaN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Singh, Manikant; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Bhat, Navakanta

    2015-11-01

    Buffer leakage is an important parasitic loss mechanism in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and hence various methods are employed to grow semi-insulating buffer layers. Quantification of carrier concentration in such buffers using conventional capacitance based profiling techniques is challenging due to their fully depleted nature even at zero bias voltages. We provide a simple and effective model to extract carrier concentrations in fully depleted GaN films using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Extensive mercury probe C-V profiling has been performed on GaN films of differing thicknesses and doping levels in order to validate this model. Carrier concentrations as extracted from both the conventional C-V technique for partially depleted films having the same doping concentration, and Hall measurements show excellent agreement with those predicted by the proposed model thus establishing the utility of this technique. This model can be readily extended to estimate background carrier concentrations from the depletion region capacitances of HEMT structures and fully depleted films of any class of semiconductor materials.

  3. Ohm's Law for a Bipolar Semiconductor: The Role of Carrier Concentration and Energy Nonequilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevych, Igor; Titov, Oleg Yu.; Gurevich, Yuri G.

    2016-09-01

    The effective linear electrical conductivity of a nondegenerate bipolar semiconductor, sandwiched between two metals, is investigated taking into account both its nonequilibrium charge carriers (both electrons and holes) and nonequilibrium temperature. We stress that even in the linear perturbative approximation both carrier concentration and energy nonequilbria arise automatically when an electrical current flows. The expression for the effective electrical conductivity is obtained and shown to depend on the electron and hole electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity, the bandgap, charge carriers lifetimes, and both bulk and surface recombination rates. The effective electrical conductivity is equal to the classical result, i.e., the sum of the electron and hole electrical conductivities, only if the surface recombination rate at the interface is sufficiently strong or the charge carrier lifetime is sufficiently small. In this article, partial cases are considered, specifically, semiconductors with small and large thermal conductivities, semiconductors with monopolar electron and monopolar holes, strong and weak surface recombination rates, and small and large charge carrier lifetimes. Expressions for the effective electrical conductivity are obtained in all partial cases.

  4. Characterization of carrier concentration in CIGS solar cells by scanning capacitance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) designed for highly efficient solar cell material were investigated to characterize the two-dimensional carrier distribution using scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). We optimized a preparation method of the cross-section samples and concluded that bevel polishing by 25° to 30° was effective for crumbly polycrystalline materials such as CIGS, so as to provide not the surface property of cracked crystalline grains but the cross-section property of individual cut grains. Because of improvement in this preparation procedure, changes in carrier distribution have been observed directly in the active CIGS layer before and after turning on a 100 W halogen lamp irradiation. A calibration curve between carrier concentration N and SCM's dC/dV signals was applied for qualitatively calculating relative values of N in CIGS. Increased carrier concentration peaks on the grains were estimated to become about three times as high as those with the light on. (paper)

  5. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  6. DNA Duplex Length and Salt Concentration Dependence of Enthalpy−Entropy Compensation Parameters for DNA Melting

    KAUST Repository

    Starikov, E. B.

    2009-08-20

    Systematical differential calorimetry experiments on DNA oligomers with different lengths and placed in water solutions with various added salt concentrations may, in principle, unravel important information about the structure and dynamics of the DNA and their water-counterion surrounding. With this in mind, to reinterpret the most recent results of calorimetric experiments on DNA oligomers of such a kind, the recent enthalpy-entropy compensation theory has been used. It is demonstrated that the application of the latter could enable direct estimation of thermodynamic parameters of the microphase transitions connected to the changes in DNA dynamical regimes versus the length of the biopolymers and the ionic strengths of their water solutions, and this calls for much more systematical experimental and theoretical studies in this field. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. DNA duplex length and salt concentration dependence of enthalpy-entropy compensation parameters for DNA melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, E B; Nordén, Bengt

    2009-08-20

    Systematical differential calorimetry experiments on DNA oligomers with different lengths and placed in water solutions with various added salt concentrations may, in principle, unravel important information about the structure and dynamics of the DNA and their water-counterion surrounding. With this in mind, to reinterpret the most recent results of calorimetric experiments on DNA oligomers of such a kind, the recent enthalpy-entropy compensation theory has been used. It is demonstrated that the application of the latter could enable direct estimation of thermodynamic parameters of the microphase transitions connected to the changes in DNA dynamical regimes versus the length of the biopolymers and the ionic strengths of their water solutions, and this calls for much more systematical experimental and theoretical studies in this field. PMID:19719257

  8. Interplay between hopping and band transport in high-mobility disordered semiconductors at large carrier concentrations: The case of the amorphous oxide InGaZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Bhoolokam, A.; de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Gavrilyuk, M. M.; Köhler, A.; Bässler, H.; Heremans, P.; Genoe, J.

    2016-05-01

    We suggest an analytic theory based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) which is able to describe charge-carrier transport in a disordered semiconductor with a significant degree of degeneration realized at high carrier concentrations, especially relevant in some thin-film transistors (TFTs), when the Fermi level is very close to the conduction-band edge. The EMA model is based on special averaging of the Fermi-Dirac carrier distributions using a suitably normalized cumulative density-of-state distribution that includes both delocalized states and the localized states. The principal advantage of the present model is its ability to describe universally effective drift and Hall mobility in heterogeneous materials as a function of disorder, temperature, and carrier concentration within the same theoretical formalism. It also bridges a gap between hopping and bandlike transport in an energetically heterogeneous system. The key assumption of the model is that the charge carriers move through delocalized states and that, in addition to the tail of the localized states, the disorder can give rise to spatial energy variation of the transport-band edge being described by a Gaussian distribution. It can explain a puzzling observation of activated and carrier-concentration-dependent Hall mobility in a disordered system featuring an ideal Hall effect. The present model has been successfully applied to describe experimental results on the charge transport measured in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). In particular, the model reproduces well both the conventional Meyer-Neldel (MN) compensation behavior for the charge-carrier mobility and inverse-MN effect for the conductivity observed in the same a-IGZO TFT. The model was further supported by ab initio calculations revealing that the amorphization of IGZO gives rise to variation of the conduction-band edge rather than to the creation of localized states. The obtained changes agree with the one we

  9. Carrier concentration profiling in magnetic GaMnSb/GaSb investigated by electrochemistry capacitance-voltage profiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Depth profiles of carrier concentrations in Ga- MnSb/GaSb are investigated by electrochemistry capacitance-voltage profiler and electrolyte of Tiron. The carrier concentration in GaMnSb/GaSb measured by this method is coincident with the results of Hall and X-ray diffraction measurements. It is indicated that most of the Mn atoms in GaMnSb take the site of Ga, play a role of acceptors, and provide shallow acceptor level(s).

  10. Graded Carrier Concentration Absorber Profile for High Efficiency CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an innovative CIGS-based solar cells model with a graded doping concentration absorber profile, capable of achieving high efficiency values. In detail, we start with an in-depth discussion concerning the parametrical study of conventional CIGS solar cells structures. We have used the wxAMPS software in order to numerically simulate cell electrical behaviour. By means of simulations, we have studied the variation of relevant physical and chemical parameters—characteristic of such devices—with changing energy gap and doping density of the absorber layer. Our results show that, in uniform CIGS cell, the efficiency, the open circuit voltage, and short circuit current heavily depend on CIGS band gap. Our numerical analysis highlights that the band gap value of 1.40 eV is optimal, but both the presence of Molybdenum back contact and the high carrier recombination near the junction noticeably reduce the crucial electrical parameters. For the above-mentioned reasons, we have demonstrated that the efficiency obtained by conventional CIGS cells is lower if compared to the values reached by our proposed graded carrier concentration profile structures (up to 21%.

  11. Atomistic aspects of carrier concentration variation in post-annealed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-annealing environment-dependent optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide films grown on glass were examined. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that all of the films exhibited poly-crystallinity after annealing at 400 °C for 10 min O2, in-air and N2. The optical property measurements yielded  >80% transmittances for all the films except for the as-grown and O2-annealed films, even though there were no significant optical band-gap energy differences. In the Hall measurements, all of the films exhibited n-type characteristics. However, the film annealed under the N2 environment showed the best electrical properties (highest carrier concentration and conductivity). The physical origin of electrical property variations due to annealing environment differences was explained by examining the core-level x-ray photoelectron spectra. (paper)

  12. Electrical and thermal transport properties of Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites with ultrahigh carrier concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For filled skutterudites, element Yb is one of the most common and important fillers. However, the optimal carrier concentration range in Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites has not been determined as a result of the low Yb filling fraction limit. In this study, a non-equilibrium fabrication process (MS-SPS process, consisting of a melt-spinning method and a spark plasma sintering technique, has been applied to prepare Y bxCo4Sb12 samples. The Yb filling fraction is successfully extended to 0.35, which provides the possibility to clarify the optimal carrier concentration range for Yb-filled skutterudites. High carrier concentrations, with a maximum of around 1 × 1021 cm−3, were achieved in the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples due to the significantly enhanced Yb filling fractions. The phase compositions, lattice parameters, electrical and thermal transport properties of the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples with high carrier concentrations were systematically investigated. An optimal carrier concentration range of around 5 ∼ 6 × 1020 cm−3, corresponding to the actual Yb filling fraction of around 0.21∼0.26, has been determined, which displays the highest thermoelectric performance in Y bxCo4Sb12 thermoelectric materials.

  13. Charge carrier effective mass and concentration derived from combination of Seebeck coefficient and 125Te NMR measurements in complex tellurides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials utilize the Seebeck effect to convert heat to electrical energy. The Seebeck coefficient (thermopower), S , depends on the free (mobile) carrier concentration, n , and effective mass, m*, as S ˜m*/n2 /3 . The carrier concentration in tellurides can be derived from 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1 /T1 , depends on both n and m* as 1 /T1˜(m*)3/2n (within classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) or as 1 /T1˜(m*)2n2 /3 (within quantum Fermi-Dirac statistics), which challenges the correct determination of the carrier concentration in some materials by NMR. Here it is shown that the combination of the Seebeck coefficient and 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in complex tellurides provides a unique opportunity to derive the carrier effective mass and then to calculate the carrier concentration. This approach was used to study A gxS bxG e50-2xT e50 , well-known GeTe-based high-efficiency tellurium-antimony-germanium-silver thermoelectric materials, where the replacement of Ge by [Ag+Sb] results in significant enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Values of both m* and n derived using this combination show that the enhancement of thermopower can be attributed primarily to an increase of the carrier effective mass and partially to a decrease of the carrier concentration when the [Ag+Sb] content increases.

  14. Excitation dependent Raman studies of self-seeded grown InN nanoparticles with different carrier concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapu, Kishore K; Polaki, S R; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-07-21

    High quality InN nanoparticles are grown using an atmospheric chemical vapour deposition technique via a self-seeded catalytic approach in the temperature range of 580-650 °C. In this temperature region, the nucleation barrier of InN is overcome by seeding low density In nanoparticles prior to introduction of reactive NH3. Samples with increasing carrier densities are grown, with the help of increasing growth temperature, to understand the role of carrier density in the optical phonon structure. Near-resonance Raman spectra show completely different phonon pictures compared to those for the off-resonance spectra. A Raman forbidden mode of B1(high), because of the possible breakdown of selection rules in the near-resonance conditions, is invoked for the first time. The intensity and frequency of this mode strongly depend on the carrier concentration in the sample. In off-resonance conditions, the A1(LO) mode for the sample with higher carrier concentration is dominated by Fano interference rather than plasmon-phonon coupling. Variation of the intensity of the B1(high) mode is correlated with a band filling effect, which is substantiated by the luminescence studies of the InN samples with different carrier concentrations. PMID:27345503

  15. Charge carrier concentration dependence of encounter-limited bimolecular recombination in phase-separated organic semiconductor blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiber, Michael C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Deibel, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the complex intermolecular configurations and nanostructure present in organic semiconductor donor-acceptor blends impacts charge carrier motion, interactions, and recombination behavior is a critical fundamental issue with a particularly major impact on organic photovoltaic applications. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are used to numerically quantify the complex bimolecular charge carrier recombination behavior in idealized phase-separated blends. Recent KMC simulations have identified how the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination rate in these blends deviates from the often used Langevin model and have been used to construct the new power mean mobility model. Here, we make a challenging but crucial expansion to this work by determining the charge carrier concentration dependence of the encounter-limited bimolecular recombination coefficient. In doing so, we find that an accurate treatment of the long-range electrostatic interactions between charge carriers is critical, and we further argue that many previous KMC simulation studies have used a Coulomb cutoff radius that is too small, which causes a significant overestimation of the recombination rate. To shed more light on this issue, we determine the minimum cutoff radius required to reach an accuracy of less than ±10 % as a function of the domain size and the charge carrier concentration and then use this knowledge to accurately quantify the charge carrier concentration dependence of the recombination rate. Using these rigorous methods, we finally show that the parameters of the power mean mobility model are determined by a newly identified dimensionless ratio of the domain size to the average charge carrier separation distance.

  16. Analytical procedure for experimental quantification of carrier concentration in semiconductor devices by using electric scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is based on a contact-mode variant of atomic force microscopy, which is used for imaging two-dimensional carrier (electrons and holes) distributions in semiconductor devices. We introduced a method of quantification of the carrier concentration by experimentally deduced calibration curves, which were prepared for semiconductor materials such as silicon and silicon carbide. The analytical procedure was circulated to research organizations in a round-robin test. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed for practical analysis and for what is expected for industrial pre-standardization from the viewpoint of comparability among users. It was also applied to other electric scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. Their depth profiles of carrier concentration were found to be in good agreement with those characterized by SCM. These results suggest that our proposed method will be compatible with future next-generation microscopy. (paper)

  17. Free-charge carrier parameters of n-type, p-type and compensated InN:Mg determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schoehe, S.; Hofmann, T.; Darakchieva, Vanya; X Wang; Yoshikawa, A.; Wang, K.; Araki, T; Nanishi, Y; Schubert, M

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to investigate the free-charge carrier properties of Mg-doped InN films. Two representative sets of In-polar InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mg concentrations ranging from $1.2\\times10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $8\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ are compared. P-type conductivity is indicated for the Mg concentration range of $1\\times10^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $9\\times10^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ from a systematic investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon plasm...

  18. Carrier concentration dependence of structural disorder in thermoelectric Sn1−xTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Sist

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SnTe is a promising thermoelectric and topological insulator material. Here, the presumably simple rock salt crystal structure of SnTe is studied comprehensively by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction from 20 to 800 K. Two samples with different carrier concentrations (sample A = high, sample B = low have remarkably different atomic displacement parameters, especially at low temperatures. Both samples contain significant numbers of cation vacancies (1–2% and ordering of Sn vacancies possibly occurs on warming, as corroborated by the appearance of multiple phases and strain above 400 K. The possible presence of disorder and anharmonicity is investigated in view of the low thermal conductivity of SnTe. Refinement of anharmonic Gram–Charlier parameters reveals marginal anharmonicity for sample A, whereas sample B exhibits anharmonic effects even at low temperature. For both samples, no indications are found of a low-temperature rhombohedral phase. Maximum entropy method (MEM calculations are carried out, including nuclear-weighted X-ray MEM calculations (NXMEM. The atomic electron densities are spherical for sample A, whereas for sample B the Te electron density is elongated along the 〈100〉 direction, with the maximum being displaced from the lattice position at higher temperatures. Overall, the crystal structure of SnTe is found to be defective and sample-dependent, and therefore theoretical calculations of perfect rock salt structures are not expected to predict the properties of real materials.

  19. Quantitative measurement of local carrier concentration of semiconductor from displacement current-voltage curve using a scanning vibrating tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majima, Yutaka; Oyama, Yutaka; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2000-07-01

    A new scanning probe method for evaluating the local carrier concentration of semiconductors is presented. The distance between a semiconductor surface and a vibrating tip is changed sinusoidally, and is adjusted to as small as a few nm across which tunneling current I{sub T} flows between the semiconductor surface and the vibrating tip. Displacement current I{sub D} due to the change in electric flux from the semiconductor surface to the vibrating tip flows periodically in accordance with the vibration of the tip. I{sub T} also flows when the distance becomes minimum. Both I{sub T} and I{sub D} flow simultaneously when a d.c. tip voltage V is applied, and these two currents are separated by using a two-phase lock-in amplifier. I{sub D}-V curve is analyzed by taking into account two-dimensional electric flux profile under the tip. In the tip voltage range within which majority carriers are accumulated, I{sub D}-V curve is extrapolated by a straight line. On the contrary, the slope of the curve decreases as the tip voltage is reduced from the voltage range of the accumulation, indicating that the majority carriers are depleted at the center of the Si surface. The theoretical I{sub D}-V curves are in good agreement with the measurement in the tip voltage region where the majority carriers are both accumulated and depleted. The local carrier concentration is able to be determined by making the theoretical I{sub D}-V curve fit the experimental results without contacting the semiconductor surface.

  20. Optimizing the Dopant and Carrier Concentration of Ca5Al2Sb6 for High Thermoelectric Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuli; Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Chao; Peng, Chengxiao; Zhang, Peihong; Wang, Yuanxu; Ren, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of doping on the transport properties of Ca5Al2Sb6 are investigated using first-principles electronic structure methods and Boltzmann transport theory. The calculated results show that a maximum ZT value of 1.45 is achieved with an optimum carrier concentration at 1000 K. However, experimental studies have shown that the maximum ZT value is no more than 1 at 1000 K. By comparing the calculated Seebeck coefficient with experimental values, we find that the low dopant solubility in this material is not conductive to achieve the optimum carrier concentration, leading a smaller experimental value of the maximum ZT. Interestingly, the calculated dopant formation energies suggest that optimum carrier concentrations can be achieved when the dopants and Sb atoms have similar electronic configurations. Therefore, it might be possible to achieve a maximum ZT value of 1.45 at 1000 K with suitable dopants. These results provide a valuable theoretical guidance for the synthesis of high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials through dopants optimization. PMID:27406178

  1. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmasry, F. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, S. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H., E-mail: hoht@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  2. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  3. Concentration Dependence of Luminescent Properties for Sr2TiO4:Eu3+ Red Phosphor and Its Charge Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sr2TiO4:Eu3+ phosphors using M+ (M = Li+, Na+, and K+ as charge compensators were prepared by the solid-state reaction. The powders were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and photoluminescence spectra (PL to study the phase composition, structure, and luminescent properties. The results showed that Li+ ion was the best charge compensator. The phase was Sr2TiO4 when the doping concentration was small (x≤10.0%. When x reached 15.0%, the phase turned into Sr3Ti3O7 because of the structure damage. The phosphor could be effectively excited by ultraviolet (365, 395 nm and blue light (465 nm, and thenitemitted intense red light that peaked at around 620 nm (5D0→7F2. In addition, the emission of 700 nm (5D0→7F4 enhanced the red light color purity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of samples with the higher red emission were between (0.650, 0.344 and (0.635, 0.352. Doped layered titanate Sr2TiO4:Eu3+ is a promising candidate red phosphor for white LEDs which can be suited for both near-UV LED chip and blue LED chip.

  4. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Sin Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing.

  5. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Su Sin; Aziz, A.R. Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Arof, Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB) dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing. PMID:25166498

  6. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com; Rao, Asha, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, Moodabidri, Mangalore-574225 (India); Krishnan, Sheeja [Department of Physics, Sri Devi Institute of Technology, Kenjar, Mangalore-574142 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India); Suresh, E. P. [Solar Panel Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  7. Characterization of cross-linked porous gelatin carriers and their interaction with corneal endothelium: biopolymer concentration effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for corneal reconstruction. However, the fragility of bioengineered corneal endothelial cell (CEC monolayers allows us to take advantage of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogels as cell sheet carriers for intraocular delivery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of biopolymer concentrations (5-15 wt% on the characteristic and safety of hydrogel discs fabricated by a simple stirring process combined with freeze-drying method. Results of scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, and ninhydrin assays showed that, with increasing solid content, the pore size, porosity, and cross-linking index of carbodiimide treated samples significantly decreased from 508±30 to 292±42 µm, 59.8±1.1 to 33.2±1.9%, and 56.2±1.6 to 34.3±1.8%, respectively. The variation in biopolymer concentrations and degrees of cross-linking greatly affects the Young's modulus and swelling ratio of the gelatin carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and glucose permeation studies indicated that for the samples with a highest solid content, the highest pore wall thickness and the lowest fraction of mobile water may inhibit solute transport. When the biopolymer concentration is in the range of 5-10 wt%, the hydrogels have high freezable water content (0.89-0.93 and concentration of permeated glucose (591.3-615.5 µg/ml. These features are beneficial to the in vitro cultivation of CECs without limiting proliferation and changing expression of ion channel and pump genes such as ATP1A1, VDAC2, and AQP1. In vivo studies by analyzing the rabbit CEC morphology and count also demonstrate that the implanted gelatin discs with the highest solid content may cause unfavorable tissue-material interactions. It is concluded that the characteristics of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogel carriers and their triggered biological responses are in relation to biopolymer

  8. Dosage prediction via estimation of shell thickness and concentration of drug carrier with microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S J; Chuang, C Y; Tsao, Jenho

    2007-01-01

    For drug delivery applications, dosage prediction before release and estimation after release are required functions. In this study, we attempted to establish a method to evaluate liposome concentrations and liposome shell thickness for dosage prediction. We use the Trilling model with parameter of phospholipids bilayers to simulate the frequency responses under the different acoustic pressure and establish an experimental protocol to evaluate the liposome concentrations and the liposome shell thickness. Our results illustrate the changes on the signal strength for different concentrations and show that it is relatively stable to estimate the concentrations when the cycles are lower (15 cycles). Besides, it is verified that the second harmonic signal is more sensitive in analyzing different concentrations. On the other hand, it is proved that the liposome shell thickness affect signal strength and thinner thickness will increase the second harmonic response. Therefore, in accordance with the theoretical and experimental results, we would be able to estimate the concentration and the shell thickness of the liposomes. By numerical analysis methods, dosage prediction would be built.

  9. Dopant and carrier concentration in Si in equilibrium with monoclinic SiP precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, S.; Parisini, A.; Angelucci, R.; Armigliato, A.; Nobili, D.; Moro, L.

    1996-03-01

    The behavior of silicon slices very heavily implanted (1.5×1017 cm-2) with phosphorus was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) after annealing at 800, 850, 900, and 1000 °C. Precipitation of large monoclinic, and partially orthorhombic, SiP particles takes place in the most heavily doped region. From the shape of the SNMS profiles in the dissolution stage of these precipitates, we determined the concentration Csat of P in equilibrium with the conjugate phase: Csat=2.45×1023exp(-0.62/kT) cm-3. This concentration has to be compared with the equilibrium concentration ne of the electrically active dopant. To this end, more accurate determinations of ne were performed on heavily P-doped polysilicon films. It was found that ne=1.3×1022exp(-0.37/kT) cm-3. Hence for T>~750 °C, Csat exceeds ne and the concentration (Csat-ne) of inactive mobile P increases with temperature. The formation and the diffusion behavior of this inactive dopant are in keeping with a preprecipitation phenomenon.

  10. DFT Study on the Carrier Concentration and Temperature-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Antimony Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermoelectric properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb2Se3 obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BoltzTrap code using the constant relaxation time (τ approximation at three different temperatures 300 K, 600 K, and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ was almost constant in the entire temperature range, and electronic thermal conductivity (κ/τ increased with increasing temperature. With increase in temperature S decreased from 1870 μV/K (at 300 K to 719 μV/K (at 800 K, electronic thermal conductivity increased from 1.56 × 1015 W/m K s (at 300 K to 3.92 × 1015 W/m K s (at 800 K, and electrical conductivity decreased from 22 × 1019/Ω m s (at 300 K to 20 × 1019/Ω m s (at 800 K. The thermoelectric properties were also calculated for different hole concentrations and the optimum concentration for a good thermoelectric performance over a large range of temperatures (from 300 K to 1000 K was found for hole concentration around 1019 cm−3.

  11. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled {sup 75}Ge and {sup 70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [{sup 74}Ge]/[{sup 70}Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  12. Stimulated Raman Scattering in a Weakly Polar Ⅲ-Ⅴ Semiconductor: Effect of dc Magnetic Field and Free Carrier Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Singh; P. Aghamkar; P. K. Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Using the hydrodynamic model of semiconductor plasmas, we perform an analytical investigation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of an electromagnetic pump wave in a transversely magnetized weakly polar semiconductor arising from electron-density perturbations and molecular vibrations of the medium both produced at the longitudinal optical phonon frequency. Assuming that the origin of SRS lies in the third-order susceptibility of the medium, we investigate the growth rate of Stokes mode. The dependence of stimulated Raman gain on the external dc magnetic field strength and free carrier concentration is reported. The possibility of the occurrence of optical phase conjugation via SRS is also studied. The steady-state Raman gain is found to be greatly enhanced by the presence of the strong external dc magnetic field.

  13. Dopant and carrier concentration in silicon, in equilibrium with SiP precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmi, S.; Parisini, A.; Armigliato, A.; Angelucci, R. [CNR-Istituto LAMEL, Bologna (Italy)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The methods recently reported to study the equilibria hi the Si-As system, were extended to the Si-P. On this line the behaviour of Silicon slices very heavily implanted with 1.5 x 10{sup 17} P{sup +}/cm{sup 2}, was followed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) after annealing at 800, 850, 900 and 1000 C. Precipitation of large monoclinic, and partially orthorhombic, SiP takes place hi the most heavily doped region. From the shape of the SNMS profiles in the dissolution stage of these precipitates, we determined for the First time, the concentration C{sub e} of P hi equilibrium with the conjugate phase: C. = 2.45 x 10{sup 23} exp (- 0.62/ kT) cm{sup -3}, were kT is in eV.

  14. Phase analysis and determination of local charge carrier concentration in eutectic Mg{sub 2}Si–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M., E-mail: levin@iastate.edu [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hanus, R. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cui, J. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Xing, Q.; Riedemann, T. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lograsso, T.A. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, K. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Multiphase materials attract attention due to possible combination of various properties attributed to each phase. The phase diagram of Mg–Si system shows that solidification of a melt containing about 45 and 55 at.% of Mg and Si should result in formation of Mg{sub 2}Si and Si. Two alloys, Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu have been synthesized and studied using XRD, SEM, and {sup 29}Si NMR at 300 K, and the Seebeck effect, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300–750 K have been measured. {sup 29}Si NMR detects two distinct signals, at −177 and −80 ppm, in both materials, which are assigned to Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases, respectively. Both phases are slightly nonstoichiometric and doped with Mg. Two phases also are found by XRD and electron microscopy. {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in Mg{sub 2}Si and Si phases show at least two components, short and long, which can be attributed to different local carrier concentrations, high and low, respectively, reflecting a local electronic inhomogeneity in each phase. The carrier concentrations range between 0.6 × 10{sup 19} and 9 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The Seebeck coefficient in both alloys is mostly determined by the Si phase, while the thermal conductivity is limited by the Mg{sub 2}Si phase with a lower value than that of the Si phase. By utilizing all characterization tools, we show how various experimental methods can be used as complementary methods to better understand the individual and combined properties of multiphase alloys. - Highlights: • Two distinct phases, Mg{sub 2}Si and Si, are found in Mg{sub 45}Si{sub 55} and Mg{sub 46}Si{sub 54} + 0.5 wt.% Cu alloys. • {sup 29}Si NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements demonstrate two relaxation components in each phase. • XRD, electron microscopy, and NMR have been demonstrated as complementary methods to study multiphase alloys.

  15. Concentration and mobility of charge carriers in thin polymers at high temperature determined by electrode polarization modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaham, Sombel; Locatelli, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Charge carrier concentration (n0) and effective mobility (μeff) are reported in two polymer films (dielectric spectroscopy data. It is shown that the glass transition temperature (Tg) occurrence has a strong influence on the temperature dependence of n0 and μeff. We carry out that n0 presents two distinct Arrhenius-like behaviors below and above Tg, while μeff exhibits a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman behavior only above Tg whatever the polymer under study. For polyimide films, n0 varies from 1 × 1014 to 4 × 1016 cm-3 and μeff from 1 × 10-8 to 2 × 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 between 200 °C to 400 °C. Poly(amide-imide) films show n0 values between 6 × 1016 and 4 × 1018 cm-3 from 270 °C to 400 °C, while μeff varies between 1 × 10-10 and 2 × 10-7 cm2 V-1 s-1. Considering the activation energies of these physical parameters in the temperature range of investigation, n0 and μeff values appear as coherent with those reported in the literature at lower temperature (Polyimide films appear as good candidates due to nS values less than 1011 cm-2 up to 300 °C.

  16. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-29

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products.

  17. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Omar; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C-T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C-T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C-V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C-T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  18. Field-effect measurements of mobility and carrier concentration of Cu{sub 2}S colloidal quantum dot thin films after ligand exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Adam S.; Arnold, Michael S., E-mail: msarnold@wisc.edu

    2014-09-30

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub 2}S), an earth-abundant semiconductor, have a number of intriguing applications that require knowledge of their electrical properties. Depending on stoichiometry, mobility, and surface treatment, applications include photoabsorbers for solar cells, tunable plasmonics, and counter-electrodes for polysulfate electrolytes. However, there have not been any direct measurements of electrical properties in Cu{sub 2}S CQD thin films. Here, we exchange as synthesized dodecanethiol ligands with short ethanedithiol or ethylenediamine ligands to form thin films of coupled Cu{sub 2}S CQDs. The mobility and carrier concentration were found to vary by ligand treatment from 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup 19} holes/cm{sup 3} for ethanedithiol ligands to 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup 20} holes/cm{sup 3} for ethylenediamine. These results are consistent with the carrier concentrations inferred from sub-bandgap surface-plasmon-resonances measured by infrared spectroscopy. These results will be useful when designing Cu{sub 2}S materials for future applications. - Highlights: • Colloidal Cu2S quantum dots were synthesized and characterized. • Ligand exchange was performed to alter the Cu2S nanocrystal properties. • Ligand exchange was studied using photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy. • Field effect mobility and carrier concentration were directly measured. • Carrier concentration was compared to estimates from surface plasmon resonances.

  19. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Sae; Cha, Judy J.; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2012-03-01

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×1011 cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications.

  20. 一种测量P-GaN载流子浓度的方法%A new method to measure the carrier concentration of p-GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梅; 赵德刚

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种测量p-GaN载流子浓度的方法,其主要思想是利用p-n+结构GaN探测器长波和短波量子效率的差值随反向偏压的变化关系,找到p-GaN层刚好完全耗尽时的偏压,从而求出p-GaN层载流子浓度.模拟计算表明,该方法能够准确测量出p-GaN层的载流子浓度,而且受表面复合、欧姆接触影响很小.进一步研究了实际测量中如何选择p-GaN层厚度,计算结果表明,p-GaN层的优化厚度值随着p-GaN层的浓度增加而减小.%A new method to measure the carrier concentration of p-GaN is proposed. The main idea is as follows: the difference between p-n + structure GaN ultraviolet photodetector' s quantum efficiency at two different wavelengths varies remarkably with increasing reversed bias, and the most characteristic change occurs at a reversed voltage under which the p-GaN layer starts to be completely depleted, consequently the carrier concentration of p-GaN can be derived basing on this effect. The simulation results prove the validity of the idea even under the condition of high surface recombination velocity and bad ohmic contact. The thickness choice of p-GaN samples during the carrier concentration test experiment using this method is investigated. It is shown that the optimized thickness of p-GaN decreases with the increase of carrier concentration of p-GaN samples.

  1. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  2. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics.

  3. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1–100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  4. Perfect charge compensation in WTe2 for the extraordinary magnetoresistance: From bulk to monolayer

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, H. Y.; Lu, W. J.; Shao, D. F.; Liu, Y; Tan, S. G.; Y. P. Sun

    2014-01-01

    The electronic structure of WTe2 bulk and layers are investigated by using the first principles calculations. The perfect electron-hole (n-p) charge compensation and high carrier mobilities are found in WTe2 bulk, which may result in the large and non-saturating magnetoresistance (MR) observed very recently in the experiment [Ali et al., Nature 514, 205 (2014)]. The monolayer and bilayer of WTe2 preserve the semimetallic property, with the equal hole and electron carrier concentrations. Moreo...

  5. 47 CFR 51.221 - Reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocal compensation. 51.221 Section 51.221... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.221 Reciprocal compensation. The rules governing reciprocal compensation are set forth in subpart H of this part....

  6. Serum concentration of sFas and sFasL in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic viral hepatitis B and C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadeusz Wojciech Lapinski; Oksana Kowalczuk; Danuta Prokopowicz; Lech Chyczewski

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the amount of apoptosis among healthy HBsAg carriers, patients with chronic HBV infection treated with lamk udine and patients with chronic HCV infection treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Activity of apoptosis was evaluated by serum sFas/sFasL concentration measurement.Moreover dependence between apoptosis and HBV-DNA or HCV-RNA levels was studied.METHODS: Eighty-six persons were included into study: 34healthy HBsAg carriers, 33 patients with chronic HBV infection and 19 patients with chronic HCV infection. Serum levels of sFas/sFasL were measured by ELISA assay. HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were measured by RT-PCR assay. Levels of sFas/sFasL were determined before and 2 and 12 wk after therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection.HBV-DNA or HCV-RNA was detected before treatment and 6 mo after treatment.RESULTS: Twenty-four (71%) healthy HBsAg carriers showed HBV-DNA over 105/mL, which was comparable to the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Independently from HBV-DNA levels,the concentration of sFas among healthy HBsAg carriers was comparable to healthy persons. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, the concentration of sFas was significantly higher in comparison to healthy HBsAg carriers and healthy persons. In chronic hepatitis B patients the concentration of sFas was decreased during lamivudine treatment. Among chronic hepatitis C patients the concentration of sFas was increased during IFN alpha and ribavirin treatment. sFasL was not detected in control group. Furthermore sFasL occurred more frequently in chronic hepatitis C patients in comparison to chronic hepatitis B patients.CONCLUSION: There are no correlations between apoptosis and HBV-DNA levels. However ther is an association between apoptosis and activity of inflammation in patients with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis can be increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C by effective treatment which may be a result of apoptosis stimulation by IFN-α.

  7. 47 CFR 64.1300 - Payphone compensation obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone compensation obligation. 64.1300... compensation obligation. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a Completing Carrier is a long distance carrier or... parties by contract. (c) The compensation obligation set forth herein shall not apply to calls...

  8. Possible use of ignited sulphates as carrier for concentrating some radioactive species (e.g. 51Cr, 99Mo and 185W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive indicator study has been done to examine the feasibility of concentrating chromate, molybdate and tungstate species from extremely dilute solutions by using ignited lead sulphate and barium sulphate as carriers. The procedure consists of two steps; first, the radioactive tracer in dilute aqueous solution is carried under optimum conditions; secondly, the carried activity after washing can be leached back in minimal amount of water of specified acidity. An examination of working conditions e.g., (i) carrying as a function of pH2, amount of carrier and that of added inactive CrO24; (ii) adsorption/desorption efficiency as a function of lattice/non-lattice ion concn, and (iii) desorption as a function of pH of the eluant have been carried out in case of chromate species. Centrifuge method has been used. 3-4 extractions are needed for the maximum recovery of activity. (author)

  9. 42 CFR 415.60 - Allocation of physician compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Physician Services § 415.60 Allocation of physician compensation costs. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... or the carrier. (2) Report the information on which the physician compensation allocation is based to the intermediary or the carrier on an annual basis and promptly notify the intermediary or carrier...

  10. Deserved Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National People's Congress (NPC), the top legislature, recently adopted amendments to the Law on State Compensation, granting citizens greater power to obtain compensation when their rights are violated by the state.

  11. Tuning the carrier concentration using Zintl chemistry in Mg3Sb2, and its implications for thermoelectric figure-of-merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A; Chauhan, N S; Goel, S; Singh, Vijeta; Pulikkotil, J J; Senguttuvan, T D; Misra, D K

    2016-02-17

    Zintl compounds are potential candidates for efficient thermoelectric materials, because typically they are small band gap semiconductors. In addition, such compounds allow fine tuning of the carrier concentration by chemical doping for the optimization of thermoelectric performance. Herein, such tunability is demonstrated in Mg3Sb2-based Zintl compounds via Zn(2+) doping at the Mg(2+) site of the anionic framework (Mg2Sb2)(2-), in the series Mg3-xZnxSb2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1). The materials have been successfully synthesized using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms a single solid solution phase of Mg3-xZnxSb2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1). The thermoelectric properties are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity measurements from 323 K to 773 K. Isoelectronic Zn substitution at the Mg site presents the controlled variation in the carrier concentration for optimizing the high power factor and reduced thermal conductivity. These results lead to a substantial increase in ZT of 0.37 at 773 K for a composition with x = 0.10 which is ∼42% higher than undoped Mg3Sb2. The electronic transport data for the Mg3-xZnxSb2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) compound are analyzed using a single parabolic band model predicting that Mg2.9Zn0.1Sb2 exhibits a near-optimal carrier concentration for high ZT. The electronic structure of transport properties of these disordered Mg3-xZnxSb2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) is also studied using density functional theory and the results obtained are in good agreement with experimental results. The low cost, lightness and non-toxicity of the constituent elements make these materials ideal for mid-temperature thermoelectric applications.

  12. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. AgI alloying in SnTe boosts the thermoelectric performance via simultaneous valence band convergence and carrier concentration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Ananya; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-10-01

    SnTe, a Pb-free analogue of PbTe, was earlier assumed to be a poor thermoelectric material due to excess p-type carrier concentration and large energy separation between light and heavy hole valence bands. Here, we report the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance of p-type SnTe by Ag and I co-doping. AgI (1-6 mol%) alloying in SnTe modulates its electronic structure by increasing the band gap of SnTe, which results in decrease in the energy separation between its light and heavy hole valence bands, thereby giving rise to valence band convergence. Additionally, iodine doping in the Te sublattice of SnTe decreases the excess p-type carrier concentration. Due to significant decrease in hole concentration and reduction of the energy separation between light and heavy hole valence bands, significant enhancement in Seebeck coefficient was achieved at the temperature range of 600-900 K for Sn1-xAgxTe1-xIx samples. A maximum thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, of ~1.05 was achieved at 860 K in high quality crystalline ingot of p-type Sn0.95Ag0.05Te0.95I0.05.

  14. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.

  15. 带有舰尾流的舰载机进场动力补偿系统分析%Analysis of the Approach Power Compensator System With Carrier Air Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟涛

    2013-01-01

      Most carrier-based aircraft disasters occur during landing,with the unstable flight path control at low speed being the major cause. Aiming at this problem,this paper introduces an approach power com⁃pensator system to improve the precision of flight path control and reduce the burden of pilots’landing op⁃eration. By taking the parameters of F/A-18A aircraft,a linear longitudinal motion model of the aircraft un⁃der the condition of small perturbation is established,and the flight quality of the model is analyzed. It is seen that the instability of pitch control is reduced by the attitude control system,and a flight quality of lev⁃el one is achieved. Also,by employing the presented approach power compensator,the problem of the track angle not being able to follow the pitch angle is solved. Finally,the vertical steady state component of the carrier air wake is examined to validate the disturbance resisting capability of the aircraft system.%  舰载机发生事故主要是在着舰过程中,其主要原因在于舰载机低速着舰时航迹控制不稳定。为克服这一不稳定问题,提高航迹控制精度,减轻飞行员在着舰阶段的工作负荷,飞机系统中需要引入进场动力补偿系统。采用 F/A-18A 舰载机参数、应用舰载机纵向运动小扰动线性化模型进行仿真分析,评价飞行品质,并引入飞机姿态控制系统来解决俯仰控制不稳定问题。完成进场动力补偿系统的设计,解决航迹角无法跟踪俯仰角这一航迹控制不稳定问题。引入舰尾流的垂直稳态分量验证了系统的抗扰动能力。

  16. Temperature Dependent Luminescent Decay Properties of CdTe Quantum Dot Monolayers: Impact of Concentration on Carrier Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Graham P; Bradley, A Louise

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and average photoluminescence decay rate of CdTe quantum dot monolayers of different sizes as a function of concentration in the range 77 K to 296 K. It is shown that a simple three level analytic model involving bright and dark exciton states can only describe the lower temperature data but is unable to satisfactorily fit the data over the full temperature range. An extended model which includes external trap states is necessary to fit the data above approximately 150 K. Parameters for the model are obtained using both temporal and spectral data. The model indicates that the efficiency of interaction with trap states increases as the QD monolayer concentration increases, which is likely due to an increase in the density of available traps.

  17. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy Band Gap, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Fermi Level of CdTe Bulk Crystal between 304 K and 1067 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optical transmission measurements were performed on CdTe bulk single crystal. It was found that when a sliced and polished CdTe wafer was used, a white film started to develop when the sample was heated above 530 K and the sample became opaque. Therefore, a bulk crystal of CdTe was first grown in the window area by physical vapor transport; the optical transmission was then measured and from which the energy band gap was derived between 304 and 1067 K. The band gaps of CdTe can be fit well as a function of temperature using the Varshini expression: Eg (e V) = 1.5860 - 5.9117xl0(exp -4) T(sup 2)/(T + 160). Using the band gap data, the high temperature electron-hole equilibrium was calculated numerically by assuming the Kane's conduction band structure and a heavy-hole parabolic valance band. The calculated intrinsic carrier concentrations agree well with the experimental data reported previously. The calculated intrinsic Fermi levels between 270 and 1200 K were also presented.

  19. Questioning Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Transparent management and open information needed for the fund set up to compensate victims of the 2008 Sanlu milk scandal Almost three years after the Sanlu milk scandal that caused thousands of infants in China to develop urinary disease after drinking melamine

  20. Local composition and carrier concentration in Pb0.7Ge0.3Te and Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys from 125Te NMR and microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E M [Ames Laboratory; Kramer, M J [Ames Laboratory; Schmidt-Rohr, K [Ames Laboratory

    2014-11-01

    Pb0.7Ge0.3Te and Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys, (i) quenched from 923 K or (ii) quenched and annealed at 573 K for 2 h, have been studied by 125Te NMR, X-ray diffraction, electron and optical microscopy, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy. Depending on the composition and thermal treatment history, 125Te NMR spectra exhibit different resonance frequencies and spin-lattice relaxation times, which can be assigned to different phases in the alloy. Quenched and annealed Pb0.7Ge0.3Te alloys can be considered as solid solutions but are shown by NMR to have components with various carrier concentrations. Quenched and annealed Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys contain GeTe- and PbTe-based phases with different compositions and charge carrier concentrations. Based on the analysis of non-exponential 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation, the fractions and carrier concentrations of the various phases have been estimated. Our data show that alloying of PbTe with Ge results in the formation of chemically and electronically inhomogeneous systems. 125Te NMR can be used as an efficient probe to detect the local composition in equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium states, and to determine the local carrier concentrations in complex multiphase tellurides.

  1. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  2. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely...

  3. 基于二种载流子体系的HgCdTe材料的霍尔电压与载流子浓度关系%The Relations between Hall Voltage and Carrier Concentration of Two Kinds of Carrier Conduction System for HgCdTe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭曼泽; 李东升; 李秋妍; 田立萍; 吴刚

    2013-01-01

      Formula and curve of hall voltage and carrier concentration p/n are derived from hall coefficient formula of two kinds of carrier conduction system . Relations between hall voltage and conduction type of the material for a series of p/n values are analysed. The range of the hole concentration are defined, which is adapted to hall coefficient formula of single carrier conduction system or two kinds of carrier conduction system.%  利用二种载流子体系的霍尔系数公式导出该体系下霍尔电压与二种载流子浓度 p/n 之间的公式及曲线。分析了不同 p/n 值时霍尔电压值与材料导电类型的关系,确定了适合采用一种载流子体系材料及二种载流子体系材料霍尔系数公式的空穴浓度范围。

  4. Charge puddles in a completely compensated topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischau, C. W.; Ubaldini, A.; Giannini, E.; van der Beek, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    Compensation of intrinsic charges is widely used to reduce the bulk conductivity of 3D topological insulators (TIs). Here we use low temperature electron irradiation-induced defects paired with in situ electrical transport measurements to fine-tune the degree of compensation in Bi2Te3. The coexistence of electrons and holes at the point of optimal compensation can only be explained by bulk carriers forming charge puddles. These need to be considered to understand the electric transport in compensated TI samples, irrespective of the method of compensation.

  5. Perfect charge compensation in WTe2 for the extraordinary magnetoresistance: From bulk to monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, H. Y.; Lu, W. J.; Shao, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Tan, S. G.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-05-01

    The electronic structures of the WTe2 bulk and layers are investigated by using the first-principles calculations. The perfect electron-hole (n\\text-p) charge compensation and high carrier mobilities are found in the WTe2 bulk, which may result in the large and non-saturating magnetoresistance (MR) observed very recently in the experiment (Ali M. N. et al, Nature, 514 (2014) 205). The monolayer and bilayer of WTe2 preserve the semimetallic property, with equal hole and electron carrier concentrations. Moreover, very high carrier mobilities are also found in WTe2 monolayer, indicating that the WTe2 monolayer would have the same extraordinary MR effect as the bulk, which could have promising applications in nanostructured magnetic devices.

  6. 居民低压集中抄表系统组网方式%Briefly on the networking method of low voltage power carrier concentrated meter reading, system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铀

    2011-01-01

    The existing low voltage concentrated meter reading way is analyzed. From the present situation and necessity,this paper further expounds the diversity of network mode, introduces the advantages and disadvantages of RS485, power broadband carrier, narrowband carrier and wireless, and puts forward hybrid network mode without wasting existing equipment.%分析了现有的低压居民集中抄表方式,从现状、必要性上进一步阐述了组网方式的多样性,详细介绍了RS485、电力宽带载波、窄带载波、无线四种方式的优缺点,提出了在不浪费现有设备的情况下的混合组网方式。

  7. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  8. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  9. Persistence of the superconducting condensate far above the critical temperature of YBa2(Cu,Zn)3O(y) revealed by c-axis optical conductivity measurements for several Zn concentrations and carrier doping levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uykur, Ece; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Masui, Takahiko; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tajima, Setsuko

    2014-03-28

    The superconductivity precursor phenomena in high temperature cuprate superconductors is studied by direct measurements of the superconducting condensate with the use of the c-axis optical conductivity of YBa2(Cu1-xZnx)3Oy for several doping levels (p) as well as for several Zn concentrations. Both the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity clearly show that the superconducting carriers persist up to the high temperatures Tp that is higher than the critical temperature Tc but lower than the pseudogap temperature T*. Tp increases with reducing doping level like T*, but decreases with Zn substitution unlike T*.

  10. Extended frequency compensation of a diamagnetic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of compensation for a diamagnetic loop that is magnetically coupled to a concentric stainless-steel vacuum vessel is presented. This compensation method accounts for imperfect magnetic coupling between the vessel eddy currents, the diamagnetic loop, and the plasma diamagnetic currents, and it also corrects for a finite loading resistance on the diamagnetic loop. A procedure for adjusting and calibrating the active-filter compensation circuit is presented. It can be applied to internal or external diamagnetic loops. (author)

  11. Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds -- Part II -- Extraction of 'carrier-free' concentrations from HCl/LiCl solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. The amount of niobium extracted by both HDEHP and BEHP decreased with increasing hydrogen ion concentration. Equilibrium with niobium occurred within 10 s at all hydrogen ion concentrations for both systems. For tantalum, the amount extracted i...

  12. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Interface Trap States and Charge Carrier Concentration in Rubrene Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masaki; Arai, Norimichi; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Takeya, Jun; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-ichi; Takenobu, Taishi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2011-08-01

    Field-induced charge carriers at the semiconductor/dielectric interface of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors (RSC-FETs) were studied by ESR. We fabricated bottom-contact RSC-FETs to be used for ESR measurements by laminating RSCs onto SiO2 and polymer/SiO2 gate dielectric surfaces. The observed ESR spectra depict a minimal dependence on gate voltage, whose result is in sharp contrast to those obtained using RSC-FETs fabricated by the deposition of a parylene C gate dielectric. This behavior indicates that few deep trap levels are generated by the lamination technique. The dependence of ESR intensity on drain voltage was also investigated using gradual channel approximation.

  13. Thermoelectric power and carrier concentration ofLa2-xSrxCuO4(0.03<x<0.17)single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thermoelectric power (S) measurements have been systematically investigated in high-quality La2-x-Srx-CuO4 single crystals with different Sr concentrations (x =0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.12). In this doping range studied, S remains positive, and with the increase of Sr concentration,room-temperature thermoelectric power S (290 K) decreases.An empirical formula which presents a relationship between hole concentration P and room-temperature thermoelectric power S (290 K) is reported in this note. Based on the theory of metallic diffusion model, the experimental results are discussed.

  14. Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds - Part I - Extraction of 'carrier-free' metal concentrations from HCl solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Jacklyn

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments is to find a system that demonstrates selectivity between the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments were performed at the trace level (10-16 M Nb or Ta) using hydrochloric acid with concentrations rangin...

  15. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would r

  16. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  17. Dispersion Compensation for High-Speed and Long-Distance Transmission of CSRZ-DQPSK Optical Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dejun; Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Guanxiu; Jia, Dongfang

    2015-03-01

    This paper compares the performances of 100 Gbit/s carrier-suppressed return-to-zero differential quadrature phase shift keying coded modulation signal through 3,600 km both in optical and photoelectric dispersion compensation schemes. Different dispersion compensation fiber methods are adopted in optical compensation while the photoelectric compensation is the combination of electronic dispersion compensation and optical compensation. It is shown that pre-compensation of DCFs and mixed (pre- and post-) compensation of DCFs are more excellent than the other two schemes in optical compensation, corresponding to mixed (pre- and post-) compensation of DCFs method, while pre-compensation of DCFs method is the best strategy in photoelectric compensation.

  18. Production of no-carrier-added {sup 135}La at an 18 MeV cyclotron and its purification for investigations at a concentration range down to 10{sup -15} mol/L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansel, Alexander; Franke, Karsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Leipzig (Germany). Reactive Transport Div.

    2015-07-01

    The production of non-commercially available {sup 135}La by proton irradiation of an isotopically enriched [{sup 135}Ba]BaCO{sub 3} target at a cyclotron is described. The purification of the radionuclide was performed by a La-selective resin. {sup 135}La was separated in no-carrier-added (n.c.a) form in a nitric acid solution with a radiochemical yield of 83 ± 5% and a total activity per batch of 43 ± 3 MBq. The enriched [{sup 135}Ba]Ba was recycled to the carbonate form with a recovery of 90 ± 3%. On the basis of a detection limit of 1 Bq/mL, solutions of n.c.a. {sup 135}La could be measured down to the 10{sup -15} mol/L concentration range.

  19. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...... to motivate effort. If rewarding low outcomes is infeasible, compensation consisting of stocks and options is a near-efficient means of overcoming the manager's induced aversion to undertaking risky investments, whereas stock compensation is not. However, stock plus option compensation may induce excessively...

  20. Effect of irradiation with MeV protons and electrons on the conductivity compensation and photoluminescence of moderately doped p-4H-SiC (CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovski, V. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A. A., E-mail: shura.lebe@mail.ioffe.ru; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The compensation of moderately doped p-4H-SiC samples grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons is studied. The experimentally measured carrier removal rates are 1.2–1.6 cm{sup –1} for electrons and 240–260 cm{sup –1} for protons. The dependence of the concentration of uncompensated acceptors and donors, measured in the study, demonstrates a linear decrease with increasing irradiation dose to the point of complete compensation. This run of the dependence shows that compensation of the samples is due to the transition of carriers to deep centers formed by primary radiation-induced defects. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) only cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice, or defects in both sublattices are responsible for conductivity compensation. Also, photoluminescence spectra are examined in relation to the irradiation dose.

  1. Precise tuning of the Curie temperature of (Ga,Mn)As-based magnetic semiconductors by hole compensation: Support for valence-band ferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Ye; Rushforth, A. W.; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yutian; Böttger, R.; Heller, R.; Zhao, Jianhua; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Timm, C.; Helm, M.

    2016-08-01

    For the prototype diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As, there is a fundamental concern about the electronic states near the Fermi level, i.e., whether the Fermi level resides in a well-separated impurity band derived from Mn doping (impurity-band model) or in the valence band that is already merged with the Mn-derived impurity band (valence-band model). We investigate this question by carefully shifting the Fermi level by means of carrier compensation. We use helium-ion implantation, a standard industry technology, to precisely compensate the hole doping of GaAs-based diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors while keeping the Mn concentration constant. We monitor the change of Curie temperature (TC) and conductivity. For a broad range of samples including (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P) with various Mn and P concentrations, we observe a smooth decrease of TC with carrier compensation over a wide temperature range while the conduction is changed from metallic to insulating. The existence of TC below 10 K is also confirmed in heavily compensated samples. Our experimental results are naturally explained within the valence-band picture.

  2. Effects of carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in graphene under pulse photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in intrinsic graphene after pulse photoexcitation and reveal effects of intraband carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in the terahertz region, by conducting simulation based on the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that by changing the dielectric constant of the surrounding materials the rate of carrier-carrier scattering can be controlled and the relaxation dynamics differs for cases with low and high dielectric constants. It is also found that the Pauli blocking of photogeneration in case of the pulse photoexcitation causes decrease in the photocarrier concentration and thus weakening of population inversion with higher dielectric constant.

  3. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  4. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  5. Medical leadership compensation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlíř, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    This master thesis deals with outlining the rationale of redesigning medical leadership compensation framework within Interior Health Authority (IH). In particular, reviews IH's organizational structure, analyses job descriptions for medical leaders, recommends improvements of communication flow across the authority and designs medical leader's compensation model.

  6. HOT CARRIER SENSITIVITY OF MOSFET's EXPOSED TO SYNCHROTRON-LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, G.; Mahnkopf, R.; Wagemann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron-light irradiation for p- and n-channel MOSFET's on their sensitivity to hot carrier degradation was investigated. The radiation induces additional interface states and a positive oxide charge. Annealing at 450°C reduces the interface state density to its initial value but not the oxide charge. A hot carrier stress can compensate this remaining charge by trapping electrons. This effect produces an enhanced shift of the threshold voltage compared to non-irradiated d...

  7. Doppler compensated underwater acoustic communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anand; George, Binu; Supiya, M. H.; Kurian, James; Pillai, P. R. Saseendran

    2001-05-01

    Spread spectrum methods are used in communication systems to provide a low probability of intercept in hostile environments and multiple access capability in systems shared by many users as well as to provide high processing gain in channels where the transmitted signal is distorted by multipath effects. Such systems serve to be an effective tool for underwater telemetry environments, where multipath propagation effect and Doppler spreading is seen to be more predominant. This paper describes the implementation of a Doppler compensated underwater telemetry system based on CDMA technique. The system consists of multiple CDMA transmitters and a phase locked loop based carrier recoverable CDMA receiver. The effects of the Doppler shift can be compensated by the carrier recovery subsystem in the demodulator, based on PLL technique, which extracts the carrier frequency/phase and simultaneously demodulates the signal. The decision device in the receiver consists of a PN sequence generator as well as a bank of correlators, which are used to determine the data transmitted. The system simulation has been implemented in MATLAB. The advantage of this system is that multiple transmitting stations can transmit simultaneously to a central receiver, thereby increasing the system throughput.

  8. Turbulence compensation: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Schutte, Klamer; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-06-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  9. Self-regulation of charged defect compensation and formation energy pinning in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-11-01

    Current theoretical analyses of defect properties without solving the detailed balance equations often estimate Fermi-level pinning position by omitting free carriers and assume defect concentrations can be always tuned by atomic chemical potentials. This could be misleading in some circumstance. Here we clarify that: (1) Because the Fermi-level pinning is determined not only by defect states but also by free carriers from band-edge states, band-edge states should be treated explicitly in the same footing as the defect states in practice; (2) defect formation energy, thus defect density, could be pinned and independent on atomic chemical potentials due to the entanglement of atomic chemical potentials and Fermi energy, in contrast to the usual expectation that defect formation energy can always be tuned by varying the atomic chemical potentials; and (3) the charged defect compensation behavior, i.e., most of donors are compensated by acceptors or vice versa, is self-regulated when defect formation energies are pinned. The last two phenomena are more dominant in wide-gap semiconductors or when the defect formation energies are small. Using NaCl and CH3NH3PbI3 as examples, we illustrate these unexpected behaviors. Our analysis thus provides new insights that enrich the understanding of the defect physics in semiconductors and insulators.

  10. Self-regulation of charged defect compensation and formation energy pinning in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical analyses of defect properties without solving the detailed balance equations often estimate Fermi-level pinning position by omitting free carriers and assume defect concentrations can be always tuned by atomic chemical potentials. This could be misleading in some circumstance. Here we clarify that: (1) Because the Fermi-level pinning is determined not only by defect states but also by free carriers from band-edge states, band-edge states should be treated explicitly in the same footing as the defect states in practice; (2) defect formation energy, thus defect density, could be pinned and independent on atomic chemical potentials due to the entanglement of atomic chemical potentials and Fermi energy, in contrast to the usual expectation that defect formation energy can always be tuned by varying the atomic chemical potentials; and (3) the charged defect compensation behavior, i.e., most of donors are compensated by acceptors or vice versa, is self-regulated when defect formation energies are pinned. The last two phenomena are more dominant in wide-gap semiconductors or when the defect formation energies are small. Using NaCl and CH3NH3PbI3 as examples, we illustrate these unexpected behaviors. Our analysis thus provides new insights that enrich the understanding of the defect physics in semiconductors and insulators. PMID:26584670

  11. Adaptive beamforming and phase bias compensation for GNSS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhao; Baowang Lian; Juan Feng

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive antenna arrays have been used to mitigate the interference on global navigation satel ite system (GNSS) re-ceivers. The performance of interference mitigation depends on the beamforming algorithms adopted by the antenna array. However, the adaptive beamforming wil change the array pattern in real-time, which has the potential to introduce phase center biases into the antenna array. For precise applications, these phase biases must be mitigated or compensated because they wil bring errors in code phase and carrier phase measurements. A novel adaptive beamforming algorithm is proposed firstly, then the phase bias induced by the proposed algorithm is estimated, and final y a com-pensation strategy is addressed. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed beamforming algorithm suppresses effectively the strong interference and improves significantly the capturing performance of GNSS signals. Simultaneously, the bias compensation method avoids the loss of the carrier phase lock and reduces the phase measurement errors for GNSS receivers.

  12. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  13. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  14. T1 VSAT Fade Compensation Statistical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Acosta, Roberto; Ugweje, Oke

    2000-01-01

    New satellite communication systems are steadily seeking to use higher frequency bands to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band. the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). launched in September 1993, is the first U.S. communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including on-board baseband processing. multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this paper is to characterize the method used by the ACTS TI Very Small Aperture Terminal (TI VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program was used to validate the compensation technique. A software process was developed and demonstrated to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka band system are offered.

  15. Vessel, motion platform, method for compensating motions of a vessel and use of a stewart platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, J.; Salzmann, D.J.C.; Koch, J.; Gerner. F.; Goebel, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A vessel (1) with a motion compensation platform (4), which platform is provided with at least one carrier (6) for bearing, moving and/or transferring a load, actuators (5) for moving the carrier relative to the vessel, preferably in six degrees of freedom, a control system for driving the actuators

  16. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  17. Optimal Sales Force Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kräkel; Anja Schöttner

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic moral-hazard model to derive optimal sales force compensation plans without imposing any ad hoc restrictions on the class of feasible incentive contracts. We explain when the compensation plans that are most common in practice - fixed salaries, quota-based bonuses, commissions, or a combination thereof - are optimal. Fixed salaries are optimal for small revenue-cost ratios. Quota-based bonuses (commissions) should be used if the revenue-cost ratio takes intermediate (larg...

  18. Essays in Executive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is made of three empirical research papers focused on executive compensation topics. The first chapter is a solo paper, while the second and third papers are co-authored with Antonio Parbonetti. The first chapter answers to Bushman and Smith’s (2001) call for research on compensation of executives other than CEOs. Specifically, using a sample of 586 firm-year observations over the period 2000-2009, I investigate the economic determinants and effects on shareholder va...

  19. Carrier-induced ferromagnetism in bulk phosphorus-doped Zn1-xMnxTe achieved by annealing under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of carrier-induced ferromagnetism in bulk phosphorus-doped Zn1-xMnxTe. Using high-pressure Bridgman growth and with post-growth high-pressure annealing, we were able to overcome self-compensation in this material, thus achieving unprecedented concentrations of electrically active acceptors. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic circular dichroism measurements on samples prepared in this way clearly reveal ferromagnetic ordering of the Mn ions. For example, Zn0.97Mn0.03Te:P with hole concentration of p = 4.8 x 1018 cm-3 showed a Curie temperature TC 2.5 K. (authors)

  20. Study on intrinsic carrier concentration of direct bandgap Ge1-xSnx%直接带隙Ge1-xSnx本征载流子浓度研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白敏; 宣荣喜; 宋建军; 张鹤鸣; 胡辉勇; 舒斌

    2014-01-01

    Indirect bandgap Ge can be turned to a direct bandgap semiconductor by the alloy-modified technique, which can be applied to advanced photonic devices and electronic devices. Based on 8 bands Kronig-Penny Hamilton, this paper focuses on the physical parameters of direct bandgap Ge1−xSnx, such as conduction band effective density of states, valence band effective density of states and the intrinsic carrier concentration, and aims to provide valuable references for understanding the direct bandgap modified Ge materials and device physics as well as their applications. Results show that: conduction band effective density of states in direct bandgap Ge1−xSnx alloy decreases obviously with increasing Sn fraction, while its valence band effective density of states almost does not change with increasing Sn fraction. Compared with bulk Ge, the conduction band effective density of states and valence band effective density of states in direct bandgap Ge1−xSnx alloy are lower by two and one orders of magnitude respectively; the intrinsic carrier concentration in direct bandgap Ge1−xSnx alloy increases with increasing Sn fraction, and its value is an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk Ge.%通过合金化改性技术, Ge可由间接带隙半导体转变为直接带隙半导体。改性后的Ge半导体可同时应用于光子器件和电子器件,极具发展潜力。基于直接带隙Ge1−xSnx半导体合金8带Kronig-Penny模型,重点研究了其导带有效状态密度、价带有效状态密度及本征载流子浓度,旨在为直接带隙改性Ge半导体物理的理解及相关器件的研究设计提供有价值的参考。研究结果表明:直接带隙Ge1−xSnx合金导带有效状态密度随着Sn组分x的增加而明显减小,价带有效状态密度几乎不随Sn组分变化。与体Ge半导体相比,直接带隙Ge1−xSnx合金导带有效状态密度、价带有效状态密度分别低两个和一个数量级;直接带隙Ge1

  1. Enhanced job performance: a new role for military compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, James Scott.

    2000-01-01

    This study concentrates on aspects of military and civilian compensation that motivate employees and provide incentives upon which job performance and productivity may depend. The study achieves its end by applying successful attributes of civilian compensation to military remuneration systems. Its main purpose is to judge whether military pay is structured toward a modern view of performance-based compensation and whether it is comparable to civilian pay. At issue is a military pay system th...

  2. Compensation committee composition and CEO compensation – Finnish evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Uusitalo, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of compensation committee composition on the level of CEO compensation. The composition of the compensation committee is analyzed by using five variables which are: 1) the proportion of non-independent directors, 2) the proportion of long-serving directors, 3) the proportion of CEO-directors, 4) the proportion of busy directors and 5) the presence of a blockholder on the compensation committee. CEO compensation is measure...

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  4. Stealth Compensation Via Retirement Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Fried, Jesse M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes an important form of "stealth compensation" provided to managers of public companies. We show how boards have been able to camouflage large amount of executive compensation through the use of retirement benefits and payments. Our study highlights the significant role that camouflage and stealth compensation play in the design of compensation arrangements. Our study also highlights the significance of whether information about compensation arrangements is not merely publicl...

  5. Parallelized unscented Kalman filters for carrier recovery in coherent optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jignesh, Jokhakar; Corcoran, Bill; Lowery, Arthur

    2016-07-15

    We show that unscented Kalman filters can be used to mitigate local oscillator phase noise and to compensate carrier frequency offset in coherent single-carrier optical communication systems. A parallel processing architecture implementing the unscented Kalman filter is proposed, improving upon a previous parallelized linear Kalman filter (LKF) implementation. PMID:27420508

  6. Parallelized unscented Kalman filters for carrier recovery in coherent optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jignesh, Jokhakar; Corcoran, Bill; Lowery, Arthur

    2016-07-15

    We show that unscented Kalman filters can be used to mitigate local oscillator phase noise and to compensate carrier frequency offset in coherent single-carrier optical communication systems. A parallel processing architecture implementing the unscented Kalman filter is proposed, improving upon a previous parallelized linear Kalman filter (LKF) implementation.

  7. 海藻酸盐与异种骨构建组织工程载体的适宜浓度%Suitable concentration of alginate with xenograft for constructing bone tissue engineering carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 孟国林; 窦榆生; 徐建强; 刘丹平; 胡蕴玉

    2007-01-01

    背景:研究认为,载体的结构在很大程度上影响着载体的功能.目的:探讨不同浓度的海藻酸盐凝胶与去抗原异种骨构建组织工程载体的生物学性能.设计:观察性实验.单位:解放军第四军医大学西京医院全军创伤骨科研究所.材料:海藻酸盐,氯化钙,骨髓基质细胞,异种骨.方法:取小牛松质骨,制成骨粒,脱脂、脱蛋白,真空冻干;选择孔隙直径在300~500 μm左右的骨粒,环氧乙烷消毒.将提纯后的海藻酸钠以DMEM培养液为溶剂,配制成0.5%,2%,8%和16%的海藻酸钠DMEM溶液;将诱导后的骨髓基质细胞以1×1012L-1浓度等体积与海藻酸钠DMEM溶液充分混合,在0.5 MPa的负压状态下复合,使细胞悬液充分占据松质骨的空隙,以50 g/L的葡萄酸钙浸渍30 s,以使海藻酸钠获得交联.置于CO2培养箱中,培养4 d.观察异种骨孔隙中凝胶复合情况及其中细胞生长情况.观察不同藻酸密度复合松质骨粒中细胞生长情况.主要观察指标:观察海藻酸盐凝胶与去抗原异种骨复合情况,复合后的载体中细胞生长状态和基质分泌情况.结果:海藻酸盐的浓度为0.25%,1%时,凝胶在异种骨中均匀复合,浓度为4%和8%时藻酸仅复合在松质骨表面.体外培养4 d后,0.25%海藻酸盐复合异种骨的表面大部分凝胶脱落,1%的海藻酸盐均匀复合在异种骨的骨孔中,细胞形态饱满,基质分泌;4%的海藻酸盐中,细胞生长受到限制;8%的凝胶的质地不均匀,无法见到细胞结构.结论:1%的海藻酸盐适宜与异种骨复合构建骨组织工程载体.%BACKGROUND:The structure of tissue engineering carrier affects the bio-action of cells greatly.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological characteristics of bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) in different concentrations of alginate combined with de-antigen bone xenograft (DBX).DESIGN: Observational trial.SETTING: PLA Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics, the Fourth Military Medical

  8. Compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)

  9. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  10. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  11. 顾客集中与管理层治理--基于薪酬契约和代理成本的视角%Customer Concentration and Management Governance---Based on the Perspective of Compensation Contract and Agency Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风

    2016-01-01

    本文以创业板上市公司为研究样本,从薪酬契约和代理成本的视角,检验了顾客集中与管理层治理的关系。实证分析结果显示,顾客集中度与高管薪酬和代理成本存在显著负相关关系。结果表明:顾客集中显著影响公司薪酬契约,顾客集中降低了高管薪酬;顾客集中降低代理成本,减轻管理层代理冲突问题。这些研究结论丰富了公司治理的理论内容,同时对于缓解公司代理冲突、改善公司治理矛盾具有重要的现实意义。%Based on the manual data of listed companies on GEM , the paper examines the relationship between customer concentra-tion and management governance on the perspective of compensation contract and agency cost . Studies reveal that customer concentration has a significant negative impact on managerial compensation and agency cost . The results show that :customer concentration significantly influence compensation contracts and reduce executive pay ;customer concentration can reduce agency cost and the management agency conflict problem . Therefore , this study will be meaningful for corporate governance theory . At the same time , it also has an important re-alistic meaning to ease agency conflict and consummate corporate governance mechanism .

  12. Coase Competition and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Hal Varian

    1994-01-01

    I show that the Pigovian solution to a simple externalities problem and a particular Coasian solution can be viewed as competitive equilibria from different initial endowments. I also describe the ``compensation mechanism,'' a mechanism that implements either the Coasian or Pigovian solution as the outcome of an economically natural bargaining game.

  13. Compensation mechanism in liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs Importance of melt stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Elliott, K. R.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Yu, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the key to reproducible growth of undoped semi-insulating GaAs by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) technique is the control over the melt stoichiometry. Twelve crystals were grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts. The material was characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, localized vibrational mode far infrared spectroscopy, Hall-effect measurements, optical absorption, and photoluminescence. A quantitative model for the compensation mechanism in the semi-insulating material was developed based on these measurements. The free carrier concentration is controlled by the balance between EL2 deep donors and carbon acceptors; furthermore, the incorporation of EL2 is controlled by the melt stoichiometry, increasing as the As atom fraction in the melt increases. As a result, semi-insulating material can be grown only from melts above a critical As composition. The practical significance of these results is discussed in terms of achieving high yield and reproducibility in the crystal growth process.

  14. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  15. Firm performance and CEO compensation : Determinants of CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minu; Yavuz, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    CEO compensation is a much discussed concept in the media and in the society in general. The center of the discussion is mostly around the high CEO compensations and the gaps between the compensation to the CEOs and to rest of the employees. As this is an interesting and topical concept, we hence wanted to examine how CEO compensation is determined in firms listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. We wanted to examine if CEOs actually get their compensation for obtained firm performance, or if ther...

  16. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation co

  17. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  18. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin

    2006-01-01

    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  19. Determinants of family employee work performance and compensation in family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Merwe, Stephanus

    2009-01-01

    This study characterizes employee compensation in family owned and managed firms compared to that in non-family firms and professionally managed family firms. The general results show that employee compensation differs between firms. This is an important finding because to understand employee compensation designs it is necessary to understand the role of ownership concentration and management composition in the firm, since the compensation components are explicitly defined according to risk s...

  20. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  1. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  2. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  4. The value of energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often related to their enthalpies when other properties and conditions are equivalent. However, it has been suggested that the exergy of the energy carriers is the proper quantity to establish their value...

  5. The Interplay between Director Compensation and CEO Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Lin; Lu Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of director compensation and CEO compensation and investigates whether director compensation has an effect on CEO compensation. Based on 713 firms (or 2,852 firm-years) between 2007 and 2010, we find that CEO tenure is related to the ability of the CEO in influencing the board’s pay determination process. However, sitting on the board does not strengthen the CEO’s power over the board during the pay negotiation process. More importantly, we...

  6. Distribution of charge carriers in dissipative structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, I K; Kovalev, A S

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that redistribution of the charge carrier concentration takes place in the volume of Te and InSb monocrystals under formation and excitation by the strong field of a dissipative structure in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma. This leads to a situation when the presence of only longitudinal autosolitons in the dissipative structure reduces the charge carrier concentration outside autosolitons while the presence of only transversal autosolitons makes the charge carriers concentration larger. These effects are explained in the following manner: longitudinal autosolitons, occurring in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma created by the Joule heating are considered as cold and transversal autosolitons are considered as hot ones

  7. Information and Its Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the structure of a data transmission source, carrier, and receiver; (2) a quantitative measure for the amount of data, followed by some quantitative examples of data transmission processes; (3) the concept of data current; (4) data containers; and (5) how this information can be used to structure physics courses. (JN)

  8. 电力线载波远程集中抄表系统在冀东油田的应用%Application of Remote Concentrated Metering System with Power Line Carrier Technology in Jidong Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆宏; 纪玉荣

    2012-01-01

    Low voltage power line carrier technology is a kind of communication mode based on low - voltage power line for high -frequency signal. It uses lowvoltage power line as communication line to realize remote control and high speed data communication.%低压电力线载波技术是一种通过低压输电线路作为高频信号传输线路的通讯方式。它利用现有的低压电力线作为通讯线路,并把电力线通讯技术、网络技术和微控制器相结合,实现远程控制和高速数据的传输。

  9. Shadow Detection and Compensation for Color Aerial Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shugen; GUO Zejin; LI Deren

    2003-01-01

    A method for shadow detection and compensation for color aerial images is presented. It is considered that the intensity value of each image pixel is the product of illumination function and ground object reflection, and the shadowed regions on the image are mainly caused by the short of illumination, so the information compensation for the shadowed regions should concentrate on the illumination adjustment of concerned area on the basis of the analysis of whole image. The shadow detection and compensation procedure proposed by this paper consists of four steps.

  10. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Sales Force Motivation and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Mihaela TEAU

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrate how sales managers can use sales incentives and compensations to motivate their sales team. To motivate sales people effectively, sales managers must have a thorough understanding of human needs and the concepts of motivation. They must also learn how to use the various forms of sales incentives and compensation to meet their salespeople’s needs.

  12. 78 FR 28441 - Executive Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... comments on Executive Compensation on June 5, 2009 (74 FR 26989). The public notice and comment period... compensation for a given position at similar institutions.'' \\9\\ \\8\\ 74 FR at 26990 (June 5, 2009). \\9\\ Section... Corporation Act (12 U.S.C. 1452(h)(2)). \\4\\ See 74 FR at 26990 (June 5, 2009). Additionally, the proposed...

  13. An overview of turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification

  14. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a) Death compensation will be apportioned if the child or children of the deceased veteran are not in the custody of...

  15. Primary-care physician compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Arik

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews existing models of physician compensation and presents information about current compensation patterns for primary-care physicians in the United States. Theories of work motivation are reviewed where they have relevance to the desired outcome of satisfied, productive physicians whose skills and expertise are retained in the workforce. Healthcare reforms that purport to bring accountability for healthcare quality and value-rather than simply volume-bring opportunities to redesign primary-care physician compensation and may allow for new compensation methodologies that increase job satisfaction. Physicians are increasingly shunning the responsibility of private practice and choosing to work as employees of a larger organization, often a hospital. Employers of physicians are seeking compensation models that reward both productivity and value. PMID:22786738

  16. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger;

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and....../or prodrugs to these carriers in order to increasing oral bioavailability and distribution. A number of absorptive intestinal transporters are described in terms of gene and protein classification, driving forces, substrate specificities and cellular localization. When targeting absorptive large capacity...

  17. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gubik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  18. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  19. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  20. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  1. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  2. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  3. Effect of Mg doping on the structural and free-charge carrier properties of InN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive study of free-charge carrier and structural properties of two sets of InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and systematically doped with Mg from 1.0 × 1018 cm−3 to 3.9 × 1021 cm−3. The free electron and hole concentration, mobility, and plasmon broadening parameters are determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The lattice parameters, microstructure, and surface morphology are determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Consistent results on the free-charge carrier type are found in the two sets of InN films and it is inferred that p-type conductivity could be achieved for 1.0 × 1018 cm−3 ≲ [Mg] ≲ 9.0 × 1019 cm−3. The systematic change of free-charge carrier properties with Mg concentration is discussed in relation to the evolution of extended defect density and growth mode. A comparison between the structural characteristics and free electron concentrations in the films provides insights in the role of extended and point defects for the n-type conductivity in InN. It further allows to suggest pathways for achieving compensated InN material with relatively high electron mobility and low defect densities. The critical values of Mg concentration for which polarity inversion and formation of zinc-blende InN occurred are determined. Finally, the effect of Mg doping on the lattice parameters is established and different contributions to the strain in the films are discussed

  4. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  5. Effect of doping concentration and disorder on the mobility of carriers in organic light emitting diodes%掺杂浓度和无序对柔性有机发光二极管载流子迁移率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雨璐; 侯晓远; 岑剡

    2011-01-01

    基于电荷分布的泊松方程和载流子输运方程,考虑最低能量非占据态和最高能量占据态的载流子态密度服从双高斯分布的模型,自洽地研究了掺杂浓度和无序对Alq3柔性有机发光二极管载流子迁移率的影响.发现掺杂浓度低于1×1020cm-3时,掺杂浓度对迁移率影响很小,迁移率几乎保持不变;当掺杂浓度大于1×1020cm-3时,载流子迁移率非线性增加,与实验结果很好一致.考虑不同无序度时,发现无序度的增加,相应的迁移率下降;低掺杂浓度下迁移率与无序度的大小关系不大,当掺杂浓度较高的时,无序度较小的材料迁移率增加较快.最终给出了柔性发光二极管器件的发光功率密度与电压关系,表明载流子浓度和无序相关的迁移率结果对制备高性能的柔性有机发光二极管具有指导意义.%Based on the Poisson' s equation of charge distribution and the transport equation of carriers, the effect of doping concentration and disordered degree on the mobility of carriers in the Alq3 flexible organic light-emitting diodes has been studied self-consistently.The density of states of the carriers was described with the double Gaussian distributions because of the energy disorders of organic molecules.It was found that the carrers'mobility is almost fixed with doping concentration smaller than 1 × 1020cm-3.The carriers'mobility increased nonlinearly when the doping concentration was larger than 1 ×1020cm-3, in well agreement with the experimental results.It was also showed that the increase of mobility as a function of doping concentration for smaller disordered degree is faster than that for larger disordered one.With low doping concentration, the disordered degree has little effect on the mobility.Finally,the doping concentration and the disorder degree dependence of the mobility is used to simulate the variations of the luminescence power density of the device with the voltage bias.It was

  6. An overview of turbulence compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-09-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which type of scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  7. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  8. Fundamentals of compensation and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, J A; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the objectives of compensation programs--including direct and indirect forms of reward--and employee motivation. Job descriptions and job evaluations are also explored. PMID:11401793

  9. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  10. CEO Compensation and Bank Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, Iqbal; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Ali, Saffar

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to discover the determinants of compensation of the chief executive officers in the banking industry of Pakistan. Accounting based performance measures and size of the firm have been used as predictors. Results of the study are consistent with arguments, suggesting significant and positive impact of size (assets) of the firm on CEO compensation while no association is found with either of the performance measure of the firm except income before tax (IBT). Return on Assets ...

  11. Recent trends in compensation practices

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Lebow; Louise Sheiner; Lawrence Slifman; Martha Starr-McCluer

    1999-01-01

    According to some accounts, compensation practices have recently been undergoing marked changes, with an increasing number of firms said to be substituting lump-sum payments for regular pay increases, allowing for greater variability of remuneration across individuals or groups, and making greater use of profit sharing or stock options. Many of these practices are outside the scope of the typical measures of economy-wide compensation growth. Moreover, intensified use of these schemes ought to...

  12. Option compensation and industry competition

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, KP; Stoughton, NM

    2009-01-01

    Compensation policy has become one of the most important ingredients of corporate governance. In this paper we take a new look at the issue, by contrasting the use of options with that of stock. We do this by integrating the repricing or resetting aspect of options with that of industrial structure. We show that industry competition may play an important role in dictating which form of compensation is optimal. When aggressive competition for key professional staff is an issue, the flexibility...

  13. BOARD STRUCTURE AND CEO COMPENSATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anjam, Zeshan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure (non executive directors, executive directors and independent non executive directors) and CEO compensation, in the context of an emerging and developing economy of Pakistan in year 2009. Most of the previous studies about board structure and CEO compensation are based in developed economies but this study is about a developing and emerging economy Pakistan and possibly this attempt will contributes to literature. Data for 86 listed...

  14. Compensation: current thinking in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear third party Liability law constitutes an exception to the general law of tort liability in several respects, notably the channelling of all liability to the nuclear operator even where the operator has not been at fault, and the obligation imposed upon the operator to provide financial security covering its liability. In addition, French law gives priority to compensating personal injuries, fixes the list of radioactively-induced diseases and establishes compensation based on a lump sum payment. The Group examined how these principles could be concretely implemented. It recommended two actions be taken before all else and as soon as possible: the creation of a medical group responsible for ongoing health surveillance apart from any possibility of an accident; and the establishment of a standard compensation agreement which would be prepared in advance and in consultation with interested stakeholders, to allow for compensation to be distributed quickly. Concerning organisational matters, the Group proposed setting up a 'Monitoring Committee' which would bring together all interested parties. The Group also investigated the possibility of setting up a 'One-Stop Shop' which would enable victims to contact one single agency in their quest for compensation for damage suffered, regardless of the source of the compensation funds. (author)

  15. Emission spectrographic carrier distillation techniques for the determination of trace elements in nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectrography is widely used in quality control of nuclear fuels for the determination of trace metal impurities in uranium. Carrier distillation technique with a suitable carrier is commonly used for routine quantometric analysis. The limits of detection obtained by other methods involving chemical separation and pre-concentration are better than those for the carrier distillation technique. In this study investigations were made to evaluate various carrier distillation techniques and to develope a suitable technique for achieving optimum sensitivity. (authors)

  16. Frequency Domain LED Compensation for Nonlinearity Mitigation in DMT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Linning; Haese, Sylvain; Hélard, Maryline

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a novel linear frequency-domain compensation (FDC) of the resonant cavity light emitting diode (RC-LED) for discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation has been used for the first time in the nonlinearity mitigation of step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) communication systems. The proposed FDC method can be easily implemented in any multi-carrier communication system. Compared to the classical DMT scheme, FDC DMT benefits from higher power efficiency in terms of clipping for pe...

  17. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  18. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  19. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  20. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295... OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Compensation Available Under the CGFAA § 295.21 Allowable compensation. (a) Allowable compensation. The CGFAA provides for...

  1. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 96.34 Section 96.34 Foreign... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... for compensation within the intercountry adoption community in that country, to the extent that...

  2. 30 CFR 90.103 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 90.103 Section 90.103 Mineral..., Rights of Part 90 Miners § 90.103 Compensation. (a) The operator shall compensate each Part 90 miner at... part. (d) In addition to the compensation required to be paid under paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  4. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355... Compensation § 4.355 Omitted compensation. When, subsequent to the issuance of a final order determining heirs under § 4.352, it is found that certain additional compensation had been due the decedent and had...

  5. 12 CFR 620.31 - Compensation committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation committees. 620.31 Section 620.31... Association Audit and Compensation Committees § 620.31 Compensation committees. Each Farm Credit bank and association must establish and maintain a compensation committee by adopting a written charter describing...

  6. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  7. 12 CFR 9.15 - Fiduciary compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary compensation. 9.15 Section 9.15 Banks... BANKS Regulations § 9.15 Fiduciary compensation. (a) Compensation of bank. If the amount of a national bank's compensation for acting in a fiduciary capacity is not set or governed by applicable law,...

  8. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... removed, relocated, or disposed of pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 136. (b) No rights to compensation accrue until...

  9. 12 CFR 7.2011 - Compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporate Practices § 7.2011 Compensation plans. Consistent with safe and sound banking practices and the compensation provisions of 12 CFR part 30, a national bank may adopt compensation plans, including, among... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation plans. 7.2011 Section 7.2011...

  10. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  11. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  12. 75 FR 49595 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and... Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 RIN 1240-AA03 Performance of Functions;...

  13. Host state incentives and compensation:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing several options for selecting a host state, the Commission elected to proceed with anoption that builds upon developing grass-roots acceptance and support. To foster such support the Commission has adopted an incentives and compensation package. The purpose of the package is that the incentives and compensations offered are designed to encourage an objective and unbiased review of accepting the responsibilities of a host state or community, and the package helps to guarantee that a facility will become a state/community asset and not impose economic, environmenta, or social hardships for the host community. This report, which describes the Commission's host state incentive and compensation package, the monetary benefit to the host community and state will be substantial. Community benefits will exceed $40 million over 20 years and benefits to the state will be approximately $24 million over the 20-year expected life of the facility. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  15. Carrier cultures of simian foamy virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J K; Samuels, J; Dermott, E; Gay, F W

    1970-05-01

    The production of cultures of HEp-2 and BHK-21 cells persistently infected with a type 1 simian foamy virus is described. After infection, HEp-2 cells showed no structural changes, whereas BHK-21 cells lost their normal spindle shape and showed mitochondrial damage, and some cells contained many lysosomes. Thin sections also showed that a few BHK-21 cells contained virus particles in low concentration, and infectious virus could be isolated from both the cells and the supernatant fluid. No virus was seen in thin sections of HEp-2 cells, although infectious virus in low titer could be recovered intermittently from lysed cells. Both carrier cultures were immune to challenge with homologous virus and antigen could be detected in over 90% of the cells even after growth for 9 weeks in the presence of virus-neutralizing serum. The distribution of antigen in carrier cultures of both cell types is described and compared with that seen in cytocidal infections. PMID:4986851

  16. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  17. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  18. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  19. Depth Compensated Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography via Digital Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a well-known imaging modality which allows for \\textit{in-vivo} visualization of the morphology of different biological tissues at cellular level resolutions. The overall SD-OCT imaging quality in terms of axial resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) degrades with imaging depth, while the lateral resolution degrades with distance from the focal plane. This image quality degradation is due both to the design of the SD-OCT imaging system and the optical properties of the imaged object. Here, we present a novel Depth Compensated SD-OCT (DC-OCT) system that integrates a Depth Compensating Digital Signal Processing (DC-DSP) module to improve the overall imaging quality via digital compensation. The designed DC-DSP module can be integrated to any SD-OCT system and is able to simultaneously compensate for the depth-dependent loss of axial and lateral resolutions, depth-varying SNR, as well as sidelobe artifact for improved imaging quality. The integrated D...

  20. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  1. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a b

  2. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  3. Working conditions, compensation and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Solveig Osborg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines absence behaviour in relation to the working environment. A theoretical model is built in order to separate the effects of voluntary absences and absences related to ill health, where health effects are assumed to be tied to working conditions. This model is based on the Shapiro and Stiglitz efficiency wage model. In addition, work environment is introduced as a part of the compensation package. The model gives a testable hypothesis of compensating wage differentials. A panel of quarterly firm level data from 1990 to 1998 are used and the theoretical model is supported by the empirical findings. The result indicates that the workers may not be fully compensated when experiencing high levels of noise in the work area, or when the job involves a high degree of monotonous work, heavy or frequent lifting or poor work postures. Ill health, and thus increased long-term absence, is not highly related to economic variables. However, long-term absence is relatively higher if the firm is troubled with many accidents or near misses. In addition, disamenities for which workers are not fully compensated cause ill health and increased long-term absence.

  4. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites: be

  5. Kinetics of Ca2+ carrier in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadin, M; Pozzan, T; Azzone, G F

    1979-12-25

    The rate of aerobic Ca2+ transport is limited by the rate of the H+ pump rather than by the Ca2+ carrier. The kinetics of the Ca2+ carrier has therefore been studied by using the K+ diffusion potential as the driving force. The apparent Vmax of the Ca2+ carrier is, at 20 degrees C, about 900 nmol (mg of protein)-1 min-1, more than twice the rate of the H+ pump. The apparent Vmax is depressed by Mg2+ and Li+. This supports the view that the electrolytes act as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Ca2+ carrier. The degree of sigmoidicity of the kinetics of Ca2+ transport increases with the lowering of the temperature and proportionally with the concentration of impermeant electrolytes such as Mg2+ and Li+ but not choline. The effects of temperature and of electrolyte do not support the view that the sigmoidicity is due to modifications of the surface potential. Rather, they suggest that Ca2+ transport occurs through a multisubunit carrier, where cooperative phenomena are the result of ligand-induced conformational changes due to the interaction of several allosteric effectors with the carrier subunits. In contrast with La3+ which acts as a competitive inhibitor, Ruthenium Red affects the kinetics by inducing phenomena both of positive and of negative cooperativity. The Ruthenium Red induced kinetics has been reproduced through curve-fitting procedures by applying the Koshland sequential interaction hypothesis to a four-subunit Ca2+ carrier model. PMID:42437

  6. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: A potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvamuthukumar Subramanian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology having developed exponentially, the aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for cancerous disease chemotherapy. Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. Shortcomings often came across with anticancer mixtures, such as poor solubility, normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and steadiness, as well as the high incidence rate of pharmaceutical resistance and the rapid degradation, need of large-scale output procedures, a fast release of the pharmaceutical from its carrier scheme, steadiness troubles, the residues of the organic solvents utilized in the output method and the toxicity from the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner.

  7. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm2 has been achieved in both these cases

  8. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  9. Relation of Structure and Superconductivity in Self-Compensating Y1-xCaxBa2-xLaxCu3Oy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-Feng; YU Jing; WANG Fa; ZHANG Han

    2006-01-01

    @@ The self-compensating compound of Y1-xCaxBa2-xLaxCu3Oy is synthesized through a solid-state reaction method with x from 0.25 to 0.55. Structural and superconducting properties have been investigated by x-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, and dc magnetization measurement, respectively. The impure peaks appear when x is more than 0.5 in the diffraction pattern. Orthorhombic-tetragonal transition occurs at x=0.45.Some local structural parameters, such as Cu(1)-O(4), Cu(2)-O(4) bond lengths, change randomly in a narrow range. The relationship between the character of (Ba/La)-O plane and Tc is rather interesting. We attribute the behaviour of superconductivity to the joint effects of these local structural parameters. The results give the evidence that the influence of the structural change on superconductivity is essential and independent of carrier concentration.

  10. A Magnetic Disturbance Compensation Method Based on Magnetic Dipole Magnetic Field Distributing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-tao; SHI Zhi-yong; L(U) Jian-gang; GUAN Zhen-zhen

    2009-01-01

    The interference of carrier magnetic field to geomagnetic field has been a difficult problem for a long time, which influences on the deviation of navigation compass and the error of geomagnetic measurement. To increase the geomagnetic measuring accuracy required for the geomagnetic matching localization, the strategy to eliminate the effect of connatural and induced magnetic fields of carrier on the geomagnetic measuring accuracy is investigated. The magnetic-dipoles magnetic field distributing theory is used to deduce the magnetic composition in the position of the sensor installed on the carrier. A geomagnetic measurement model is established by using the measuring data with the ideal sensor. Considering the magnetic disturbance of carrier and the error of sensor, a geomagnetic measuring compensation model is built. This model can be used to compensate the errors of carrier magnetic field and magnetic sensor in any case and its parameters have clear or specific physical meaning. The experimented results show that the model has higher geomagnetic measuring accuracy than that of others.

  11. Protein Transfer Free Energy Obeys Entropy-Enthalpy Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric A; Plotkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    We have found significant entropy-enthalpy compensation for the transfer of a diverse set of two-state folding proteins from water into water containing a diverse set of cosolutes, including osmolytes, denaturants, and crowders. In extracting thermodynamic parameters from experimental data, we show the potential importance of accounting for the cosolute concentration-dependence of the heat capacity change upon unfolding, as well as the potential importance of the temperature-dependence of the heat capacity change upon unfolding. We introduce a new Monte Carlo method to estimate the experimental uncertainty in the thermodynamic data and use this to show by bootstrapping methods that entropy-enthalpy compensation is statistically significant, in spite of large, correlated scatter in the data. We show that plotting the data at the transition midpoint provides the most accurate experimental values by avoiding extrapolation errors due to uncertainty in the heat capacity, and that this representation exhibits the strongest evidence of compensation. Entropy-enthalpy compensation is still significant at lab temperature however. We also find that compensation is still significant when considering variations due to heat capacity models, as well as typical measurement discrepancies lab-to-lab when such data is available. Extracting transfer entropy and enthalpy along with their uncertainties can provide a valuable consistency check between experimental data and simulation models, which may involve tests of simulated unfolded ensembles and/or models of the transfer free energy; we include specific applications to cold shock protein and protein L.

  12. CEO Compensation in Canada, 1971-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Gelinas; Lisa Baillargeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws from a unique database spanning over 35 years of Canadian CEOs’ compensation to explorethe interplay among: the information available to boards of directors of Canadian companies for makingexecutive pay decisions, the Canadian business environment, and the compensation that Canadian CEOsreceived. We find a very strong correlation between Canadian CEOs’ compensation and the amount ofinformation on CEO compensation available to boards of directors. We further note that the evol...

  13. Widely Tunable Infrared Antennas Using Free Carrier Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewi, Tomer; Iyer, Prasad P; Butakov, Nikita A; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A; Schuller, Jon A

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate tuning of infrared Mie resonances by varying the carrier concentration in doped semiconductor antennas. We fabricate spherical silicon and germanium particles of varying sizes and doping concentrations. Single-particle infrared spectra reveal electric and magnetic dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole resonances. We subsequently demonstrate doping-dependent frequency shifts that follow simple Drude models, culminating in the emergence of plasmonic resonances at high doping levels and long wavelengths. These findings demonstrate the potential for actively tuning infrared Mie resonances by optically or electrically modulating charge carrier densities, thus providing an excellent platform for tunable metamaterials.

  14. Photogeneration and recombination of charge carrier pairs and free charge carriers in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliauzys, Gytis; Gulbinas, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu av. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Arlauskas, Kestutis [Department of Solid State Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Build. 3, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-07-15

    Photo-generation and recombination of free charge carriers in poly-3 (hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films has been studied at different PCBM concentrations by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and transient photocurrent methods. We show that more than 80% of excitons form charge transfer (CT) states at PCBM concentrations above 4%. Efficiency of the CT state dissociation into free charge carries strongly depends on the PCBM concentration; the dissociation efficiency increases more than 30 times when PCBM concentration increases from 1 to 32%. We attribute the strong concentration dependence to formation of PCBM clusters facilitating electron migration and/or delocalization. Reduced charge carrier recombination coefficient has also been observed at high PCBM concentrations. We suggest that this may be partly caused by the reduced stability of reformed Coulombicaly bound charge pairs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial... MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission... cost to the Commission. The compensation to be paid to such consultant may not exceed the maximum...

  16. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  17. 45 CFR 1604.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1604.5 Section 1604.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and § 1604.7(a), a recipient's written policies shall not permit a full-time attorney to receive any compensation for the outside practice of...

  18. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 106.54 Section 106.54 Education... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages...

  19. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 17.515 Section 17.515 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  20. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  1. 32 CFR 196.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 196.515 Section 196.515 National... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  2. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 28.515 Section 28.515... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.515 Compensation. A... in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex...

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 101-4.515... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not... pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  4. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation....

  5. 45 CFR 618.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 618.515 Section 618.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  6. 24 CFR 3.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 3.515 Section 3.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  7. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  8. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 15a.54 Section 15a.54 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.54 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  10. 13 CFR 113.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 113.515 Section 113... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  11. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  12. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  13. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 301.74-5 Section 301.74-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-5 Compensation. (a) Eligibility. The following individuals are eligible to receive compensation from the U.S. Department of Agriculture...

  14. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  15. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 2555.515 Section 2555.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  16. 43 CFR 41.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 41.515 Section 41.515 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  17. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  18. 49 CFR 25.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 25.515 Section 25.515 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  19. 14 CFR 1253.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1253.515 Section 1253.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.515 Compensation. A recipient... rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at...

  20. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY...: We are amending the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible owners of non-fruit-bearing ornamental tree nurseries and to increase the amount of compensation that...

  1. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  2. 40 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  3. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 23.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  4. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 36.515 Section 36.515 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 8a.515 Section 8a.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  6. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  7. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 1211.515... Prohibited § 1211.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  8. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 54.515 Section 54.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  9. 33 CFR 5.55 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.55 Section 5.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.55 Compensation. No member of the Auxiliary shall receive any compensation for his services as...

  10. 45 CFR 1607.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1607.5 Section 1607.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) While serving on the governing body of a recipient, no attorney member shall receive compensation from that recipient, but any member may receive a reasonable per diem expense payment...

  11. 7 CFR 1280.208 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1280.208 Section 1280.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Board § 1280.208 Compensation. Board members shall serve without compensation, but shall be...

  12. 10 CFR 1042.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1042.515 Section 1042.515 Energy DEPARTMENT... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  13. High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingda; Wu, Hualong; Han, Enze; Yue, Guanglong; Chen, Zimin; Wu, Zhisheng; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao, E-mail: stsjiang@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-04-20

    High hole concentration was achieved in Mg-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N (x ∼ 0.4) by using indium-surfactant-assisted delta doping method. A maximum carrier concentration of 4.75 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} was obtained, which is three times higher than that of the conventionally delta-doped sample. Sheet resistivity as low as 2.46 × 10{sup 4} Ω/sq was realized, benefiting from the high hole concentration (p). Analysis results show that the Mg incorporation is effectively enhanced, while the compensation ratio and acceptor activation energy (E{sub A}) are significantly reduced by using In surfactant. It was also found that the In surfactant may induce stronger valence-band modulation, contributing to the decrease of E{sub A} and the increase of p.

  14. High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High hole concentration was achieved in Mg-doped AlxGa1−xN (x ∼ 0.4) by using indium-surfactant-assisted delta doping method. A maximum carrier concentration of 4.75 × 1018 cm−3 was obtained, which is three times higher than that of the conventionally delta-doped sample. Sheet resistivity as low as 2.46 × 104 Ω/sq was realized, benefiting from the high hole concentration (p). Analysis results show that the Mg incorporation is effectively enhanced, while the compensation ratio and acceptor activation energy (EA) are significantly reduced by using In surfactant. It was also found that the In surfactant may induce stronger valence-band modulation, contributing to the decrease of EA and the increase of p

  15. 76 FR 37897 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, Federal Employees' Compensation Act File, 67 FR 16826 (April 8... Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) by Employment Standards Order No. 2-74 (39 FR 34722). The... Programs (37 FR 20533) and an Office of Federal Employees' Compensation (37 FR 22979). In 1974, these...

  16. Bank Efficiency and Executive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy King; Jonathan Williams

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether handsomely rewarding bank executives’ realizes superior efficiency by determining if executive remuneration contracts produce incentives that offset potential agency problems and lead to improvements in bank efficiency. We calculate executive Delta and Vega to proxy executives’ risk-taking following changes in their compensation contracts and estimate their relationship with alternative profit efficiency. Our study uses novel instruments to account for the potentially e...

  17. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  18. Has compensation become more flexible?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A. Cannon; Bruce C. Fallick; Michael Lettau; Raven E. Saks

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, numerous observers have argued that global competition, increased reliance on contingent workers, and the breakdown of implicit contracts have made compensation practices in the United States more flexible; in particular, employers have become more concerned with how an employee's pay compares to that in other firms and less concerned with considerations of equity or relative pay within the firm. This paper uses establishment-level data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Em...

  19. Optically controlled SiCGe/SiC heterojunction transistor with charge-compensation layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Hong-Bin; Cao Lin; Chen Zhi-Ming; Ren Jie

    2011-01-01

    A novel optically controlled SiCGe/SiC heterojunction transistor with charge-compensation technique has been simulated by using commercial simulator. This paper discusses the electric field distribution, spectral response and transient response of the device. Due to utilizing p-SiCGe charge-compensation layer, the responsivity increases nearly two times and breakdown voltage increases 33%. The switching characteristic illustrates that the device is latch-free and its fall time is much longer than the rise time. With an increase of the light power density and wavelength, the rise time and fall time will become shorter and longer, respectively. In terms of carrier lifetime, a compromise should be made between the responsivity and switching speed, the ratio of them reaches maximum value when the minority carrier lifetime equals 90 ns.

  20. Carrier doping by current injection into LaOFFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareva, Irina; Koval, Yury; Steiner, Christian; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Stuerzer, Tobias; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, LMU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, we were able to change the carrier concentration of hole-doped high-T{sub c} superconductors by injection of large currents along the c-axis. We extend this type of experiments to electron-doped pnictides. From our earlier interpretation we should expect that trapping of electrons caused by current injection would decrease the available carrier concentration. Indeed, by various experiments with superconductors from the LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs family we are able to show that trapped electrons caused by current injection perpendicular to the FeAs planes decrease the carrier concentration. We present a spectacular confirmation of this interpretation by the T{sub c} increase by more than 15 K in heavily overdoped La{sub 0.74}F{sub 0.26}FeAs. We performed similar experiments with the recently discovered 1048 layered pnictides of the composition Ca{sub 10}(FeAs){sub 10}(Pt{sub 4}As{sub 8}). The general tendency of carrier doping by trapped electrons was confirmed. A rather interesting discovery was the evolution of hysteretic c-axis IV-characteristics. This is a strong indication of intrinsic Josephson effects. We discuss these results in terms of a change of anisotropy by carrier doping.

  1. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  2. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  3. Generalized Plasma Skimming Model for Cells and Drug Carriers in the Microvasculature

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Rin; Yang, Jiho

    2016-01-01

    In microvascular transport, where both blood and drug carriers are involved, plasma skimming has a key role on changing hematocrit level and drug carrier concentration in capillary beds after continuous vessel bifurcation in the microvasculature. While there have been numerous studies on modeling the plasma skimming of blood, previous works lacked in consideration of its interaction with drug carriers. In this paper, a generalized plasma skimming model is suggested to predict the redistributions of both the cells and drug carriers at each bifurcation. In order to examine its applicability, this new model was applied on a single bifurcation system to predict the redistribution of red blood cells and drug carriers. Furthermore, this model was tested at microvascular network level under different plasma skimming conditions for predicting the concentration of drug carriers. Based on these results, the applicability of this generalized plasma skimming model is fully discussed and future works along with the model'...

  4. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  5. Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng YahongRosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO underwater acoustic (UWA channels introduce both space-time interference (STI and time-varying phase distortion for transmitted signals. In such cases, the equalized symbols produced by conventional equalizer aiming for STI cancelation suffer phase rotation and thus cannot be reliably detected. In this paper, we propose a new equalization scheme for high data rate single carrier MIMO UWA channels. Different from existing methods employing joint equalization and symbolwise phase tracking technology, the proposed scheme decouples the interference cancelation (IC operation and the phase compensation operation, leading to a generalized equalizer structure combining an IC equalizer with a phase compensator. The decoupling of the two functionalities leads to robust signal detection, which is most desirable in practical UWA applications. MIMO linear equalizer (LE is adopted to remove space-time interference, and a groupwise phase estimation and correction method is used to compensate the phase rotation. In addition, the layered space-time processing technology is adopted to enhance the equalization performance. The proposed equalization scheme is tested to be very robust with extensive experimental data collected at Kauai, Hawaii, in September 2005, and Saint Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in May 2006.

  6. Investigating thermal donors in n-type Cz silicon with carrier density imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method to map the thermal donor concentration in silicon wafers using carrier density imaging is presented. A map of the thermal donor concentration is extracted with high resolution from free carrier density images of a silicon wafer before and after growth of thermal donors. For comparison, free carrier density mapping is also performed using the resistivity method together with linear interpolation. Both methods reveal the same distribution of thermal donors indicating that the carrier density imaging technique can be used to map thermal donor concentration. The interstitial oxygen concentration can also be extracted using the new method in combination with Wijaranakula's model. As part of this work, the lifetime at medium injection level is correlated to the concentration of thermal donors in the as-grown silicon wafer. The recombination rate is found to depend strongly on the thermal donor concentration except in the P-band region.

  7. Straddle carrier radiation portal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O. Dennis

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  8. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial......(APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds...... which may interact on anionic carriers....

  9. Carrier sense data highway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  10. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  11. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  12. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  13. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  14. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  15. A New Interpretation of Compensate Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, M X

    2000-01-01

    A new interpretation of compensate effect is presented. The Hawking effect in general space-time can be taken as a compensate effect of the scale transformation of coordinate time on the horizon in generalized tortoise coordinates transformation. It is proved that the Hawking temperature is the pure gauge of compensate field in tortoise coordinates. This interpretation does not refer to a zero-temperature space-time.

  16. Compensation consultants and CEO pay: UK evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Voulgaris, Georgios; Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Walker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    International audience Manuscript type: Empirical Research Question/ Issue: This paper provides new evidence on the effect of compensation consultants on CEO pay. Research Findings/ Insights: We produce new evidence on the managerial power approach (MPA) to corporate governance by examining the influence of compensation consultants on CEO pay structures and the decision to hire a compensation consultant in the UK. We find evidence that is not consistent with the MPA. Contrary to the MPA pr...

  17. Compensation for earnings risk under worker heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Hartog, J.; Webbink, D.

    2006-01-01

    We use two large Dutch datasets to estimate the Risk Augmented Mincer equation and test for risk compensation in expected earnings. We replicate earlier findings of a positive premium for risk and a negative premium for skew and add confirmation of the key results if we control for individual ability. We find that immigrants have graduated in more risky educations but obtain identical risk compensation. Among recent graduates, women receive higher risk compensation than men, consistent with t...

  18. Securitization and Compensation in Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Pfeil, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the interaction between financial institutions' internal compensation policy, the quality of loans, and their securitization decision. We also assess the case for requiring financial institutions to defer bonus pay so as to make incentives more commensurate with the longer-term risk of their transactions. While mandatory deferred compensation can improve the quality of loans, we also show when it has the opposite effect. We further analyze when mandatory deferred compensation can c...

  19. Employee Sentiment and Stock Option Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Nittai K. Bergman; Dirk Jenter

    2005-01-01

    The use of equity-based compensation for employees in the lower ranks of large organizations is a puzzle for standard economic theory: undiversified employees should discount company equity heavily, and any positive incentive effects should be diminished by free rider problems. We analyze whether the popularity of option compensation for rank and file employees may be driven by employee optimism. We develop a model of optimal compensation policy for a firm faced with employees with positive o...

  20. A study on the minority carrier diffusion length in n-type GaN films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongmei; ZHAO Degang; WANG Jinyan; YANG Hui; WEN Cheng Paul

    2007-01-01

    The minority carrier diffusion length of n-type GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been studied by measuring the surface photovoltaic (PV) spectra. It was found that the minority carrier diffusion length of undoped n-type GaN is considerably larger than that in lightly Si-doped GaN. However, the data suggested that the dislocation and electron concentration appear not to be responsible for the minority carrier diffusion length. It is suggested that Si doping plays an important role in decreasing the minority carrier diffusion length.

  1. Broadband dispersion compensation using microstructure fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Xiaomin Ren; Yongzhao Xu; Zinan Wang; Yongqing Huang; Xue Chen

    2007-01-01

    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876Dispersion and dispersion slope compensation of 10-Gb/s pulses using microstructure fibers (MFs) is demonstrated experimentally. A 26-m MF is used to compensate the dispersion of 2-km standard singe mode fiber in a 20-nm range in C band. The experimental results show that a significant improvement can be achieved in the quality of the observed pulses with the dispersion compensation. Moreover, the further research shows that the MF can compensate the anomalous dispersion of a single mode fiber within ±0.27 ps/(nm·km) over a 50-nm wavelength range from 1520 to 1570 nm.

  2. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  3. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  4. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  5. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  6. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  7. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rameez Asif

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effec...

  8. Incomplete state feedback for time delay systems: observer applications in multidelay compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunnaike, B.A.; Ray, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how a recently developed observer for time delay systems may be used to estimate needed state variables for implementation of multivariable time delay compensation. The general results are illustrated by an example of a multireactor plant in which only one reactor concentration can be measured. The observer worked well in simulation for both multivariable PID control and multidelay compensated PID control and allowed both schemes to function with estimated state variables in the feedback loop. 16 references, 5 figures.

  9. A new compensator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 a first Static Var Compensator (SVC) based on a set of thyristor-controlled reactors was commissioned for the SPS. This was the first step in the process of replacing the obsolete saturated reactors installed in the early seventies. The second step is now in preparation: dismantling of the so-called “North compensator” and replacing it with a second SVC, essentially identical to the one commissioned in 2001. This paper describes the project and its consequences for the operation of the 400/18 kV main substation. The paper describes briefly the recuperation of certain existing components, civil engineering and other hardware. Finally a budget estimation and the planning are presented.

  10. Niosomes as Nanoparticular Drug Carriers: Fundamentals and Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Ag Seleci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems are defined as formulations aiming for transportation of a drug to the desired area of action within the body. The basic component of drug delivery systems is an appropriate carrier that protects the drug from rapid degradation or clearance and thereby enhances drug concentration in target tissues. Based on their biodegradable, biocompatible, and nonimmunogenic structure, niosomes are promising drug carriers that are formed by self-association of nonionic surfactants and cholesterol in an aqueous phase. In recent years, numerous research articles have been published in scientific journals reporting the potential of niosomes to serve as a carrier for the delivery of different types of drugs. The present review describes preparation methods, characterization techniques, and recent studies on niosomal drug delivery systems and also gives up to date information regarding recent applications of niosomes in drug delivery.

  11. 12-core x 3-mode Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over 40 km Employing Multi-carrier Signals with Parallel MIMO Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Takara, H.;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate dense SDM transmission of 20-WDM multi-carrier PDM-32QAM signals over a 40-km 12-core x 3-mode fiber with 247.9-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Parallel MIMO equalization enables 21-ns DMD compensation with 61 TDE taps per subcarrier.......We demonstrate dense SDM transmission of 20-WDM multi-carrier PDM-32QAM signals over a 40-km 12-core x 3-mode fiber with 247.9-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Parallel MIMO equalization enables 21-ns DMD compensation with 61 TDE taps per subcarrier....

  12. 76 FR 6009 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Item 20 of Schedule 14A; TARP Adopting Release, supra note 18, at 75 FR 2790. b. Comments on the... Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... 17 CFR Parts 229, 240 and 249 RIN 3235-AK68 Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and...

  13. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  14. Low-Complexity Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation Algorithm in TD-LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequency offset estimation is an important module in the downlink synchronization process of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. Research on frequency synchronization of OFDM, a low-complexity and efficient method is proposed to evaluate frequency offset in this paper. In general, maximum likelihood (ML based on cyclic prefix (CP and primary synchronization signal (PSS frequency-domain cross-correlation algorithm are applied for fractional carrier frequency offset estimation. PSS time-domain cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate integral carrier frequency offset. However, for fractional carrier frequency estimation, the performance of ML based on CP degrades in fading channel. The complexity of the other algorithm is high. Also, the conventional integral carrier frequency estimation requires cross-correlation between the received PSS and local PSS or auto-correlation of received PSS, so they also have great complexity. In this paper, relying on the PSS time center-symmetric property, we perform PSS auto-correlation method twice in the time domain. Hence fractional carrier frequency offset is obtained and compensated. Next, relying on the PSS frequency center-symmetric property, we perform energy difference computations to estimate the integral carrier frequency offset, which is equal to the distance between the calculated minimum and the central frequency in frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can estimate frequency offset accurately, guarantee the reliance and reduce complexity in comparison with the normal methods

  15. Inhomogeneous and nonstationary Hall states of the CDW with quantized normal carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Brazovskii, Serguei

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a theory for a deformable and sliding charge density wave (CDW) in the Hall bar geometry for the quantum limit when the carriers in remnant small pockets are concentrated at lowest Landau levels (LL) forming a fractionally ($\

  16. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  17. Gemini surfactants as gene carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Piskorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants are a new class of amphiphilic compounds built from two classic surfactant moieties bound together by a special spacer group. These compounds appear to be excellent for creating complexes with DNA and are effective in mediating transfection. Thanks to their construction, DNA carrier molecules built from gemini surfactants are able to deliver genes to cells of almost any DNA molecule size, unattainable when using viral gene delivery systems. Moreover, they are much safer for living organisms.

  18. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  19. Springback Compensation: Fundamental Topics and Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.; Meinders, T.; Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Weiher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the simulation of deep drawing processes has become more reliable the virtual compensation of the forming tools has become reality. In literature, the Displacement Adjustment (DA) algorithm has proved to be most effective. In this article it is shown how the compensation factor, required fo

  20. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stanley M. Gartler

    2014-08-01

    In 1914, H. J. Muller postulated the origin of the Y chromosome as having resulted from restricted recombination between homologous sex chromosomes in the male and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. This evolutionary process leads to dosage compensation. This article lays out a brief history of dosage compensation in genetics.

  1. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual compensation. 63.35 Section 63.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE... compensation. If a project staff member or consultant of one grantee is involved simultaneously in two or...

  2. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  3. 7 CFR 930.61 - Handler compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler compensation. 930.61 Section 930.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.61 Handler compensation. Each handler handling cherries from a...

  4. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  5. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  6. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  7. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  8. 44 CFR 19.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 19.515 Section... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other...

  9. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  10. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  11. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  12. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 34.111 Section 34.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable...

  13. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  14. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  15. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2010-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  16. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  17. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  18. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of compensation claimed. 211.15... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.15 Verification of compensation claimed. Compensation claimed by an... Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed...

  19. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form... termination allowance paid under section 702 of that Act. Compensation may be paid as money, a commodity,...

  20. 20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...

  1. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  2. Extraction and Transport of Amino Acids Using Kryptofix 5 as Carrier through Liquid Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Raizada; Uma Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The present work explores membrane-mediated extraction and transport studies of amino acids through artificial bulk liquid membrane system with kryptofix 5 as a carrier. The various reaction parameters such as amino acid concentration, carrier concentration, time, pH, and stirring effect were studied to optimize reaction conditions. The stirring of source and receiving phases increased the efficiency of extraction process. Noncyclic receptor kryptofix 5 with five oxyethylene units an...

  3. Compensating large PMD by a fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li(李唐军); Muguang Wang(王目光); Cao Diao(刁操); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) with the amount of 132.994-ps differential group-delay (DGD) and maximum 476.129-ps/nm second-order PMD can be compensated by a two-stages PMD compensator at a 40-Gb/s optical fiber communication system. The first stage has one free degree that is used for first order and high orders PMD compensations by rotating the state of polarization. The second-stage is used for remainder PMD compensations. After compensation, the average DGD and the maximum second-order PMD are reduced to 345.310 fs and 3.102 ps/nm, respectively.

  4. Rectangular Laser Resonators with Astigmatic Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of rectangular resonators with a view to the compensation of astigmatism has been performed. In order to have beam waists placed at the same positions in the tangential and sagittal planes, pairs of equal mirrors were considered. It was found that at least two concave mirrors...... are necessary to obtain compensation. Four-concave-mirror systems are most stable close to the quadratic geometry, although the symmetric quadratic resonator itself cannot be compensated for astigmatism. Using four equal concave mirrors, compensation of astigmatism can be obtained in two arms at the same time....... Usually several stability ranges are found for four-mirror resonators with pair-wise equal mirrors, and it is possible with these systems to obtain small compensated beam waist radii suitable for frequency conversion. Relevant formulae are given and several relevant examples are shown using simulation...

  5. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... introduce the abstract service and adapter components which allow us to separate the compensation logic from the coordination logic. In this way, we can easily plug in or plug out different compensation strategies based on a specification language defined on top of basic compensation activities and complex...

  6. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  7. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  8. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  9. Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó Influence of drying air temperature and carrier agent concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valeriano Tonon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó produzido por spray drying foi avaliada. O processo foi realizado em um mini spray dryer de bancada e maltodextrina 10DE foi utilizada como agente carreador. A temperatura do ar de secagem variou de 138 a 202 °C e a concentração de maltodextrina variou de 10 a 30%. As características analisadas foram: umidade, higroscopicidade, retenção de antocianinas, cor, distribuição do tamanho de partículas e morfologia. O aumento da temperatura resultou em partículas maiores, menos úmidas, mais higroscópicas e com menor retenção de antocianinas, além de provocar uma diminuição do parâmetro de cor L* e do ângulo de tom H*. O aumento na concentração de maltodextrina resultou em partículas maiores e menos higroscópicas, com maior luminosidade (L*, menores valores de C* e maiores valores de H*. Em relação à morfologia, o aumento da temperatura levou à formação de uma maior quantidade de partículas com superfície lisa, fato atribuído à maior transferência de calor e, consequentemente, à formação mais rápida de uma membrana ao redor da gota atomizada.The objective of this work was to study the influence of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder produced by spray drying. The process was carried out in a mini spray dryer and the maltodextrin 10DE was used as carrier agent. Inlet air temperature varied from 138 to 202 °C and maltodextrin concentration varied from 10 to 30%. The characteristics analyzed were: moisture content, hygroscopicity, anthocyanin retention, color, particle size distribution, and morphology. The increase in the temperature resulted in particles with larger size, less moisture content, more hygroscopy and with lower anthocyanin retention, besides promoting a reduction in the color

  10. Charge compensation in extremely large magnetoresistance materials LaSb and LaBi revealed by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Jie; Yang, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Bing-Jing; Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    By the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we have systematically studied the electronic structures of recently discovered extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) materials LaSb and LaBi. We find that both LaSb and LaBi are semimetals with the electron and hole carriers in balance. The calculated carrier densities on the order of 1020cm-3 are in good agreement with the experimental values, implying long mean-free time of carriers at low temperatures and thus high carrier mobilities. With a semiclassical two-band model, the charge compensation and high carrier mobilities naturally explain: (i) the XMR observed in LaSb and LaBi, (ii) the nonsaturating quadratic dependence of XMR on an external magnetic field, and (iii) the resistivity plateau in the turn-on temperature behavior at very low temperatures. The explanation of these features without resorting to the topological effect indicates that they should be the common characteristics of all electron-hole compensated semimetals.

  11. Ga co-doping in Cz-grown silicon ingots to overcome limitations of B and P compensated silicon feedstock for PV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Maxime [APOLLON SOLAR, 66 cours Charlemagne, 69002 Lyon (France); INSA de LYON, INL, 7 av. J. Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fourmond, Erwann; Lemiti, Mustapha [INSA de LYON, INL, 7 av. J. Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Einhaus, Roland; Lauvray, Hubert; Kraiem, Jed [APOLLON SOLAR, 66 cours Charlemagne, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate gallium co-doping during CZ crystallization of boron and phosphorus compensated Si. It is shown that the addition of gallium yields a fully p-type ingot with high resistivity despite high B and P contents in the silicon. Segregation of doping impurities is consistent with theory. Minority carrier lifetime and majority carrier mobility measurements indicate that this material is suitable for the realization of solar cells with comparable efficiencies to standard material. Significant light-induced degradation of minority carrier lifetime is however revealed to occur in this material. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  13. Carrier synchronization for STBC OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jueping; Song Wentao; Li Zan; Ge Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    All-digital carrier synchronization strategies and algorithms for space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are proposed in this paper. In our scheme, the continuous pilots (CP) are saved, and the complexity of carrier synchronization is reduced significantly by dividing the process into three steps. The coarse carrier synchronization and the fine carrier synchronization algorithms are investigated and analyzed in detail. Simulations show that the carrier can be locked into tracking mode quickly, and the residual frequency error satisfies the system requirement in both stationary and mobile environments.

  14. ERP generator anomalies in presymptomatic carriers of the Alzheimer's disease E280A PS-1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, María A; García, Yuriem Fernández; Lopera, Francisco; Quiroz, Yakeel T; Galán, Lídice; Vega, Mayrim; Trujillo, Nelson; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Although subtle anatomical anomalies long precede the onset of clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, their impact on the reorganization of brain networks underlying cognitive functions has not been fully explored. A unique window into this reorganization is provided by presymptomatic cases of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Here we studied neural circuitry related to semantic processing in presymptomatic FAD cases by estimating the intracranial sources of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). ERPs were obtained during a semantic-matching task from 24 presymptomatic carriers and 25 symptomatic carriers of the E280A presenilin-1 (PS-1) mutation, as well as 27 noncarriers (from the same families). As expected, the symptomatic-carrier group performed worse in the matching task and had lower N400 amplitudes than both asymptomatic groups, which did not differ from each other on these variables. However, N400 topography differed in mutation carrier groups with respect to the noncarriers. Intracranial source analysis evinced that the presymptomatic-carriers presented a decrease of N400 generator strength in right inferior-temporal and medial cingulate areas and increased generator strength in the left hippocampus and parahippocampus compared to the controls. This represents alterations in neural function without translation into behavioral impairments. Compared to controls, the symptomatic-carriers presented a similar anatomical shift in the distribution of N400 generators to that found in presymptomatic-carriers, albeit with a larger reduction in generator strength. The redistribution of N400 generators in presymptomatic-carriers indicates that early focal degeneration associated with the mutation induces neural reorganization, possibly contributing to a functional compensation that enables normal performance in the semantic task.

  15. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  16. Compressed sensing techniques for receiver based post-compensation of transmitter's nonlinear distortions in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Owodunni, Damilola S.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, compressed sensing techniques are proposed to linearize commercial power amplifiers driven by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals. The nonlinear distortion is considered as a sparse phenomenon in the time-domain, and three compressed sensing based algorithms are presented to estimate and compensate for these distortions at the receiver using a few and, at times, even no frequency-domain free carriers (i.e. pilot carriers). The first technique is a conventional compressed sensing approach, while the second incorporates a priori information about the distortions to enhance the estimation. Finally, the third technique involves an iterative data-aided algorithm that does not require any pilot carriers and hence allows the system to work at maximum bandwidth efficiency. The performances of all the proposed techniques are evaluated on a commercial power amplifier and compared. The error vector magnitude and symbol error rate results show the ability of compressed sensing to compensate for the amplifier\\'s nonlinear distortions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  17. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  18. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  19. Carrier frequencies, holomorphy and unwinding

    CERN Document Server

    Coifman, Ronald R; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2016-01-01

    We prove that functions of intrinsic-mode type (a classical models for signals) behave essentially like holomorphic functions: adding a pure carrier frequency $e^{int}$ ensures that the anti-holomorphic part is much smaller than the holomorphic part $ \\| P_{-}(f)\\|_{L^2} \\ll \\|P_{+}(f)\\|_{L^2}.$ This enables us to use techniques from complex analysis, in particular the \\textit{unwinding series}. We study its stability and convergence properties and show that the unwinding series can stabilize and show that the unwinding series can provide a high resolution time-frequency representation, which is robust to noise.

  20. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization.

  1. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  2. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of

  3. Compensation for occupational diseases in the RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Garisch, D; Cornell, J E

    1987-03-01

    Compensation legislation for occupational disease in the RSA is at present complex and non-uniform, and the administrative bodies that process compensation claims are understaffed. In this setting occupational disease, particularly in migrant workers who are often ignorant of their rights under the law, frequently goes uncompensated. General practitioners and medical officers need to be aware of the basic provisions in the law, and how to submit claims in the best interests of their patients. Some case studies are included to illustrate problematic areas. The responsibilities of doctors in the diagnosis and compensation of occupational diseases are addressed.

  4. Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang

    2008-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.

  5. A Study on Compensation for Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰兰

    2012-01-01

    Considering the linguistic and cultural difference between English and Chinese, it is inevitable to lose the original musical beauty, visual beauty and original rhetorical devices in advertisements translation. So compensation measures are always taken to compensate the lost information. This paper focuses on the discussion of the features of advertisement, cultural and linguistic differences between English and Chinese advertisements, which result in the loss of information. And compensation strategies on words, musical beauty and rhetorical devices in advertisement translation are introduced in this paper.

  6. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation...... information is coded with the same algorithm as is used for the data. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images perform up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better than coding that does not utilize motion compensation...

  7. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    individual buildings and an element of economy of scale. For these three reasons mismatches should be dealt with at the aggregated level and not at the individual level of each building. Instead, this paper suggests to compensate the mismatch of a building by increasing (or decreasing) the capacity...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  8. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...... than coding that does not utilize motion compensation....

  9. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  10. Methane biofiltration using autoclaved aerated concrete as the carrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, Pascal; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was obtained when calcium chloride was not added during bacterial inoculation step and 10-mm-thick AAC specimens were used. The immobilized MOB could remove methane at low concentration (~1000 ppmv) in a biofilter setup for 127 days at average removal efficiency (RE) of 28.7 %. Unlike a plug flow reactor, increasing the total volume of the filter by adding a biofilter in series did not result in higher total RE. MOB also exhibited a higher abundance at the bottom of the filter, in proximity with the methane gas inlet where a high methane concentration was found. Overall, an efficient methane biofilter performance could be obtained using AAC as the carrier material. PMID:25967655

  11. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  12. Matrix Effects in Biological Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Identification and Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Stevens, Susan; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Laskin, Julia

    2014-07-21

    Matrix effects in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) may affect the observed molecular distribution in chemical and biological systems. In this study, we introduce an experimental approach that efficiently compensates for matrix effects in nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) MSI without introducing any complexity into the experimental protocol. We demonstrate compensation for matrix effects in nano-DESI MSI of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in normal and ischemic mouse brain tissue by doping the nano-DESI solvent with PC standards. Specifically, we use mouse brain tissue of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model with an ischemic region localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Due to similar suppression in ionization of endogenous PC molecules extracted from the tissue and PC standards added to the solvent, matrix effects are eliminated by normalizing the intensity of the sodium and potassium adducts of endogenous PC to the intensity of the corresponding adduct of the PC standard. This approach efficiently compensates for signal variations resulting from differences in the local concentrations of sodium and potassium in tissue sections and from the complexity of the extracted analyte mixture derived from local variations in molecular composition.

  13. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén;

    2011-01-01

    , in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Four oxygen carriers (60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe)) were tested under alternating reducing/oxidizing cycles...

  14. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families

  15. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  16. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  17. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. Multichannel Adaptive Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensation with One Compensator in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; CHEN Ming-hua; ZHANG Ji-yu; XIE Shi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    A simple two-section polarization mode dispersion(PMD) compensator is proposed for multichannel PMD compensation, which can compensate two or even more channels simultaneously. Because of the statistical characteristics and the frequency-dependence of PMD, for current single mode fiber with moderate PMD, the probability that all channels are severely degraded at the same time is extremely small, which makes it possible to compensate a dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) transmission system with moderate PMD using this compensator. It is shown that the outage probability of a 40×43Gb/s DWDM transmission system using this compensator is decreased significantly from 3.6×10-3 to 3.6×10-5.

  19. Compensating Heterogeneous Salesforces: Some Explicit Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ram C. Rao

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the question of how a sales manager should design the optimal compensation scheme for his salesforce when it consists of salespersons of varying selling skills, i.e., when the salesforce is heterogeneous. The manager's problem is to reward the salespersons based on observable, uncertain sales achieved by the salespersons. Under the assumption that both the manager and the salespersons are risk neutral, the optimal compensation scheme is derived. It consists of the manager...

  20. Job Dispersion and Compensating Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Sullivan; Ted To

    2013-01-01

    The empirical literature on compensating wage differentials has a mixed history. While there have been some successes, much of this literature finds weak support for the theory of equalizing differences. We argue that it is dispersion in total job values or "job dispersion" that leads to biased compensating wage differential estimates. We begin by demonstrating how job dispersion can lead to biased hedonic estimates. Then we take a partial equilibrium on-the-job search model with utility from...

  1. Compensating fields and anomalies in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the quantization of theories which are formulated using compensating fields. In particular, we discuss the relation between the components formulation and the superspace formulation of supergravity theories. The requirement that the compensating field can be eliminated at the quantum level gives rise to on-shell constraints on the operators of the theory. In some cases, the constraints turn out to be physically unacceptable. Using these considerations we show that new minimal supergravity is in general anomalous. (author). 17 refs

  2. Compensating Fields and Anomalies in Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Y

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the quantization of theories which are formulated using compensating fields. In particular, we discuss the relation between the components formulation and the superspace formulation of supergravity theories. The requirement that the compensating field can be eliminated at the quantum level gives rise to on-shell constraints on the operators of the theory. In some cases, the constraints turn out to be physically unacceptable. Using these considerations we show that new minimal supergravity is in general anomalous.

  3. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  4. Nonlinear Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    In an alternative version of a proposed bimaterial thermal compensator for a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator, a mechanical element having nonlinear stiffness would be added to enable stabilization of a desired resonance frequency at a suitable fixed working temperature. The previous version was described in "Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators." Both versions are intended to serve as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in resonance frequencies.

  5. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  6. Empirical Evidence of Recurring International Compensation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Harvey

    1993-01-01

    The expansion of international business necessitates an increased number of employees based in foreign markets. These expatriates, nationals and third-country nationals represent unique and complex compensation problems. This article addresses five of the recurring compensation problems reported by members of the Society for Human Resource Management International (SHRMI) in a recent survey.© 1993 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1993) 24, 785–799

  7. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  8. Temperature-Compensating Inactive Strain Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal contribution to output of active gauge canceled. High-temperature strain gauges include both active gauge wires sensing strains and inactive gauge wires providing compensation for thermal contributions to gauge readings. Inactive-gauge approach to temperature compensation applicable to commercially available resistance-type strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 700 degrees F and to developmental strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 2,000 degrees F.

  9. Managing workers' compensation exposures in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, L

    1998-01-01

    Employees in healthcare are exposed to numerous and varied risks that pose the threat of injury. Management of those exposures by the organization will ultimately help create a safe environment for staff, patients and the public. Incorporating workers' compensation into the risk management program is the first step toward managing and reducing these exposures. This article presents a suggested outline for a written risk management plan for workers' compensation exposures. PMID:10182134

  10. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlicek, V. E-mail: havlicek@fel.cvut.cz; Pokorny, M

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  11. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  12. Compensation and Incentives in German Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Heimes; Steffen Seemann

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze executive compensation in Germany for the period 2005-2009. We use a self-collected dataset on compensation arrangements in German corporations to estimate the impact of firm performance and firm risk on executive pay. To be in line with earlier studies in this literature, we first measure firm performance and firm risk based on stock market returns. Our findings support the prediction from agency theory that incentive pay decreases with firm risk. We find, however, t...

  13. Executive equity compensation and incentives: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Core, John E.; Wayne R. Guay; David F. Larcker

    2003-01-01

    Stock and option compensation and the level of managerial equity incentives are aspects of corporate governance that are especially controversial to shareholders, institutional activists, and government regulators. Similar to much of the corporate finance and corporate governance literature, research on stock-based compensation and incentives has not only generated useful insights, but also produced many contradictory findings. Not surprisingly, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. I...

  14. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  15. Compensation temperatures of mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo study of a mixed Ising model of the type ABPC1-P, in a square lattice, were spins SA=+/-3/2,+/-1/2 of one sublattice are in alternating sites with spins SB=+/-52,+/-32,+/-12 or spins SC=+/-1,0, located on the other sublattice with concentrations P and 1-P, respectively. The SA interact ferromagnetically with the SB and antiferromagnetically with the SC. The results indicate that this simple model can reproduce several aspects of the behavior of a class of molecular compounds called Prussian blue analogs such as a critical temperature that it is independent on the concentration of different types of spins, and the appearance of compensation temperatures in a certain range of values of the concentration of the different species

  16. Carrier mobility in rubrene-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl studied by the time-of-flight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Michinori; Nose, Toshiaki

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the transient photocurrent of rubrene-doped nematic liquid crystal using a time-of-flight examination. Drift mobilities on the order of 10-6 cm2/V s were obtained for both positive and negative carriers. The minimal dependence of the rubrene concentration on the drift mobility is indicative of the ionic conduction as carrier transport process. The product of the drift mobility and the viscosity obeys the Walden rule, further supporting the ionic carrier transport process.

  17. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  19. Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes.

  20. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  1. A new look at gravel pack carrier fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerman, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    For gravel pack carrier fluids, less viscosity is needed downhole than for suspending and pumping high gravel loadings on the surface. To achieve this dual viscosity need, breakers are added to degrade the viscosifying polymers. Unfortunately, viscosity breakback criteria are not well defined. In addition to the type and concentration of breaker and temperature, the apparent viscosity breakback time of a polymer solution also depends on the shear rate at which the viscosity is measured. As a result, industry breakback data generally disagree because of the variety of instruments and shear rates used to measure viscosity. This paper discusses two new viscosity breakback criteria for gravel packing carrier fluids: The time for the apparent viscosity at 0.03 sec/sup -1/ to decrease to 1000 cp, and start of compaction of the settled gravel bed. These criteria correlate well with fluid performance and apply to slurries with different initial viscosities (including crosslinked gels), brine densities, and gravel sizes. Data useful for formulating gravel pack carrier fluids are also presented. Although this paper does not define optimum downhole carrier fluid properties, the new criteria reflect downhole conditions better than most previous criteria. They should give better correlation with model studies and field experience, and, in turn, lead to a better understanding of the requirements for optimum downhole performance.

  2. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  3. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  4. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  5. Static and Dynamic Regimes of Arbitrary Gain Compensation Single-Mode Laser Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2001-01-01

    We report on a methodology for the evaluation of the DC characteristics, small-signal frequency response and large-signal dynamic response of carrier and photon density responses in semiconductor laser diodes. A single mode laser is considered and described with a pair of rate equations containing a novel non-linear gain compensation term depending on a single parameter that can be chosen arbitrarily. This approach can be applied to any type of solid-state laser as long as it is described by a set of rate equations.

  6. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar

    1993-01-01

    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  7. Secure quantum carriers for quantum state sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Karimipour, Vahid; Marvian, Milad

    2010-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum carrier and show that messages can be uploaded and downloaded from this carrier and while in transit, these messages are hidden from external agents. We explain in detail the working of the quantum carrier for different communication tasks, including quantum key distribution, classical secret and quantum state sharing among a set of $n$ players according to general threshold schemes. The security of the protocol is discussed and it is shown that only the legi...

  8. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J.; Lowden, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of ...

  9. Develop a novel superparamagnetic nano-carrier for drug delivery to brain glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Anmin; Chang, Jin; Fu, Xiangping; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yan, Runmin; Wang, Hanjie; Liang, Shuli

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic drug carrier has been employed in drug delivery for over 30 years. Modern nanotechnology has improved its efficiency dramatically by decreasing its diameter into nano-scale. It may help chemotherapeutic agents penetrate BBB and raise local drug concentration in brain, which is the ideal model for glioma treatment. In our study, magnetic carrier was fabricated with octadecyl quaternized caroxymethyl chitosan (OQCMC), hydrophobic Fe₃O₄ ferrofluid and cholesterol, which showed a uniform diameter of 20 nm under transmission electronic microscopy and superparamagnetic character in vibration sample magnetical measurement system. To investigate the efficacy of drug delivery, paclitaxel was used as loaded drug and analyzed by the HPLC. Results showed that magnetic carrier released drugs for more than 20 d in vitro and maintain the drug concentration above 0.4 μg/g for 16 h in rat brain after magnetic targeting. Drug concentration increased by 1-3 folds when delivered by carrier without magnetic targeting, and by 3-15 folds after magnetic targeting. Cellular study revealed that the magnetic carrier was clearly localized in the targeted cortex neural cells and U251-MG cell lines. These results showed that this magnetic carrier is capable of maintaining high drug concentration in magnetically targeted area and carrying drugs or genes into cells, which is potentially promising for local chemotherapy to brain tumors. PMID:23701032

  10. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  11. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...

  12. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  13. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators. PMID:17068595

  14. 31 CFR 30.0 - Executive compensation and corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.0 Executive compensation and corporate governance. The following questions and answers reflect the executive compensation and corporate governance... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive compensation and...

  15. 20 CFR 226.63 - Determining monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining monthly compensation. 226.63... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.63 Determining monthly compensation. (a) Based on yearly compensation. If Board records do...

  16. 20 CFR 336.4 - Base year compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base year compensation. 336.4 Section 336.4... DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.4 Base year compensation. (a) Formula. For the purposes of this part, an employee's base year compensation includes any compensation in excess...

  17. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an...

  18. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims eligible for compensation. 296.4... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1310 - Payphone compensation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone compensation procedures. 64.1310... compensation procedures. (a) Unless the payphone service provider consents to an alternative compensation... not unreasonably withhold its consent to an alternative compensation arrangement. (1) Each...

  20. 46 CFR 2.01-60 - Overtime compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overtime compensation. 2.01-60 Section 2.01-60 Shipping... Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-60 Overtime compensation. (a) General. Extra compensations for... method of computing such extra compensation. (b) Application and certification of time. Application...

  1. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  2. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal... (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of... meetings. Compensation is provided for not more than 42 days of meetings per year....

  3. 20 CFR 211.5 - Employee representative compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative compensation. 211.5... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.5 Employee representative compensation. All payments made by a railway... office he occupies with such organization are creditable as compensation, including payments made...

  4. A review of carrier thermoelectric-transport theory in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2016-07-20

    Carrier thermoelectric-transport theory has recently become of growing interest and numerous thermoelectric-transport models have been proposed for organic semiconductors, due to pressing current issues involving energy production and the environment. The purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical description of the thermoelectric Seebeck effect in organic semiconductors. Special attention is devoted to the carrier concentration, temperature, polaron effect and dipole effect dependence of the Seebeck effect and its relationship to hopping transport theory. Furthermore, various theoretical methods are used to discuss carrier thermoelectric transport. Finally, an outlook of the remaining challenges ahead for future theoretical research is provided.

  5. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parents. Where, however, entitlement is based on the death of more than one parent in the same parental... before attaining age 18 or while helpless based on the service of another parent in the same parental... concurrently with pension, compensation or dependency and indemnity compensation. (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  6. Optimization of magnetite carrier precipitation process for transuranic waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Aase, S.A.; Babcock, B.D.; Conner, C.; Sedlet, J.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-12-31

    Transuranic (TRU) waste that is being generated at Argonne National Laboratory has a TRU activity ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 7} nCi/g with a wide variety of chemical compositions. Currently, the waste is stored in highly acidic solutions that must be neutralized for intermediate storage. A magnetite carrier precipitation process has been adapted to concentrate TRU isotopes in a noncorrosive solid phase. In this paper, the authors report the results of a series of laboratory tests done to optimize the process. The parameters they optimized included (1) magnetite concentration used to precipitate the TRUs from solution, (2) formation of magnetite (in situ or ex situ), (3) processing pH, and (4) temperature and mixing time of the carrier precipitation. They also studied the effects of anions, cations, and complexing agents in the waste solutions on the carrier precipitation and the effect of magnetite solids loading on the filtration equipment. An overview is given of the planned full-scale process, which will be operated in a glovebox.

  7. Do executives get appropriate compensation? : Evidence from intellectual capital perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of top executive compensation from intellectual capital perspective using data from US listed companies and aims to examine whether executives get appropriate compensation. I propose a pay-contribution compensation scheme and extend previous research on agency theory, by exploring how executive compensation contract design may be based on the firm’s intellectual capital (IC). Such features would serve the core purpose of compensation design, which is ...

  8. An Economic Analysis of Compensation for Rural Land Expropriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To study which method is more effective in complete compensation and zero compensation for rural land expropriation,we use economic models to analyze whether the government is benevolent and which compensation method can achieve the social optimal level.The results show that both complete compensation and zero compensation will lead to over-investment of land owners,and consequently result in loss of social welfare.

  9. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  10. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  11. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  12. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  13. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  14. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... upon their level of operations and the nature of these operations. In order to determine the level of... carrier's level of operations passes the upper or lower limit of its currently assigned carrier...

  15. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  16. Sources of carrier F-19 in F-18 fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, J. M.; Shoner, S. C.; Krohn, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorine-18 is used for many PET radiopharmaceuticals. Theoretically 18F should be carrier free and a good candidate for nanochemistry. However, 18F has 10 to 1000 times more stable fluorine atoms than radioactive atoms. In order to understand the source of carrier fluoride and other ions associated with 18F radiosynthesis, anion concentrations of different components of 18F target systems as well as solvents and chemicals used in radiosynthesis were measured. Results: The enriched water used for production of 18F had low levels of anions. In general, the sources of anions, particularly of fluoride, were the chemical reagents used for synthesis and trace contaminants in tubing, valves and fittings. A major component of contamination was nitrate from irradiation of dissolved nitrogen gas in the target water.

  17. Sources of carrier F-19 in F-18 fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J. M.; Shoner, S. C.; Krohn, K. A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Center, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 356004, Seattle, WA 98195-6004 (United States)

    2012-12-19

    Fluorine-18 is used for many PET radiopharmaceuticals. Theoretically {sup 18}F should be carrier free and a good candidate for nanochemistry. However, {sup 18}F has 10 to 1000 times more stable fluorine atoms than radioactive atoms. In order to understand the source of carrier fluoride and other ions associated with {sup 18}F radiosynthesis, anion concentrations of different components of {sup 18}F target systems as well as solvents and chemicals used in radiosynthesis were measured. Results: The enriched water used for production of {sup 18}F had low levels of anions. In general, the sources of anions, particularly of fluoride, were the chemical reagents used for synthesis and trace contaminants in tubing, valves and fittings. A major component of contamination was nitrate from irradiation of dissolved nitrogen gas in the target water.

  18. Mesostructured silica and aluminosilicate carriers for oxytetracycline delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D; Nastase, S; Mitran, R A; Petrescu, M; Vasile, E; Matei, C; Negreanu-Pirjol, T

    2016-08-30

    Oxytetracycline delivery systems containing various MCM-type silica and aluminosilicate with different antibiotic content were developed in order to establish the influence of the support structural and textural properties and aluminum content on the drug release profile. The antibiotic molecules were loaded into the support mesochannels by incipient wetness impregnation method using a drug concentrated aqueous solution. The carriers and drug-loaded materials were investigated by small- and wide-angle XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Faster release kinetics of oxytetracycline from uncalcined silica and aluminosilicate supports was observed, whereas higher drug content led to lower delivery rate. The presence of aluminum into the silica network also slowed down the release rate. The antimicrobial assays performed on Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates showed that the oxytetracycline-loaded materials containing MCM-41-type mesoporous silica or aluminosilicate carriers inhibited the bacterial development. PMID:26861688

  19. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  20. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  1. Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    Bimaterial thermal compensators have been proposed as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in the resonance frequencies of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. A bimaterial compensator would apply, to a WGM resonator, a pressure that would slightly change the shape of the resonator and thereby change its resonance frequencies. Through suitable choice of the compensator dimensions and materials, it should be possible to make the temperature dependence of the pressure-induced frequency shift equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the temperature dependence of the frequency shift of the uncompensated resonator so that, to first order, a change in temperature would cause zero net change in frequency.

  2. Automatic Transaction Compensation for Reliable Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Tang; Ming-Lu Li; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2006-01-01

    As grid technology is expanding from scientific computing to business applications, service oriented grid computing is aimed at providing reliable services for users and hiding complexity of service processes from them. The grid services for coordinating long-lived transactions that occur in business applications play an important role in reliable grid applications. In this paper, the grid transaction service (GridTS) is proposed for dealing with long-lived business transactions. We present a compensation-based long-lived transaction coordination algorithm that enables users to select results from committed sub-transactions. Unlike other long-lived transaction models that require application programmers to develop corresponding compensating transactions, GridTS can automatically generate compensating transactions on execution of a long-lived grid transaction. The simulation result has demonstrated the feasibility of GridTS and effectiveness of the corresponding algorithm.

  3. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  4. Supersymmetric composite gauge fields with compensators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    We study supersymmetric composite gauge theory, supplemented with compensator mechanism. As our first example, we give the formulation of N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian composite gauge theory without the kinetic term of a non-Abelian gauge field. The important ingredient is the Proca-Stueckelberg-type compensator scalar field that makes the gauge-boson field equation non-singular, i.e., the field equation can be solved for the gauge field algebraically as a perturbative expansion. As our second example, we perform the gauging of chiral-symmetry for N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions by a composite gauge field. These results provide supporting evidence for the consistency of the mechanism that combines the composite gauge field formulations and compensator formulations, all unified under supersymmetry.

  5. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  6. MAP detection for impairment compensation in coherent WDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Ellis, A D

    2009-08-01

    We propose a novel recursive-algorithm based maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) detector in spectrally-efficient coherent wavelength division multiplexing (CoWDM) systems, and investigate its performance in a 1-bit/s/Hz on-off keyed (OOK) system limited by optical-signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method decodes each sub-channel using the signal levels not only of the particular sub-channel but also of its adjacent sub-channels, and therefore can effectively compensate deterministic inter-sub-channel crosstalk as well as inter-symbol interference arising from narrow-band filtering and chromatic dispersion (CD). Numerical simulation of a five-channel OOK-based CoWDM system with 10Gbit/s per channel using either direct or coherent detection shows that the MAP decoder can eliminate the need for phase control of each optical carrier (which is necessarily required in a conventional CoWDM system), and greatly relaxes the spectral design of the demultiplexing filter at the receiver. It also significantly improves back-to-back sensitivity and CD tolerance of the system. PMID:19654745

  7. Quantum effects on compressional Alfven waves in compensated semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M. R. [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, East West University, Aftabnagar, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2015-03-15

    Amplitude modulation of a compressional Alfven wave in compensated electron-hole semiconductor plasmas is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime in this paper. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential, and the quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential in the momentum balance equations of the charge carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the compressional Alfven wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Typical values of the parameters for GaAs, GaSb, and GaN semiconductors are considered in analyzing the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave. Detailed analysis of the modulation instability in the long-wavelength regime is presented. For typical parameter ranges of the semiconductor plasmas and at the long-wavelength regime, it is found that the wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the effect of the Bohm potential may be neglected in comparison with the effect of the exchange-correlation potential in the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave.

  8. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  9. A Novel Minimum Output Variance Estimator for Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the carrier frequency offset (CFO)destroys the orthogonality among subcarriers which degrades system performance. Various CFO estimation methods have been developed to compensate for the CFO at the receiver. This paper describes a novel minimum output variance method for OFDM systems with CFO in additive white Gaussian noise channels.This method utilizes the phase and the amplitude of the received signal and reduces the mean square error of the CFO by about 3 dB compared with the original minimum output variance method.

  10. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  11. Axial loading verification method for small bones using carrier fringes in speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, A.; Márquez, S.; Landgrave, E.; Vázquez, Z.; Vera, K.; Caudillo, C.

    2015-06-01

    A computerized system for real-time displacement visualization using carrier fringes in an electronic speckle in-plane sensitive interferometer allows force calibration for micro-displacement analysis of rat bones and verification of axial loading conditions. Once the force has been calibrated and the load is applied along the bone axis, the difference-of-phase method is used to obtain the phase map, which after phase unwrapping, allows the evaluation of the displacements produced by the bone deformation. The proposed method avoids common loading mistakes using first carrier fringes to assure that the loads are within the measuring capabilities of the in-plane interferometer and the Carré phase-stepping method to compensate for linear phase step miscalibration. The experimental results obtained with the calibration of loading forces and axial loading verification show the advantages of the system proposed here over a system which uses a cantilever configuration to make a similar bone deformation analysis.

  12. Reactive Power Compensation using a Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Nathalie Marie-Anna

    2010-01-01

    This Master's thesis investigates a new application for the matrix converter: Shunt reactive power compensation. The suggested Matrix Converter-based Reactive power Compensation (MCRC) device is composed of a matrix converter, which input is connected to the grid and an electric machine at the output of the converter. The reactive power flowing in or out of the grid can be regulated with the matrix converter by controlling the magnitude and/or phase angle of the current at the input of the co...

  13. Security careers skills, compensation, and career paths

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th

  14. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  15. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  16. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  17. Beam loading compensation in the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), multi-bunch operation is employed to improve efficiency at the cost of substantial beam loading. The RF pulse that powers the accelerator structures will be shaped to compensate for the effect of the transient loading along the bunch train. This scheme has been implemented in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), a facility built to test the key accelerator technology of the NLC. In this paper the authors describe the compensation method, the techniques used to measure the energy variation along the bunch train, and results from tests with NLC-like beam currents

  18. Effects of buffer layer preparation and Bi concentration on InGaAsBi epilayers grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of using an In0.53Ga0.47As buffer layer on the crystalline quality of InGaAsBi epilayer with Bi concentration up to 3.1% grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. It is found that use of the buffer layer has a dramatic effect on the improvement of surface morphology, structural, electrical and optical properties of InGaAsBi epilayers. Bi incorporation in InGaAs up to a concentration of 3.1% causes no degradation of the electron mobility and induces p-type carriers that compensate the background n-type carriers resulting in mobility enhancement with increasing Bi concentration. With the buffer layer preparation, a maximum electron mobility of 5550 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room temperature is demonstrated in InGaAsBi with x Bi = 3.1%, which is the highest value reported in InGaAsBi with x Bi > 2.5%. (paper)

  19. Kinetics of photo-activated charge carriers in Sn:CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Manju Mishra; Panda, Richa; Gorli, V. R.; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of the photo-activated charge carriers has been investigated in Tin substituted Cadmium Sulphide, Cd1-xSnxS (x=0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15), thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. X-Ray Diffraction shows an increase in strain that resulted in the decreased crystallite size upon Sn substitution. At the first sight, the photo current characteristics show a quenching effect on Sn substitution. However, survival of persistent photocurrents is seen even up to 15% of Sn substitution. Transient photo current decay could be explained with a 2τ relaxation model. CdS normally has an n-type character and the Sn doping expected to inject hole carriers. The two fold increase in τ1, increase in activation energy and the decrease in photocurrents upon Sn substitution point towards a band gap cleaning scenario that include compensation and associated carrier injection dynamics. In addition Atomic Force Microscopy shows a drastic change in microstructure that modulates the carrier dynamics as a whole.

  20. Measurement of HD concentration by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas chromatography has been used for the on-line measurement of deuterium hydride (HD) which is used in a Tritium Removal Pilot Facility for the demonstration of the removal of the tritium mainly generated in CANDU reactors. Two methods with different carrier gases, neon and hydrogen, are tested and compared each other. It was showed that both the methods could be possible to measure the concentration of H2 and HD. However, the method with a column packed with alumina showed difficulty in the application due to quite long measurement time and reproducibility. The other method using hydrogen as a carrier gas could measure the concentration accurately within comparably short period

  1. Compensations in the Shapley value and the compensation solutions for graph games

    OpenAIRE

    Béal, Sylvain; Rémila, Eric; Solal, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We consider an alternative expression of the Shapley value that reveals a system of compensations: each player receives an equal share of the worth of each coalition he belongs to, and has to compensate an equal share of the worth of any coalition he does not belong to. We give an interpretation in terms of formation of the grand coalition according to an ordering of the players and define the corresponding compensation vector. Then, we generalize this idea to cooperative games with a communi...

  2. Large PMD Compensated by Four Free Degrees in OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rui; LI Tang-jun; WANG Mu-guang; JIAN Shui-sheng; XU Jing-jing

    2004-01-01

    By introducing a two-stage polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator after a optical fiber link with a large PMD,over 270 ps first-order and 2 000 ps2 high-order PMD was compensated. The results show that the two-stage compensator can be used to PMD compensation in the 20 Gb/s optical time division multiplexing system with 60 km high PMD fiber. After compensating,the 270 ps DGD is changed into max. 7 ps. Moreover,the tunable FBG has a function of dispersion compensation.

  3. The cost and compensability of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Dickson, Cara; Black, Deborah; Nau, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Injury in Australia was responsible for 400 000 hospitalisations in 2002. This study aimed to examine the direct costs of trauma patients in a Level 1 trauma centre and determine the compensability of those patients. Data on all admitted patients (206) filling trauma criteria were collected prospectively over a 3-month period (November 2006 to January 2007). A 10-question survey was completed on each patient to record mechanism of injury, third party private health insurance or workers compensation, and direct costs were also obtained. 30% of trauma admissions had an injury severity score (ISS)> 15 (n = 62; median ISS =9; range, 1-56). Median length of stay was 3 days (range, 1-126). Almost half (47%) of the patients were involved in road trauma, and 29% in falls. More than half (53.4%) were eligible for compensation (21.8% of patients had full hospital health insurance cover, 21.4% third party insurance and 9.2% workers compensation). The mechanism of injury with the highest median cost per patient was assault, followed by pedal cyclists, pedestrians then motor vehicle collisions. PMID:19203337

  4. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  5. Compensation for forest ecological services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can; Wang Sen; Zhang Wei; Liang Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses methods to compensate for the costs incurred in the supply of forest ecological services (FES), i.e.government dominated and market-based instruments as well as progress made so far in China. Factors which constrain the supply of these services and potential policy improvements are presented.

  6. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers may... seq., or to a trust for the benefit of all shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks...

  7. PRECISELY COMPENSATED EFFICIENT COMPONENT MODE SYNTHESIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yutian; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2004-01-01

    Based on the improved mode superposition method proposed by Z.D.Ma and I.Hagiwara, a precisely compensated efficient mode synthesis method is developed.The calculation procedure is discussed in detail and the truncation error is also analyzed.By comparison, it is shown that this method has a higher accuracy and a less calculation time than the general used ones.

  8. 76 FR 27959 - Investment Adviser Performance Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... for Advisers to Venture Capital Funds, Private Fund Advisers With Less Than $150 Million in Assets... compensation to the adviser based on a share of capital gains on, or capital appreciation of, the funds of a... or Fund Under Management is Averaged, Investment Advisers Act Release No. 347 (Nov. 10, 1972) [37...

  9. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  10. Digital compensation of nonlinear distortion in loudspeakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruurd; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Herrmann, Otto E.

    1993-01-01

    Loudspeakers produce nonlinear distortion. The authors present a method to compensate for this distortion in real time by nonlinear digital signal processing implemented on a digital signal processor (i.e., the TMS320C30 DSP). Based on the literature, an electrical equivalent circuit of an electrody

  11. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  12. On compensation in multidimensional response modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of compensation in multidimensional response modeling is addressed. We show that multidimensional response models are compensatory in their ability parameters if and only if they are monotone. In addition, a minimal set of assumptions is presented under which the MLEs of the ability parame

  13. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur;

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis to illu...

  14. Fish-mediated trait compensation in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Souza, M.S.; Balseiro, E.;

    2012-01-01

    pigmentation and antioxidant enzymes are flexible UVR defence systems, which can be induced when needed. Zooplankton may employ antioxidant defences when pigmentation is reduced to counteract predation risk and thereby rapidly respond to detrimental effects of UVR exposure, that is, they can compensate one...

  15. Disclosed Values of Option-Based Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Hjortshøj, Toke Lilhauge

    New accounting standards require firms to expense the costs of option-based compensation (OBC), but the associated valuations offer many challenges for firms. Earlier research has documented that firms in the U.S. generally underreport the values of OBC by manipulating the inputs used for valuation...

  16. Fuel viscosity/density compensation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, N.W.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a fuel viscosity compensating device for providing an output which may be used to regulate the output of a fuel pump based on the viscosity of the fuel. It comprises: a housing including walls defining a pressure chamber and a fuel inlet; a piston; a piston spring; a pressure regulator; conduit means; swirl means; and fuel control means.

  17. Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C. van Santvoort (J. P C)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCompensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an averag

  18. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  19. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  20. ISRAEL’S NATIONAL WATER CARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    The National Water Carrier of Israel (Ha Movil Ha' Artzi). It is the main water project of Israel and its main task is to transfer water from the rainy north to the center and to the arid south. The National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israel's water system. The original goal was to provide irrigation water to Negev. Today 80% of the water is utilized for Israel's domestic consumption. Most of the water works in Israel are combined with the National Water Carrier for about...

  1. Resource-efficient fusion with pre-compensated transmissions for cooperative spectrum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro; Cattaneo, Marco E G V

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a novel fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed for saving resources in the control channel. Secondary users (SUs) simultaneously report their decisions using binary modulations with the same carrier frequencies. The transmitted symbols add incoherently at the fusion centre (FC), leading to a larger set of symbols in which a subset is associated with the presence of the primary user (PU) signal, and another subset is associated with the absence of such a signal. The decision criterion applied for discriminating these subsets works under the assumption that the channel gains are known at the FC. In this paper, we propose a new simultaneous transmission and decision scheme in which the task of channel estimation is shifted from the FC to the SUs, without the need for feeding-back of the estimates to the FC. The estimates are used at the SUs to pre-compensate for the reporting channel phase rotations and to partially compensate for the channel gains. This partial compensation is the result of signal clipping for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) control. We show, analytically and with simulations, that this new scheme can produce large performance improvements, yet reduces the implementation complexity when compared with the original one. PMID:26007712

  2. Resource-Efficient Fusion with Pre-Compensated Transmissions for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Adionel Guimarães

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed for saving resources in the control channel. Secondary users (SUs simultaneously report their decisions using binary modulations with the same carrier frequencies. The transmitted symbols add incoherently at the fusion centre (FC, leading to a larger set of symbols in which a subset is associated with the presence of the primary user (PU signal, and another subset is associated with the absence of such a signal. The decision criterion applied for discriminating these subsets works under the assumption that the channel gains are known at the FC. In this paper, we propose a new simultaneous transmission and decision scheme in which the task of channel estimation is shifted from the FC to the SUs, without the need for feeding-back of the estimates to the FC. The estimates are used at the SUs to pre-compensate for the reporting channel phase rotations and to partially compensate for the channel gains. This partial compensation is the result of signal clipping for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR control. We show, analytically and with simulations, that this new scheme can produce large performance improvements, yet reduces the implementation complexity when compared with the original one.

  3. In vivo evaluation of a simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinxin; Niu, Mao; Zhang, Te; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Zhonglei; Wu, Wangxi; Zhang, Qi; Lai, Chunhua; Zhou, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar bone loss has long been a challenge in clinical dental implant therapy. Simvastatin (SV) has been demonstrated to exert excellent anabolic effects on bone. However, the successful use of SV to increase bone formation in vivo largely depends on the local concentration of SV at the site of action, and there have been continuing efforts to develop an appropriate delivery system. Specifically, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) systems have become a popular type of encapsulation carrier system. Therefore, SV-loaded NLCs (SNs) (179.4 nm in diameter) were fabricated in this study, and the osteogenic effect of the SNs was evaluated in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect. Our results revealed that the SNs significantly enhanced bone formation in vivo, as evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and a fluorescence analysis. Thus, this novel nanostructured carrier system could be a potential encapsulation carrier system for SV in bone regeneration applications.

  4. Tailoring the surface properties and carrier dynamics in SnO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Ayan; Stroscio, Michael A; Meyyappan, M; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Dutta, Mitra

    2011-07-15

    We report a study of the role of mid-gap defect levels due to surface states in SnO(2) nanowires on carrier trapping. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy provides carrier relaxation time constants that reveal the nature and positions of various defect levels due to the surface states which in turn provide details on how the carriers relax after their injection. The effect of oxygen annealing on carrier concentration is also studied through XPS valence band photoemission spectroscopy, a sensitive non-contact surface characterization technique. These measurements show that charge transfer associated with chemisorption of oxygen in different forms produces an upward band bending and leads to an increase in the depletion layer width by approximately 70 nm, thereby decreasing surface conductivity and forming the basis for the molecular sensing capability of the nanowires.

  5. Tailoring the surface properties and carrier dynamics in SnO{sub 2} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Ayan; Stroscio, Michael A; Dutta, Mitra [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Meyyappan, M [Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P, E-mail: dutta@ece.uic.edu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We report a study of the role of mid-gap defect levels due to surface states in SnO{sub 2} nanowires on carrier trapping. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy provides carrier relaxation time constants that reveal the nature and positions of various defect levels due to the surface states which in turn provide details on how the carriers relax after their injection. The effect of oxygen annealing on carrier concentration is also studied through XPS valence band photoemission spectroscopy, a sensitive non-contact surface characterization technique. These measurements show that charge transfer associated with chemisorption of oxygen in different forms produces an upward band bending and leads to an increase in the depletion layer width by approximately 70 nm, thereby decreasing surface conductivity and forming the basis for the molecular sensing capability of the nanowires.

  6. PRESSURE COMPENSATION METHOD OF UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT BEING UNDER ATMOSPHERIC CIRCUMSTANCE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATED VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingfeng; Li Yanmin; Zhong Tianyu; Xu Guohua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the-state-of-the-art of pressure compensation of underwater hydraulic systems (UHSs), a new method of pressure compensation of UHSs, whose hydraulic power unit is in the atmospheric circumstance, is proposed. And a pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation is realized. The pressure compensation precision is guaranteed by direct detection. Its dynamic performance and stability are improved by a dynamic feedback. Theoretical study, simulation and experiment show that the pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation has a fine property of tracking underwater ambient pressure and meet the requirement of underwater ambient pressure compensation.

  7. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location

  8. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.

    1983-12-01

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  9. Simulation of dual transponder carrier ranging measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu ZHAO; Xiao-jun JIN; Zhong-he JIN

    2009-01-01

    The most dominant error source for microwave ranging is the frequency instability of the oscillator that generates the carrier phase signal. The oscillator noise is very difficult to filter due to its extremely low frequency. A dual transponder carrier ranging method can effectively minimize the oscillator noise by combing the reference phase and the to-and-fro measurement phase from the same single oscillator. This method does not require an accurate time tagging system, since it extracts phases on the same satellite. This paper analyzes the dual transponder carrier ranging system by simulation of the phase measurements with comprehensive error models. Both frequency domain and time domain noise transfer characteristics were simulated to compare them with dual one-way ranging. The simulation results in the two domains conformed to each other and demonstrated that a high level of accuracy can also be achieved by use of the dual transponder carrier ranging system, with relatively simple instruments.

  10. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Compensation of errors in robot machining with a parallel 3D-piezo compensation mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Ulrich; Drust, Manuel; Puzik, Arnold; Verl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a 3D-Piezo Compensation Mechanism unit that is capable of fast and accurate adaption of the spindle position to enhance machining by robots. The mechanical design is explained which focuses on low mass, good stiffness and high bandwidth in order to allow compensating for errors beyond the bandwidth of the robot. In addition to previous works [7] and [9], an advanced actuation design is presented enabling movements in three translational axes allowing a work...

  13. Re-planning for compensator-based IMRT with original compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li, Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  14. Deformation compensation in dynamic tomography; Compensation de deformations en tomographie dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbat, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, UMR CNRS 5525, 38 - Grenoble (France); Roux, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, TIMC-IMAG, In3S, Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Grangeat, P. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the compensation of motion in tomography. New classes of deformation are proposed, that compensates analytically by an algorithm of a F.B.P. type reconstruction. This work makes a generalisation of the known results for affine deformations, in parallel geometry and fan-beam, to deformation classes of infinite dimension able to include strong non linearities. (N.C.)

  15. Elliptical concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    García Botella, Ángel; Álvarez Fernández Balbuena, Antonio; Bernabeu Martínez, Eusebio

    2006-01-01

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called e...

  16. Fullerenes: A New Carrier Phase for Noble Gases in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The major focus of our research effort has been to measure the noble gases encapsulated within fullerenes, a new carbon carrier phase and compare it to the myriad of components found in the bulk meteorite acid residues. We have concentrated on the carbonaceous chondrites (Allende, Murchison and Tagish Lake) since they have abundant noble gases, typically with a planetary signature that dominates the stepped-release of the meteorite bulk acid residue. They also contain an extractable fullerene component that can be isolated and purified from the same bulk material.

  17. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet resilie...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  18. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  19. MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System: is the USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS) to assist managers in monitoring their payroll costs for U.S. direct...

  20. The risks and rewards of setting physician compensation internally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2013-01-01

    To establish physician compensation internally, finance leaders should: Educate decision makers on basic regulatory guidance and valuation theory. Determine fair market value. Consider using a compensation calculator. PMID:23360054

  1. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.

  2. Design and prototype of Variable Gravity Compensation Mechanism (VGCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Takesue, Naoyuki; Ikematsu, Takashi; Murayama, Hideyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    A machine moving vertically requires strong gravitational resistance. Gravity compensation mechanisms devised to reduce actuator force mostly compensate for constant weight, but practical use requires that the mechanism compensate for weight variations. This paper presents a Variable Gravity Compensation Mechanism (VGCM) that uses two types of linear springs and changes the equilibrium position of one. The mechanism principle is described and the prototype is designed. Performance is experime...

  3. A General Theoretical Model of Enthalpy-EntropyCompensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Lei; GUO, Qing-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation remains a mystery in chemistry and biophysics.recent study suggested that the solventreorganization might constitute the physical orihin of the compensation, which was unforumstely not wisely applicable because compensation was also observeserved in solid phade reactions.In this study,a general theoretical model based upon strictmathematical deduction was presented,which indicated thatthe redistribution of the distinguishable subspecies might bethe physical origin of the enthalpy-intropy compensations in solvation and surface adsorption weue discussed.

  4. The economic consequences of executive compensation disclosure: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lofruthe, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Executive compensation frequently makes headlines in both academic journals and the yellow press. From the academic point of view, executive compensation has its grounds in agency theory. Effective compensation schemes align the interests of managers and owners and motivate managers to maximize shareholder value. Disclosure of compensation schemes enables shareholders to evaluate the remuneration contracts’ adequacy. In 2005, the German legislator created a natural exp...

  5. Video Coding with Motion-Compensated Lifted Wavelet Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Flierl, M; Girod, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the efficiency of motion-compensated three-dimensional transform coding, a compression scheme that employs a motion-compensated transform for a group of pictures. We investigate this coding scheme experimentally and theoretically. The practical coding scheme employs in temporal direction a wavelet decomposition with motion-compensated lifting steps. Further, we compare the experimental results to that of a predictive video codec with single-hypothesis motion compensation...

  6. Feature-based engineering of compensations in web service environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Michael; Dolog, Peter

    2009-01-01

    requirements and constraints regarding compensation. The feature models are being used in order to configure the compensation operations that are applied. In this way, we ensure that the compensation actions are limited to the prescribed ones,and the infrastructure which uses them can be adapted easily in case...

  7. Temperature compensation of resonant cavities with a teflon post

    OpenAIRE

    Bará Temes, Francisco Javier

    1982-01-01

    The negative temperature coefficient of E for teflon is used to compensate the frequency drift of a metal cavity due to thermal expansion. An experimental X-band transmission resonator was compensated in this way with a 10 mm teflon post. The results are considered of great interest for the compensation of waveguide millimiter wave oscillators. Peer Reviewed

  8. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS...

  9. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  10. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  11. Reactive current compensation with hybrid circuit; Blindstromkompensation mit Hybridschaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning Mueller, Janitza

    2013-06-01

    Compensation systems for reactive currents have to reduce costs. However, at excessively enhanced harmonic loads compensation systems are quickly overloaded and even become cost drivers. Plants in reinforced construction and improved technology are required. During rapid load fluctuations, compensation systems can be controlled better with thyristor controllers instead of slow shooter.

  12. Executive Compensation and Financial Performance in the Real Estate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Barbara J.; Roger M. Shelor

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between financial performance, firm size, and executive compensation among firms in the real estate industry. Previous analyses of compensation have not been industry specific. The findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between executive compensation and measures of financial performance, firm size, and age of the highest paid executive.

  13. 12 CFR 918.2 - Annual directors' compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual directors' compensation policy. 918.2... HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.2 Annual directors' compensation policy. Beginning in 2000 and annually thereafter, each Bank's board of directors shall adopt by resolution...

  14. 26 CFR 1.162-7 - Compensation for personal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation for personal services. 1.162-7...-7 Compensation for personal services. (a) There may be included among the ordinary and necessary... compensation for personal services actually rendered. The test of deductibility in the case of...

  15. 39 CFR 3050.27 - Workers' Compensation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workers' Compensation Report. 3050.27 Section 3050.27 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.27 Workers' Compensation Report. The Workers' Compensation Report, including summary workpapers, shall be provided by...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1409 - Purposes of using compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purposes of using compensation. 404.1409 Section 404.1409 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1409 Purposes of using compensation. Compensation which...

  17. 26 CFR 1.162-8 - Treatment of excessive compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of excessive compensation. 1.162-8...-8 Treatment of excessive compensation. The income tax liability of the recipient in respect of an amount ostensibly paid to him as compensation, but not allowed to be deducted as such by the payor,...

  18. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation for easements. 625.8 Section 625.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.8 Compensation for easements... section. (d) Acceptance of offered easement compensation. (1) NRCS will not acquire any easement...

  19. Secondary control for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of secondary control is applied for voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded microgrid. The aim of the proposed control approach is to enhance the voltage quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). Unbalance compensation is achieved by proper control...... in the compensation of voltage unbalance....

  20. 48 CFR 252.217-7004 - Job orders and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. 252.217-7004 Section 252.217-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.217-7004 Job orders and compensation. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: JOB ORDERS AND COMPENSATION (MAY 2006) (a) The Contracting Officer shall...