WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier ash circuit

  1. Identification of deep trap energies and influences of oxygen plasma ashing on semiconductor carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprowski, A; Humbel, O; Plappert, M; Krenn, H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an analytical study of the effects of oxygen plasma ashing processes in semiconductor device fabrication and its impact on minority carrier lifetime in high voltage semiconductor devices. Our work includes a critical background study of life time killing mechanisms by deep traps imparted into the semiconductor by barrel plasma ashing. The Elymat technique provides the opportunity to measure lifetime and diffusion length of minority carriers and surface photo voltage (SPV) measurement was used to analyse influences of process parameters such as photoresist, time budget and positioning in the process chamber. It was shown that in microwave plasma processes the diffusion length changes severely with tempering at 200 °C, whereas RF-plasma processes show a significant process time-dependence. Batch tools in general suffer from a strong first wafer effect which could be correlated with the static electrical parameters of the semiconductor devices. The trap identities were detected by using deep level transient spectroscopy and the chemical species of the traps has been proven by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The deep-bandgap trap energies are reliable fingerprints of the chosen process parameters such as process time and of resist-influences. By microwave plasma processes intrinsic Fe and FeB-complex levels were identified and a good agreement with the SPV-measurement and electrical device characteristic was shown. RF-plasma processes impart levels attributed to Pt levels and an additional level, which could be identified as a trap level probably forming a complex of Pt and H. (paper)

  2. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  3. Assessment of the heat carrier movement in the primary coolant circuit by its own momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadalev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the heat carrier flow alteration after the circulation pump(s) stop. • The general mathematical model used is described in details. • The model is adapted and applied to a particular example research reactor. • Assessment is presented in detail, step by step with references. • The information provided is enough to apply calculations to another facility. - Abstract: In the presented paper is considered the approach to an assessment of the heat carrier flow alteration in the primary water–water reactor coolant circuit after the circulation pump(s) stop. This topic is highly relevant trough advanced and increased nuclear safety requirements because such a process is observed in case of black-out accident or damaged pump(s). The general mathematical model used is described; enabling preparation of this evaluation adapted and applied to a particular example facility namely a pool type research reactor. The factors influencing to the heat carrier movement by its own momentum are examined. The evaluation measures and includes the factors influencing the heat carrier flow rate from the moment the pump(s) stops down to a negligible value. Assessment is presented in detail, step by step and where needed with references to specific data and/or formulae from reference books to allow repetition of the calculations and/or apply to another facility. The calculations are presented utilizing all necessary data according to the design and technological documentation. No account is given to the pressure of the natural circulation caused by the residual heat generation in the fuel after the reactor scram system extinction of the fission reaction

  4. Guanidinium: A Route to Enhanced Carrier Lifetime and Open-Circuit Voltage in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Nicholas; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Zonghao; Meng, Lei; Yao, En-Ping; Liu, Yongsheng; Schiffer, Andy; Yang, Yang

    2016-02-10

    Hybrid perovskites have shown astonishing power conversion efficiencies owed to their remarkable absorber characteristics including long carrier lifetimes, and a relatively substantial defect tolerance for solution-processed polycrystalline films. However, nonradiative charge carrier recombination at grain boundaries limits open circuit voltages and consequent performance improvements of perovskite solar cells. Here we address such recombination pathways and demonstrate a passivation effect through guanidinium-based additives to achieve extraordinarily enhanced carrier lifetimes and higher obtainable open circuit voltages. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements yield carrier lifetimes in guanidinium-based films an order of magnitude greater than pure-methylammonium counterparts, giving rise to higher device open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. A reduction in defect activation energy of over 30% calculated via admittance spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence intensity mapping indicates successful passivation of recombination/trap centers at grain boundaries. We speculate that guanidinium ions serve to suppress formation of iodide vacancies and passivate under-coordinated iodine species at grain boundaries and within the bulk through their hydrogen bonding capability. These results present a simple method for suppressing nonradiative carrier loss in hybrid perovskites to further improve performances toward highly efficient solar cells.

  5. Wireless Data Transmission at Terahertz Carrier Waves Generated from a Hybrid InP-Polymer Dual Tunable DBR Laser Photonic Integrated Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Hisatake, Shintaro; de Felipe, David; Guzman, Robinson; Nagatsuma, Tadao; Keil, Norbert

    2018-02-14

    We report for the first time the successful wavelength stabilization of two hybrid integrated InP/Polymer DBR lasers through optical injection. The two InP/Polymer DBR lasers are integrated into a photonic integrated circuit, providing an ideal source for millimeter and Terahertz wave generation by optical heterodyne technique. These lasers offer the widest tuning range of the carrier wave demonstrated to date up into the Terahertz range, about 20 nm (2.5 THz) on a single photonic integrated circuit. We demonstrate the application of this source to generate a carrier wave at 330 GHz to establish a wireless data transmission link at a data rate up to 18 Gbit/s. Using a coherent detection scheme we increase the sensitivity by more than 10 dB over direct detection.

  6. The impact of ultra-thin titania interlayers on open circuit voltage and carrier lifetime in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerman, David; Colbert, Adam E.; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kim, Hyungchul; Graham, Samuel, E-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    We study the effects of modifying indium tin oxide electrodes with ultrathin titania (TiO{sub 2}) layers grown via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). We find an optimal thickness of PE-ALD-grown titania by tracking performance, which initially increases, peaks, and eventually decreases with increasing TiO{sub 2} thickness. We use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to measure both the local work function and its distribution as a function of TiO{sub 2} thickness. We find that the variance in contact potential difference across the surface of the film is related to either the amorphous or anatase TiO{sub 2} form. Finally, we use local SKPM recombination rate experiments, supported by bulk transient photovoltage and charge extraction measurements. We show that the optimum TiO{sub 2} thickness is the one for which the carrier lifetime is the longest and the charge carrier density is the highest, when the TiO{sub 2} is amorphous, in agreement with the device measurements.

  7. The impact of ultra-thin titania interlayers on open circuit voltage and carrier lifetime in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerman, David; Colbert, Adam E.; Ginger, David S.; Kim, Hyungchul; Graham, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of modifying indium tin oxide electrodes with ultrathin titania (TiO_2) layers grown via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). We find an optimal thickness of PE-ALD-grown titania by tracking performance, which initially increases, peaks, and eventually decreases with increasing TiO_2 thickness. We use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to measure both the local work function and its distribution as a function of TiO_2 thickness. We find that the variance in contact potential difference across the surface of the film is related to either the amorphous or anatase TiO_2 form. Finally, we use local SKPM recombination rate experiments, supported by bulk transient photovoltage and charge extraction measurements. We show that the optimum TiO_2 thickness is the one for which the carrier lifetime is the longest and the charge carrier density is the highest, when the TiO_2 is amorphous, in agreement with the device measurements.

  8. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Visible Quantum Dot Photovoltaics by Engineering of Carrier-Collecting Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xihua

    2011-10-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) enable multijunction solar cells using a single material programmed using the quantum size effect. Here we report the systematic engineering of 1.6 eV PbS CQD solar cells, optimal as the front cell responsible for visible-wavelength harvesting in tandem photovoltaics. We rationally optimize each of the device\\'s collecting electrodes-the heterointerface with electron-accepting TiO2 and the deep-work-function hole-collecting MoO3 for ohmic contact-for maximum efficiency. We report an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, the highest observed in a colloidal quantum dot solar cell operating at room temperature. We report an AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiency of 3.5%, the highest observed in >1.5 eV bandgap CQD PV device. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Photoluminescence and Photoconductivity to Assess Maximum Open-Circuit Voltage and Carrier Transport in Hybrid Perovskites and Other Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braly, Ian L; Stoddard, Ryan J; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Jen, Alex K-Y; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2018-06-06

    Photovoltaic (PV) device development is much more expensive and time consuming than the development of the absorber layer alone. This perspective focuses on two methods that can be used to rapidly assess and develop PV absorber materials independent of device development. The absorber material properties of quasi-Fermi level splitting and carrier diffusion length under steady effective one-Sun illumination are indicators of a material's ability to achieve high VOC and JSC. These two material properties can be rapidly and simultaneously assessed with steady-state absolute intensity photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements. As a result, these methods are extremely useful for predicting the quality and stability of PV materials prior to PV device development. Here, we summarize the methods, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and compare photoluminescence and photoconductivity results with device performance for four hybrid perovskite compositions of various bandgaps (1.35 to 1.82 eV), CISe, CIGSe, and CZTSe.

  10. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  11. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  12. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    management, polymer composites and chemical process design. Figure 1 Difference in color of the ash ... The selection of ash is important as the quality of ash determines the total amount as well as quality of silica recoverable Ash which has undergone maximum extent of combustion is highly desirable as it contains ...

  13. Radiochemical studies on Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, T

    1954-01-01

    Decay characteristics of the ashes which were brought back by the crew of the Fukuryu Maru No. 5 were: untreated ash I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 81/, water soluble part t/sup -2/ /sup 71/, insoluble part t/sup -1/ /sup 68/. Radioactive species separated by chemical method with carrier or collector were: nuclide, activity of nuclide (counts/min)/activity of original sample (counts/min), and the date of separation, /sup 89/Sr 6000/80 X 10/sup 4/, April 24; /sup 95/Zr, 280/80 x 10/sup 4/, -; /sup 111/Ag, 200/200 x 10/sup 4/, April 14; /sup 103/Ru, 2.300/25 x 10/sup 4/, etc.

  14. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  15. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  16. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  17. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  18. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  19. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  20. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  1. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs. The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H2, 15% CO, 20% CO2, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O2 in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  2. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. Environmental assessment of the reuse of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in quarry backfilling; Evaluation environnementale de la valorisation de machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres en remplissage de carriere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brons-Laot, G.

    2002-10-15

    The leaching behaviour of three different MSWI bottom ashes-based materials containing hydraulic binders is assessed in the conditions specified by the quarry backfilling application. An adapted approach methodology is applied: - physical, mineralogical and chemical characterizations of materials, - use of parametric tests to determine the effect of main scenarios factors on the release, - chemical modelling based on mineralogical and experimental leaching data with geochemical calculation codes, - chemical reaction / transport coupled modelling. The main results demonstrate that: - the batch and dynamic tests allow to obtain enough data to model and to predict the long term behaviour, - the chemical modelling of the solid / liquid equilibrium permits the determination of the chemical reactions involved and the prediction of pollutants solubilization in different chemical contexts, - the new materials (source term) present a low environmental impact in the conditions specified by the considered scenarios. (author)

  5. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  6. Evaluation of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casas G, L.; Urbinsa P, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils (Andepts) was studied. Two phosphate retention solution were used; one of them labeled with 32 P carrier free. The phosphate retention solution (25 ml) was added to 5 gr of air dry soil. The remainder phosphorus in solution was measured through colorimetry and liquid scintillation. Over 85% phosphorus retention was measured in five soils. A phosphate retention solution labeled with 32 P carrier free proved to be efficient for the determination of phosphorus retention rates in the volcanic ash soils studied. (Author)

  7. Ash Utilisation 2012. Ashes in a Sustainable Society. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Conference themes: Risk assessment, Fly ash- Road construction, Recycling and Greenhouse gases, Storage of ashes, Fertilizer, Metal Mining, Support and Barriers, Construction Material, Civil Engineering, and MSWI bottom ash.

  8. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  9. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  10. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  11. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  12. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  13. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  14. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  15. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  16. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  17. Geochemical characterization of arsenic-rich coal-combustion ashes buried under agricultural soils and the release of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselská, Veronika; Majzlan, Juraj; Hiller, Edgar; Peťková, Katarína; Jurkovič, Ľubomír; Ďurža, Ondrej; Voleková-Lalinská, Bronislava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sources, mineralogy and mobility of As in coal-combustion ashes were investigated. ► After a dam failure in 1965, the spilled ashes were buried under agricultural soils. ► Primary carriers of As within coal-combustion ashes are aluminosilicate glasses. ► The most probable secondary carriers of labile As are oxyhydroxides of Si, Al, and Fe. ► Arsenic stored in ashes is a long-term contamination source for the environment. - Abstract: A combination of geochemical and mineralogical methods was used to determine the concentrations, mobility, and sources of As in coal-combustion ashes and soils in the vicinity of a thermal power plant at Nováky, central Slovakia. Fresh lagooned ash, ashes buried under agricultural soils for 45 a, and the overlying soils, contain high concentrations of As ranging from 61 to 1535 mg/kg. There is no differences in the water extractable percentages of As between the fresh lagooned ash and buried ashes, which range from 3.80% to 6.70% of the total As. This small amount of As may perhaps reside on the surfaces of the ash particles, as postulated in the earlier literature, but no evidence was found to support this claim. Electron microprobe analyses show that the dominant primary As carriers are the aluminosilicate glasses enriched in Ca and Fe. The acid NH 4 + -oxalate extraction hints that the oxyhydroxides of Si, Al, and Fe are the most probable secondary carriers of labile As. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analyses show that As in the lagooned and buried ashes occurs mostly as As(V). The long-term burial of the coal-combustion ash under agricultural soil did not cause any major change of its chemical composition or As lability compared to the fresh lagooned ash

  18. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  19. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  20. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    -1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction......, the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co-firing...

  1. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  2. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  3. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  4. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  5. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  6. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  7. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  8. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  9. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  10. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  11. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  12. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  13. Incineration ash conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m 3 ) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . 50% polyvinyl chloride (glove box sleeves), . 5% polyethylene (bags), . 35% rubber (equal amounts of latex and neoprene), . 10% cellulose (equal amounts of cotton and cleansing tissues). The work focused mainly on compaction by high-temperature isostatic pressing, is described in some detail with the results obtained. An engineering study was also carried out to compare this technology with two other ash containment processes: direct-induction (cold crucible) melting and cement-resin matrix embedding. Induction melting is considerably less costly than isostatic pressing; the operating costs are about 1.5 times higher than for cement-resin embedding, but the volume reduction is nearly 3 times greater

  14. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  15. Research on Toxicity Evaluation of Waste Incineration Residues of Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Volungevičienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCB is an extremely complicated process, because PCBs consist of a number of complex components – hazardous and non-hazardous materials sets. Pyrolysis and combustion are currently the most effective treatment technologies for waste printed circuit boards. Pyrolysis can be used for thermally decomposing PCBs allowing for the simultaneous recovery of valuable materials. Following the extraction of valuable materials, the problem of residual ash utilization is encountered. Determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of incineration residue helps with choosing effective ash management technologies. This paper analyzes PCB ash generated at three different temperatures of 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C. Ash residues have been analysed to determine the quantity and type of metals present. Furthermore, the experiment of leaching heavy metals from ash has been described.

  16. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  17. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmei, Wu [Zhejiang Province Enviromental Radiation Monitoring Centre (China)

    1992-07-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches.

  18. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei

    1992-01-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches

  19. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  20. Hybrid complementary circuits based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide transistors with balanced carrier mobilities of up to 10 cm2/Vs

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan

    2016-12-29

    We report the development of hybrid complementary inverters based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) both processed from solution at <200 °C. For the organic TFTs, a ternary blend consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CIDT-BT) and the p-type dopant CF was employed, whereas the isotype InO/ZnO heterojunction was used for the n-channel TFTs. When integrated on the same substrate, p- and n-channel devices exhibited balanced carrier mobilities up to 10 cm/Vs. Hybrid complementary inverters based on these devices show high signal gain (>30 V/V) and wide noise margins (70%). The moderate processing temperatures employed and the achieved level of device performance highlight the tremendous potential of the technology for application in the emerging sector of large-area microelectronics.

  1. Hybrid complementary circuits based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide transistors with balanced carrier mobilities of up to 10 cm2/Vs

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan; Paterson, Alexandra F.; Solomeshch, Olga; Tessler, Nir; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xixiang; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of hybrid complementary inverters based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) both processed from solution at <200 °C. For the organic TFTs, a ternary blend consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CIDT-BT) and the p-type dopant CF was employed, whereas the isotype InO/ZnO heterojunction was used for the n-channel TFTs. When integrated on the same substrate, p- and n-channel devices exhibited balanced carrier mobilities up to 10 cm/Vs. Hybrid complementary inverters based on these devices show high signal gain (>30 V/V) and wide noise margins (70%). The moderate processing temperatures employed and the achieved level of device performance highlight the tremendous potential of the technology for application in the emerging sector of large-area microelectronics.

  2. Ultrafine coal classification using 150 mm gMax cyclone circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Boaten, F.; Luttrell, G.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

    2007-11-15

    A two-stage classification circuit using 150 mm diameter gMax cyclones was installed and evaluated in a coal preparation plant in an effort to achieve a clean coal product without the use of froth flotation. Particle size separations of around 37 {mu}m were achieved while limiting ultrafine bypass to less than 10% in the circuit underflow stream. As a result, approximately 81% of the ash-bearing material in the circuit feed was rejected to the circuit overflow stream. The feed ash content was reduced from around 50% to values in the range of 22-30% in the circuit underflow stream with a mass recovery of about 30%. Further reductions in the coarse product ash content were limited due to the particle density effect and the remaining presence of a significant quantity of high-ash slime material in the coarse product. The typical D{sub 50} for the coal particles was 40 {mu} m while the estimated value for mineral matter was 17 {mu} m. Based on the findings of the study, the use of classification to recover a low-ash, coarse fraction in the feed of a fine coal circuit is limited by the density effect regardless of the ability to eliminate ultrafine bypass.

  3. Classification of pulverized coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van der Hoek, E.E.; De Groot, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1992-09-01

    The leachability of fifty different pulverized coal ashes from utilities in the Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium has been studied. Five different ashes were analyzed according to the complete standard leaching test and the results were published earlier. The examination of a wide variety of ashes under a wide range of pH and Liquid to Solid ratio (LS) conditions creates the possibility of identifying systematic trends in fly ash leaching behaviour and to identify the mechanisms controlling release. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 app., 25 refs

  4. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  5. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  6. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  7. Can ash clog soil pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  8. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  9. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  10. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  11. Detecting Volcanic Ash Plumes with GNSS Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Larson, K. M.; Palo, S. E.; Mattia, M.; Rossi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Roesler, C.; Fee, D.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are commonly placed near volcanic sites to measure ground deformation. In addition to the carrier phase data used to measure ground position, these receivers also record Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) data. Larson (2013) showed that attenuations in SNR data strongly correlate with ash emissions at a series of eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. This finding has been confirmed at eruptions for Tongariro, Mt Etna, Mt Shindake, and Sakurajima. In each of these detections, very expensive geodetic quality GNSS receivers were used. If low-cost GNSS instruments could be used instead, a networked array could be deployed and optimized for plume detection and tomography. The outputs of this sensor array could then be used by both local volcanic observatories and Volcano Ash Advisory Centers. Here we will describe progress in developing such an array. The sensors we are working with are intended for navigation use, and thus lack the supporting power and communications equipment necessary for a networked system. Reliably providing those features is major challenge for the overall sensor design. We have built prototypes of our Volcano Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR), with solar panels, lithium-ion batteries and onboard data storage for preliminary testing. We will present results of our field tests of both receivers and antennas. A second critical need for our array is a reliable detection algorithm. We have tested our algorithm on data from recent eruptions and have incorporated the noise characteristics of the low-cost GNSS receiver. We have also developed a simulation capability so that the receivers can be deployed to optimize vent crossing GNSS signals.

  12. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  13. Prospects for ash pond reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyyam, A.K.; Shukla, K.S.; Agrawal, D. (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India))

    1993-01-01

    A typical modern coal fired station in India burns 0.7 t/MWh of coal and consequently generates ash at 0.245 t/MWh. The physical nature of ash, low available concentrations of certain plant nutrients and the presence of phytotoxic trace elements render fly ash marginally adequate for plant growth. As fly ash itself was thought to be an inappropriate growth medium for plants, regulators decided that a soil cover is mandatory. There is ample data to suggest that the attributes of fly ash detrimental to plant growth can be ameliorated, allowing the establishment of vegetation directly on fly ash surfaces. The natural revegetation of fly ash disposal sites has been reported in the world. The natural vegetation pioneered by Cynodon at different stages of ecological succession and comprising of species such as [ital Calotropis gigantea], [ital Lippia nodiflora], [ital Ipomea, cornea], [ital Xanthium parviflorum] has been noted at one of the NTPC projects, in Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Since natural reclamation is a time-consuming process, experimental trials of growing some species over the temporary ash lagoon directly (without soil cover) were carried out at Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Project (RSTPP) of NTPC, in South India to achieve faster results than the natural process. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Emerald ash borer life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Toby R. Petrice; Houping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was discovered in southeastern Michigan and nearby Ontario in June of 2002. EAB was identified as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in approximately 2,500 mi2, and...

  15. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  16. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  17. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  18. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  19. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  20. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  1. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  2. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  3. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  4. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  5. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  6. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  7. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  8. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed

  9. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  10. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  11. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  12. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  13. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  14. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox ® was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m 3 /kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m 3 /kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E − 09 cases

  15. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  16. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  17. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  18. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  19. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  20. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  1. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  2. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  3. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  4. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  5. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  6. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  7. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  8. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  9. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  10. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  11. evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    1Department of Agricultural and Food Science and 2Department of ... used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and ..... fact that more preparation steps were involved in the Ashing procedure and thus.

  12. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  13. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  14. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  15. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  16. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  17. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  18. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  19. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    is very effective and is independent from the modulation index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which improves the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits...

  20. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  1. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  2. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  3. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  4. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  5. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  6. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  7. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  8. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  9. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  10. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  11. Hybrid Tunable Wideband Single Feed Antenna Element for Smartphones supporting Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanev, Simon Peter; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a single feed antenna with a dual branch matching circuit combined with a 3dB microstrip power divider to support the carrier aggregation in LTE advanced mobile handsets. By the use of the matching circuits, an independent and versatile broadband antenna is achieved. Hence, th...

  12. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  13. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  14. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  15. Suitability of different formulated carriers for sustaining microbial shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassam, T.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-availability of a suitable carrier for bioinnoculant is a serious constraint for dissemination of biofertilizer technology in Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate a suitable carrier from locally available cheap material and evaluate for shelf life by using locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10- 10.8x10 cfu g for MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population of PGPR was sustained in all the formulation tested up to six months of storage period. (author)

  16. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  17. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  18. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  19. Study and application of a new filling-masterbatch modified with the power fly-ash glass-microballoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yuying; Lin Jian; Li Longmei [Fuzhou University, Fujian (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Methods of using glass spheres present in coal-fired power station fly ash as a filler in plastics is described. Additives such as carrier resins also need to be used. Polyolefm plastics using the glass spheres as a filler were investigated by SEM. The filler composite system proved to have excellent physical, mechanical, and processing properties. 2 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  1. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  2. Risk to ash from emerald ash borer: can biological control prevent the loss of ash stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche; Leah S. Bauer; Daniel M. Kashian; Daniel A. Herms

    2015-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) are an important components of both natural forests and urban plantings in the United States and Canada (Federal Register, 2003; Nowak et al., 2003). There are approximately 16 species of Fraxinus native to North America (Harlow et al., 1996; USGS, 2014), each adapted to different ecological niches across...

  3. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching pro...

  4. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  5. The Ashes of Marci Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kopeć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Marci Shore’s social and historical thought, as presented in her books: Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation’s Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968 (2006, The Taste of Ashes (2013, and her essays recently published in Polish translation. The author follows the American historian, presenting her concept of modernity, but focuses on the main theme of her research: the contribution of Jewish writers, poets, artists, and intellectuals to the creation of Marxism. The author acknowledges the great value of Marci Shore’s writings, but argues that her panorama of the 20th century would be fuller if her discussion included a reflection on the religious attitude of many Jewish thinkers to Marxism and the USSR. This topic was discussed by Nikolai Berdyaev and Polish thinkers who published in pre-war social journals.

  6. Stabilization of azadirachtin A in neem formulations: effect of some solid carriers, neem oil, and stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Parmar, B S

    1999-04-01

    Formulation of azadirachtin A on attapulgite, kaolinite, fuller's earth, hydrated calcium silicate, and fly ash revealed that it degraded to the tune of 70-95% on different solid carriers as compared to 56% in neem oil, during the 14 day heat storage studies at 54 +/- 1 degrees C in the laboratory. The degradation was reduced by 26-60% on different carriers by employing either anthraquinone or epichlorohydrin as stabilizer. Pyrogallol and hydroquinone enhanced the degradation. The cation exchange capacity and surface area of the carriers revealed a significant negative correlation with t(1/2) of azadirachtin A.

  7. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  8. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  10. Dynamic Circuit Model for Spintronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2017-01-09

    In this work we propose a finite-difference scheme based circuit model of a general spintronic device and benchmark it with other models proposed for spintronic switching devices. Our model is based on the four-component spin circuit theory and utilizes the widely used coupled stochastic magnetization dynamics/spin transport framework. In addition to the steady-state analysis, this work offers a transient analysis of carrier transport. By discretizing the temporal and spatial derivatives to generate a linear system of equations, we derive new and simple finite-difference conductance matrices that can, to the first order, capture both static and dynamic behaviors of a spintronic device. We also discuss an extension of the spin modified nodal analysis (SMNA) for time-dependent situations based on the proposed scheme.

  11. Dynamic Circuit Model for Spintronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose a finite-difference scheme based circuit model of a general spintronic device and benchmark it with other models proposed for spintronic switching devices. Our model is based on the four-component spin circuit theory and utilizes the widely used coupled stochastic magnetization dynamics/spin transport framework. In addition to the steady-state analysis, this work offers a transient analysis of carrier transport. By discretizing the temporal and spatial derivatives to generate a linear system of equations, we derive new and simple finite-difference conductance matrices that can, to the first order, capture both static and dynamic behaviors of a spintronic device. We also discuss an extension of the spin modified nodal analysis (SMNA) for time-dependent situations based on the proposed scheme.

  12. False deformation temperatures for ash fusibility associated with the conditions for ash preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Sanders, R.H.; Creelman, R.A.; Bryant, G.W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A study was made to investigate the fusibility behaviour of coal ashes of high ash fusion temperatures. Coals and ashes formed in the boiler were sampled in several Australian power stations, with laboratory ashes being prepared from the coals. The laboratory ashes gave lower values for the deformation temperature (DT) than the combustion ashes when the ash had low levels of basic oxide components. Thermo-mechanical analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to establish the mechanisms responsible for the difference. Laboratory ash is finer than combustion ash and it includes unreacted minerals (such as quartz, kaolinite and illite) and anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}). Fusion events which appear to be characteristic of reacting illite, at temperatures from 900 to 1200{degree}C, were observed for the laboratory ashes, these being associated with the formation of melt phase and substantial shrinkage. The combustion ashes did not contain this mineral and their fusion events were observed at temperatures exceeding 1300{degree}C. The low DTs of coal ashes with low levels of basic oxides are therefore a characteristic of laboratory ash rather than that found in practical combustion systems. These low temperatures are not expected to be associated with slagging in pulverised coal fired systems. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  14. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  15. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  16. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  17. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  18. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  19. Proceedings of symposium on ash in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Matthew D., eds. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Includes 5 papers and 30 abstracts covering topics related to the biology and ecology of the ash species, ash utilization and management, emerald ash borer, and other threats to ash, and genetics and conservation of ash species. A paper titled "Population-level variation of Fraxinus americana L. is influenced by climate...

  20. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  1. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  2. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  3. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  4. Magnetic suspension and pointing system. [on a carrier vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for providing accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for providing isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances is presented. The apparatus includes two assemblies, with connecting interfaces, each assembly having a separate function. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing of the instruments by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plate around which a continuous annular rim is attached which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  5. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  6. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  7. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  8. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni; Sulistio Aldi Vincent; Wahjudi Samuel; Hardjito Djwantoro; Hardjito Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment includi...

  9. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  10. Utilization of Hospital Waste Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement.

  11. Method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    A sulphate ash at least 20% by weight of which consists of sulphates of transuranic elements is immobilised by heating to melting a mixture of the ash, a metal, and a fluxing agent; the metal used is Al, Ce, Sm, Eu or mixtures thereof and it is used in an amount sufficient to reduce the transuranic sulphates in the ash to metal and form an alloy with the metal so produced; sufficient of the fluxing agent is used to reduce the percentage of transuranic sulphates in the mix to form 1% to 10% of the mix and the molten mixture is cooled and the alloy containing the immobilised ash separated. (author)

  12. Utilization of hospital waste ash in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Sheikh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement) while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix) showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement. (author)

  13. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  14. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  15. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the yield of the flotation column (91.41% was much higher than that of the mechanical flotation cell (50%. In the presence of hydrophobic graphite, the seriously entrained gangue restricted further improvement in the quality and economic value of the graphite ore. Therefore, multi-stage flotation circuits were employed to diminish this entrainment. Multi-stage flotation circuits using the two flotation devices further decreased the ash content of the graphite ore to ~8%, while the yield when using the flotation column was much higher than that obtained from the mechanical flotation cell employed. On the other hand, the ash removal efficiency of the flotation column was 3.82-fold higher than that observed for the mechanical flotation cell. The Cleaner 3 flotation circuit using the flotation column decreased the ash content in graphite from 15.43% to 7.97% with a yield of 77.53%.

  16. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  17. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  18. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  19. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  20. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  1. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  2. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  3. Survey for tolerance to emerald ash borer within North American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer (EAB) near Detroit, MI, in 2002, more than 40 million ash trees have been killed and another 7.5 billion are at risk in the United States. When the EAB outbreak was initially discovered, our native ash species appeared to have no resistance to the pest.

  4. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  7. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  8. Forest fuel, ashes and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale use of bioenergy is an essential measure if several of the major environmental problems are to be solved. However, it is important to utilize the possibilities available to produce biofuel without creating new environmental problems. Whole-tree removal gives a considerable reduction in the nitrogen lead which, in combination with the return of ashes, counteracts the nutrient imbalance and acidification in southern Sweden. Forestry of that kind should lead to lower total leaching of nitrogen in comparison with conventional forestry. In situations where there is high deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen, fuel removal with return of a moderate dose of slowly dissolvable ashes should be a good soil management measure. The humus status and flora/fauna always require some kind of consideration. With compensation measures and retained nutrient status there should be no problems with the humus status on most soils. However, on poor and dry soils, it is suitable to avoid whole-tree removal on account of the humus status. Consideration to nature includes, for example, increasing the number of broad-leaf trees, old trees and dead wood (preferably the trunks). These measures concern all types of forestry and are not linked directly with fuel removal. Removal of felling residues and return of ashes are of minor importance in comparison with this and fit well into forestry adapted to natural values. With correct planning and accomplishment of the removal of forest fuel the natural values of the forest can be retained or even improved. Forestry where fuel is also produced can be designed whereby negative effects are avoided at the same time as positive environmental effects are obtained. 68 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  10. Generating a representative signal of coal ash content to anticipate combustion control in a thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Santurio-Diaz, J.M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B.; Lopez-Bobo, M. Rosario; Fernandez-Viar, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal ash in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. An installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, that could faithfully reproduce the operation of a belt feeder. In order to measure the ash content, a natural radioactivity meter was installed and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes were tested, eventually showing the possibility of achieving the objective

  11. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  12. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  13. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  15. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  16. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  17. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  18. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  19. Laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Houping Liu; Toby Petrice

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality throughout southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. More isolated infestations continue to be found throughout Lower Michigan, northern...

  20. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  1. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  2. Evaluation of atomic absorption Spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three commonly used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and AAS-Non Ashing) and titrimetry (potassium permanganate titration) have been evaluated in this study to determine the calcium content in six food samples whose calcium levels ranged from 0 to more than 250mg/100g ...

  3. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  4. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimnathwala, H.G.; Tyagi, S.D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S.K.; Borrego, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made in GaAs and InP are measured by open circuit voltage decay method. This paper describes the measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations are measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection

  5. Design of a hydraulic ash transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Discusses general design of a hydraulic ash removal system to be employed at the reconstructed six 225 MW blocks of the Mironov State Regional Power Plant in the USSR. The blocks burn low-grade solid fuel with an ash content of up to 40.5%. Large quantities of ash have to be moved from the plant (total ash production 60 t/h, using 570 t/h of water for cooling and moistening). An optimum hydraulic ash transportation system would include a two-section airlift pumping system, shown in a diagram. Technological advantages of using this airlift system are enumerated, including short pipes, reduction in required water quantity and the possibility of siting hydraulic pumps at zero level.

  6. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  7. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  8. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  9. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  10. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  11. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  12. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  13. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  14. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  15. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  16. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  18. Viability of calcifying bacterial formulations in fly ash for applications in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-12-01

    Evidence of bacterial involvement in precipitation of calcium carbonates has brought a revolution in the field of applied microbiology, geotechnical sciences, environmental and civil engineering with its marked success in restoration of various building materials. For applications of these calcite binder-producing bacterial cultures, different expensive carrier materials have been used but their high costs have come in the way of their successful commercialization. In the present study, we have explored the potential of cheap industrial by-product fly ash as a carrier material for bacterial cells and investigated the viability of calcifying bacterial isolates: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis in fly ash carrier at varying temperatures and moisture conditions along with biomineralization efficacy of these formulations. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the viability of bacteria by florescent dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) along with the plate count method. Results revealed that fly ash successfully served as an effective carrier material and bacterial formulations stored at 4 °C provided longer shelf life than those stored at higher temperatures. Up to 10(6) cfu/g was found to sustain in all formulations at 4 °C compared to 10(4)-10(5) cfu/g in case of higher temperatures up to 1 year. For 4 °C, higher moistures (50 %) were found to provide better survivability while for higher temperatures, lower moistures (30 %) favored higher viability. The biomineralization capability of fresh and formulated bacterial cells was compared on the basis of precipitation of carbonates and it was found that carbonate precipitation efficacy of formulated bacterial cells was comparable to fresh bacterial cells.

  19. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  1. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  2. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  3. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  4. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  5. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  6. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  7. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  8. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  9. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  10. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  11. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  12. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  13. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  14. NEW TECHNOLOGY OF ASH AND SLAG CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO T. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Purpose. Development of scientific-technical bases of manufacture and application of concrete on the basis of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants. Methods. It is proposed a new technology of preparation of ash and slag concrete mixes. First the ash and slag mix is dispersed through the sieve with meshes 5 mm in a fine-grained fraction and slag. Then, in accordance with the composition of the concrete, obtained fine-grained fraction, slag, cement and tempering water are separately dosed into the mixer. Results. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of manufacture of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows to increase the strength of concrete by 20...30%, and in the preparation of full-strength concrete to reduce the cement consumption by 15...20%. Scientific novelty. It is developed the new technology of ash and slag mixes application. The concrete mix on the basis of ash and slag mix has an optimal particle size distribution, which ensures the best compaction and, accordingly, the greatest strength of ash and slag concrete with the given cement consumption. Practical significance. The research results promote the mass application of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants in construction, obtaining of products from the proposed concretes of low cost with high physical-mechanical properties. Conclusion. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of production of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows increasing concrete strength, and obtaining full-strength concrete to reduce cement consumption. The extensive application of such concrete in construction makes it possible to solve the problem of aggregates for concrete, promotes recycling of TPP waste and consequently the protection of the environment.

  15. Hypocotyl derived in vitro regeneration of pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush) is at risk for extirpation by an exotic insect, the emerald ash borer (EAB). Pumpkin ash is limited to wetland areas of the Eastern United States, and has been listed as an endangered species because of EAB activity. Pumpkin ash provides many benefits to the ecosystem, and its wood is used in the...

  16. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  17. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  18. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  19. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  20. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  1. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  2. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2012-03-15

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  3. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  4. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  5. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  6. BR-5 primary circuit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed

  7. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  8. Determining the ash content of coal flotation tailings using an MPOF optical ash meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-01-01

    The block layout, a description of the design and principles of operation of an automatic optical, continuous action MPOF type ash meter are presented. The difference in the optical properties of coal and rock is used in the ash meter. The identification of the ash content is conducted on the basis of the spectral characteristics of reflection of a finely dispersed aqueous coal and rock suspension.

  9. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  10. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  11. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  12. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  13. Pyrolysis Characteristics of Corn Stalk with Solid Heat Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of corn stalk with a solid heat carrier was studied under temperatures ranging from 430 to 620 °C. The solid heat carrier used was high-temperature ash from a CFB boiler. The yields of three products and their characteristics were investigated. Moreover, the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen in the products were determined. The results indicate that with increasing temperature, the char yield decreased, gas yield increased, and calorific value of the gas increased from 10.13 to 16.65 MJ/m3. The yield of bio-oil reached a maximum, 14.24 wt.%, at 510 °C. Light-oil in the bio-oil accounted for more than 69.12 wt.%. The elemental composition of the char and char ash were analyzed. The distribution of sulfur and nitrogen in the char decreased to 60.44 and 46.52 wt.%, respectively, depending on the raw materials used. These results provide basic data for the possible industrial application of corn stalk.

  14. Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Anthony W. D' Amato; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Robert A. Slesak; Thomas G. Pypker; Melissa B. Youngquist; Alexis R. Grinde; Brian J. Palik

    2018-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western...

  15. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Bolton; Joseph Shannon; Joshua Davis; Matthew Grinsven; Nam Noh; Shon Schooler; Randall Kolka; Thomas Pypker; Joseph Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations...

  16. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Project ash cultch: A report on optimal oyster cultch based on a prepared fly ash substratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.S.; Hansen, K.M.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a three year study involving setting, growth, mortality, oyster condition, and metals accumulation, the evidence is extensive and convincing that stabilized coal ash is an acceptable oyster growing cultch (substratum). Oyster larvae are attracted to set on coal ash cultch at commercial fishery densities, tend to grow as well as on natural substrata (oyster shell), and are moderately more exposed to predators on the puck shaped ash materials as produced for this study. Oysters grown for one to two years on coal ash do not accumulate heavy metals and generally are in good health as measured by several biological condition indexes

  18. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  19. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  20. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  1. Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Bicer; Serif Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conduct...

  2. High-precision high-sensitivity clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lichong; Yan Na; Min Hao; Ren Wenliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated carrier clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application. The architecture is based on a sampling-detection module and a charge pump phase locked loop. Compared with clock recovery in conventional 13.56 MHz transponders, this circuit can recover a high-precision consecutive carrier clock from the on/off keying (OOK) signal sent by interrogators. Fabricated by a SMIC 0.18-μm EEPROM CMOS process, this chip works from a single power supply as low as 1.5 V Measurement results show that this circuit provides 0.34% frequency deviation and 8 mV sensitivity. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  4. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  5. Coal ash parameters by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Edward; Chau, N.D.; Niewodniczanski, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The coal parameters, ash content and ash slagging index, may be strongly related to the chemical composition of mineral impurities in coal. Based on this assumption the authors have examined the feasibility of neutron activation techniques, both as a laboratory and a well logging method, by recording induced γ-rays in the two energy intervals with the help of a scintillation γ-ray spectrometer. Results from the Upper Silesiab Coal Basin have shown that the method can be used to evaluate the ash content and ash fusion temperature, both in the laboratory and in well logging; the corresponding mean standard deviations being 1.5 wt% and 35 o C; and 3 wt% and 45 o C respectively. (author)

  6. The Ash Wednesday supper a new translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giordano

    2018-01-01

    Giordano Bruno's The Ash Wednesday Supper presents a revolutionary cosmology founded on the new Copernican astronomy that Bruno extends to infinite dimensions, filling it with an endless number of planetary systems.

  7. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  8. Basic soil benefits from ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, D.C.; Plank, C.O.

    1970-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fly ash application shown herein are expected to encourage future disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It is foreseen, however, that fly ash disposal in agricultural soils would be unsuccessful if adverse effects on crop production result from its misuse. It seems evident, therefore, that quality control measures will be required to insure proper disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It will be necessary to consider differences in chemical properties of various samples of fly ash and in chemical reactions of samples of fly ash and soils. Differences in tolerances of plants to soluble salt damage and to specific nutrient deficiencies and toxicities will also have to be taken into account. 9 tables.

  9. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  10. Greener management practices - ash mound reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, S.L.; Shyam, A.K.; Soni, R. [National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2002-12-01

    The dry ash handling system at Dadri has been pioneered for the first time in India by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The system is similar to that at the Drax power station in England. The paper reports the successful experimental trials carried out on vegetation of temporary ash mounds to assess the growth potential of local herbs, shrubs, trees and grasses directly on ash with no soil cover or fertiliser. These were extended to trials directly on the available (completed) mound surfaces. The grass Cynodon dactylon germinated well as did seeds of tree species including the Casurarina and Eucalyptus. It is hoped that efforts at Dadri will ultimately transform the ash into a productive and self sustaining ecosystem, as leaf fall adds additional organic material and the weathering process continues. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Integrated circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The invention describes the fabrication of integrated circuit structures, such as read-only memory components of field-effect transistors, which may be fabricated and then maintained in inventory, and later selectively modified in accordance with a desired pattern. It is claimed that MOS depletion-mode devices in accordance with the invention can be fabricated at lower cost and at higher yields. (U.K.)

  12. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  13. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  14. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  15. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  17. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sammut, Michael; Montesin, Franco E.

    2006-01-01

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes

  19. The UZPI ash content monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, E.P.; Bezverkhii, E.A.; Mozhaev, L.G.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes the results of industrial trials (in coal preparation plants) to establish the accuracy of the UZPI device which determines coal ash content using X-ray detection. It is designed to monitor ash content in the 4-40% range in coal with a grain size of 0-100 mm and a coal layer thickness of 50-150 mm (depending on the ash content and grain size). The ash frequently contains oxides, and although variations in magnesium, aluminium, silicon and sulfur oxides have virtually no effect on accuracy of the UZPI, changes in the levels of calcium oxides and particularly iron oxides have a considerable influence on measurement accuracy (caused by changes in their gamma ray scattering cross section values and atomic numbers). The overall sensitivity to ash content in coal varies from 1.6 to 2.4% abs./% while that to iron oxides in ash is 0.4% abs./%. Concludes that this device is suitable for use in coal preparation plants on thin layers of coal, but its efficiency is affected by external influences, e.g. fluctuations in conveyor loading.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  1. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  2. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  3. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  4. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  5. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  6. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  7. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  8. Cell viability of mycorrhiza helper bacteria solid inoculant in different carrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyiah, Iis Nur; Hindersah, Reginawanti; Harni, Rita

    2018-02-01

    Roots of food crops are colonized by nonpathogenic mycorrhizal fungi which show natural ability to control plant pathogen. Mycorrhizal establishment in plant roots is affected by rhizobacteria, known as mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB), which has synergetic effects on mycorrhizal associations. Laboratory experiment has been conducted to assess the best carrier material to develop well-qualified MHB of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis solid inoculant. Carrier materials were 100 mesh organic matter of agricultural waste. Different spore concentration of both bacterial liquid inoculants were grown on three kinds of 100-mesh organic matter and stored at room temperature up to 90 days. Cell viability of both MHB were counted by serial dilution plate method by using specific medium. The results showed that sugar cane baggase ash was the best carrier material to maintain cell viability for both MHB. However, the population of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in sugar cane baggase ash were slightly decreased after 90 days. The use of sugarcane baggase ash for solid MHB inoculant development could be suggested.

  9. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  10. Prospects for long-term ash survival in the core emerald ash borer mortality zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Andrew J. Storer; Roger Mech; Steven A. Katovich

    2011-01-01

    Attacking all North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.), emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has caused significant mortality within its introduced range. For other forest pests, host bark plays an important role in infestation density and oviposition behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) locate...

  11. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  12. Effect of ash components on the ignition and burnout of high ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B.; Yan, R.; Zheng, C.G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    1998-11-01

    The effect of the ash components on the ignition and burnout of four Chinese high ash coals were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. To investigate the influence of the ash components, comparative experiments were carried out with original, deashed and impregnated coals. Eleven types of ash components, such as SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O and FeSO{sub 4},(NH{sub 4}){center_dot}6H{sub 2}O were used in the present study. It was found that most of the ash components have negative effects. The strong influence of some ash components suggests that the combustion characteristics of high ash coal may be determined by the ash composition. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Breeding strategies for the development of emerald ash borer - resistant North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus plannipennis; EAB) is a phloem-feeding beetle that is endemic to Asia. It was discovered in North America in 2002, found almost simultaneously near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Adult beetles feed on ash (Fraxinus spp.) foliage, but larval feeding on phloem, cambium, and...

  14. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  15. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  16. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioleaching of trace metals from coal ash using local isolate from coal ash ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangayao Denvert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of chromium, copper, manganese and zinc from coal ash were investigated using isolates from coal ash ponds particularly Psuedomonas spp. Six (6 different coal ash ponds were examined however, after initial screening Psuedomonas spp. were only present in three (3 coal ash ponds. Among the three coal ash ponds, results showed that eight (8 putative Pseudomonas spp. isolates were present that were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Using the eight putative Pseudomonas spp. for bioleaching at optimum conditions and 15 days, the pH value ranges from 8.26 to 8.84 which was basic in nature. Moreover, the maximum metal leached were 8.04% Cr, 12.05% Cu, 4.34% Mn and 10.63% Zn.

  18. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-07-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical composition (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenisation, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms. Alternate ash fusion temperatures based on different levels of shrinkage have also been suggested to characterise the ash deposition tendency of the coals. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  20. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  1. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  2. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  3. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  4. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  5. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  6. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  7. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  8. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  9. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  10. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  11. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  12. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  13. Study of a large rapid ashing apparatus and a rapid dry ashing method for biological samples and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Meisun; Wang Benli; Liu Wencang

    1988-04-01

    A large rapid-dry-ashing apparatus and a rapid ashing method for biological samples are described. The apparatus consists of specially made ashing furnace, gas supply system and temperature-programming control cabinet. The following adventages have been showed by ashing experiment with the above apparatus: (1) high speed of ashing and saving of electric energy; (2) The apparatus can ash a large amount of samples at a time; (3) The ashed sample is pure white (or spotless), loose and easily soluble with few content of residual char; (4) The fresh sample can also be ashed directly. The apparatus is suitable for ashing a large amount of the environmental samples containing low level radioactivity trace elements and the medical, food and agricultural research samples

  14. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Fabrication and simulation of organic transistors and functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. Martin, E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Patchett, Eifion R.; Williams, Aled [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Ding, Ziqian; Assender, Hazel E. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Morrison, John J.; Yeates, Stephen G. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Development of roll-to-roll fabrication protocol for organic TFTs and circuits. • Bottom-gate polystyrene/DNTT TFTs much better than top-gate TFTs. • High-yield and high mobility with polystyrene-buffered TPGDA. • Fabrication of functional circuits – ring oscillators and logic gates. • New baseline process allows TFT parameter extraction and circuit simulation. - Abstract: We report the development of a vacuum-evaporation route for the roll-to-roll fabrication of functioning organic circuits. A number of key findings and observations are highlighted which influenced the eventual fabrication protocol adopted. Initially, the role of interface roughness in determining carrier mobility in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. Then it is shown that TFT yield is higher for devices fabricated on a flash-evaporated-plasma-polymerised tri(propyleneglycol) diacrylate (TPGDA) gate dielectric than for TFTs based on a spin-coated polystyrene (PS) dielectric. However, a degradation in mobility is observed which is attributed to the highly polar TPGDA surface. It is shown that high mobility, low gate-leakage currents and excellent stability are restored when the surface of TPGDA was buffered with a thin, spin-coated PS film. The resulting baseline process allowed arrays of functional circuits such as ring oscillators, NOR/NAND logic gates and S–R latches to be fabricated with high yield and their performance to be simulated.

  16. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  17. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  18. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  19. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  20. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  1. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  3. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  4. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  5. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  6. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  7. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  8. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  9. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  10. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  11. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  12. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  13. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  14. Lunar ash flow with heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The most important heat-transfer process in the ash flow under consideration is heat convection. Besides the four important nondimensional parameters of isothermal ash flow (Pai et al., 1972), we have three additional important nondimensional parameters: the ratio of the specific heat of the gas, the ratio of the specific heat of the solid particles to that of gas, and the Prandtl number. We reexamine the one dimensional steady ash flow discussed by Pai et al. (1972) by including the effects of heat transfer. Numerical results for the pressure, temperature, density of the gas, velocities of gas and solid particles, and volume fraction of solid particles as function of altitude for various values of the Jeffreys number, initial velocity ratio, and two different gas species (steam and hydrogen) are presented.

  15. Production of mineral ash-wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micevic, Z.; Djekic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The project entitled 'Production of Mineral Ash-Wool' presents a new technology of possible use of the fly ash, generated as a waste product from the fossil fueled power plants, as a basic raw material for manufacturing of different products from a new mineral ash-wool. The wide area of mineral ash-wool application (civil engineering, industry, power generation, etc.) and the advantages of this new technology (important raw material obtained free of charge, substitution of expensive silicate stone, use of electric energy for melting instead for coke, vicinity of factory location close to the fossil fueled power plant, lower product price, reduction of environmental pollution, etc.) have resulted in the performance of the bench scale tests. Positive results have been obtained, as a good initial base for the realization of this project. The named study as an detailed analysis has been carried out for the assessment of: supply and sales market, analysis of possible and selection of an optimal location of the factory in the frame of fossil fueled power plant 'Kosovo', selection of the production capacity and alternative preliminary technical designs of the factory for the mineral ash-wool production. For the studied alternatives, specifications and capital investments evaluations for equipment and works (mechanical, civil engineering and electromechanical part) have been made as well as assessments of production costs. Based on the performed economical and financial analyses, as well as the sensitivity analyses one could be concluded that the investments in the factory for the mineral ash-wool production is highly economically acceptable. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  16. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion....... The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all...... four ashes. Final Cd concentrations below 2.0 mg Cd/kg were reached in all ashes within 14 days of remediation and legislative requirements were met. After further optimization of the remediation process on the pre-washed straw ash, limiting concentrations were reached after only 48 hours...

  17. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    manufacturing superior quality bricks. PIYUSH ... Nearly 73% of India's total installed power generation capacity ... used to produce superior quality ash bricks, which would be more ..... Kumar V and Sharma P 1999 Fly ash management in iron.

  18. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  19. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  20. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding in Short Serotonin Transporter Linked Polymorphic Region-Allele Carriers but Not in Long-Allele Homozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus K

    2010-01-01

    of the short 5-HTTLPR allele but not in homozygote carriers of the long allele. Conclusions: Our findings are in line with S-carriers having an increased response in neural circuits involved in emotional processing to stressful environmental stimuli but here demonstrated as a endophenotype with dynamic changes...

  2. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  3. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  4. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  6. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  7. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  8. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  9. Solubility and transport of arsenic coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, R.; Cruickshank, C.; Vega, E.; Silva, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental method combined with a numerical model allows a comparison of two methods for the disposal of ash that contains arsenic, from the Rio Escondido coal-fired power plant. The calculation yields significant differences in aquifer migration times for the site. The wet disposal method gave 10 years time and the dry method gave 22 years. Experiments were performed on the rate of dissolution of the arsenic from ash samples; and these results indicate a first order kinetics reaction. 8 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Economic metal recovery from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Canon, R.M.; Egan, B.Z.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    Results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and several other metals. Two processes are examined in detail, the direct acid leach of ash with hydrochloric acid and a pressure digestion-acid leach method. An economic evaluation is presented for each process, and direct acid leaching is considered the most attractive process. The benefits derived from using such a process are discussed. (15 refs.)

  11. Softening behaviour of brown coal ashes. Influence of ash components and gas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegermann, R; Huettinger, K J [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1990-03-01

    The softening behaviour of brown coal ashes during gasification is important for three reasons: (1) Formation of large agglomerates, (2) inactivation of catalytically active ash components, (3) encapsulation of parts of the coal. The softening behaviour of the ashes was studied with a high temperature dilatometer at ambient pressure in various atmospheres (air, CO{sub 2}, Ar/H{sub 2}O, Ar, H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}) using a push-rod with a conical tip. The heating rate was 5 Kmin{sup -1}, the final temperature 1000deg C, the residence time 1 h. (orig.).

  12. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  13. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenization, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms.

  14. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with the shrinkage and electrical resistance measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to rapid rates of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples where therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity are then quantified and related to the shrinkage events and standard ash fusion temperatures.

  15. Preparation of heteropolyacid/TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash-cenosphere photocatalyst for the degradation of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Huo Pengwei; Lu Ziyang; Gao Xun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu Xiaolin [School of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi Weidong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan Yongsheng, E-mail: huopw@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2012-07-01

    The TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalysts modified with heteropolyacid were synthesized by sol-gel followed solvothermal method at 40 Degree-Sign C. Their chemical composition and optical absorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that heteropolyacid modification could facilitate the absorption edge of TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash cenosphere photocatalyst to shift the visible light region. Heteropolyoxanion could be loaded on the titanium dioxide surface, by which could hinder the recombination rate of excited electron holes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash cenospheres modified with heteropolyacid was observed for the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) under visible light irradiation. The result from degradation of CPFX suggested that the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash cenospheres modified with silicotungstic acid was superior. The synergistic effects of heteropolyacid in modified TiO{sub 2}/fly-ash cenospheres photocatalyst particles were responsible for improving visible light photocatalytic activity. Besides, the novel photocatalyst was easy to recycle during post treatment because the fly-ash cenosphere was adopted for carrier.

  16. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-21

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (f(T) = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (f(max) = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics.

  17. Associative properties of 137Cs in biofuel ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash

  18. Possibilities for the Use of Wood Ashes in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Symanowicz; Marcin Becher; Dawid Jaremko; Korneliusz Skwarek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the agricultural usefulness of the ashes obtained following the combustion of wood of fourteen tree species (pear tree, apple tree, aspen, ash, alder, birch, poplar, hornbeam, pine, common walnut, oak, hazel, bird cherry and spruce) in home fireplaces. The following physical properties of the ashes were determined: colour, solubility, porosity, absorbability, compression strength, degree of fineness, moisture content and spreadability. In the ashes...

  19. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  20. Granulated wood ash to forest soil - Ecological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Eriksson, H.; Clarholm, M.; Lundkvist, H.; Rudebeck, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research concerning ecological effects of wood ash recycling to forest soils. The main part of the minerals in the wood fuels are retained in the ashes after combustion. By returning the ashes back to the cleared forest areas, the mineral losses can be reduced. Adding ashes and limestone is a method to vitalize acidified forest soils and restore the production capacity. 48 refs, 26 figs, 8 tabs

  1. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on comprehensive strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocks were moulded in a CINVA-Ram machine by replacing 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of municipal solid waste ash (MSW ash) as a stabilizing agent. The compressive strengths of individual blocks were obtained after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The 2%MSW ash replacement gave the highest compressive strength and ...

  3. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  4. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  5. Environmental effects of ash application in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette

    of ashes being produced and the export of nutrients from the forests. This PhD project aims at investigating how ash application in forest ecosystems affects soil and soil solution properties and whether ash application can be used in a Danish context without environmental harm but with positive effects...

  6. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  7. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    the co-combustion of wood and oil. The focus is laid on differences in ash characteristics and on the mobility of Cd and Cr. These two heavy metals are chosen because Cd is the problematic heavy metal in bio ashes and Cr is problematic in many ash stabilization methods (in the Cr(VI) state). Based...

  8. Quantification of fusion in ashes from solid fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    The fusion of ashes produced during solid fuel combustion greatly affects the tendency of these ashes to cause operational problems in utility boilers. In this paper, a new and quantitative laboratory method for assessing the fusion of ashes based on simultaneous thermal analysis, STA, is described...

  9. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-21

    Oct 21, 2008 ... fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ... the main mineral in volcanic ash responsible for causing silicosis. The F ... volcanic ash with little or no attention to the < 4 µm.

  10. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  11. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-07-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO₂. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials' thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  12. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  13. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  14. Current-mode minimax circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The minimum-maximum (minimax) circuit selects the minimum and maximum of two input currents. Four transistors in matched pairs are operated in the saturation region. Because the behavior of the circuit is based on matched devices and is independent of the relationship between the drain current and

  15. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  16. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  17. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  18. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  19. Drycon dry ash conveyor: dry bottom ash handling system with reduced operating costs and improved plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Drycon dry bottom ash extraction system is designed to remove bottom ash beneath the furnace, cooling it without any need of water. Fresh air in countercurrent flow to the ash is used for the ash cooling. Data presented show how savings of time and costs can be achieved with this system and how a boiler efficiency can be increased using this technology. Considerable advantages in the reliability of operation with new improvements of the design are described. 7 figs.

  20. Characterization of ash pond ashes from 3rd thermal power plant by SEM/EDX and XRD methods

    OpenAIRE

    A Minjigmaa; Ts Zolzaya; E Bayanjargal; B Davaabal; J Temuujin

    2014-01-01

      Coal combustion by products from ash pond of 3rdthermal power plant of Ulaanbaatar city have been collected in 2010 and 2013 years. The ash samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX methods in order to evaluate their chemical and mineralogical composition changes with disposed times. The mineralogical composition of ash varies with time though the chemical composition of the ashes were close each other. Possibly, inefficient operating condition of the TPS shows influence on th...

  1. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford

    2009-01-01

    Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...

  2. A new approach to determine accurately minority-carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idali Oumhand, M.; Mir, Y.; Zazoui, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electron or proton irradiations introduce recombination centers, which tend to affect solar cell parameters by reducing the minority-carrier lifetime (MCLT). Because this MCLT plays a fundamental role in the performance degradation of solar cells, in this work we present a new approach that allows us to get accurate values of MCLT. The relationship between MCLT in p-region and n-region both before and after irradiation has been determined by the new method. The validity and accuracy of this approach are justified by the fact that the degradation parameters that fit the experimental data are the same for both short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltages. This method is applied to the p + /n-InGaP solar cell under 1 MeV electron irradiation

  3. Detection of rhodium-103m in the Bikini Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Ikeda, N; Yoshihara, K

    1956-01-01

    The radiochemical analysis of the so-called Bikini ashes which fell on a Japanese fishing boat, the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru on March 1, 1954, are described as of some 25 days after detonation of the bomb. The collected sample 10/sup 7/ counts/min.) was ignited and dissolved in 6N HC1, insolubles were filtered off, and the activity of small aliquots of the filtrate was measured. Total activity was estimated about 10/sup 6/ counts/min. Ru (10mg.) was added to the filtrate as a carrier, the acidity of solution was adjusted to 2N, H/sub 2/S was passed through to precipitate Ru as sulfide, and the precipitate was dissolved with HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, KMnO/sub 4/, and concentrated H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The appropriate aliquot portion of the distillate was taken up in a counting dish and evaporated to dryness, the activity was measured and found to be 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ counts/min.

  4. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  5. Damping of radioactivity of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, K

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivity (..beta..- and ..gamma..-radiation) of the H-bomb ashes was measured over a period of 600 days by means of an electroscope and a Geiger-Mueller counter. Absorption by Al foils shows that the half-life is shorter for radiation of lower energy.

  6. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  7. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  8. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  9. Emerald ash borer genetics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...

  10. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  11. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  12. Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Christian F. Lenhart; Kenneth N. Brooks; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Black ash wetlands are seriously threatened because of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB). Wetland hydrology is likely to be modified following ash mortality, but the magnitude of hydrological impact following loss via EAB and alternative mitigation harvests is not clear. Our objective was to assess the water table response to simulated EAB and harvesting to...

  13. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengtao, Feng; Li, Gong; Li, Cheng; Benli, Wang; Lihong, Wang [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 {+-} 5 wt% cement, 29 {+-} 2 wt% water, and 36 {+-} 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH{sub 4A} flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH{sub 4A} flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH{sub 4A} and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and {<=} 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs.

  14. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shengtao; Gong Li; Cheng Li; Wang Benli; Wang Lihong

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 ± 5 wt% cement, 29 ± 2 wt% water, and 36 ± 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH 4A flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH 4A flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH 4A and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and ≤ 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  15. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  16. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  17. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  18. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  19. Ash fusion temperatures and their association with the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Creelman, R.A. [Creelman (R.A.) and Associates, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ash deposition on furnace walls in PF (pulverized fuel) furnaces is called slagging when it occurs in the high temperature areas of furnaces directly exposed to flame radiation and fouling in other regions such as tubes in the convection section of the boiler. There are well documented shortcomings of certain approaches relating to their uncertainties as predictive tools for plant performance such as poor repeatability and re-producibility of ash fusion measurements. The nature of physical and chemical changes occurring during melting of coal ash has been investigated in the current study to provide an alternative procedure to the ash fusion test. Shrinkage measurements are frequently used in metallurgy and ceramic science to study the physical properties of materials at high temperatures. The output of this experiment provides three to four `peaks` (maximum rate of shrinkage with temperature) of different intensity and at different temperatures which are related to melting characteristics of the sample. It was concluded that shrinkage extents exceeding 50 percent indicated that the effect of the ash particle size is of secondary importance compared to ash chemistry in determining shrinkage levels, with fine particles giving rapid shrinkage events 10 degrees C lower in temperature. (author). 7 figs., refs.

  20. Glass-ceramic from mixtures of bottom ash and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh Hieu; Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Hsing; Nam, Bui Xuan; Bac, Bui Hoang

    2012-12-01

    Along with the gradually increasing yield of the residues, appropriate management and treatment of the residues have become an urgent environmental protection problem. This work investigated the preparation of a glass-ceramic from a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash by petrurgic method. The nucleation and crystallization kinetics of the new glass-ceramic can be obtained by melting the mixture of 80% bottom ash and 20% fly ash at 950 °C, which was then cooled in the furnace for 1h. Major minerals forming in the glass-ceramics mainly are gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) & akermanite (Ca(2)MgSiO(7)) and wollastonite (CaSiO(3)). In addition, regarding chemical/mechanical properties, the chemical resistance showing durability, and the leaching concentration of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the most superior glass-ceramic product. Finally, petrurgic method of a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash at 950 °C represents a simple, inexpensive, and energy saving method compared with the conventional heat treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cast-concrete products made with FBC ash and wet-collected coal-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, T.R.; Kraus, R.N.; Chun, Y.M.; Botha, F.D. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Cast-concrete hollow blocks, solid blocks, and paving stones were produced at a manufacturing plant by replacing up to 45% (by mass) of portland cement with fluidized bed combustion (FBC) coal ash and up to 9% of natural aggregates with wet-collected, low-lime, coarse coal-ash (WA). Cast-concrete product specimens of all three types exceeded the compressive strength requirements of ASTM from early ages, with the exception of one paving-stone mixture, which fell short of the requirement by less than 10%. The cast-concrete products made by replacing up to 40% of cement with FBC ash were equivalent in strength (89-113% of control) to the products without ash. The abrasion resistance of paving stones was equivalent for up to 34% FBC ash content. Partial replacement of aggregates with WA decreased strength of the products. The resistance of hollow blocks and paving stones to freezing and thawing decreased appreciably with increasing ash contents. The cast-concrete products could be used indoors in regions where freezing and thawing is a concern, and outdoors in a moderate climate.

  2. Relation of ash composition to the uses of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieldner, A C; Selvig, W A

    1926-02-01

    The effects of coal ash and ash components on the utilization of coal for coke and gas production, steam generation, water gas production, smithing, and domestic uses were described in a review of literature. Calcite, gypsum, and pyrite which occur in high amounts in coal, increase the ash fusibility of the coal and render it unsuitable for many industrial and domestic uses. As a rule, coal ash of high Si content and low Fe content would not be readily fusible. High amounts of ash in coal also have the effect of reducing the heating value of the coal.

  3. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  4. Analysis list: ash2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash2 Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.1.tsv ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ash2.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  5. Analysis list: Ash2l [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ash2l Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2...l.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ash2l.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  6. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  7. Bottom ash handling: why the outlook is dry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The author believes that dry systems are the way forward for bottom ash handling at coal fired power plants. The first two commercial installations of Clyde Bergemann's DRYCON system, in China, are due to enter operation shortly. The DRY ash CONveyor (DRYCON) employs fresh air flow to cool the ash, returning reheat energy to the boiler. It also addresses some problems encountered with previous dry technologies whilst increasing ash capacity and enhancing ash cooking. The advantages of the DRYCON over the wet submerged scraper conveyor are listed. 7 figs.

  8. Nanofluidic Transistor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jing; Yan, Yu; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2012-02-01

    Non-equilibrium ion/fluid transport physics across on-chip membranes/nanopores is used to construct rectifying, hysteretic, oscillatory, excitatory and inhibitory nanofluidic elements. Analogs to linear resistors, capacitors, inductors and constant-phase elements were reported earlier (Chang and Yossifon, BMF 2009). Nonlinear rectifier is designed by introducing intra-membrane conductivity gradient and by asymmetric external depletion with a reverse rectification (Yossifon and Chang, PRL, PRE, Europhys Lett 2009-2011). Gating phenomenon is introduced by functionalizing polyelectrolytes whose conformation is field/pH sensitive (Wang, Chang and Zhu, Macromolecules 2010). Surface ion depletion can drive Rubinstein's microvortex instability (Chang, Yossifon and Demekhin, Annual Rev of Fluid Mech, 2012) or Onsager-Wien's water dissociation phenomenon, leading to two distinct overlimiting I-V features. Bipolar membranes exhibit an S-hysteresis due to water dissociation (Cheng and Chang, BMF 2011). Coupling the hysteretic diode with some linear elements result in autonomous ion current oscillations, which undergo classical transitions to chaos. Our integrated nanofluidic circuits are used for molecular sensing, protein separation/concentration, electrospray etc.

  9. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-01-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted. (paper)

  10. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  11. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Tao, Molei; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator

  12. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  13. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  14. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  15. Volcanic Ash Data Assimilation System for Atmospheric Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Shimbori, T.; Sato, E.; Tokumoto, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has two operations for volcanic ash forecasts, which are Volcanic Ash Fall Forecast (VAFF) and Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA). In these operations, the forecasts are calculated by atmospheric transport models including the advection process, the turbulent diffusion process, the gravitational fall process and the deposition process (wet/dry). The initial distribution of volcanic ash in the models is the most important but uncertain factor. In operations, the model of Suzuki (1983) with many empirical assumptions is adopted to the initial distribution. This adversely affects the reconstruction of actual eruption plumes.We are developing a volcanic ash data assimilation system using weather radars and meteorological satellite observation, in order to improve the initial distribution of the atmospheric transport models. Our data assimilation system is based on the three-dimensional variational data assimilation method (3D-Var). Analysis variables are ash concentration and size distribution parameters which are mutually independent. The radar observation is expected to provide three-dimensional parameters such as ash concentration and parameters of ash particle size distribution. On the other hand, the satellite observation is anticipated to provide two-dimensional parameters of ash clouds such as mass loading, top height and particle effective radius. In this study, we estimate the thickness of ash clouds using vertical wind shear of JMA numerical weather prediction, and apply for the volcanic ash data assimilation system.

  16. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  18. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  19. Volcanic Ash fall Impact on Vegetation, Colima 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. G.; Martin, A.; Fonseca, R.; Nieto, A.; Radillo, R.; Armienta, M.

    2007-05-01

    An ash sampling network was established arround Colima Volcano in 2005. Ash fall was sampled on the North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest and West of the volcano. Samples were analyzed for ash components, geochemistry and leachates. Ash fall ocurred on April (12), May (10, 23), June (2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14), July (27), September (27), October (23) and November (24). Most of the ash is made of andesitic dome-lithics but shows diferences in crystal, juvenile material and lithic content. In May, some samples contained grey and dark pumice (scoria). Texture varies from phi >4 to phi 0. Leachate concentration were low: SO4 (7.33-54.19) Cl- (2.29-4.97) and F- (0.16-0.37). During 2005, Colima Volcano's ash fall rotted some of the guava and peach fruits and had a drying effect on spearment and epazote plants. Even these small ash amounts could have hindered sugar cane and agave growth.

  20. The use of shale ash in dry mix construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbe, L.; Setina, J.; Juhnevica, I.

    2017-10-01

    The research was made to determine the use of shale ash usage in dry mix construction materials by replacing part of cement amount. Cement mortar ZM produced by SIA Sakret and two types of shale ashes from Narva Power plant (cyclone ash and electrostatic precipitator ash) were used. Fresh mortar properties, hardened mortar bulk density, thermal conductivity (λ10, dry) (table value) were tested in mortar ZM samples and mortar samples in which 20% of the amount of cement was replaced by ash. Compressive strenght, frost resistance and resistance to sulphate salt solutions were checked. It was stated that the use of electrostatic precipitator ash had a little change of the material properties, but the cyclone ash significantly reduced the mechanical strength of the material.

  1. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  2. Integrated circuits, and design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auracher, Stefan; Pribbernow, Claus; Hils, Andreas

    2006-04-18

    A representation of a macro for an integrated circuit layout. The representation may define sub-circuit cells of a module. The module may have a predefined functionality. The sub-circuit cells may include at least one reusable circuit cell. The reusable circuit cell may be configured such that when the predefined functionality of the module is not used, the reusable circuit cell is available for re-use.

  3. Natural rain - induced element leaching from coal ASH; La pluie naturelle - lixiviation d'element de la cendre de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [Belgrade Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, IChTM, Chemistry Center, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    Six composite samples of coal ash from power plants 'Nikola Tesla' A and B, located in the vicinity of Obrenovac, near Belgrade (Yugoslavia), were subjected to extraction with 1 M acetate solution, pH 5.5, in order to imitate possible leaching of the ash by natural acidic rain. Seven trace and five major elements have been examined, and the obtained amounts were in the range from 0.003 {+-} 0.001 ppm (Cd), to 117 {+-} 27 ppm (Ca), dry ash basis. Though some of the concentrations were higher than allowed by domestic and international regulations it can be concluded that neither of the examined elements represents a serious threat for the environment (at least for the conditions applied in this experiment). Also, both magnesium and iron are carriers of copper, chromium and arsenic, while cadmium is associated with magnesium and manganese. Calcium and manganese are beside magnesium and iron, scavengers of arsenic. (authors)

  4. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  5. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  6. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  7. INTEGRATED SENSOR EVALUATION CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAID CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jens; Gausa, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    WO15090426A1 Sensor evaluation device and method for operating said device Integrated sensor evaluation circuit for evaluating a sensor signal (14) received from a sensor (12), having a first connection (28a) for connection to the sensor and a second connection (28b) for connection to the sensor. The integrated sensor evaluation circuit comprises a configuration data memory (16) for storing configuration data which describe signal properties of a plurality of sensor control signals (26a-c). T...

  8. Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadman, Darren Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz. When the silicon is illuminated, the structure's filtering properties are suppressed. Under illumination the experimental results display an increase in S 21 of 6.5dB and a reduction in S 11 of more than 10dB at 9.9GHz. A comparison of measured and simulated results reveal that the photogenerated excess carrier density is between 4 x 10 15 cm -3 and 1.1 x 10 16 cm -3 . (author)

  9. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones

    2017-04-01

    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2

  10. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Yigen Chen

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the host selection behavior and feeding preference of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on six different species of ash including Manchurian ash (F...

  11. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  12. Method for heating of the primary circuit of WWER electric power units at cold start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Dimitrov, B.D.; Korkinova, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    The method increases the heating rate and shorten the start-up time of the electric power units. It comprises a primary stopping of the reactor core heating and provides a forced circulation of the heat-carrier through the circulation cycles of the primary circuit. The thermal energy is supplied in one or several steam generators in the secondary circuit of an NPP operating unit. 1 cl., 3 figs

  13. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.; Sharma, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m 3 to 443 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 35.7 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m -2 .h -1 to 314.8 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m 3 to 590 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 21.6 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m -2 h -1 to 380.6 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m 3 to 1810.48 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 to 69.81 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 to 1230.21 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  14. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  15. Time domain analog circuit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, J.G.; Houben, S.H.M.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Peters, J.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of new methods for simulating electric circuits are described. Emphasis is put on methods that fit existing datastructures for backward differentiation formulae methods. These methods can be modified to apply to hierarchically organized datastructures, which allows for efficient

  16. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  17. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  18. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D

    1978-09-27

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  19. Ignition circuit for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H W

    1977-05-26

    The invention refers to the ignition circuit for combustion engines, which are battery fed. The circuit contains a transistor and an oscillator to produce an output voltage on the secondary winding of an output transformer to supply an ignition current. The plant is controlled by an interrupter. The purpose of the invention is to form such a circuit that improved sparks for ignition are produced, on the one hand, and that on the other hand, the plant can continue to function after loss of the oscillator. The problem is solved by the battery and the secondary winding of the output transformers of the oscillator are connected via a rectifier circuit to produce a resultant total voltage with the ignition coil from the battery voltage and the rectified pulsating oscillator output.

  20. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  1. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  2. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  3. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  4. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  5. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  6. Coal ash usage in environmental restoration at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, P.L.; Sonnichsen, J.C.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    The ash stockpiled next to the 284E steam plant is mixed fly ash, bottom ash, and slag. The ash consists of (1) baghouse residue and (2) a mixture of bottom ash and slag which is washed out of the bottom of the boilers daily. In 1991, a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on several samples of this ash (Hazen Research 1991). This procedure is designed to determine the mobility of organic and inorganic anatytes present in liquid, solid, or multiphasic wastes (EPA 1994). The ash tested came from surge bins, conveyor samples, and bottom ash and fly ash from the boilers at 284E. Antimony, cadmium, germanium, molybdenum, silver, thallium, tungsten, and vanadium were tested for, but on all samples were below detection Limits for the testing method. Analytes present in relatively high concentrations (but less than one part per thousand) included barium, boron, chromium, fluorine, and zinc. The size of ash particles passing through a Taylor sieve series was very evenly distributed from 1 to 200m.

  7. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  8. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  9. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  10. Radiochemical analysis of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, M; Shigematsu, T; Ishida, T

    1954-01-01

    The following nuclides were detected in the Bikini ashes by radiochemical procedures: /sup 45/Ca, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 144/Pr, and /sup 237/U. The ion-exchange method was used for analysis of contaminated rain water which fell on the Kyoto area on May 16, 1954 from which the presence of /sup 89/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 140/Ba, was detected. Rare earths seemed also to be present.

  11. Biological influence of ash from radioactive fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T. Nakae, Y.; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Bones of a radioactive fish were ashed, extracted with 10 per cent HCl, and the extraction was neutralized with 10 per cent NaOH to give a white precipitate suspended in H/sub 2/O. The suspension was fed to rabbits. Most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces; a small portion was retained in the cecum. Internal radioactivity was highest in the bones.

  12. Utilisation of high carbon pulverised fuel ash

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Maythem Naji

    2011-01-01

    Coal combustion by-products generated from coal-fired power plant and cause enormous problems for disposal unless a way can be found to utilize these by-products through resource recovery programs. The implementation of air act regulations to reduce NOx emission have resulted millions of tonnes of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) accumulated with high percentage of unburned carbon made it un-saleable for the cement industry. Moreover, alternative fuels such as biomass and import coals were suggested...

  13. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  14. From quantum dots to quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Quantum dots, or artificial atoms, confine charge carriers in three-dimensional islands in a semiconductor environment. Detailed understanding and exquisite control of the charge and spin state of the electrically tunable charge occupancy have been demonstrated over the years. Quantum dots with best quality for transport experiments are usually realized in n-type AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Novel material systems, such as graphene, nanowires and p-type heterostructures offer unexplored parameter regimes in view of spin-orbit interactions, carrier-carrier interactions and hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins, which might be relevant for future spin qubits realized in quantum dots. With more sophisticated nanotechnology it has become possible to fabricate coupled quantum systems where classical and quantum mechanical coupling and back action is experimentally investigated. A narrow constriction, or quantum point contact, in vicinity to a quantum dot has been shown to serve as a minimally invasive sensor of the charge state of the dot. If charge transport through the quantum dot is slow enough (kHz), the charge sensor allows the detection of time-resolved transport through quantum-confined structures. This has allowed us to measure extremely small currents not detectable with conventional electronics. In addition the full statistics of current fluctuations becomes experimentally accessible. This way correlations between electrons which influence the current flow can be analyzed by measuring the noise and higher moments of the distribution of current fluctuations. Mesoscopic conductors driven out of equilibrium can emit photons which may be detected by another nearby quantum system with suitably tuned energy levels. This way an on-chip microwave single photon detector has been realized. In a ring geometry containing a tunable double quantum dot it has been possible to measure the self-interference of individual electrons as they traverse

  15. Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Pittis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood.

  16. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  17. Distortion Cancellation via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits with the help of polyphase multipath circuits. Polyphase multipath circuits are circuits with two or more paths that exploit phase differences between the paths to cancel unwanted signals. It turns out

  18. Dynamic theory for the mesoscopic electric circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Shen Xiaojuan; Li Youquan; Sun LiLy; Yin Zhujian

    2005-01-01

    The quantum theory for mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is briefly described. The minibands of quasienergy in LC design mesoscopic electric circuit have been found. In the mesoscopic 'pure' inductance design circuit, just like in the mesoscopic metallic rings, the quantum dynamic characteristics have been obtained explicitly. In the 'pure' capacity design circuit, the Coulomb blockade had also been addressed

  19. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  20. Review of Ecosystem Level Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Black Ash Wetlands: What Does the Future Hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall K. Kolka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. Using two companion studies that are simulating short- and long-term EAB infestations and what is known from the literature, we synthesize our current limited understanding and predict anticipated future impacts of EAB on black ash wetlands. A key response to the die-back of mature black ash will be higher water tables and the potential for flooding and resulting changes to both the vegetation and animal communities. Although seedling planting studies have shown some possible replacement species, little is known about how the removal of black ash from the canopy will affect non-ash species growth and regeneration. Because black ash litter is relatively high in nitrogen, it is expected that there will be important changes in nutrient and carbon cycling and subsequent rates of productivity and decomposition. Changes in hydrology and nutrient and carbon cycling will have cascading effects on the biological community which have been scarcely studied. Research to address these important gaps is currently underway and should lead to alternatives to mitigate the effects of EAB on black ash wetland forests and develop management options pre- and post-EAB invasion.

  1. Recirculation of biomass ashes onto forest soils: Ash composition, mineralogy and leaching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, increasing amounts of wood ashes are generated from biomass combustion for energy production. The utilisation of ashes on top of forest soil for liming purposes has been proposed asan alternative to landfilling. Danish wood ash samples were collected and characterised with respect......, minor and trace elements were affected significantly by pH: high releases of PO4 3-, Mg, Zn, Cu and Cd were found for acidic conditions relevant to forest soils, while the highest releases of Mo and Cr were observed in alkaline conditions. Mineral phases were selected based on XRD analyses...... critical element compared with soil quality criteria, whereas the maximum theoretical loads of Ba, Cd, Cr, Sr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and V were relatively low....

  2. Crowdsourcing genomic analyses of ash and ash dieback – power to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Dan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash population. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the scientific community for analysis without first performing our own. In this manner we hope to ‘crowdsource’ analyses and bring the expertise of the community to bear on this problem as quickly as possible. Our data has been released through our website at oadb.tsl.ac.uk and a public GitHub repository.

  3. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... ashes. The process, thus, fixates the metals in the solid residues without altering the leaching properties of the bottom ash too significantly. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  4. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  5. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  6. Integrated circuits based on conjugated polymer monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Mangalore, Deepthi Kamath; Zhao, Jingbo; Carpenter, Joshua H; Yan, Hongping; Ade, Harald; Yan, He; Müllen, Klaus; Blom, Paul W M; Pisula, Wojciech; de Leeuw, Dago M; Asadi, Kamal

    2018-01-31

    It is still a great challenge to fabricate conjugated polymer monolayer field-effect transistors (PoM-FETs) due to intricate crystallization and film formation of conjugated polymers. Here we demonstrate PoM-FETs based on a single monolayer of a conjugated polymer. The resulting PoM-FETs are highly reproducible and exhibit charge carrier mobilities reaching 3 cm 2  V -1  s -1 . The high performance is attributed to the strong interactions of the polymer chains present already in solution leading to pronounced edge-on packing and well-defined microstructure in the monolayer. The high reproducibility enables the integration of discrete unipolar PoM-FETs into inverters and ring oscillators. Real logic functionality has been demonstrated by constructing a 15-bit code generator in which hundreds of self-assembled PoM-FETs are addressed simultaneously. Our results provide the state-of-the-art example of integrated circuits based on a conjugated polymer monolayer, opening prospective pathways for bottom-up organic electronics.

  7. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Wood ash as a soil additive and liming agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Etiegni, L.; Mahler, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated wood ash as an agricultural soil supplement and liming material. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and poplar (Populus sp.) were grown in a greenhouse on six different Idaho soils amended with different ash concentrations. At ash levels equal to or lower than 2%, no detrimental effects were observed. In fact, the biomass of the wheat and the caliper and height of the poplar cuttings increased more at 2% ash 940 metric tons/ha than with the control soil. These results suggest that wood ash could be used in agricultural applications as a low analysis fertilizer containing potassium and as a liming agent. Land application of wood ash could be less expensive and more environmentally sound than present landfilling practices

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation of Indian biomass ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Umamaheswaran; Vidya S. Batra [Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi (India)

    2008-05-15

    India stands fourth in biomass utilisation for various purposes like domestic, commercial and industrial applications. While extensive studies have been made for coal ash characterisation and utilisation, studies on characterisation of biomass ash and its utilisation has not been addressed. In this paper, biomass ash from five sources i.e. rice husk, bagasse, groundnut shell, cashewnut shell, and arecanut shell have been characterised. Chemical composition analysis, particle size analysis, thermal analysis, and microstructure analysis were carried out. Results show that in all ashes silica is the major compound with particle size ranging from 15 to 30 {mu}m and having irregular shape. Ash powders originating from cashewnut shell, arecanut shell and groundnut shell also have compounds of calcium, magnesium and potassium. Bagasse and cashewnut shell ashes have high LOI due to presence of unburnt carbon, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other volatiles. 16 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  11. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  12. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  13. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  14. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  15. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  16. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  17. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  18. Ash accumulation effects using bench marked 0-D model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Guo, J.P.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Ash accumulation is a key issue relative to our ability to achieve D- 3 He ARIES III burn conditions. 1-1/2-d transport simulations using the BALDUR code have been used to examine the correlation between the global ash particle confinement time and the edge exhaust (or recycling) efficiency. This provides a way to benchmark the widely used 0-D model. The burn conditions for an ARIES-III plasma with various ash edge recycling coefficients are examined

  19. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  20. Improved prediction and tracking of volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Webley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the past 30??years, more than 100 airplanes have inadvertently flown through clouds of volcanic ash from erupting volcanoes. Such encounters have caused millions of dollars in damage to the aircraft and have endangered the lives of tens of thousands of passengers. In a few severe cases, total engine failure resulted when ash was ingested into turbines and coating turbine blades. These incidents have prompted the establishment of cooperative efforts by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the volcanological community to provide rapid notification of eruptive activity, and to monitor and forecast the trajectories of ash clouds so that they can be avoided by air traffic. Ash-cloud properties such as plume height, ash concentration, and three-dimensional ash distribution have been monitored through non-conventional remote sensing techniques that are under active development. Forecasting the trajectories of ash clouds has required the development of volcanic ash transport and dispersion models that can calculate the path of an ash cloud over the scale of a continent or a hemisphere. Volcanological inputs to these models, such as plume height, mass eruption rate, eruption duration, ash distribution with altitude, and grain-size distribution, must be assigned in real time during an event, often with limited observations. Databases and protocols are currently being developed that allow for rapid assignment of such source parameters. In this paper, we summarize how an interdisciplinary working group on eruption source parameters has been instigating research to improve upon the current understanding of volcanic ash cloud characterization and predictions. Improved predictions of ash cloud movement and air fall will aid in making better hazard assessments for aviation and for public health and air quality. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  2. Photonic circuit for high order USB and LSB separation for remote heterodyning: analysis and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-09-21

    A novel photonic integrated circuit is proposed that, using an RF source, generates at its output ports the same magnitude but opposite sign high order single optical side bands of a suppressed optical carrier. A single stage parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) and a two-stage series parallel MZM architecture are described and their relative merits discussed. A transfer matrix method is used to describe the operation of the circuits. The theoretical analysis is validated by computer simulation. As an illustration of a prospective application, it is shown how the circuit may be used as a key element of an optical transmission system to transport radio signals over fibre for wireless access; generating remotely a mm-wave carrier modulated by digital IQ data. A detailed calculation of symbol error rate is presented to characterise the system performance. The circuit may be fabricated in any integration platform offering a suitable phase modulator circuit element such as LiNbO(3), Silicon, and III-V or hybrid technology.

  3. 30 CFR 75.601-1 - Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; ratings and settings... Trailing Cables § 75.601-1 Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed the...

  4. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  5. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  6. Studies of the analytical chemistry on filter paper. XVI. Paper chromatography of radioactive substance. Radiochemical studies on ''Bikini ashes''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S

    1956-01-01

    Radioactivity from ''Bikini ashes'' and /sup 235/U fission is divided into 3 major groups by ion-exchange methods and then subdivided by paper chromatography. In the first group, TeO/sub 4/--, SO/sub 4/--, PO/sub 4//sup 3/-, and I-, as well as two /sup 106/Ru spots, are resolved in filter paper by iso-AmOH. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce from the second and /sup 90/Y and /sup 90/Sr from the third group are separated also. It is shown that the presence of carrier or foreign elements alters the chromatographic behavior of the tracers.

  7. Analytic 1D pn junction diode photocurrent solutions following ionizing radiation and including time-dependent changes in the carrier lifetime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM)

    2011-04-01

    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.

  8. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  9. Geotechnical properties of ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Jibson, R.W.; Wilson, R.C.; Buchanan-Banks, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two holes were hand augered and sampled in ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii. Color, water content and sensitivity of the ash were measured in the field. The ash alternated between reddish brown and dark reddish brown in color and had water contents as high as 392%. A downhole vane shear device measured sensitivities as high as 6.9. A series of laboratory tests including grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction analysis, total carbon determination, vane shear, direct shear and triaxial tests were performed to determine the composition and geotechnical properties of the ash. The ash is very fine grained, highly plastic and composed mostly of gibbsite and amorphous material presumably allophane. The ash has a high angle of internal friction ranging from 40-43? and is classified as medium to very sensitive. A series of different ash layers was distinguished on the basis of plasticity and other geotechnical properties. Sensitivity may be due to a metastable fabric, cementation, leaching, high organic content, and thixotropy. The sensitivity of the volcanic ash deposits near Hilo is consistent with documented slope instability during earthquakes in Hawaii. The high angles of internal friction and cementation permit very steep slopes under static conditions. However, because of high sensitivity of the ash, these slopes are particularly susceptible to seismically-induced landsliding.

  10. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  12. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  15. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  16. Defects influence on short circuit current density in p-i-n silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagah F Mohamad; Alhan M Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The admittance analysis method has been used to calculate the collection efficiency and the short circuit current density in a-Si:H p-i-n solar cell, as a function of the thickness of i-layer. Its is evident that the results of the short circuit current can be used to determine the optimal thickness of the i-layer of a cell, and it will be more accurate in comparison with the previous studies using a constant generation rate or an empirical exponential function for the generation of charge carriers throughout the i-layer

  17. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  18. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  19. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  20. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.